Journey to become a Meteorologist
Tornadoes! Tornadoes are big spiraling columns of air with winds up to 300 mph. They happen when when a lot of cold air, meets a lot of warm air. Warm air then rises up, and makes the column. Tornadoes can be very violent and can destroy many homes each year.
High Air Pressure Areas of high pressure are created near the ground. They are made when the air up high gets cold, becomes denser and then begins to sink. This causes evaporation of water, creating clear sky and calm weather.
Low Air Pressure Areas of lower pressure are formed high in the sky, where the air has a lower density. Low pressure is usually caused by high winds, and warm air. This creates areas of low pressure, clouds, precipitation, tropical storms and cyclones.
Weather Fronts Cold fronts are made when cold air cold quickly moves, and pushes warm air up. This causes quick changes in weather, creating clears skies, cooler temperature, or even violent thunder storms. Warm fronts are made of warm air pushes up slow cold air. This creates rain showers, scattered clouds, and sometimes even snow.(winter) Stationary Fronts are the result of warm and cold fronts joining, without pushing one or the other up. This causes water vapor to condense into rain, snow, fog or clouds. (different precipitations)
Atmosphere Our atmosphere is made up of 4 layers: Troposphere- located from 0-10 Km from the crust. Stratosphere- located from 10-50 Km from the crust. It protects the crust from the sun's harmful rays. It is where the ozone layer is located. Mesosphere- Located 50-80 Km from the crust. Thermosphere- located 80-300 km from the crust. It burns small meteorites. It is also where the northern lights occur.
Convection(: Convection is heat transfer through liquids or fluids. Convection currents are found often in everyday life, such as a boiling pot. The burner brings heats to the water at the bottom, which then rises (like heat does) then cools and falls back to start all over again in a cycle until the heat stops.
Southern hemisphere The earth is divided into 2 parts by an imaginary line called the equator. There is the northern hemisphere, which is all the crust that is north of the equator, and the southern hemisphere, which is all the crust south of the equator.
Hurricanes Hurricanes are super storms with swirling winds and flooding rains. They can only be formed above ocean water that is 80 degrees F or more. Here is how they are formed.
Wind currents (global winds) There are 4 types of global winds. There are doldrums, trade winds, prevailing westerlies, and polar easterlies. Doldrums are a the equator, they are calm and weak due to the lack of temperature change. Trade winds are 30 degrees north and south of the equator, they are still quite calm and cause few clouds with little rain. Then prevailing westerlies, they are strong winds, 30-60 degrees north and south. Finally, Polar easterlies that are around 50-60 degrees. They are cold weak winds near the north and south poles.
Ocean currents Ocean currents are all about density. The more dense the water the lower it is in comparison to less dense waters. The most dense water is commonly the one with the most salt. The next most dense is the coldest. THen finally the warm water, so the warmest is on top of the oceans, then the colder water, then finally the very salty water.
Dew Point The Dew Point found in weather forecasts it the temperature when air is saturated and produces dew. The dew point is very important and determines many things. THe dew point can determine if it will rain or snow, if there is danger for a grass or bush fire is, and how uncomfortable you might feel on a warm summer day.
Meteorological Instruments ● Thermometer-Measures air temperature. ● Barometer-Measures air pressure. ● Sling Psychrometer-Measures relative humidity. ● Rain Gauge-Measures the amount of rain that has fallen over a specific time period. ● Wind Vane-Determines the direction the wind is blowing from.
Meteorological Instrument CONT ● Anemometer-Measures wind speed. ● Weather Maps-Indicate atmospheric conditions above the Earth's surface. ● Hygrometer- Measures the water vapor or humidity. ● Weather Balloon-Measures weather conditions higher up in the atmosphere. ● Compass-Used for directions ● Weather Satellites-Used to photograph and track large-scale air movements.
Sun and Sun's Energy The suns energy drives convection through the atmosphere and oceans which creates ocean and wind currents. The sun warms the Earth's surface. The earth absorbs the heat and releases it into the atmosphere, which heats the air above, and causes moving air. The movement of air causes wind which leads to weather changes. Sun causes evaporation and creates air moisture. The sun allows precipitation to happen
Weather Maps A weather map displays various meteorological features across a particular area at a certain point in time. It includes various symbols, each with a specific meaning. These maps are used for research and weather forecasting.
Isotherm and Isobar â—? Isotherm- A type of map that shows temperature gradients. It links all points of equal of constant temperatures over an area. â—? Isobar-A map connecting points that have the same atmospheric pressure at a given time or on average over a given period.
Types of Precipitation ● Rain-Water Vapor condenses and falls when the droplet is heavy enough. ● Freezing Rain-Forms and falls as rain and near the temperature freezes if the temperature is at of below freezing. ● Snow-Water droplets form and then freezing occurs slowly. ● Hail-Water droplets are carried high into the atmosphere, causing them to freeze. Multiple drops tend to freeze together, which is why it can be large.
Types of Clouds ● Cumulus-White puffy clouds that look like cotton. The base is flat and the top is rounded. These can develop into giant thunderstorm clouds. ● Stratus-Grayish clouds that usually cover the entire sky. Resembles fog that doesn't reach the ground. Light drizzles or mists may come from these clouds. ● Cirrus-most common of high clouds. Composed of ice and are thin, wispy clouds blown in high winds. Usually white and predict fair and pleasant weather. You can tell direction of weather by watching the movement of them. When you see these clouds it usually means a change in weather will occur within 24 hours.
How Scientists Get Images Scientist get images from weather maps and satellite images. They use these images to compare and predict weather patterns to use in forecasts.
this book will teach you all you need to know to become a meteorologist