Issuu on Google+

ARE YOU READY? A STUDY OF URGENT CARE PREPAREDNESS FOR AGES 21 TO 34

SAMUEL BOETT C HE R • B AIL L IE B R OWN • E R I N C RO S BY • M A RI H O PKI N S • Q U I N N I A N N I C I E L L O • XI A O SH AN LI


table of contents 5

The Executive Summary

7

Methodology

12

Primary Research Survey Results

24

Primary Research Survey Cross Tabulations

34

Focus Group Research Findings

38

Secondary Research Findings

42

Consumer Profiles and Recommendations

50

Works Cited

51

Appendix

Samuel Boettcher, Baillie Brown, Erin Crosby, Mari Hopkins, Quinn Ianniciello, and Xiaoshan Li are seniors studying advertising in the Edward R. Murrow College of Communication at Washington State University. This research project was first presented on February 8, 2011 for the Advertising 480 course taught by Professor Daniel Petek.

Š 2011 All Authors

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

3


as it stands TODAY, we've found that THE ATTITUDE TOWARDS HAVING knowledge regarding what to do in a medical emergency among those age 21 to 34 is

the executive summary What would you do if someone you were with suddenly

benevolent cautious uninformed connected

lost consciousness? Are you ready to handle that? The Washington State Department of Health is poised to answer these critical questions after 22 years of programs and services that help prevent illness, injury, and promote healthy lives for all residents of Washington state. But who really know’s what to do?

Spreading awareness about what to do in a medical emergency or trauma situation to the millennial generation and beyond is of key importance for a better prepared state. The reality is that unless people have been required to learn emergency care from their job or school, the majority of people don’t have effective first aid skills. While everyone knows how to pick up the phone and dial 911, many people lack critical skills and knowledge they may need to

interested see more conclusions on page 42 →

4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

provide before the professionals arrive.

“Between 2004 and 2008, 3649 people between the ages of 20 and 34 were hospitalized in Washington with fatal injuries including gun shot wounds, suffocation, and poisoning” — Fatal Injuries. (US,

Knowing what to do in high stress situations can be

2008). Washington State

hard for people who haven’t been trained. However, the

Department of Health,

millennial generation (and beyond) need to know the

Center for Health Statistics,

importance of emergency care.

Death Records.

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

5


For our research, participants ages 21-34 were surveyed in

methodology

an attempt to find out what they knew, how important they thought this knowledge was, and how confident they would be if they were suddenly needed in an emergency situation. Using the survey generator Zoomerang, we developed a 12 question survey that was used to identify the amount of, attitude towards, and range of

Consumer Research

knowledge people had about first aid. Our survey also

In order to gain the most accurate information possible

gathered information on media consumption to provide

on the knowledge, lifestyle and media habits of our target

recommendations on future advertising strategies designed

audience in relation to health awareness, it was decided

to meet this target audience.

that a mixture of primary and secondary research would be used. To fulfill these research goals, an online survey was

To supplement our survey research, a focus group was

used in addition to a focus group of six individuals. The

conducted. This opportunity to speak face-to-face with

focus group and the secondary research elaborated upon

members of our target audience allowed for deep insight

and confirmed the data that was collected through the

into their lifestyle and attitude towards first aid knowledge.

initial survey.

This provided the basis for three demographic profiles designed to represent members of the target audience.

Primary Research Survey The survey was formatted in a way that would be

In our conclusion, these consumer profiles helped generate

comfortable for respondents. This was done in order

media recommendations allowing for different targeting

to minimize the shock value of the questionnaire so

strategies. An important finding was understanding the

participants would not feel offended and answer falsely

need for internet and social media-based advertising, as was

or exit the survey. The survey was limited to 12 questions,

derived from our overall feedback. This need determined

and directed participants who were not in our age group

our choice of five words that represent the current

of 21 to 34 to exit the survey. It was felt that a more

knowledge the target demographic has. Finally, we were

concise, to the point survey would reduce the likelihood of

able to draw lasting conclusions, driving the next steps

participants exiting early due to an excess of questions.

Primary Research Survey Sheets Appendix A (pg. 53 →)

the Washington State Department of Health can take to succeed in an awareness campaign. n

6

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

Each question had a specific purpose. The questions

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

7


included topics asking about various types of first aid

age range. Corrections were made to the survey to enhance

training a person received, comfort levels respondents

its readability and flow in response to feedback during the

felt in different situations, and attitudes about emergency

pre-testing.

care. Based on the influence of social media on our target audience, social media sites like Facebook were used to

Response Rate

circulate the survey, as well as traditional email.

Our survey was completed by 100 people between the ages of 21 and 34. However 204 people visited our online

(100/2,924) x 100 = 3.42%

Question Composition

survey page with one survey that was completed partially,

The survey began with a traditional open ended question.

not counted in our results. While 2,924 were exposed

— Response Rate for primary

The purpose of this opening question was simply to get

via Facebook and email, not all of the people exposed fit

research survey.

people thinking about what they would do in a trauma

into our target age range. Therefore, they were not able to

situation before they were asked questions about their

participate in the survey.

knowledge. The survey used several types of questions, including open ended, multiple choice, ranking, and

Demographics

the Likert scale. The open-ended questions were used to

The demographic information we collected in the survey

gauge how people think they would respond in various

consisted of three aspects: age, gender, and education level.

situations. Multiple choice and ranking questions were used to determine the amount of knowledge on the topic, while

Focus Group

questions using the Likert scale were used to gauge level of

The focus group elaborated on participant’s media

confidence in various situations which required emergency

preferences, first aid experiences, and attitudes. This session

care. The survey also included demographic questions as

was held in Washington State University’s Communication

well as questions about preferred media.

Addition Building, room 218 at 4:00 p.m. on Wednesday February 2, 2011. The session lasted approximately 30

8

Pre-Test

minutes. Mari Hopkins and Erin Crosby facilitated the

Before administration, the survey was pre-tested and

group with the assistance of Quinn Ianniciello. The focus

proofed by the Assistant Director of Marketing at the

group consisted of questions that asked the group what

Compton Union, a marketing graduate student, a

they would do if they were to find themselves in situations

Washington State University advertising instructor, and

that required helping someone in a moment of urgency.

preliminary versions given to several people in our target

It also proposed questions on the topic of media habits

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

9


as well as preferred portals for learning about injury preparedness. The group discussion format allowed for more qualitative data to enhance the quantitative data that was obtained within the survey. Six participants attended the focus group, three males and three females of varying ages. The session was digitally recorded and transcribed by Mari Hopkins; names were removed for anonymity.

Demographics The demographic information collected from focus group participants consisted of age, gender, race, education level, Washington state residency, occupation, martial status, activities, interests, and media consumption.

Mintel International Group

Secondary Research Additional research was conducted on Mintel International Group’s website for information on first aid preparedness

Experian Simmons Choices 3 National Center for Injury Prevention and Control

trends, ownership of first aid kits, and experience. Experian Simmons Choices was also used as a source of secondary research. Simmons software was used to cross tabulate data including age, gender, and education level with interests in actively seeking health information. Simmons data also provided information about the sources from which our

Washington State Department of Health

target audience receives its information. Details were also

think it’s pretty “Iimportant because you never know when you’ll be put in that type of situation and it could save someone’s life.

— Focus Group Participant C on having CPR training

obtained from the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control about common injuries that our target

— Secondary research

audience is most likely to see and experience. n

sources used in this report.

10

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

11


primary research survey results

80

# of respondents selecting each option

70 60

67

50

53

40

44

30 10

total sample, this shows a relatively high preparedness level from the target audience.

10 0 NO

50

who had, 33 individuals provided open responses

40

(see Appendix C, pg. 57 →), three of which are

30

highlighted below that describe their experience.

55

53

35

19

10

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

From the internet

From a certified CPR/AED or First Aid Class

From a work program/my employer

“Often times with alcohol poisoning. I have assessed the ability of the individual to respond, checked their breathing and called 911. I have gotten them into the alcohol emergency position on their side.”

The majority of respondents (57) said they learned what to do from a school program

From a school program or class

“When I was a campus tour guide a girl in my group passed out all of a sudden. We dialed 911 and helped lie her down correctly while checking her vital signs until the paramedics arrived.”

5

0 From firsthand experience

“A family member overdosed on prescription medication, and became unconscious, but was still breathing. I carried the family member to the car. From there, I transported the family member to the emergency room. If I could do it over again, I would call the paramedics. Live and learn I guess.”

18 4

from my parents or family

Open Response Highlights

Where have you learned about what to do in an urgent care or medical emergency situation?

27

20

Other

they needed to use first aid, and 34% had. Of those

# of respondents selecting each option

57

I have never learned about this

respondents has not experienced a situation where

60

From TV shows or movies

experience respondents had in this area. 66% of

20

12

in second at 53. Of the

This question was asked to first understand the

34

YES

Other

First Aid

40 30

in Adult CPR/AED, with First Aid training coming

0 Mental Health First Aid

50

Have you ever experienced a trauma situation or witnessed an emergency where you needed to respond with first aid? If yes, please describe.

14

Infant CPR

66

60

(67) have had training

22

Child CPR/AED

70

The majority of respondents

20 % of respondents selecting each option

Adult CPR/AED

80

35

Have you ever attended formal training or completed certification for the following urgent care skills?

or class, with family (55) and formal training (53) coming in next. Interestingly, 19 respondents said they learned from the internet, and 18 from TV shows or movies, showing how media impacts their knowledge.

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

13


Tip: the more shades of blue you see on the graph (to the right), the more confident the target audience felt when handling that scenario.

On a scale of one to seven, rank how confident would you be in delivering first aid to someone in each of the following situations. The individual has or is having... (see x axis)

8

7

8

17

15

4

11

13

6

15 15

15

13

18

17

6

25

22

13 21 19 15

18 22

19

21

CONFIDENCE scale

19 25

17 15

23

23

22

10

On average, respondents were less than moderately confident overall in providing first aid in each scenario.

16

22

17 13

18

11

12

17

(by selecting a number lower than four, “moderately 11

confident”). For example, the least confident scenario for 13

respondents was having to deal with an impalement or gunshot wound, shown by the longest shade of green on

8

13

20

14

9

24 11

20

12

15

11 10

24

17

16

the chart.

8

17

35

14 10

9

10 8

For a broken bone and alcohol poisoning, respondents were

5

more confident than not (shown by longer shades of blue

14

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

Just been in a traffic collision

Just suffered an impalement or gunshot wound

Just suffered a laceration (large cut) with severe loss of blood

Just swallowed a poisonous substance

Severe burns from a fire

Alcohol poisoning

A broken bone

A seizure 35

Sudden loss of consciousness or fainting

see chart, opposite page

35

A drug overdose from an unknown substance

provide first aid.

A heart attack

who felt they were moderately confident in their abilities to

Choking, Asthma, or difficulty breathing

with severe loss of blood received the most respondents

1 A severe allergic reaction

on the chart). A scenario involving a laceration (large cut)

VERY CONFIDENT

7

10

17

aid situations like allergic reactions all the way to a gunshot

confident participants were about handling that situation

8

17

17

21

7

13

17

on the X axis of the chart (opposite page), range from first

10

15

16

18

6

24

21

10

delivering aid in each type of scenario. The scenarios, listed

The more shades of green you see on the chart, the less

9

2

10

on a scale level of one to seven how participants felt about

wound or impalement.

11

7

To better understand how confident respondents in the sample were, this matrix question was used to determine

Respondents who selected a median number of four are shown in gold, and can be read as “moderately confident.”

9

NOT AT ALL CONFIDENT

Number of respondents that indicated confidence level on a scale from 1 to 7

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

15


the chain of survival

importance and interest

Respondents were asked to put the following steps in the correct order. The four steps were presented in

When thinking about the next steps of our research, the following questions were posed to gather more

random order, where they were then ranked from one to four. The majority of participants were able to

information about the level of importance respondents felt about this topic, and the level of interest they

correctly put them in order, based on a high percentage of correct responses.

had to learn more about this topic.

1

89%

60

Early access. Call 911 and begin CPR.

50

Of 100% of respondents, 89% selected this as the first step in the “chain

40

of survival,” showing a high level of comfort with preliminary response.

% of respondents selecting each option

55

30

55% of respondents said they thought it was

29

very important to have this knowledge, with the

20

80%

2

Early CPR. Begin CPR within two minutes.

remaining (except 1%) falling between somewhat

15

10

and very important. This showed a high level of

1

3

Early defibrillation. Initiate an AED shock within the first five minutes.

50

Of 100% of respondents, 67% selected this as the third step in the “chain

40

Very important

Somewhat important

“chain of survival,” showing high comfort levels with secondary actions.

67%

importance among the sample towards this topic.

0 Not at all important

Of 100% of respondents, 80% selected this as the second step in the

% of respondents selecting each option 41

of survival,” showing a moderate level of comfort with next steps. 30

“chain of survival,” showing a moderately-high level of confidence with final steps.

16

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

26

in receiving training in this area, with feelings that 4

is was somewhat important and higher receiving

2

an equal 26% each. Only 6% of respondents were

0 Very interested

Of 100% of respondents, 77% selected this as the fourth step in the

10

How interested are you in learning more or receiving training for urgent care/trauma situations? 41% of respondents said they were very interested

Somewhat important

Percent of respondents who put the step in the correct order

26

20

Not at all interested

4

77%

Early advanced care. Transport the victim via paramedics to the nearest medical facility.

How important do you think it is for you personally to have knowledge and training in urgent care situations?

below the somewhat interested level, showing a high level of interest in this topic.

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

17


On a weekend camping trip with your friends to a remote location, you take a walk alone on one of the trails in the area. About halfway through your walk, a cyclist speeds past you and gets caught on a rough dip in the trail. The rider flies over the handlebars and rolls onto the ground landing on her head while suffering several scrapes and cuts from her mangled bike. She was not wearing a helmet and you do not have a cell phone. You start running towards her...

“Check to see if she is still conscious and breathing, then decide from there what steps to take next. Do not move her unless she is in a life threatening situation.”

open response question The following phrases are shown by tally number of how many times they were mentioned in the free response answers. For the complete list of all 100 responses, see Appendix B (pg. 56 →).

Open Response Highlights (summary, by number who mentioned) 32

“see if she is conscious/responsive”

21

“run for help”

In one sentence, describe first thing you would do.

19

“I would not move her/tell her not to move”

Of 100 respondents, all 100 provided written responses to

18

“talk to her, ask her name”

9

“make sure she is breathing”

7

“check her injuries, see where she is bleeding”

5

“check her pulse/heartbeat”

4

“check the scene for safety

3

“find a phone, call 911”

1

“I don’t know”

this question which was posed first on our survey. Although is challenging to create cross tabulations or numerical data, it provided a general overview of the current mindset of our sample on what to do in this scenario-based question. To the right are the summarized responses, showing various answers that were provided in tally form.

For example, 32 respondents would check the rider for consciousness first, while 21 mentioned that they would

— Example response from a

run for help. Overall, this assessment showed that while

participant, explaining the

there is a moderate level of preparedness for this type of

first steps they would take in

scenario, there was little uniformity among responses; a

this scenario. See Appendix

potential area of growth for first aid training practitioners.

B (pg. 56 →) for more.

18

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

19


media habits

On a scale from one to seven, rank your usage of the following types of media... (see x axis). To derive recommendations for advertising and

3 (N/A)

VERY OFTEN

3 (N/A)

2 (N/A) 2

7 26

9

11

3 8 9

8

68

promotional campaigns, we first had to understand which media the target audience consumes, and how much.

37 36

Looking at the stacked bar chart to the left, the results show that our sample skewed towards heavy consumption

17

and usage of contemporary digital media such as internet 19

websites.

34 23

24

Social media was marked as the heaviest used, with 68 respondents noting a usage of “very often”, and a minority

24 20

16

17 16

20

12

14

20

averaging between “sometimes” and “rarely” in each case.

5

Magazine

Newspaper

Radio

Internet: News or Informational

5

Internet: Social Media

Number of respondents that indicated usage on a scale from 1 to 7

The four types of traditional media listed (television, radio, newspaper, and magazine) saw less usage overall,

6

4 Television

1

15 12

17

7

RARELY

websites in general, both with strong “very often” responses

17

12

15

15

of over 35 each.

17

7

Respondents who selected a median number of four are shown in gold, and can be read as using the media “sometimes.”

internet news and informational sites, and other internet

11

12

of less than 4 responses making up all results below “sometimes”. Coming in second and third respectively are

23

5

Of traditional media, television received the highest usage

3

(shown by the longer shades of blue on the chart at left)

Internet: Other

USAGE SCALE

Tip: the more shades of blue you see on the graph (to the left), the more often that type of media is used by the target audience.

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

and thus offered the second best alternative for media consumption among the sample.

view the visual representation

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

21


survey demographics

Age

22

All participants were between the ages of 21 and 34. At least one

Understanding the Sample

32

21 7 9

24 25

10

26 27

person of each age,

28

except 32, responded

29

to the survey.

20

23

5 2 5 2

30 31

4 1

32 33

After receiving 100 survey responses, our survey was

34

# of respondents selecting each option

2 1

closed to additional participants due to restrictions from the survey facilitation website Zoomerang. Our sample, as

10

Gender

15

20

25

30

35

shown in the demographics at right, consisted of a majority of female participants and a majority of participants on the

Participants could

lower end of the age scale (21 to 34) for the target audience.

select between Female,

Female

69

Male

31

Male, and “Prefer Although this was not a broad and equal representation of the target audience, it did allow us to draw several

Not To Disclose” (no responses).

conclusions about the demographic’s willingness to participate in research, interest in the topic, and further interest into first aid and trauma situations.

Highest level of education

To supplement these findings and gather a more representative sample, a focus group was conducted (see pg. 34 →) and additional secondary research was obtained (see pg. 38 →) from data collection sources and medical information articles.

The majority of

Some High School High School Diploma

4-Year Degree In Progress

four-year degree or

Post-Graduate/ Pro. Degree

coinciding with our

5 3 32

4 -Year Degree

participants had a

were in progress,

8

2-Year Degree 2-Year Degree In Progress

# of respondents selecting each option

39 10

Tech./Cert. Program Other

2 1

age demographics.

10

22

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

15

20

25

30

35

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

40

23


primary research survey cross tabulations

Have you ever attended formal training or completed certification for the following urgent care skills? Please select all that apply:

What gender do you identify with?

What is your age? (If your age is not listed please exit the survey) Total* 21

Adult CPR/AED Child CPR/AED Infant CPR First Aid Mental Health First Aid (Suicide, Depression, etc.) Other, please specify

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

Male

Prefer not to disclose

Female

85

27

15

6

8

9

4

2

5

1

4

1

0

2

1

25

60

67

20

12

5

7

8

2

2

5

1

2

1

0

1

1

17

50

0 0

78.80%

74.10%

80.00%

83.30%

87.50%

88.90%

50.00%

100.00%

100.00%

100.00%

50.00%

100.00%

0.00%

50.00%

100.00%

68.00%

83.30%

0.00%

44

14

5

4

6

6

0

2

3

1

0

1

0

1

1

10

34

0

51.80%

51.90%

33.30%

66.70%

75.00%

66.70%

0.00%

100.00%

60.00%

100.00%

0.00%

100.00%

0.00%

50.00%

100.00%

40.00%

56.70%

0.00%

35

11

2

4

4

6

0

1

2

1

1

1

0

1

1

6

29

0

41.20%

40.70%

13.30%

66.70%

50.00%

66.70%

0.00%

50.00%

40.00%

100.00%

25.00%

100.00%

0.00%

50.00%

100.00%

24.00%

48.30%

0.00%

53

19

6

3

4

7

0

2

5

1

2

1

0

2

1

14

39

0

62.40%

70.40%

40.00%

50.00%

50.00%

77.80%

0.00%

100.00%

100.00%

100.00%

50.00%

100.00%

0.00%

100.00%

100.00%

56.00%

65.00%

0.00%

22

5

4

2

2

2

0

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

3

19

0

25.90%

18.50%

26.70%

33.30%

25.00%

22.20%

0.00%

100.00%

20.00%

100.00%

25.00%

100.00%

0.00%

0.00%

100.00%

12.00%

31.70%

0.00%

14

4

3

1

1

1

2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

5

9

0

16.50%

14.80%

20.00%

16.70%

12.50%

11.10%

50.00%

0.00%

20.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

100.00%

20.00%

15.00%

0.00%

* Total = The number of respondents for the entire survey who answered the Row question and, if a filter is applied, meet the filter criteria.

Have you ever experienced a trauma situation or witnessed an emergency where you needed to respond with first aid?

Have you ever attended formal training or completed certification for the following urgent care skills? Please select all that apply:

What gender do you identify with?

What is your age? (If your age is not listed please exit the survey)

What is the highest level of education you have completed? Total*

Total* 21

Yes No

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

Male

Female

Some high school

Prefer not to disclose

96

32

20

5

8

10

5

2

5

1

4

1

0

2

1

29

67

0

33

8

10

3

4

3

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

11

22

0

34.40%

25.00%

50.00%

60.00%

50.00%

30.00%

20.00%

0.00%

20.00%

100.00%

25.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

100.00%

37.90%

32.80%

0.00%

63

24

10

2

4

7

4

2

4

0

3

1

0

2

0

18

45

0

65.60%

75.00%

50.00%

40.00%

50.00%

70.00%

80.00%

100.00%

80.00%

0.00%

75.00%

100.00%

0.00%

100.00%

0.00%

62.10%

67.20%

0.00%

* Total = The number of respondents for the entire survey who answered the Row question and, if a filter is applied, meet the filter criteria.

Adult CPR/AED Child CPR/AED Infant CPR First Aid Mental Health First Aid (Suicide, Depression, etc.) Other, please specify

1. Those who have experienced a situation where they needed to use first aid compared to age and gender When asked if our sample had ever responded to a trauma situation with first aid, we found 66% responded “no” while 34% responded “yes.” 67% of females responded they had no experience in this situation. Among different subgroups, 75% of females at age 21 scored high on responding “no” whereas only 25% of males from the same age group responding “no.” Moreover, 50% of females responded “no” while 50% of males responded “yes” at both age 22 and age 24.

This finding suggests that most people in our sample have not experienced a trauma situation where they needed to respond with first aid, and of those who have the majority were younger and female.

24

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

Two-Year Degree (AA/AS) In Progress

Two-Year Degree (AA/AS)

High school diploma

PostFour-Year Degree Technical/Certi Other (Not Graduate/Professi (BA/BS) In ficate Program Listed) onal Degree Progress

Four-Year Degree (BA/BS)

85

0

6

4

2

27

34

10

2

67

0

4

2

1

22

27

9

2

0 0

78.80%

0.00%

66.70%

50.00%

50.00%

81.50%

79.40%

90.00%

100.00%

0.00%

44

0

3

1

1

16

13

8

2

0

51.80%

0.00%

50.00%

25.00%

50.00%

59.30%

38.20%

80.00%

100.00%

0.00%

35

0

2

1

1

12

10

8

1

0

41.20%

0.00%

33.30%

25.00%

50.00%

44.40%

29.40%

80.00%

50.00%

0.00%

53

0

3

2

1

15

21

9

2

0

62.40%

0.00%

50.00%

50.00%

50.00%

55.60%

61.80%

90.00%

100.00%

0.00%

22

0

1

1

0

6

6

6

2

0

25.90%

0.00%

16.70%

25.00%

0.00%

22.20%

17.60%

60.00%

100.00%

0.00%

14

0

0

1

1

6

4

2

0

0

16.50%

0.00%

0.00%

25.00%

50.00%

22.20%

11.80%

20.00%

0.00%

0.00%

* Total = The number of respondents for the entire survey who answered the Row question and, if a filter is applied, meet the filter criteria.

2. Formal training level compared to age, gender, and education To get a better understanding of people’s knowledge of urgent care, we needed to know if they have received formal training. This cross tab helped us to draw comparisons among three factors: age, gender, and educational level. 79% of our group responded that they have received Adult CPR/AED training. 82% of those who received this training were college students who had graduated with a four-year degree, and 79% are currently attending a four-year college. Overall, 83% of females in the survey received this training, the majority.

We can assume from the above tabulations that Adult CPR/AED training is the most common training that our sample received. Females and those attending a four-year college, or who have graduated a four-year college, were more likely to receive this training.

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

25


Where have you learned about what to do in an urgent care or medical emergency situation? Please select all that apply:

What gender do you identify with?

What is your age? (If your age is not listed please exit the survey) Total* 21

100 From my parents or family From firsthand experience From a school program or class From a work program or from my employer From a certified CPR/AED or First Aid class From the internet

I have never learned about urgent care or what to do in a medical emergency Other, please specify

32

23

20

24

7

25

9

26

10

27

5

28

2

29

5

30

2

31

4

32

1

33

0

34

2

Male

1

Female

31

Prefer not to disclose

69

0

55

19

10

2

7

6

3

0

3

1

1

0

0

2

1

17

38

0

55.00%

59.40%

50.00%

28.60%

77.80%

60.00%

60.00%

0.00%

60.00%

50.00%

25.00%

0.00%

0.00%

100.00%

100.00%

54.80%

55.10%

0.00%

27

8

5

2

3

3

2

0

2

0

1

0

0

0

1

5

22

0

27.00%

25.00%

25.00%

28.60%

33.30%

30.00%

40.00%

0.00%

40.00%

0.00%

25.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

100.00%

16.10%

31.90%

0.00%

57

20

11

4

5

5

2

1

2

2

2

0

0

2

1

13

44

0

50.00%

40.00%

40.00%

100.00%

0.00%

100.00%

57.00%

62.50%

55.00%

57.10%

55.60%

50.00%

50.00%

0.00%

100.00%

41.90%

63.80%

0.00%

35

7

6

2

4

5

0

2

4

1

2

0

0

1

1

11

24

0

35.00%

21.90%

30.00%

28.60%

44.40%

50.00%

0.00%

100.00%

80.00%

50.00%

50.00%

0.00%

0.00%

50.00%

100.00%

35.50%

34.80%

0.00%

53

16

8

3

6

7

0

2

5

1

2

1

0

1

1

11

42

0

53.00%

50.00%

40.00%

42.90%

66.70%

70.00%

0.00%

100.00%

100.00%

50.00%

50.00%

100.00%

0.00%

50.00%

100.00%

35.50%

60.90%

0.00%

19

7

1

0

1

2

3

0

2

1

0

0

0

1

1

10

9

0

40.00%

50.00%

50.00%

100.00%

19.00%

From TV shows or movies

22

21.90%

5.00%

0.00%

11.10%

20.00%

60.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

32.30%

13.00%

0.00%

18

6

3

0

2

3

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

8

10

0

18.00%

18.80%

15.00%

0.00%

22.20%

30.00%

20.00%

0.00%

20.00%

0.00%

25.00%

0.00%

0.00%

50.00%

0.00%

25.80%

14.50%

0.00%

4

2

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

0

6.30%

10.00%

4.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

6.50%

2.90%

0.00%

5

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

2

0

5.00%

3.10%

0.00%

14.30%

11.10%

10.00%

20.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

9.70%

2.90%

0.00%

* Total = The number of respondents for the entire survey who answered the Row question and, if a filter is applied, meet the filter criteria.

3. Source of first aid knowledge compared to age and gender When asked the question of where respondents obtained their first aid knowledge we found that programs from schools (57%) and parents/family (55%) were two major sources. Of this sample 63% of people age 21 responded that programs from schools were their primary source of accessing first aid knowledge. Moreover, 59% of people age 21 identified parents and families as their major source of obtaining first aid knowledge. 64% of females considered programs from schools as their primary information source whereas 55% of males identified their parents and families as the major source.

Surprisingly, 18% of respondents identified TV shows/movies as another popular source for them to acquire knowledge of first aid. 19% of respondents at age 21 tended to gather their knowledge from TV shows and movies while 15% of respondents at age 22 reported this medium as another frequent source of information. 15% of females responded to using this type of media whereas 26% of males reported using it.

We can assume that programs from schools and parents/families are two major sources for our sample to obtain their first aid knowledge. Males were more likely to obtain their knowledge from their parents or families whereas females from schools. TV shows/movies were another way young people of both genders, especially for males, tended to gather information.

26

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

I watch a lot of Discovery Health Channel with shows like Trauma Life and ER and I’ve gained a lot of knowledge from that. You see them go out into the field and stabilize people, and they even interview doctors to tell you the procedures they did.

— Focus Group Participant D on learning from the media

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

27


in line between the answer “somewhat important” and “very important.” 41% of them were age

How important do you think it is for you personally to have knowledge and training in urgent care situations?

21, and 40% of those people age 21 were female whereas 51% were male. What gender do you identify with?

What is your age? (If your age is not listed please exit the survey) Total* 21

Not at all important

Somewhat important

Very important

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

Male

Female

Prefer not to disclose

Using this result we can see that slightly more than half of our sample evaluated the knowledge

100

32

20

7

9

10

5

2

5

2

4

1

0

2

1

31

69

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0 0

1.00%

0.00%

0.00%

14.30%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3.20%

0.00%

0.00%

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

15

3

4

1

1

2

3

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

8

7

0

15.00%

9.40%

20.00%

14.30%

11.10%

20.00%

60.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

25.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

25.80%

10.10%

0.00%

29

10

7

2

1

2

1

1

2

1

0

0

0

2

0

8

21

0

29.00%

31.30%

35.00%

28.60%

11.10%

20.00%

20.00%

50.00%

40.00%

50.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

100.00%

0.00%

25.80%

30.40%

0.00%

55

19

9

3

7

6

1

1

3

1

3

1

0

0

1

14

41

0

55.00%

59.40%

45.00%

42.90%

77.80%

60.00%

20.00%

50.00%

60.00%

50.00%

75.00%

100.00%

0.00%

0.00%

100.00%

45.20%

59.40%

0.00%

and training in urgent care situations as “very important.” Nearly half of the sample thought it was important yet not significantly important. Female respondents evaluated first aid training knowledge more seriously in general, but males scored higher as they fell in line between the answer “somewhat important” and “very important.”

Interest How interested are you in learning more or receiving training for urgent care/trauma situations?

When asked about how much our sample was interested in receiving training of urgent care/ trauma situations, 41% showed strong interest in receiving this kind of training. Also, up

What gender do you identify with?

What is your age? (If your age is not listed please exit the survey) Total* 21

Not at all interested

Somewhat interested

Very interested

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

Male

Female

to 53% of respondents fell in line between the answer “somewhat interested” and “very

Prefer not to disclose

99

32

19

7

9

10

5

2

5

2

4

1

0

2

1

31

68

0

4

1

0

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

1

0

4.00%

3.10%

0.00%

28.60%

11.10%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

9.70%

1.50%

0.00%

2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

2.00%

0.00%

5.30%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

25.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3.20%

1.50%

0.00%

26

8

6

1

2

3

4

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

13

13

0

26.30%

25.00%

31.60%

14.30%

22.20%

30.00%

80.00%

0.00%

20.00%

0.00%

25.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

41.90%

19.10%

0.00%

26

9

4

2

2

4

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

3

23

0

26.30%

28.10%

21.10%

28.60%

22.20%

40.00%

0.00%

0.00%

20.00%

50.00%

25.00%

100.00%

0.00%

50.00%

0.00%

9.70%

33.80%

0.00%

41

14

8

2

4

3

1

2

3

1

1

0

0

1

1

11

30

0

41.40%

43.80%

42.10%

28.60%

44.40%

30.00%

20.00%

100.00%

60.00%

50.00%

25.00%

0.00%

0.00%

50.00%

100.00%

35.50%

44.10%

0.00%

interested.” 4% of respondents had no interest in receiving this training.

36% of males showed strong interest in receiving training whereas 44% of female respondents showed the same level of interest. People age 21 and 22 expressed strong interest in receiving this training, 44% and 42% respectively.

* Total = The number of respondents for the entire survey who answered the Row question and, if a filter is applied, meet the filter criteria.

For those who fell in line between the answer “somewhat interested” and “very interested,” 52% of them were male while 53% of them were female. 53% of people age 21 and 22

4. Importance and interest compared to age and gender

respectively thought they were “somewhat interested” but not “very interested” in receiving this kind of training.

Importance When asked about how important our sample thought it was to have knowledge of first aid

According the cross tab, we could draw the conclusion that nearly half of all respondents

training personally, we found that 55% of all people evaluated it as “very important.” 59% of

showed strong interest in receiving training of urgent care/trauma situations. There were only

those who responded “very important” were age 21. 59% of females identified “very important”

4% of respondents that had no interest in training at all. People that were younger, age 21

as their attitude toward receiving first aid training.

and 22, showed more interest in receiving training for urgent care/trauma situations. Gender differences in this question were insignificant.

Using this result we can see that most people evaluated the knowledge and training in urgent care situations as “very important.” However, the statistic showed that 1% (1 person) of our sample, a 23 year old male, thought that it was “not at all important”. Up to 44% of people fell

28

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

29


5. Knowledge of the chain of survival compared to age and gender

Early CPR. Begin CPR within two minutes.

What gender do you identify with?

What is your age? (If your age is not listed please exit the survey)

This cross tab indicated that 86% of people thought “Call 911 and begin CPR” was the first step

Total* 21

98 1st Step 2nd Step 3rd Step 4th Step

22

32

23

18

24

7

25

9

26

10

27

5

28

2

29

5

30

2

31

4

32

1

33

0

34

2

Male

1

Female

31

that they should take. The percentage of females and males selecting this option as the correct

Prefer not to disclose

67

0

6

1

1

0

0

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

3

0

6.10%

3.10%

5.60%

0.00%

0.00%

20.00%

20.00%

50.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

9.70%

4.50%

0.00%

78

23

16

6

8

6

4

1

5

2

3

1

0

2

1

22

56

0

79.60%

71.90%

88.90%

85.70%

88.90%

60.00%

80.00%

50.00%

100.00%

100.00%

75.00%

100.00%

0.00%

100.00%

100.00%

71.00%

83.60%

0.00%

12

7

0

1

1

2

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

5

7

0

12.20%

21.90%

0.00%

14.30%

11.10%

20.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

25.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

16.10%

10.40%

0.00%

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

2.00%

3.10%

5.60%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3.20%

1.50%

0.00%

(first) option was 90% and 87% respectively. 94% of all 21 year old respondents placed this in the correct order, the majority.

78% of people identified “Early CPR. Begin CPR within two minutes” as the second step. 84% females responded correctly whereas 71% males identified it correctly. 72% of all 21 year old

Early Advanced Care. Transport of the victim by Paramedics to the nearest medical facility.

respondents placed this in the correct order, the majority. What gender do you identify with?

What is your age? (If your age is not listed please exit the survey) Total* 21

1st Step 2nd Step 3rd Step 4th Step

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

Male

Female

67% of people thought “Early defibrillation. Initiate an AED shock within the first five

Prefer not to disclose

95

31

18

7

9

10

5

1

4

2

4

1

0

2

1

31

64

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

1.10%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

50.00%

0.00%

0.00%

1.60%

0.00%

5

2

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

2

0

5.30%

6.50%

0.00%

14.30%

11.10%

10.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

9.70%

3.10%

0.00%

16

5

4

2

2

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

4

12

0

16.80%

16.10%

22.20%

28.60%

22.20%

10.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

25.00%

100.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

12.90%

18.80%

0.00%

73

24

14

4

6

8

5

1

4

2

3

0

0

1

1

24

49

0

76.80%

77.40%

77.80%

57.10%

66.70%

80.00%

100.00%

100.00%

100.00%

100.00%

75.00%

0.00%

0.00%

50.00%

100.00%

77.40%

76.60%

0.00%

minutes” was the correct (third) step they should take. The percentage of females and males who answered this question correctly was 68% and 65% respectively. 59% of all 21 year old respondents placed this in the correct order, the majority.

73% of people thought “Early Advanced Care. Transport of the victim by Paramedics to the nearest medical facility” was the correct (fourth) step they should take. The percentage of

Early Access. Call 911 and begin CPR.

females and males who answered this question correctly was 77% respectively. 77% of all 21

What gender do you identify with?

What is your age? (If your age is not listed please exit the survey)

year old respondents placed this in the correct order, the majority.

Total* 21

1st Step 2nd Step 3rd Step 4th Step

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

Male

Female

Prefer not to disclose

97

32

18

7

8

10

5

2

5

2

4

1

0

2

1

30

67

86

30

16

6

8

8

4

0

5

2

4

1

0

1

1

26

60

0 0

88.70%

93.80%

88.90%

85.70%

100.00%

80.00%

80.00%

0.00%

100.00%

100.00%

100.00%

100.00%

0.00%

50.00%

100.00%

86.70%

89.60%

0.00%

4

0

2

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

3

0

4.10%

0.00%

11.10%

0.00%

0.00%

10.00%

0.00%

50.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3.30%

4.50%

0.00%

4

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

2

2

0

4.10%

3.10%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

10.00%

20.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

50.00%

0.00%

6.70%

3.00%

0.00%

3

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

0

3.10%

3.10%

0.00%

14.30%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

50.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3.30%

3.00%

0.00%

The statistic clearly suggested that, by in large, most people who are age 21 had basic knowledge of what they should do when they encountered urgent situations. Slightly more females answered this questions right. Yet, it is not necessary to amplify theses gender differences since the differences were insignificant. Also, a subtle result shows that the older the respondents were, the less accuracy they tended to have in terms of answering this question. However, this

Early Defibrillation. Initiate an AED shock within the first five minutes.

finding is too subtle to draw any dramatic conclusions. What gender do you identify with?

What is your age? (If your age is not listed please exit the survey) Total* 21

1st Step 2nd Step 3rd Step 4th Step

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

Male

Female

Prefer not to disclose

100

32

20

7

9

10

5

2

5

2

4

1

0

2

1

31

69

2

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0 0

2.00%

3.10%

0.00%

14.30%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3.20%

1.40%

0.00%

10

6

0

0

0

2

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

5

5

0

10.00%

18.80%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

20.00%

20.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

25.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

16.10%

7.20%

0.00%

67

19

15

4

6

6

4

2

5

2

2

0

0

1

1

20

47

0

67.00%

59.40%

75.00%

57.10%

66.70%

60.00%

80.00%

100.00%

100.00%

100.00%

50.00%

0.00%

0.00%

50.00%

100.00%

64.50%

68.10%

0.00%

21

6

5

2

3

2

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

5

16

0

21.00%

18.80%

25.00%

28.60%

33.30%

20.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

25.00%

100.00%

0.00%

50.00%

0.00%

16.10%

23.20%

0.00%

view the cross tabulation

* Total = The number of respondents for the entire survey who answered the Row question and, if a filter is applied, meet the filter criteria.

30

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

31


Traditional media usage compared to age and gender

On a scale from one to seven, rank your usage of the following types of media: (Scale: one being "rarely" and seven being "very often"): Internet: Social Media (sites like Facebook or Twitter)

What gender do you identify with?

What is your age? (If your age is not listed please exit the survey)

In lieu of a cross tabulation, the following findings are

Total* 21

1 Rarely 2 3 4 Sometimes 5 6 7 Very Often N/A

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

Male

Female

Prefer not to disclose

highlights that have been summarized for traditional media

100

32

20

7

9

10

5

2

5

2

4

1

0

2

1

31

69

0

2

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

2.00%

0.00%

5.00%

0.00%

0.00%

10.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

2.90%

0.00%

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1.00%

0.00%

5.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

1.40%

0.00%

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

11.10%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

1.40%

0.00%

5

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

5

0

5.00%

3.10%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

20.00%

0.00%

0.00%

50.00%

0.00%

100.00%

0.00%

50.00%

0.00%

0.00%

7.20%

0.00%

6

2

3

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

4

0

6.00%

6.30%

15.00%

14.30%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

6.50%

5.80%

0.00%

17

5

2

1

0

4

1

0

2

0

1

0

0

0

1

8

9

0

0.00%

100.00%

17.00%

15.60%

10.00%

14.30%

0.00%

40.00%

20.00%

0.00%

40.00%

0.00%

25.00%

0.00%

0.00%

25.80%

13.00%

0.00%

68

24

13

5

8

5

3

2

3

1

3

0

0

1

0

21

47

0

68.00%

75.00%

65.00%

71.40%

88.90%

50.00%

60.00%

100.00%

60.00%

50.00%

75.00%

0.00%

0.00%

50.00%

0.00%

67.70%

68.10%

0.00%

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

* Total = The number of respondents for the entire survey who answered the Row question and, if a filter is applied, meet the filter criteria.

channels.

Television When asked about which types of media the sample used most we found that 26% of the sample responded to using television “very often.” 26% was female, and 25% of people whose age is 21 tend to use television.

Radio 19% of the sample rated their frequency of using radio as “sometimes.” 20% was female, and 28% of people age 21

6. Social media usage compared to age and gender

reported that they rarely use radio.

68% of the sample responded to using social networks “very often.” 68% of those using social

Newspaper

networks “very often” were female and 67% of them were males. 75% of people age 21 and 65%

34% of the sample responded to reading newspaper with

of those age 22 tended to use social networks “very often.” Only 9% of all respondents “rarely”

“sometimes.” 38% was female, and 41% of people whose

used social networks or used it “sometimes.” Within the 9% of respondents, only 2% reported

age is 21 tend to use television.

they “rarely” used any social networks. Magazine This finding strongly suggests that social networks catch a considerable number of young

23% of the sample responded to reading magazines

people, especially those who are age 21 or 22. We can see a subtle tendency that the older

sometimes, with similar numbers for even less. 28% of

respondents were, the less they tended to use social networks. Social networks also appear to

females read magazines. Also, people age 22 tended to read

catch both gender groups. These findings support the claim that social networks and other

magazines either sometimes or more often than sometimes,

internet sites are a must-have media during later media buying and placement decisions.

with a percentage of 30% for each. n

continued

32

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

33


focus group research findings Focus Group Facilitator Script Appendix D (pg. 58 →) Focus Group Participant Handouts Appendix E (pg. 60 →)

In addition to conducting surveys, our primary research included a focus group. We wanted to conduct a focus group in order to collect more in-depth information from members of our target audience. By facilitating a group discussion about the members’ experiences, we were able to find qualitative responses that supplement the data from our research survey.

Overall, we found that none of the participants had a high level of confidence dealing with medical emergencies. Even

Focus Group Transcript Appendix F (pg. 61 →)

participants who had training or certification stated they still would not be comfortable using their training in an emergency. However, when asked situational questions, most participants said they felt the basic knowledge of first aid procedure they did have was procured from the media, such as medical dramas.

All the participants agreed that medical training is very important, however they felt the process of becoming certified was too time consuming and arduous. Members brought up that if the process was made more accessible through their education or employers, they would be much

34

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

“For me it’s kind of

out of sight out of mind. I don’t think about CPR every day so I wouldn’t seek out information about it, but in situations like this when we talk about it I’m always wishing I kind of had CPR training or first aid training.

— Focus Group Participant C on having CPR training

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

35


View a profile of each of the focus group participants on the opposite page. Names and identifying details have been withheld.

more likely to take advantage of the resource.

Participant A is a 22 year old male who has lived in the state of Washington for 11 years. He is a current college student majoring in psychology and works in food service. He has had no previous training in first aid. His interests include outdoor

Furthermore, most participants had similar media consumption habits, with most of their time allocated to

activities and watching new movies. He is a heavy social media and internet user and prefers to receive information through these channels.

social media networking sites like Facebook. In discussion, the participants noted that if medical knowledge was made available to them through channels like their Facebook news feeds they would be more likely to utilize the information and pass interesting facts along to their

Participant B is a 29 year old male who has lived in Washington for 7 years. He is a college graduate with a degree in Geology. He previously had CPR training but is not currently certified. He is connected to the community through leading academic clubs and the Greek system alumni. His interests included hiking, the outdoors, camping, and music. Participant B is a heavy internet user, but other media habits like television are minimal.

friends. Participant C is a 25 year old female who has lived in Washington for her entire life. She is currently a college student

While talking about the sources of the participant’s first aid knowledge, several members showed a high response when asked if they thought they learned practices from TV shows

majoring in Communication. She has never had any first aid training or certification. Her interests include sports, working out, and the outdoors. She is involved in the community as well as club sports teams. Her media consumption is mainly through the internet and social media sites, supplemented with heavy television use.

or movies. Whether they are watching Trauma Life or Grey’s Anatomy, participants felt like they were able to remember the scenarios the “victims” were in and based some of their knowledge off of those experiences. However, when asked what level of realism they thought those shows had,

Participant D is a 21 year old female who has lived in Washington for three and a half years. She is a current college student working on a Human Development degree. She has never had any training in first aid. She is involved in the community through the Greek community and academic clubs. Her interests include socializing with her friends and music. She is a heavy internet user, constantly using social media sites like Facebook.

participants agreed that they are far from reality. Overall, participants felt that even though they know the situations aren’t real, it gives them a solid foundation of knowledge of at least the basics of first aid.

Participant E is a 23 year old female who has lived in Washington her entire life. She is a college student studying Pre-Health but has never had any training in first aid. Her interests include sports, books, working out and the outdoors. She is connected to the community through on-campus leadership and academic clubs. Her media consumption is moderate and is acquired through television, internet and social media sites.

One final suggestion from the group was finding interesting and entertaining ways to learn first aid knowledge. Participants indicated that music, songs, or instructional videos designed with the target audience in mind would increase their interest and participation in training. n

36

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

Participant F is a 30 year old male who had lived in Washington his entire life. He works for the university and has a four year degree. He has had CPR and first aid training which was obtained for his occupation. He interests include cycling, skiing, fishing, hiking, and other outdoor activities. He is involved in the community through sports clubs and teams. His media consumption is heavily from internet and social media sites with minimal television usage.

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

37


secondary research findings

additional first aid products. This was compared to statistics revealing men to have significantly lower ownership of such products at an average of 18% lower ownership than women.

In addition, first aid kit ownership was also higher in more affluent audiences, those with annual incomes of more than $25,000. The Mintel report Attitudes Toward Hospitals In addition to the survey and focus group which made up

(US, January 2011), showed statistically that lower income

our primary research, secondary research was collected

individuals, specifically making below $25,000 annually,

from online data sources.

were both less likely to own first aid kits and go to the hospital.

Mintel International Group Studies

“...women are more health-aware than men, and this extends into first aid.” — Consumer Choices in Healthcare (US, January 2010). Mintel International

With Mintel International Group’s database of information,

If we look at our survey results, we can see that the higher

support was found for our focus group and participant

interest and knowledge in first aid by women matches

surveys using search terms including: first aid, injury

that of the Mintel report, confirming that more attention

prevention, injury preparedness, medical aid, and health.

needs to be given to educating men on first aid treatment.

From the research, two trends were found dealing with

The report revealing that lower income individuals are less

injury preparedness. The analysis of men and women 18

likely to go to the hospital also backs up our survey results;

and older revealed that the level of preparedness at home

because most 21-34 year olds fall under the low income

and on the road directly correlated with gender and income

category. Therefore, we can conclude that they are least

level.

likely to go to the hospital in an accident. This means there

Group.

is extra pressure to educate our target audience on at home According to the Mintel report First Aid (US, July 2010),

first aid treatment.

women were revealed to be more health aware than men.

38

This is founded on data that shows women to have a higher

The Mintel report on first aid recommends that for males

level of first aid kit ownership than men with as high as

in our target audience, running a campaign with a sports

88% of female respondents claiming to possess adhesive

star on YouTube may make first aid treatment seem more

bandages, antibiotic cream, thermometers, gauze, and

interesting and therefore raise awareness of the issue in the

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

39


demographic. This technique would most likely be suitable

it was found that fatal accidents for our target audience

for women in our target audience as well, based on the

were highest in motor vehicle crashes (National Center for

analysis of the social media habits our respondents have.

Injury Prevention and Control, 2006). This research was a crucial factor in acknowledging the importance of health

Experian Simmons Choices National Consumer Studies Using the Experian Simmons Choices survey NCS/NHCS:

education for 21-34 year olds. It may also be very helpful in determining a point of focus for the education for future campaigns. n

Fall 2009 Adult Household Survey with a focus on age, gender and education levels in correlation with the interest in actively seeking health information, it was found that as education progressed so rose the interest in seeking health information. Older age also showed an increase in interest in seeking health information.

Persons age 25 to 34 are 27% more likely to seek health and first aid information from a website than any other age group. — NCS/NHCS: Fall 2009 Adult Household Survey (US, 2010). Experian Simmons.

The data also showed the locations of highest interest for obtaining health information. The internet was the primary resource used by individuals in the 25-34 age range followed by the library. This conclusion supports our recommendation for further health education to be focused on social media sites to effectively reach our target audience.

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control

“ Between 2004 and 2008, 31,758 people between the ages of 20 and 34 were hospitalized in Washington with non-fatal injuries including falls, bicycle accidents, and lacerations.

— Nonfatal Injury Hospitalizations. (US, 2007). Washington State Department of Health, Center for Health Statistics, Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System.

found in 2007 that the most common nonfatal injuries for our target audience are unintentional falls, strikes, and overexertion. This was followed closely by injuries taking place as a motor vehicle occupant. In addition,

40

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

41


consumer profiles and recommendations

Know-it-alls: Connected Caregivers This person thinks that they know more than they actually do, and rely heavily on the media for information. If they became ill or someone around them had a health problem they would turn to what they know from the media to selfdiagnose themselves and others (WebMD, Trauma Life, ER, House, Grey’s Anatomy, etc.). They constantly stay connected to the Internet whether it be on their phone or computer, so if you have a question they will “Google it.” The

After combining our primary and secondary research, we

Connected Caregivers are considered to be early adopters,

were able to create several consumer profiles relative to

tech savvy, and the first ones in line for new gadgets. When

our target audience. These profiles allow us to break up the

they find out new information they want to share it with

results and help drive our recommendations.

their peers, sometimes known as walking encyclopedias. Staying connected is important, so they want a world of

Consumer Profiles

information available at their fingertips at all times.

Want to Know: Out of Sight, Out of Mind

Need to Know: Involved Humanitarians

This person would care, if they were forced to, but there are

This person has certain responsibilities that require them

other obligations that overshadow first aid training. First

to have first aid and CPR training; they know because they

aid training doesn’t seem like a skill that would be needed

have to. Whether it be for school or work, this person

on a daily basis to them. It’s not that they don’t want to

needs to have these skills and certifications. They work

know, it’s that they are not thinking about it, they need to

with all ages (ranging from young children to the elderly),

be reminded that they care. If training was easy and didn’t

so they need to be able to act quickly if anything were

take any time out of their day they would do it. They think

to happen. Consider this person your friendly, helpful

they know enough about being healthy by eating well and

neighbor, who is active in the community and devotes time

working out regularly, but wouldn’t know what to do if first

to volunteer locally. They take on a lot of responsibilities

aid care was necessary.

and are involved in numerous clubs or activities which fills up their schedule and satisfies a strong desire for engagement.

42

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

43


Recommendations

Advertising To Each Consumer

Based on our results, we have found that medical training and knowledge is underexposed. Generating true interest

Want to Know: “Out of Sight, Out of Mind”

in medical training will come from easily accessible media.

If the main reason these people don’t care to have the

Most people don’t know about first aid because it is not

knowledge is because it is not directly presented to them,

directly explained to them and need more exposure to

we need to make the information more accessible. We

opportunities for medical training. By increasing media

want to have printed advertisements where this person

presence and pointing out the benefits of knowing what

is daily, virally spread the word on Facebook, use word of

to do in a traumatic situation, the Washington State

mouth to get the information out, and even have free first

Department of health can begin an advertising strategy

aid training classes at fitness clubs or shopping centers.

designed to capture this audience’s attention.

By increasing market presence, the need for the skills and training will be on the forefront of their mind.

“For me, I think I would do it if the reward was greater than the risk kind of thing. If the certification lasted longer and didn’t take an entire day out of my year.”

Results from the focus group found that the most common deferent from obtaining certification for many individuals

Know-it-alls: Connected Caregivers

was the amount of time and money needed to acquire it.

The best way to reach out to the Connected Caregivers is by

Offering free or inexpensive classes in locations convenient

utilizing online resources and television shows like medical

to our audience at multiple times would increase the

dramas related to the overall goal of the campaign. The

interest and attendance. Such classes would benefit from

main focus should be social media sites such as Facebook,

increased advertising using social media, local news, and

YouTube and Twitter. Based on primary research from

internet medical resources favored by this audience.

the focus group, the participants responded positively to “liking” a Facebook page with specific tips on what to do

In addition, while discussing participant’s media

in certain medical emergencies as well as interesting facts

consumption, much of the verbal feedback corresponded

that relate to their daily lives. Since this person is always

attended a CPR or First Aid

with the survey findings regarding contemporary digital

moving onto the next thing, the message must be effective

training.

media. Social media sites are heavily used on a daily and

and brief. Additionally, banner advertisements on WebMD

weekly basis. One respondent mentioned checking his

would be beneficial to reach out to this audience. The goal

Facebook every 15 minutes. Many people rely on social

is to put the information in their hands because they will

media sites and other online outlets for the majority of

be the ones to spread it.

— Focus Group Participant C on why they haven’t

“Edgy viral marketing and online videos might also build market share among younger demographics.” — Injury Preparedness (US, July 2010). Mintel International Group.

their information because it is “at their fingertips.”

44

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

45


Need to Know: Involved Humanitarians Because these people already need to know for job or school purposes, the information needs to be made more accessible by offering various media outlets and opportunities to introduce trauma care. By using business to business marketing and targeting specific businesses or schools, training sessions could be scheduled on those sites. Also, interesting and creative lessons would be beneficial to increase the likelihood that the individual would want to learn and retain this knowledge.

Reaching Out On Social Media “...[the internet] just has so much more than a book could offer you.”

Overall, social media has become increasingly prevalent and influential to the target audience. Many people look to social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter to stay upto-date on current events. Based on primary research most, if not all respondents use the internet daily. The internet is

— Focus Group Participant

an easy way to attain knowledge and stay connected.

A on why they would pick having a computer over any other media source.

Based on secondary research from Mintel International Group and Experian Simmons Choices, we conclude that the target audience looks to the internet as their main source to gather information, rather than articles or other media. By utilizing resources such as Facebook advertisements or creating a Facebook page, the message will be more likely to reach the audience. Facebook is the number one social media site to date, and most people

“It’s always up. Every

fifteen minutes I go and check it for thirty seconds and then I’m back off doing something else. And I do that a lot on my free time, because the Internet is always at our fingertips.

— Focus Group Participant A on Facebook usage

ages 21-34 that have internet access have a Facebook.

46

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

47


Additionally, besides formally marketing on Facebook,

Laws like the Good Samaritan Law have helped ease the

guerilla marketing could be used to virally spread a first

pressure but the danger is still present in our profile’s

aid video or article on profiles to catch the attention of the

minds, and therefore, the caution exhibited by each

target audience. When a video or article becomes popular

remains as a constant consideration.

by number of views, it will post to various news feeds of the marketer’s facebook friends and fans. Ultimately, the goal

Uninformed

is to spark interest in the audience so that they seek more

While the need-to-knows are fully informed and most likely

information about first aid preparedness.

trained in first aid procedures, it is also likely that they are

“Benevolent” “Cautious”

a small minority, leaving many in our selected profiles in

The Target Audience In Five Words

an uninformed state. The want-to-knows in society have little time or feeling of desire or need for the training.

As a part of our analysis of relevant consumer profiles, we

Additionally, the know-it-alls, characterized often by their

have chosen 5 unique words to represent and more simply

false appearance of obtained knowledge, in many cases will

convey the personalities and traits of the target audience.

have been exposed to incorrect information or training. So, uninformed describes a general lack of adequate training in

Benevolent Benevolence implies a level of care that is instinctive, a part

similar in their level of care and compassion for others. They differ only in their capacities to attain the knowledge necessary to adequately express this care for others, specifically in times needing first aid experience.

“Connected “Interested” — Five words that describe

first aid due to poor resources and opportunities, which is

the attitude and knowledge

shared by the want-to-knows and know-it-alls of society.

regarding what to do in a

of these individuals being. Each of our consumer profiles, the want-to-knows, know-it-alls, and need-to-knows, are

“Uninformed”

medical emergency among Connected

those age 21 to 34.

One of the most interesting parts about the profiles of our target audience is that connectivity is high, and sociality is vast. When our want-to-knows, need-to-knows, and knowit-alls look for information, it is most likely the internet they turn to. Sources where information is most readily

Cautious In the minds of our profiles, one of the largest deterrents keeping them from either learning about appropriate first aid or helping others in crisis is the danger of consequences that could arise from misapplication of first aid measures.

48

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

found online would be Wikipedia, Facebook, and other social sites or Wikis. What this means to educators is that the target audience is concentrated in fewer areas of high relevance, and helps determine methods for effectively educating the groups on first aid treatment procedures.

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

49


Interested Similar to the benevolence of our consumer profiles, interest in learning about better first aid practices are high. Our profiles are part of a new generation of active community members that have a somewhat greater concern and care for things than previous generations. Some of these include climate change, green habits, social justice issues, and coincidentally life. If not for the inconvenience or inability to find or take the steps necessary to learn first aid injury practices, their interest in caring for society and the world would drive them forward. In this case, educating them is all about balancing their interest with convenience.

Last Word In conclusion,

“I think you should

save any life you can. Someone dying affects more people than you could ever know.

�

— Focus Group Participant D on the importance of using first aid training

50

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

51


APPENDIX [A] Primary This is the Research Title of Survey the Appendix (continued) Item

works cited

Urgent Care & Trauma Experience This survey will take approximately five minutes and will ask you some questions about your experience responding to trauma and emergency situations. Created: January 15 2011, 12:43 PM Last Modified: February 03 2011, 5:41 PM Design Theme: Basic Red Language: English Button Options: Labels Disable Browser “Back” Button: False

Experian Simmons. (2009). NCS/NHCS: FALL 2009 ADULT FULL YEAR (NOV 08 - DEC 09 - HHLD. Experian Simmons Choices 3.

Urgent Care & Trauma ExperienceThis survey will take approximately five minutes and will ask you some questions about your experience responding to trauma and emergency situations. Page 1 - Question 1 - Open Ended - One Line

Mintel International Group Limited. (2011, January). Attitudes Towards Hospitals. Retrieved

from Mintel International Group Limited Web site: http://academic.mintel.com

Mintel International Group Limited. (2010, July). First Aid. Retrieved from Mintel International

On a weekend camping trip with your friends to a remote location, you take a walk alone on one of the trails in the area. About halfway through your walk, a cyclist speeds past you and gets caught on a rough dip in the trail. The rider flies over the handlebars and rolls onto the ground landing on her head while suffering several scrapes and cuts from her mangled bike. She was not wearing a helmet and you do not have a cell phone. You start running towards her... In one sentence, describe first thing you would do:

Group Limited Web site: http://academic.mintel.com Page 1 - Question 2 - Choice - Multiple Answers (Bullets)

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2007). 10 Leading Causes of Nonfatal

Injury, United States. Retrieved from CDC Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/

nonfatal/quickpicks/quickpicks_2007/allinj.htm

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2006). CDC Injury Fact Book. National

Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Washington State Department of Health. Fatal Injuries. Washington State Department of Health,

52

Center for Health Statistics, Death Records, 2008

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

Have you ever attended formal training or completed certification for the following urgent care skills? Please select all that apply:

     

Adult CPR/AED Child CPR/AED Infant CPR First Aid Mental Health First Aid (Suicide, Depression, etc.) Other, please specify

Page 1 - Question 3 - Choice - Multiple Answers (Bullets)

Where have you learned about what to do in an urgent care or medical emergency situation? Please select all that apply:

        

From my parents or family From firsthand experience From a school program or class From a work program or from my employer From a certified CPR/AED or First Aid class From the internet From TV shows or movies I have never learned about urgent care or what to do in a medical emergency Other, please specify

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

53


APPENDIX [A] Primary This is the Research Title of Survey the Appendix (continued) Item

APPENDIX [A] Primary This is the Research Title of Survey the Appendix (continued) Item

Page 1 - Question 4 - Rating Scale - Matrix

Page 2 - Question 9 - Rating Scale - Matrix

On a scale of one to seven, rank how confident would would be delivering first aid to someone in each of the following situations? (Scale: one being "not at all confident" and seven being "very confident") The individual has or is having....

On a scale from one to seven, rank your usage of the following types of media: (Scale: one being "rarely" and seven being "very often")

Not at all confident

2

3

Moderately confident

5

6

Very confident

m m m m m m m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m m m m m m m

A severe allergic reaction Choking, having an Asthma attack, or difficulty breathing A heart attack A seizure A broken bone A drug overdose from an unknown substance Sudden loss of consciousness or fainting Alcohol poisoning Severe burns from a fire Just swallowed a poisonous substance Just suffered a laceration (large cut) with severe loss of blood Just suffered an impalement or gunshot wound Just been in a traffic collision Page 1 - Question 5 - Ranking Question

The Chain of Survival is a four-step process which, if followed quickly and efficiently, can help save the lives of victims of sudden cardiac arrest. Put the following steps from this process in the order you think is correct.

Early CPR. Begin CPR within two minutes. Early Advanced Care. Transport of the victim by Paramedics to the nearest medical facility. Early Access. Call 911 and begin CPR. Early Defibrillation. Initiate an AED shock within the first five minutes.

1

2

3

4

m m m m

m m m m

m m m m

m m m m

Television Radio Newspaper Magazine Internet: Social Media (sites like Facebook or Twitter) Internet: News or informational Internet: Other

Rarely

2

3

Sometimes

5

6

Very Often

N/A

m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m

m m m m m m m

Page 3 - Question 10 - Choice - One Answer (Drop Down)

What is your age? (If your age is not listed please exit the survey)

             

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Page 3 - Question 11 - Choice - One Answer (Drop Down)

What gender do you identify with?

Page 1 - Question 6 - Rating Scale - One Answer (Horizontal)

How important do you think it is for you personally to have knowledge and training in urgent care situations? Not at all important

m

2

m

Somewhat important

m

4

m

Very important

m

 Male  Female  Prefer not to disclose

Page 1 - Question 7 - Rating Scale - One Answer (Horizontal) Page 3 - Question 12 - Choice - One Answer (Drop Down)

How interested are you in learning more or receiving training for urgent care/trauma situations? Not at all interested

m

2

m

Somewhat interested

m

4

m

Very interested

Page 1 - Question 8 - Yes or No

Have you ever experienced a trauma situation or witnessed an emergency where you needed to respond with first aid?

 Yes  No  If yes, please describe what you did:

54

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

What is the highest level of education you have completed?

m

        

Some high school High school diploma Two-Year Degree (AA/AS) Two-Year Degree (AA/AS) In Progress Four-Year Degree (BA/BS) Four-Year Degree (BA/BS) In Progress Post-Graduate/Professional Degree Technical/Certificate Program Other (Not Listed)

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

55


APPENDIX APPENDIX [B] Open Response [A] This isSituational the Title ofQuestion: the Appendix Detailed ItemResponses On a weekend camping trip with your friends to a remote location, you take a walk alone on one of the trails in the area. About halfway through your walk, a cyclist speeds past you and gets caught on a rough dip in the trail. The rider flies over the handlebars and rolls onto the ground landing on her head while suffering several scrapes and cuts from her mangled bike. She was not wearing a helmet and you do not have a cell phone. You start running towards her...

APPENDIX [C] Open Response Experiential Question: Detailed Responses Have you ever experienced a trauma situation or witnessed an emergency where you needed to respond with first aid? If yes, please describe below.

In one sentence, describe first thing you would do. # Response 1 See if she is conscious. 2 Ask if she’s OK and see if she’s awake. NOT touch her head/neck/attempt to move her. 3 Run over to check her responsiveness. 4 I would stabalize her neck and control any bleeding. 5 See if she is conscious 6 to ask her if she is ok and to ask what hurts/what she can/can’t move. 7 Check to see if she is still conscious and breathing, then decide from there what steps to take next. Do not move her unless she is in a life threatening situation. 8 I tell her not to move and make her cuts are quickly taken care of and not too terrible. If they are put pressure on the wound and cut off blood supply to that area if needed. 9 Evaluate the condition of the cyclist, see if concious, bleeding, etc.... 10 I would probably run over to her and asses the situation. I would put her in a position that would be safe and verify that she is consious. I would go from there with necessary action. 11 I don’t know. 12 I would check to make sure she has a heart beat and is breathing without moving her 13 Check to make sure she is conscious, and check her for injuries. 14 see if she is concious and send friend for help 15 Assess the situation and cover the bleeding 16 survey the scene to make sure it’s safe - then check her to make sure she’s conscious (without moving her) 17 survey the scene for safety 18 Check the scene for safety. 19 I would go to her and ask if she can talk, walk, etc...then would get her flat on her back and see exactly where she was injured. 20 Bandage the wounds. 21 Check for breathing/consciousness, keep her calm and still. 22 Without touching her, tell her not to move and go for help/find a phone. 23 Check her status and go for help. 24 Run and ask her if she is hurt, and if I can help her. 25 Ask if the rider has a cell phone 26 Ask for her name and simple questions to see if there is a concusion, while looking for any severe bleeding. 27 stabilize victim and check vitals 28 Tell her not to move because she could cause more damage. 29 If he or she landed on their head, I would check for consciousness. 30 make sure she had a pulse and was conscious and yell to see if anyone is around to go run for help 31 I would tell her not to move (for possible head/neck/spinal trauma), grab some stones/ small tree limbs or something to remind her to keep her head still and then go back for help. 32 Stabalize her and don’t move her at all until you find a way to get help 33 I would observe the scene to make sure that there is nothing that will harm me if I try to help her. 34 Check to see if she is responsive, then try and run for help from nearby campers 35 Check for signs of breathing, shock and head trauma (pupil dilation, visual signs and asking cyclist questions etc.) 36 turn around and run away 37 yell for her not to move, first thought is to stabilze the head to prevent further spinal cord damage 38 First, I would not move the injured person, then begin to assess her injuries. 39 Check for consciousness and signs of head trauma and keep her still. 40 Check to make sure she can still move her legs. But, not have her move her head till i get help 41 Check to see that she is conscious. 42 Check to see if she is conscious and prevent her from moving in case there was trauma to the spinal cord 43 Check her pulse 44 Tell her not to move and look for a concussion or deeper wounds. 45 make sure she still has conscious 46 Go to check his situation 47 first aid. 48 Make sure she doesn’t move, stabilize her and go for help.

56

# Response 49 check her breath 50 check her hurt 51 Put her on my back and walk back to the remote location. 52 ask her questions/see if she is conscious or disoriented/ let her know that i want to help her 53 The first thing I would do is check to see if she was conscious. 54 tell her not to move and gently hold her head so her spine doesn’t shift. 55 Check to see the state of her consciousness. 56 I would ask her if she could hear me and check for a pulse. 57 I would make sure she is level, keeping her head elevated, then I would tell one of my friends to run for help while I stay with the cyclist. 58 Tell them not to move and ask what parts of their body hurt. 59 See if she is conscious, and call 911. 60 ask her if she is okay. 61 I would stablize her and make sure she doesn’t move 62 Ask if she is ok and if she needs any help 63 Stabilize her head. 64 I would stabilize her head and spine, then run back to my friends and have them call 911 65 Find help and leave her in that position. 66 carefully asses the cyclists condition, but be careful of their head and neck since they landed on their head. 67 Laugh 68 see if she is conscious 69 I would check to see that she was breathing. 70 Check to see if she is concious. 71 Assess if she was coherent or not, comfort her and ask her not to move in case of head or spinal trauma. 72 I would not touch her, but let her know that I am going to go get help, and run to go get help. 73 Call 911 74 take her cell phone and call, at the same time find out information about her 75 Check to see if she is conscious and breathing; check pupillary light reflexes 76 check if she is alive and alert, if she is breathing, if there are any broken bones. 77 tell her not to move and that you will go get help...since she hit her head 78 try to talk to her and ask if she is ok and her name 79 check to see if she is okay and do not touch her make her lay still. 80 I would check to make sure she is still alive while not touching her for fear she has a broken neck. 81 make sure the rider lies still and check for consciousness and head trauma 82 undress her and take advantage of the situation 83 Make sure she is breathing 84 I would fashion a backboard out of tree limbs and clothing. 85 Try to communicate with her, tell her to stay still and that I’m going to get help. 86 Ask if they are alright and see if they are conscious 87 I would see if she can walk with me to get help, or if I need to go alone. 88 Check if she’s reponsive, check her pulse, ask her where she hurts, and try to keep her spine/neck immobilized 89 Ask her if she’s okay and if anything is hurting. 90 I would assess what injuries have been happened and do what I can to care for them while watching for another person passing by to get help. 91 See if she is conscious. 92 asses her injuries while making sure to not move her, especially her head or neck 93 Ask them if they were ok and survey the scene before assessing possible injuries. 94 check for any physical signs of injury, such as bleeding 95 Check consciousness 96 See where she is bleeding from. 97 Check her for conciousness, then run for help 98 check to make sure the person is conscious 99 I would check her wounds and assess her pain level 100 look around for other people who can help, and tell her i’m going to be back

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

# Response 1 Dealt with several concussions on the trail. Dealt with mom bleeding after horse kicked her in the head. 2 A piece of wood from a table saw shot back at my dad and sliced into his arm. I had to control the bleeding by applying pressure. I duct taped a towel to his arm. Once the bleeding was under control we took him to the hospital. 3 Over the years I have had the pleasure of dealing with anything from severe lacerations, choking, head trauma to broken bones 4 I witnessed and helped in many as I used to be a lifeguard. 5 There was a car accident where there were two victims. I had someone call 911 and then made sure no one was severly bleeding and kept them talking so they wouldn’t go to sleep until the medics arrived. 6 I work in a nursing home, I have had to give the heimlich, and at another job I had to deal with a deep head laceration 7 Seizure on a plane 8 Gave CPR to a man that had a heart attack,and treated a man that had a severe laceration of his carotid artery in a car accident. 9 I followed the training I received from my employer and the American Red Cross to provide care. 10 Motor vehicle accident. One DOA and another with severe head trauma. Called 911 and made sure to keep the head trauma victim movement to a minimum while assessing the other injuries. 11 While a RA for my community college there was student who had cut her wrists in a suicide attempt and the cuts were severe. So i called 911 on my cell phone while i had her roommate get blankets and towels of any kind. I then but pressure on the wounds to slow the bleeding and had her roommate talk to her as i talked to the call receiv er for 911 12 my mother fell off of a ladder and broke her wrist. I heard her screaming from the back yard and tended to her while my dad called for an aid car. 13 General emergency response. There were multiple situations while in EMT training and in my current job. The first thing I do is assess the situation, then attempt to calm the situation/bystanders or call appropriate trained professionals 14 When I was a campus tour guide a girl in my group passed out all of a sudden. We dialed 911 and helped lie her down correctly while checking her vital signs until the para medics arrived. 15 Pulled child out of water when she was starting to drown. Did not need to perform CPR but was ready and trained to do so. 16 This dude I was beating up started bleeding really bad so my friend covered him with soy sauce. 17 my baby cousin swallowed a penny. It became lodged in her airway and interrupted her breathing. I immediately preformed the baby Heimlich maneuver and dislodged the penny. 18 Responded to student with alcohol poisoning. Called for an ambulance and stayed with the person, making sure they stayed off their back. 19 I can’t really describe specific instances but the things that I have highly ranked on knowing how to respond are because I have witnessed others taking care of similar situa tions or have taken care of those situations myself. 20 Often I have called 911 and controlled the situation until help arrived. 21 My friend fell and split her chin open and needed stitches. I helped her maintain consciousness and made sure she didn’t lose too much blood. 22 Someone I know was hyperventalating so I ran and got a paper bag, closed the opening over their nose and mouth and told them to breath in and out deeply and slowly. This stopped the hyperventalation 23 At my job I have had to deal with many different trauma experiences including alcohol poisoning, lacerations, depression/suicide, drug overdose, asthma attack and perfor mance of CPR. Most of the time I have gotten professional emergency response help, but have been involved in the early stages of care for the person who needed help. 24 CPR 25 Often times with alcohol poisoning. I have assessed the ability of the individual to respond, checked their breathing and called 911. I have gotten them into the alcohol emer gency position on their side. 26 My sister sliced her foot open on glass and I had to administer first aid. My animals have also required first aid. 27 had sex with my gf while she was on her period...it looked like a bloody massacre...I ran away as quickly as I could. I haven’t seen her since...sometimes i wonder if she sur vived that incident. 28 Brother broke his femur (provided traction, called ambulance), brother broke tibia (told him to walk it off), freind suffering from hypothermia (got into dry clothes, warmed up) 29 A family member overdosed on prescription medication, and became unconscious, but was still breathing. I carried the family member to the car. From there, I transported the family member to the emergency room. If I could do it over again, I would call the paramedics. Live and learn I guess. 30 Yes, I called 911...then got my jacket stolen. 31 Which time? too many years in Boy Scouts and later working with youth on various camping trips. I’ve treated (or have been involved with the treatment of) lacerations, heat stroke, allergic reactions, asthma attacks and probably much more 32 i’ve had multiple first aid situations from my previous place of work. I supervised intramural sports and every shift included administering first aid and occasionally calling paramedics for more advanced care or transportation to the hospital. 33 Myself, I feel one story through a window and had severe bleeding.

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

57


APPENDIX [D] Focus Group Facilitator Script Advertising 480 Project 1 Focus Group Script

Welcome, my name is __________ and this is __________ and we will be facilitating today’s focus group regarding your experience with first aid and urgent care medical emergencies. Before we get started we need to confirm that you are willing to let us audio record your voice during this session. We also need confirmation that you understand that your information will not be released to the public and is for research purposes only. Your names will not be associated with the presentation; however your responses will be used in written form either verbatim or in summary. If we can have everyone go around the table and state your name, and also confirm that you are allowing us to audio record your voice by saying this phrase:

“My name is _______________________ . I am aware that this session is being recorded, and consent to let you record my voice for research purposes.”

To start our session we would like everyone to go around and say in a few words about how prepared you feel you are to respond to someone who had a sudden medical emergency (it could be anything).

Thank you. We will begin with the first question. Please keep in mind that we are audio recording so it would be helpful if everyone would speak in a clear voice and be mindful of others who are speaking so that we can make sure to get a clear recording, but please converse like you normally would with a group of your friends. The questions are designed to be open-ended and encourage opinions and experiences. There is no structure to this session, so feel free to talk about anything that you think is related to each question or response.

Formal Questions: 1. Have you ever been through a traumatic experience where you needed to use first aid skills to help another person? If so, please explain and discuss with the group.

2. Does anyone have any current or past experience with care giving? What were your responsibilities?

3. How important do you think CPR certification is? Why?

58

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

APPENDIX [D] Focus Group Facilitator Script (continued) 4. Should more jobs or schools require certain first aid certifications? Why?

5. If education for trauma care was made readily available, would you take advantage of it?

6. Situation: You are following your friend home in your car, you two are the only ones on the road. Your friend swerves to miss hitting a deer and hits a tree. He is bleeding from his forehead after the collision, after calling 911, what do you do? Please discuss as a group.

7. Situation: You are babysitting a good friend’s cousin. You are unaware that she is epileptic. While watching a TV show, she has a seizure, what would you do? Please discuss as a group.

8. Overall, how much do you use social media sites? (such as facebook, twitter, linked in, etc.)

9. Are there specific hours of the day you consume certain media? (watching television at night, using online resources during the day, reading magazines in the morning)

Follow-up questions to keep conversation moving: A. How did that happen? B. How did that make you feel? C. Who was with you? How did it make them feel? D. Can you elaborate more? E. How did you react? F. How did they react?

Conclusion: Okay that will conclude our session for tonight. I want to thank you for your contribution and sharing your opinions and experiences with us tonight. If there is any other information that you would like to share or if you have any questions after the session please feel free to contact us directly.

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

59


APPENDIX [E] Focus Group Participant Handouts

APPENDIX [F] Focus Group Transcript

Focus Group Location: CADD 218 Date: February 2, 2011 Number of Attendees: 6 Name of Transcriber: Mari Hopkins Facilitator 1: Erin Crosby Facilitator 2: Mari Hopkins Facilitator 3: Quinn Ianniciello Facilitator 1: Welcome, my name is Erin and this is Mari and we will be facilitating today’s focus group regarding your experience with first aid and urgent care medical emergencies. Before we get started we need to confirm that you are willing to let us audio record your voice during this session. We also need confirmation that you understand that your information will not be released to the public and is for research purposes only. Your names will not be associated with the presentation; however your responses will be used in written form either verbatim or in summary. If we can please have everyone go around the table and state your name, and also confirm that you are allowing us to audio record your voice by saying this phrase: ‘My name is _______________________ . I am aware that this session is being recorded, and consent to let you record my voice for research purposes.’ [All participants read agreement phrase and acknowledge voice recording] Facilitator 1: To start the session we would like to go around and say a few words about how prepared you feel you are to respond to someone that has had a medical emergency. Facilitator 2: It could be anything. Participant F: I guess it would depend on what it is. Facilitator 1: It could be anything, just your overall comfort level. Participant F: Moderately Participant E: I’d say about the same, moderately. Participant D: I watch a lot of Trauma Life and ER, so I think semi-high. Participant C: I think I have a low confidence responding to a trauma situation. Participant B: Moderately, middle-high. Participant A: Probably pretty low. Facilitator 1: Thank you. We will begin with the first question. Please keep in mind that we are

60

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

61


APPENDIX [F] Focus Group Transcript (continued)

audio recording so it will be helpful if everyone would speak in a clear voice and be mindful of others who are speaking so that we can make sure to get a clear recording, but please converse like you normally would with a group of your friends. The questions are designed to be openended and encourage opinions and experiences. There is no structure to this session, so feel free to talk about anything that you think is related to each question or response. Facilitator 2: Have you ever been through a traumatic experience where you needed to use first aid skills to help another person? If so, please explain and discuss with the group. Participant D: I have. When my brother’s friend broke his leg on our next-door neighbor’s trampoline, we had to stabilize his leg and wait for the paramedics to get there. So, I’ve seen them stabilize people before, and I know to keep them still. Participant C: At volleyball practice, one time a girl fell on her face and split her chin open and I bandaged it until she went to the ER. Participant A: The worst I ever had to deal with was when my girlfriend ripped her nail off, like completely off and took some of the skin off with it when she fell off her horse. So, I pretty much had to keep it covered and that’s pretty much it. Facilitator 2: Does anyone have any current or past experience with care giving? If you did, what were your responsibilities? Participant D: For soccer and basketball we all got trained with how to deal with a sports-related injury. So, I know how to tape ankles and stuff like that. Participant C: I know how to use an Epi-Pen on someone. Participant D: Oh yeah, my friend has really bad asthma, so I know how to do the hole in the throat if her airway closes. Facilitator 2: So, were you trained to do that?

APPENDIX [F] Focus Group Transcript (continued)

Participant D: I agree. Participant A: Yeah, I agree. I just don’t think I’ve had that skill around, it wouldn’t hurt and it could make the difference. Participant B: I think it’s really important because it’s not like it’s overly time intensive to learn. You just need a little refresher every year. Facilitator 1: So, those of you who said that it was important but don’t have certifications the reason why is because it is not easily accessible? Participant B: I think they have classes occasionally in the CUB, but they’re not promoted well or I don’t think they have enough times for me to get to them. Participant A: Yeah, I feel kind of bad, I feel like it has to be right up in my face. Participant C: Same here. Participant D: Doesn’t it cost money also to get trained? I mean, I know it would cost to have someone train everyone, but I mean I feel like for a lot of college students that could be a reason to deter them. Facilitator 2: So, do you think more jobs or schools should provide the opportunity for certification? Or ways to obtain certification? Participant D: Yeah, or extra credit for it or something like that for it because I definitely think that’s a big motivator and it’s a life skill that people should know. Facilitator 2: So, at the college or university. Participant C: For me it’s kind of out of sight out of mind. I don’t think about CPR every day so I wouldn’t seek out information about it, but in situations like this when we talk about it I’m always wishing I kind of had CPR training or first aid training.

Participant D: My mom taught me, she used to be a nurse. Participant D: Yeah, I feel the same way. Facilitator 2: Does anyone have any formal training? Facilitator 1: So, if there was more information available you would? Participant A: Yeah Participant C: Yeah. Participant B: Yeah, I was first aid trained and CPR trained, but those both expired while ago. Participant F: I had to get first aid, CRP and AED trained for the info desk at the CUB, and then for cycling last year.

Facilitator 2: So, I’m going to give you a situation to think about and discuss as a group. You are following your friend home in your car, you two are the only ones on the road. Your friend swerves to miss hitting a deer and hits a tree. He is bleeding from his forehead after the collision, after calling 911, what do you do?

Facilitator 2: How important do you think CPR training is, and why? Participant C: I think it’s pretty important because you never know when you will be put in that type of situation and it could save someone’s life.

62

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

Participant D: I think that you would make sure that they are stabilized, make sure they don’t move their head or anything because obviously with a car crash you don’t know about internal injuries. But also, if they hit their head, there is a possibility they could hurt their neck, so make sure that they don’t move around and put pressure on the wound.

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

63


APPENDIX [F] Focus Group Transcript (continued)

Participant C: Yeah, I think the first thing I would do would be to put pressure on the wound without trying to move their body a whole bunch. Participant A: Yeah, that’s pretty much all I know, just not to move someone when they get into that kind of situation and to keep the pressure on large bloody areas.

APPENDIX [F] Focus Group Transcript (continued)

Participant A: Well, for my situation, I would have no idea what to do. That’s just an answer, whether it be real or not, it’s just some kind of method I have in my tool box. Participant B: Good general knowledge, like basic knowledge they’re not going to mess up on, but things like diagnosing lupus or whatever is probably not going to be the best. Participant D: I think another one is A Thousand Ways to Die. Have you ever seen that?

Participant B: Keep them awake if they’re still conscience. Participant E: Oh yeah. Facilitator 1: It sounds like you guys have a general knowledge for what to do, where do you think you attained that knowledge?

Participant D: I mean, it tells you stupid stuff not to do, so you can deter people from doing it. Right?

Participant A: The movies. Participant C: The Internet. Participant B: TV probably.

Facilitator 3: What about the internet while we’re talking about media. Have you guys seen anything on the internet lately? Participant D: Well, there is Web Health and WebMD and stuff like that. And CNN sometimes has stuff.

Facilitator 2: Where on the Internet? Participant C: Media basically in general. Social media like Youtube.

Participant F: Yeah, I just looked it up the other day, CPR, because I forgot how many pumps and breaths it is. I just randomly looked it up.

Facilitator 3: Can you think of specific movies or TV shows?

Participant B: Is it ten and three?

Participant A: I can’t tell you the exact movie, but it was something on SciFi I saw when I was just flipping through the channels. The guy did actually hit a deer and the deer was still alive, and she was bleeding really bad. Someone came over and said “don’t move! if you move you might hurt your neck!” And I was like, “this is such a cheesy movie.” And he’s like “I need to put pressure on the wound so you’ll be okay! Stay with me, stay with me!” And I was like, “I’m never going to need this,” and boom.

Participant F: What? Participant B: Ten and three. Participant F: Thirty and two. Participant B: Oh, they changed it.

Facilitator 3: And it stuck with you. Participant D: I thought like two and one. Participant D: I watch a lot of Discovery Health Channel with shows like Trauma Life and ER and I’ve gained a lot of knowledge from that. You see them go out into the field and stabilize people, and they even interview doctors to tell you the procedures they did. Participant B: Not quite the same for me. I watched three or four seasons of House in a week so, I remember that a lot. Participant C: Yeah, I watch Grey’s Anatomy and doctor shows like ER and CSI sometimes and Criminal Minds. Facilitator 3: And do you think those shows offer a high level of realism?

Participant E: I think there was a recent thing saying you should hum the beat to “Staying Alive” by the BeeGees. Like seriously, because it has something to do with the heartbeat and that brings someone’s heart back. Participant D: That’s a really good way to remember it, to keep them alive. Participant B: They should make that a training video right there, I’d watch that. Facilitator 2: Alright, so we have another situation for you, this is the last one. You are babysitting a good friend’s cousin. You are unaware that she is epileptic. While watching a TV show, she has a seizure, what would you do? Please discuss as a group.

Participant B and Participant C: No! Participant B: Call 911, and make sure she doesn’t choke on her tongue. Facilitator 3: But at the same time you guys feel like you’re learning a lot? Participant D: Wouldn’t you turn her head to the side or something? For that reason, I think.

64

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

65


APPENDIX [F] Focus Group Transcript (continued)

APPENDIX [F] Focus Group Transcript (continued) Facilitator 2: Actively using it.

Participant E: I’ve heard different stories. Participant B: Oh. Like an hour. Participant C: I would probably just try to keep them on the ground or something. Facilitator 2: A day? Participant D: I don’t know. Participant B: A week. Participant B: Just keep their tongue in their mouth. Participant E: I’ve heard to put a wallet in their mouth to keep them from biting their tongue. Participant F: Check to see it she’s breathing. Participant E: Check a pulse. Participant B: That would be the first step. Participant A: I don’t know. I would probably freak out and pour buckets of water on her to try to knock her out of it. I really have no idea. The only thing I would be able to think of, because I’m a psychology major, would be to split the brain in half, you know? The epidermal or whatever. I’m pretty sure I’m not going to do that. Facilitator 3: So, we could think of a bunch of scenarios, but it sounds like based on the scenario you may feel more comfortable. Anything like a heart attack or scenarios like a gun shot wound, a bee sting or poisoning. There is no general confidence in all situations it sounds like.

Participant A: This guy is good. Mine’s a lot more. Mine’s like always on. I live in [redacted] and I’m the head of, I call it the “Night Owls” basically. It’s like a social thing where we all know who’s studying, who’s going to [redacted], and stuff like that. So, it’s always up. Every fifteen minutes I go and check it for thirty seconds and then I’m back off doing something else. And I do that a lot on my free time, because the Internet is always at our fingertips. So, it’s almost no reason to know what everyone else is up to. Participant D: I’m kind of the same. I will be doing something else online, but it will always be open. So, when I’m switching sites I’ll go on and check Facebook, but then I lost my phone, so that’s my only way to communicate. So, I’ve been using it a lot more lately. So, probably ten? Fifteen hours a week? Participant E: I use the Internet a lot for homework for my classes if that ties into that and also Facebook and whatnot. So, about fourteen hours a week. Facilitator 2: How much time would you say on social media sites like Facebook? Participant E: Probably like an hour a day.

Participant C: Yeah, my confidence is definitely situation based. I would be so lost if some had an epileptic episode in front of me.

Participant F: I would probably guess like twenty hours a week for me. I use it at work, then at home. I think the max I am away from it is four or five hours, on the weekends maybe.

Participant F: I know you’re supposed to hold a dog if a dog has a seizure. Participant A: I didn’t know that, thank you.

Facilitator 3: And while you guys are on the topic of Facebook, do you guys notice the ads on Facebook?

Participant F: I just dog-sat for one of those kinds of dogs. Scary.

Participant C: Yes.

Facilitator 2: Alrighty, so individually, how much do you think you use social media sites?

Facilitator 3: The ads in the sidebar, how likely would you be to click on an ad? Would you ever?

Participant C: All the time. Everyday.

Participant B: Accidentally.

Participant F: Yeah.

Participant C: More likely now that I have taken advertising classes.

Participant B: My phone is logged into Facebook sometimes and I’m not aware of it.

Participant B: Mine are usually geared towards married women or homosexual people for some reason. So, no I don’t really click them.

Facilitator 1: Hours long? How often weekly? Facilitator 3: Yeah, you can go around and say. Participant B: Like active? Actively using it or it’s just open?

66

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

Participant A: Yeah, I actually get tripped out by them because they’re like “hey, you like Batman, here are some Batman comics. You wanna read the comic, read the comic.” Participant C: Yeah, mine are starting to talk about country singers that I like and it’s kind of freaking me out, but yeah.

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

67


APPENDIX [F] Focus Group Transcript (continued)

APPENDIX [F] Focus Group Transcript (continued) Participant C: Something like “if you’re in this situation, this is the first thing you should do.”

Participant D: Mine are about rappers and babies. So, it’s kind of awkward. But if I see one that’s really funny, I’ll click on it and then send it to someone.

Participant A: Yeah, something like that. Something short, simple.

Participant B: Yeah, I think mine are about babies too. Facilitator 3: And maybe not just ads. How often do you “like” something on Facebook?

Participant C: Something that would just come up in your newsfeed.

Participant C: Everyday.

Participant C: Word of mouth.

Facilitator 3: As in how likely are you to “like” something to associate yourself with a brand? Some thing like Pepsi or Apple.

Participant A: I’m actually kind of psyched out for it, so if something like that comes out let me know.

Participant C: Yeah, I like Pepsi on Facebook.

Participant B: Well, you know I’d “like” it.

Participant A: I don’t necessarily “like” brands but, if it’s something funny I will. I was born in Atlanta, so I like Coke, that’s not really Facebook to me.

Facilitator 2: We could present that to them. Are there specific hours in the day you consume certain media? As in watching TV at night, or surfing the web during the day, or reading a book in the morning, are there certain times during the day you’d say you consumer certain media?

Participant B: Yeah, if there’s a way to put it on a newsfeed. Like a band I like that not everyone knows, I will pop it up there. Facilitator 3: So, for example part of this research is for the Washington State Department of Health. If they were to have a Facebook, would “like” it? Participant A: I would be interested if they would randomly put up tips. Things you could do in certain situations. Like an article that says “by the way, here’s a way to stop a bear attack.” Or something like that. So, over the course of a week you would learn a skill. That would be something that would be really interesting. Participant B: I would like that. Participant D: Yeah. If it was something like that I would. But if it was just to “like” it, I don’t really know. Learning useful tips like that would be helpful or tips we could use everyday or you know we’re in Pullman, it’s a drinking college town. So if it gave us tips on what to do if you friend drank too much or something like that would be really helpful because you think you know what to do but, it would be nice to have concrete information coming at you I guess.

Participant D: You could pass it onto people. I think that’d be cool.

Participant D: I’m on the computer a lot at night. Especially when I’m going to bed, I’ll just have it by my bed. I have a television in my room so I’ll just have it on. But I would say TV mostly at night and the internet at night. During the day I just use it to log on and check and then I’ll go to class. Participant C: I feel like most of the free time I have is at night. So, that’s when I have the most time to watch TV or surf the Internet or do the stuff I didn’t get to do during the day. Participant A: My use usually peaks about 5:40 to 6:00 because that’s kind of when I organize [redacted] dinners and I guess it comes up again around 9:00 or 10:00 when I start trying to wind down and go to bed. I always like to watch some Netflix show or something. Participant C: Yeah. Participant A: As I go off into sleep.

Participant F: Yeah.

Participant C: Me too.

Participant B: That would be pretty cool.

Facilitator 3: I think that’s the end of all the questions we have listed. So, if anyone has any questions, I might ask a few. You can ask us questions. One question I had for the group is, if we were to sit you down in a room and I were to offer you a book, a magazine, TV, or a laptop that has the internet, out of those four, what would you choose?

Participant A: Nothing to heavy. I mean, I guess something like an article might be too much for people to read. Participant C: Just like status updates and tips.

Participant B: Laptop immediately. Participant A: Yeah. Participant D: Laptop.

68

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

69


APPENDIX [F] Focus Group Transcript (continued)

Participant A: Yeah, it just has so much more than a book could offer you. Participant B: I could find a book on it. Participant C: Yeah, exactly.

APPENDIX [F] Focus Group Transcript (continued)

Participant D: You’re so scared, you know you have to do something but, I would be kind of intimidated by it. Walking up on that situation I would be scared, but if nobody else would do something about it, I definitely would.

Participant D: I could find a TV show on it.

Participant A: Yeah, I’m not going to be Participant A in that situation, I’m going to be someone that wants to help. So, it doesn’t really matter what I’m going to do, I’m not going to embarrass myself.

Participant C: I would watch TV.

Participant C: Yeah.

Participant B: I would multi-task and do all those things at once probably.

Facilitator 3: And then the last question that I thought to add was, how many of you have heard of Good Samaritan laws? Would they make you more scared to act on an emergency situation? What are your thoughts?

Participant A: I would too. I mean, you can use your laptop to play music while you’re reading a book and then every now and then you could take a break to watch your show. Participant F: I’ll add to the very first question I think it was about the CPR training, the reason I didn’t do it this year is because I think it’s eight hours. It takes a whole day and I didn’t want to waste a Sunday. Not a waste of time, but yeah. Facilitator 3: So, just straight up length of time it takes to receive training like that is a deterrent? Participant C: Does your CPR card expire after a year?

Participant D: Is the Good Samaritan law, I’m not really familiar with it, is that the one where if you’re at a party and you see someone that has overdosed or had too much to drink you could call the police and you won’t get in trouble? Is that what it is? Facilitator 3: Yes, that is an example of it on the university level. So, if you call 911, you or the victim won’t be charged. But just in general, if you come to a car accident and you try to save someone’s life and in the process they die, are you the one that is at fault? Or if you are trained and have CPR certification and someone is choking and you don’t help them, someone could sue you.

Participant F: Yeah. Participant C: Are those laws that protect against being sued for that kind of stuff? Participant B: Is it like two or three? Facilitator 3: Yes. Participant E: No, it’s a year. Participant C: For me, I think I would do it if the reward was greater than the risk kind of thing. If the certification lasted longer and didn’t take an entire day out of my year.

Participant C: I think they’re really good laws to have in place, but at the same time they wouldn’t scare me from acting on a situation. Participant A: It’s more of an after affect.

Facilitator 3: And out of the people who actually have CPR training, I’ve actually done it myself, and I’ve thought about this too, but how comfortable would you feel performing CPR? Because I feel like if someone were choking in front of me, I would still be scared to. Who thinks they could actually do it when put in that situation? Participant A: I mean, I’m not certified but, I would be able to get over that. I’ve had a friend, this isn’t the same as someone choking but, basically he got hot grease on his hand and the skin on his hand started melting away and I was not afraid to touch that thing or do anything to make it stop. I just grabbed his whole hand and put it under water. I’m pretty sure that if someone was choking in front of me I don’t think I would really care about it. I mean, I could see how that would be a problem but when it comes down to it, when I’m freaked out boundaries drift away.

Participant D and Participant C: Yeah. Participant D: I think it could be a good and a bad thing. I think it’s a good thing because if you do try and help and they die in the process you can’t be charged. But, like you said, someone could be trained and just not help. I know that I was watching Dateline or something and they had this one about these two paramedics that were on their lunch break and there was a pregnant lady in front of them that had collapsed from an asthma attack and they just stood there. They didn’t do anything and she died. They recreated the situation for people passing by with actors and nobody did anything. I think that, I don’t know, I think the Good Samaritan laws are bad in that way that people could neglect other people and not get in trouble. If that makes sense?

Participant D: Yeah, I think you would get a pump of adrenaline. Participant E: If they aren’t the ones held responsible. Participant C: Yeah.

70

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

71


APPENDIX [F] Focus Group Transcript (continued) Participant D: Yeah. But definitely if it was a paramedic or something, I definitely think they should be held responsible. I think you should save any life you can. Someone dying affects more people than you could ever know. Participant C: Yeah. Facilitator 2: Well, that concludes our focus group. We would like to say thank you for your contribution and sharing your opinions and experiences with us tonight. If there is any other information that you would like to share or if you have any questions after the session feel free to contact any of us directly or whoever invited you to the focus group and we can give you the information you need. Facilitator 3: Thank you so much, your responses were really helpful. ###

72

A R E Y O U R E A D Y ? A S T U D Y O F U R G E N T C A R E P R E PA R E D N E S S F O R A G E S 2 1 T O 3 4

Notes


Š 2011 All Authors Prepared February 2011 for Washington State University


Trauma Mock Marketing Research Campaign