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Comenius Project 2010 - 2012: „Innovative science for a cleaner world—Making Europeans responsible citizens“

- „Water“ - contest -

A multilateral partnership between Carl Robert Jakobsoni nimeline Gümnaasium in Viljandi (Estonia) Stryn ungdomsskule in Stryn (Norway) Julius-Stursberg-Gymnasium in Neukirchen-Vluyn (Germany) 17


Estonia -Water as a source of life RENEWABLE ENERGY Renewable energy sources are energy sources that don’t pollute or cause any damage to the environment Main types: 

wind energy

sun energy

water energy

biomass energy

by Jürgo Pukk

Power lines are connected to the generator that carry electricity.

TIDE POWER PLANTS Works on the power of changing tides . It is important to find a bay with a large difference between it's low and high tides .

WATER ENERGY Water energy can be used in ways like tide power plants and in hydroelectricity power plants. Tide energy is used in places that have a high frequency of low tide and high tide. It’s in use in places like Canada, Russia, France and China. Hydro energy is most used in Skandinavian countries, North-America and in Russia. HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT 

A dam is built on a large river that has a large drop in elevation

The dam stores lots of water behind it in the reservoir

Because of gra -vity water falls through the penstock inside the dam

At the end of the penstock there is a turbine propeller, which is turned by the moving water.

The shaft from the turbine goes up into the generator, which produces the power.

Then a dam is designed to put across the outer end of the bay. When high tide comes to the area, huge quantities of water come rushing into the bay. The gates in the dam will shut when the water level has reached it's maximum height. Holes in the bottom of the dam let the water rush past turbines and then back into the ocean. 18


Usage of Hydro Energy in Estonia

by L. Schwede, J. Martin, A. Toom, O. Lips

HYDRO ENERGY Hydro energy is the energy converted by water. It is environmentally friendly because the greenhouse gases will not be emitted into the air. In Estonia water energy is not taxed. HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS IN ESTONIA

Põltsamaa

Resources of hydroenergy are limited in Estonia. Maximum hydroenergy resource in Estonia is estimated at 30–40 MW. The biggest hydroelectric plant in Estonia is Linnamäe hydroelectric plant. Estonian rivers could produce about 0.5% of the total output.Hydroelectric plants that are currently in operation produce about 0.2%. 

Linnamäe

LINNAMÄE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT Location: Harju County, Jõelähtme Parish, Jõesuu Village. 

Capacity - 1150 kW, production of electricity - ca 7000 MWh per year. 

KEILA-JOA HYDROELECTRIC PLANT Location: Harju County, Keila Parish, Keila-Joa Borough, Posti Street. 

Capacity - 365 kW, production of electricity - ca 2500 MWh per year. 

Keila-Joa 19


Usage of Hydro Energy in Estonia WHY ARE THERE FEW HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS IN ESTONIA? Estonian relief is flat, so the potential of hydroelectric power production is very low. Our biggest hydroelectric power potential is the Narva River. Its capacity is up to 100 MW and therefore it is not usable. The hydroelectric power potention of the Estonian inland rivers has been estimated max 30 MW. Estonia uses hydroenergy at Keila-Joa and at Linnamäe hydroelectric plants.Intention to renovate the hydroelectric plant at Põltsamaa. Shortage of appropriate river slopes to produce electricity. Problems caused by fish migration are the obstacles to the usage of the Estonian hydroelectric power resources. The usage of hydroelectric energy in Estonia is marginal in the total energy usage. The main reason for using hydroenergy is to retain historical traditions. In order to use hydroenergy it is important to follow the water level requirements which are stated in the activity licence. It is necessary to restore dams to provide the fish

by L. Schwede, J. Martin, A. Toom, O. Lips

with passages to go from one body of water to another. There is a number of hydroelectric plants in Estonia but they are still micro-hydroelectric plants. Although Estonia does not produce a substantial amount of hydroelectricity, it is still reasonable to use the existing resources. Therefore Eesti Energia has invested into several hydroelectric plants. Eesti Energia has been using water to produce electricity since 2002, when Linnamäe hydroelectric plant was renovated.The positive experience received from Linnamäe hydroelectric plant induced the renovation of Keila-Joa hydroelectric plant. Põltsamaa hydroelectric plant is currently being renovated. In Estonia there are not many hydroelectric plants because of the landscape and rivers. In order to build hydrolectric plants, narrow and deep rivers with a great drop are needed. Rivers in Estonia are small and have a low level of water. Due to the flat land the average drop of rivers is small. The potential of hydroenergy in Estonia is modest and there are no opportunities to build big hydroelectric plants.

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Water pollution in Norway WATER IN NORWAY

tive this is one of the biggest health and environmental problems of the world. More than one third of the world suffers from contaminated water; which causes many different diseases and other problems. Despite the fact that Norwegians are spoiled by clean and clear water, Norway have some challenges in purifying water from the agriculture industry and sewage. The polar properties of water Water is a polar substance. That means that it can solve other polar substance but none-polar substances do not get solved in water. This is important knowledge

In countries like Norway they take clear water for granted, but in a bigger perspec-

when it comes to dealing with water pollution and the purification of water. To get a better understanding of how we can purify water to improve the environment for both humans and wildlife we have to look at the properties of water. You can prove the polar properties of water by using a hairbrush or a balloon that

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Water pollution in Norway has been rubbed against your hair or clothing. The positive end of the water molecules are forced by the charged balloon or

hairbrush to move in one direction. If you put the hairbrush or the balloon near by a running water source, the water beam will bend off. Precipitation

goes through a sift. Big particles get separated from the water. In the next step aluminium ions are added to connect with the remaining phosphate ions in the water. It is important to remove these phosphate ions because of the unhealthy effect on people. In addition it will make algae flower in waters and lakes, which in turn will harm the natural habitat. Finally the water is treated by ultraviolet light. This removes the remaining bacteria from the water. This process is called precipitation.

Drinking water needs to be purified. The first step in the process is that the water

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Water power as alternative energy in Norway ON THE USE OF WATER POWER AS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN NORWAY The water lies higher than the sea level

and has potential energy. We can use that potential energy and make electricity. The higher the water lies, the higher the potential energy is, and we can make more electricity out of it. We are building storage reservoirs for water with sluice gates to make the water lie higher.

thetic energy of the water makes a turbine rotate. The turbine makes a magnet rotate inside a coil. The magnet and the coil are placed inside a generator. When you put a magnet into a coil multiple times, or letting it rotate inside it creates an electrical voltage. This way of producing electricity is called induction. We are making electricity out of induction.

The last picture illustrates a magnet being put inside a coil.

From potential to kinaesthetic energy As shown on the first picture this picture also illustrates how we use the potential energy of the water. We can turn it into kinesthetic energy by sending it trough a tube. This kines23


Water pollution in Germany

by Celine, Paul, Lina

WHY IS WATER SO IMPORTANT?

What kinds of water pollution are there?

People, plants and animals cannot live

  

industry agriculture home owners

without water. They need it for drinking, eating and cleaning. IMPORTANT WATERS IN GERMANY

REASONS FOR WATER POLLUTION: 

The industry is ignorant in regard to cleaning,

accidents (for example ships),

some people are not able to understand the consequences of dirty 24


Water pollution in Germany

by Celine, Paul, Lina

POLLUTION OF THE RHEIN ( IN METRIC TONS) Pollutant

1985

Ammonium 37000 Quecksilber 6 Blei 550 Cadmium 9 Chrom 500

1992

2000

16800 6800 3,2 1,6 330 250 5,9 5,1 220 150

CONSEQUENCES OF WATER POLLUTION:   

dirty ground water more waters which are contaminated, animals and plants cannot live there,

less clean water all over the world. 

WHAT CAN YOU DO??  Don`t throw your rubbish into nature!!  Don`t use too much chemicals!!  Wash your car in the car wash and not outside in the garden!!  Dispose your rubbish correctly!!

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Hydropower—the power of water

by Marko, Jonas, Tanja

ENERGY GENERATED FROM WATER How is energy generated from water? -water comes from the reservoir -water gets into a turbine -generator produces electric current

HYDROPOWER IN OUR REGION/ COUNTRY HOW OFTEN IS HYDROPOWER USED?

NUMBER OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATIONS IN GERMANY: The number of hydroelectric power stations has grown. Today there are 4997 stations. They produce 17499 million kWh a year WATERENERGY- THREE COUNTRIES COMPARED Perspectives for the future Some perspectives are: Solarenergy in combination with hyropower 

Hydropower as replacement for nuclear energy 

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Hydropower—the power of water

by Marko, Jonas, Tanja

SOLARENERGY/WINDENERGY IN COMBINATION WITH HYDROPOWER

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVATAGES

Connection of the three renewable sources

Advantages:

At day: solarenergy and windenergy are gained by sunlight and wind, water gets pumped up on a hill At night: water flows the hill down and runs a turbine

renewable

no CO2

 

environment friendly it is easy to use the water from the dykes

Disadvantages:

high costs (too expensive)

areas are destroyed for building the stations

So you are able to gain electricity by solarenergy at night

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Brochure II