Marin Gross email@example.com
N V I V O KOOLITUSMATERJALID 1. 2.
INTRODUCTION CREATING AND NAVIGATING AROUND YOUR PROJECT
2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.1.3. 3.
TO CREATE A PROJECT NAVIGATING AROUND YOUR PROJECT SAVING YOUR PROJECT
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3.1. CREATING FOLDERS 3.1.1. TO ADD A NEW FOLDER 3.2. IMPORTING DOCUMENTS AND IMAGE FILES (INTERNALS) 3.3. TO OPEN A DOCUMENT 3.3.1. EXTERNAL SOURCES To create and external
6 6 7 7 10 10
NODES AND CODING
4.1. CREATING A NODE (BEFORE STARTING TO CODE) 4.2. CODING 4.2.1. TO CODE A DOCUMENT BY DRAG AND DROP 4.2.2. CODING USING THE CODE MENU
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CASES AND ATTRIBUTES
5.1. TO CREATE A CASE 5.2. TO CREATE AN ATTRIBUTE 5.2.1. TO EDIT AN ATTRIBUTE OR ITS VALUES
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EXPLORING THE DATA
1. INTRODUCTION The world is awash with data. But one binary bit is no different from any other. Raw data are meaningless until we classify them, put them in context, interpret them, and understand their meaning and significance. It is only after this process that information becomes knowledge. In doing qualitative research we make observations, record and transcribe interviews and focus group interaction, we collect questionnaires and take copious fieldnotes. Qualitative research tends to produce vast amounts of data that then needs to be organized. The major way of dealing with data collected through the qualitative technique involves reading, thematization codification, and finally classification. Why is this important? Remember, you initially began the research project with the aim of answering a particular question. So it is important to organize your data in such a way that you are able to answer that question. This workshop has been designed to assist those researchers who would like to learn about computer assisted qualitative data analysis software, in this case NVivo 8. With this in mind, the booklet you have in front of you has been designed as a resource for those learning NVivo 8 software. It introduces the fundamentals of NVivo 8, including how to create and navigate around your project, how to import sources into your project, how to create nodes and code your material, and how to query your data. Having worked through this booklet you should have acquired an introductory understanding of NVivo 8 and its usefulness in analyzing data in qualitative research.
2. CREATING AND NAVIGATING AROUND YOUR PROJECT In this section you will learn how to: • • •
Create a project Navigate around a project Save a project
2.1.1. TO CREATE A PROJECT 1. 2. 3. 4.
On the Welcome screen click the New Project button. The New Project dialog is opened. Enter the name for your project in the Title field. Enter a description of your project in the Description field (optional). Click OK.
By default your project will be saved to your My Documents folder (you can save your project to another location by clicking the Browse button).
2.1.2. NAVIGATING AROUND YOUR PROJECT NVivo provides toolbars for fast access to the most common functions:
Use the Main toolbar to perform common tasks such as save, print, cut, copy, paste and undo. Use the Edit toolbar to format text in sources and edit model content: Use the Coding toolbar to code/uncode selected content: Use the View toolbar to set display settings for project items: Use the Links toolbar to work with ‘see also’ links, annotations and memos: Use the Media toolbar to play, pause, forward and rewind and stop a video or audio file: Use the Grid toolbar to work with matrices or the project casebook: Note: The Status Bar – the horizontal area at the bottom of the NVivo window – provides information about the current state of what is displayed in the window, along with other contextual information. Your project structure
Nvivo stores the different parts of your project (interview or focus group transcripts, newspaper articles, web material etc.) in folders. In Navigation View you have access to a short summary of the items in that folder (List View) as well as the contents of the highlighted folder item (Detail View). There are several options for viewing items shown in the List View. To change the view, select the View menu and choose List View. Options available are Detail, Small, Medium or Large Thumbnails. By default, when an item is opened in Detail View it is displayed underneath List View. To change the Detail View to appear to the right, select the View menu and choose Detail View>Right.
2.1.3. SAVING YOUR PROJECT You can save your project at any time by choosing the Save icon on the Main toolbar. Note: It is also important that you back up your project. A back up is not a back up until the copy is moved from its primary location on your computer. This is particularly important for projects stored on notebook computers – if the computer is stolen, so is your project. Therefore, you need to copy the project at regular intervals to a network drive, USB drive, CD etc.
3. SOURCES In this section you will learn how to: • • • • •
Create folders Import documents and image files Work with external data Create memos Use annotations
Sources In NVivo, ‘sources’ is used as the collective term for the research materials that you will eventually code. These are categorized into three types: Internals – these are your primary sources and consist of the electronic format materials you can import into a folder in your NVivo project. They may take the form of interview or focus group transcripts, field notes, photos or video recordings, email messages, survey responses, policy documents and so forth. You can import text files in the following formats: 9 9 9 9
Microsoft Word (.doc) Adobe Portable Document Format (.pdf) Rich Text Format (.rtf) Text (.txt)
Externals – these are the materials that you can’t import into your NVivo project, such as reference books, handwritten diaries or letters, paper‐based newspaper articles and web pages. Memos – these are created by the researcher to capture the thoughts and insights made when working through the data.
In Navigation View click on Sources to view the three categories of research materials (Internals, Externals, Memos)
3.1. Creating Folders NVivo automatically provides three source categories: Internals , Externals, Memos. Additionally, you can add your own sub‐folders for each of these source categories. For instance, in the Internals source category you may want to create sub‐folders for the different data you will be working with, such as focus group/ interview transcripts, photos and email messages.
3.1.1. TO ADD A NEW FOLDER 1. In Navigation View, click on Sources, then Internals folder. 2. Right click on Internals and choose New Folder. 3. The New Folder dialog is displayed.
4. In the Name field type the name of the sub‐folder (i.e. ‘interviews’). 5. Enter a description of the sub‐folder in the Description field (optional). Click OK. 6. Repeat these steps to add more sub‐folders, such as ‘Focus Groups’, ‘Photos’ and ‘Project Notes’.
Note: Folders can be created as needed at any time. Once created, data can be imported directly into them.
3.2. Importing documents and image files (Internals) 1. In Navigation View, click on Sources. 2. Click Internals then Interviews if you want this to be the destination sub‐folder. 3. Click in List View (or alternatively click the Project tab on the toolbar and select Import Internals). 4. Right click and choose Import Internals. The Import Internals dialog is displayed.
5. In the Import from field, click the Browse button. The Import Sources dialog is displayed. 6. Navigate to the folder where your document is stored and select the file(s) you want to import. Click Open. 7. The selected file is displayed in the Import from field. Click OK. Your document will be imported and displayed in the List View. Note: You can also drag and drop a file from Windows Explorer directly to an Internals sub‐ folder.
3.3. To open a document 1. Locate the document in List View. 2. Double click on the document name. The document is then displayed in Detail View. 3. To close a document right click on the tab and select close or click the cross at the top right hand corner of Detail View.
Note: You can edit a document’s properties (for instance change the name or add to the description of the file) by right clicking on the document and selecting Document Properties. Make the required changes and click OK. Importing pictures NVivo 8 has the capability to import photographs, diagrams, graphs and so forth into your project. To do this, simply repeat steps one through seven in section 3.2 Importing documents and image files (Internals). Note: Once you have imported your picture it is opened in the same way as any other document (see section 3.3 To open a document). A picture consists of an image and a log. A log can be used to record notes (i.e. descriptive text) about the picture. The notes can relate to the entire image or a selected region.
To add content to a picture log
Open the picture to display it in Detail View. Add text to the picture log by clicking in a row in the Content column and entering the required text. Importing audio and video files In Navigation View click sources. Click Internals or a sub‐folder. (In this case we use the ‘Audio‐files’ sub‐folder). Click in List View. Right click and choose Import Internals. The Import Internals dialog is displayed.
In the Import from field, click the Browse button. The Import Sources dialog is displayed. Navigate to the folder where your audio and video files are stored and select the file(s) you want to import. Click Open. The selected item is displayed in the Import from field. Click OK. Your audio and/or video file(s) will import and will be displayed in the List View. To open an audio or video file in List View Locate the audio or video file in List View. Double click on the name. The audio or video file is displayed in Detail View. A video or audio file consists of a media file and space for a transcript. You can add custom columns to a transcript. For example you can add a column that shows the name of each speaker. To play the audio or video file, place the cursor in Detail View and right click. Select Play. (Or simply use the media toolbar).
3.3.1. EXTERNAL SOURCES Qualitative research often draws on a diverse range of material, some of which cannot be imported into NVivo. Nevertheless, you may still want this material to be included in your project. For instance, web pages, scanned hand written documents or newspaper articles. These are the types of data you may want to search and use in the scope of a query. TO CREATE AN EXTERNAL 1. 2. 3. 4.
In Navigation View, click the Sources button. Click the Externals folder. Right click in List View and choose New External. The New External dialog is displayed. Enter a name in the Name field. If required enter a description of the source in the Description field.
1. Then click the External tab to define the required option. 2. From the Type drop down list select an option that is suitable for the required source. 3. Option OTHER FILE LINK
Descriptiondddddddddddddddddddddddddd…. THE ITEM IS NOT STORED ON YOUR COMPUTER. FOR INSTANCE IT MAY BE A BOOK OR A HANDWRITTEN DIARY
THE ITEM IS STORED ON YOUR COMPUTER AS AN EXECUTABLE FILE, FOR EXAMPLE AN EXCEL SPREADSHEET OR A SCANNED NEWSPAPER ARTICLE. IF YOU CHOOSE THIS OPTION YOU CAN CREATE A LINK TO THE FILE THE ITEM IS A WEB PAGE. YOU CAN CREATE A LIVE LINK TO A WEB PAGE BY PROVIDING THE WEB ADDRESS IN THE URL PATH FIELD.
To open an external file 1. Locate the file in List View 2. Right click on the file and select Open External File
Memos and annotations Some of the most important research material comes from your own thought processes as you work with your data. When in the field, these ideas and comments are often recorded in notebooks. You may also collect observation notes about the person you are interviewing. It is useful to keep this sort of material together with your data. NVivo allows you to do this through the memos function. Memos are sources and can be searched and coded.
To create a memo
1. In Navigation View, click the Sources button. 2. Click the Memos folder. 3. Right click in List View and choose either New Memo or Import Memos. If you choose New Memo, the New Memo dialog is displayed. 4. Enter a name in the Name field. 5. If required, enter a description of the memo in the Description field.
6. Click OK. The new memo is opened in Detail View ready for you to enter your text. 7. If you chose Import Memos, click the browse button and select the document you wish to import. Click OK Creating an annotation in a text document 1. In Navigation View, click Sources and open an internal document. 2. Select the required text to which you would like to add your annotation. 3. From the Links menu, select Annotation>New Annotation.
4. An annotation is added in the Annotations tab in Detail View. Enter the annotation text.
5. Click outside the Annotation pane to finish. The annotation text now appears, highlighted in blue.
4. NODES AND CODING In this section you will learn how to: • •
Create Nodes Code selected project sources
Introducing the concept of nodes Nodes are where you store data about ideas or themes that emerge as you work in your project. Think of the manual method of coding you may have used in the past; lots of photocopying, selecting text relevant to specific themes or categories by highlighting or physically cutting the paper. This text may then have been filed in categorized folders in a filing cabinet. In NVivo, when you wish to have data segments that form a particular theme gathered together, the references to them are stored in what is called a node. Any amount of data can be stored in a node, and the same piece of text can be stored in more than one node. Some researchers will find that they know certain themes they want to explore in their project and create nodes for these before analyzing the data. On the other hand, some researchers may create nodes as they discover themes in their data. The two primary types of nodes are: Free Nodes – These are ‘stand alone’ nodes. Free node are useful when you begin coding as you may not be sure as to whether they fit into a hierarchical structure. However, as you code further you may discover similarities or relationships between nodes and move them into a more logical area to represent this relationship i.e Tree Nodes Tree nodes ‐ Are organized into a hierarchical structure of categories and subcategories (represent as the branches of a tree).
4.1. Creating a Node (before starting to code) 1. In Navigation View click the Nodes folder 2. Click the folder for the type of node you want (i.e. Tree Nodes) 3. In List View right click and choose New Tree Node. The New Tree Node dialog is displayed.
4. Enter a name in the Name field 5. If required, enter a description of the node in the Description field. This is useful for reminding you of the theme this node represents. 6. Click OK. Repeat the process to create further nodes
4.2. Coding Coding is the process by which you gather and transfer text on a specific theme at a node that represents that theme. You can code the content of any imported source in your NVivo project. To see all the coded text in a particular node, simply open that node. The actual process of coding can be done in two ways: • •
Using drag and drop to an existing node Using the Code menu
4.2.1. TO CODE A DOCUMENT BY DRAG AND DROP 4. In Navigation View, click the Sources button and open an internal document 5. Select the Nodes folder so that they appear as a list 6. Select the text you would like to code
7. Drag the text to the required node and drop. The text is coded at the selected node
4.2.2. CODING USING THE CODE MENU Using the code menu is another way to code text. However, the advantage in using the code menu is that you are able to create new codes as you work on the data. 1. Open a source and select the text that you want to code from the document 2. Right click and choose Code Selection > Existing Nodes. Note: If you would like to create a new node whilst coding choose New Node. 3. The Select Project Items dialog is displayed
4. Select the folder containing the required nodes (i.e. Free Nodes, Tree Nodes etc.) Note: Do not tick the box beside the folder as this will automatically select all items in that folder. 5. Click the checkbox for the required node(s). 6. Click OK Creating Tree Node relationships Tree nodes are codes that are organized in a hierarchical structure. For example if you are coding interviews about trust between doctors and patients you may want to have a node called ‘Trust’ under which rests two nodes called ‘High Trust’ and ‘Low Trust’.
To create a Tree Node 1. In Navigation View, click the Nodes button. 2. Select Tree Nodes. 3. Select an existing Tree Node or create a new Tree Node (see section 4.1 Creating a Node). 4. Left click on the selected Tree Node, then right click and choose New Tree Node. 5. The New Tree Node dialog is opened.
6. Enter a name in the Name field
7. If required, enter a description of the node in the Description field. This is useful for reminding you of the theme this node represents. 8. Click OK. Repeat the process to create further nodes
Example from demonstration project
5. CASES AND ATTRIBUTES In this section you will learn how to: • •
Create cases Create attributes and assign values
Cases A case in NVivo is another sort of node. However, in this instance it doesn’t represent a theme, but gathers together all the information about a person, institution or organization. You can also import into the case all the data content that belongs to that entity. If, for instance, you have information about a person or field‐site (demographic information about age, gender, marital status etc) this information is stored with the case. These are known as attributes.
5.1. To create a case 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Simply do so in the same way that you would create a node (as covered previously). In Navigation View click Nodes Click the Cases folder Right click in List View and choose New Case The New Case dialog is displayed
1. Enter a name in the Name field (i.e. Orhan Pamuk) 2. If required, enter a description of the case in the Description field 3. Click OK The case is now ready to have text coded to it. For example, Orhan’s interview(s), all that he said at the focus group, as well as his attributes (i.e. gender, age and so on) can also be added. Here we have a complete profile of the entity in one place. To code an existing source to an existing case
1. In List View select the required source (e.g. Orhan) 2. Right click and choose Code Sources>Existing Nodes 3. The Select Project Item dialog is displayed. Selected the Cases folder to display all cases and click the check box next to Orhan’s Case
4. Click OK Attributes Now that your data records about specific people or groups are stored in cases, it is now possible to add demographic information (e.g. gender, age etc). Attributes are used to store this data. The attributes folder is located under the Classifications Folder.
5.2. To create an attribute 1. 2. 3. 4.
In Navigation View, click on Classifications Select the Attributes folder In List View, right click and choose New Attribute The New Attribute dialog is opened
1. Enter a name for your attribute in the Name field e.g. gender, age, region etc. (If required enter a description of the attribute in the Description field 2. Select the format of the attribute’s values from the Type list. Choose string if the attribute has values that are words rather than numbers or dates – for example Gender 3. Click the Values tab to define the values that will be assigned to the attribute, for instance Gender=male, female 4. Click the Add button 5. Enter the name of the value in the Value cell, e.g. female 6. Repeat the process to add more values as needed
7. Click the default checkbox to specify that new cases will be allocated this value as a default. Note: the Unassigned and Not Applicable tabs are system defined values and cannot be removed 8. Click OK when finishing adding attribute values
5.2.1. TO EDIT AN ATTRIBUTE OR ITS VALUES Attributes and attribute values can be renamed, reordered or removed. 1. Locate the attribute in the Attributes folder under Classifications 2. Right click on the attribute you wish to edit and select Attribute Properties To assign attribute values to cases 1. Now that attribute values have been created, they can be assigned to the appropriate cases. 2. In Navigation View, click on Nodes 3. Click the Cases folder 4. In List View, select the required case. Right click and choose Case Properties
1. The Case Properties dialog appears. Click the Attribute Values tab 2. From the drop down menu next to each attribute, choose the relevant value for that particular case
1. Click OK Note: All cases must be assigned a value for each attribute. If an attribute is not relevant to a case, you can assign it one of the system defined values: Unassigned or Not Applicable. The casebook The casebook is a table containing your cases (or case names) and the attribute values that have been assigned to them. You can add new attribute values to the appropriate case via the casebook, rather than via Case Properties as previously covered.
To open the casebook 1. From the Tools menu choose Casebook>Open Casebook. The casebook will now appear in Detail View showing the cases, attributes and values assigned
Note: You can assign the attribute value for each case by selecting the cell, clicking the drop down arrow and selecting the appropriate value.
6. EXPLORING THE DATA Once you have coded data at your nodes, created cases and assigned attributes, you have organized your data in such away as it becomes manageable and accessible. When writing your research you can explore the data which has been thematically categorized in the free or tree nodes. There are other ways, however, to do searches of the data. Text Search 1. In Navigation View click on the Queries button 2. Click on the Projects tab and select New Query>Text Search. 3. The Text Search Query dialog is opened
4. Type in the key word you wish to search for (in this case ‘food’). Click Run 5. The text search query results will appear in Detail View
6. To open the sources that contain the desired key word highlight the source, right click and select Open Document 7. The document will open and the key word will be highlighted every time it appears in the text.