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A l u f r e d n o The W

n u S e h t d n tmosphere a

The Atmosphere is sort of like a blanket that covers the earth. It is why we are able to breathe. The atmosphere protects us from most asteroids and meteors. The atmosphere has four main layers, they are (from lowest to highest) the troposphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere, and the stratosphere.

The Wonder Cont'd.

n u S e h t d n a e r e h p s o m t A l u f

The atmosphere also has the weather. In the atmosphere, the winds are formed, there is precipitation, fronts, pressures, and all the things with weather beside the currents are here. Sun- As you all know, the Sun is in the center of our Solar System. The Sun provides heat to Earth and creates climates. They create warm fronts when they warm up a certain amount of air. It creates wind and hurricanes. It also creates the water cycle by warming up the lakes and creating evaporation.

? n o i t c e v n o What is C Convection is the transfer of heat through movement, usually between liquids and gases. Convection has circular current. These convection currents cause the movement of air in the sky, and water in the ocean. They move water from the deep ocean currents to the shallow water currents.

s t n e r r u C n a e c O d n a d Win Winds are the horizontal movement of air from a high pressure system to a low pressure system. All winds are created by differences in air pressure. A south wind is a wind that blows from the south and goes north and the north is vice versa. There are local winds, sea breezes, global winds, and land breezes. Ocean currents are the motion of the water in the ocean. There are deep and surface ocean currents. Surface currents are usually caused by the wind, and deep ocean currents are caused by differences in density of water.

w o L d n a h g i H e r u s s e r P Pressures are formed with the unequal heating across Earth's surface. There are two pressures: High and Low. High pressures are marked with an H, and low pressures are marked with an L. In a low pressure, the pressure decreases and the density of the air is lower than usual. The air motion is counterclockwise and it rises up. It is also known as a cyclone. These can cause hurricanes at sea. In a high pressure, the pressure increases and the density of the air is higher than usual. The air motion is clockwise and the air sinks. High pressures are sometimes called anticyclones. Unlike a low pressure, the air is stable.

! r r r r r r r r B s t n o r F d l o C The COLD Cold fronts bring cold weather and the temperatures plummet. In a cold front, the cold air advances and replaces the warm air. Many times, the temperature goes below freezing since all the warm air is gone and there is cold air going south. In this diagram, you can see that the warm air is pushed up, and the cold air is at the bottom and moving towards the warm areas. You better have a sweater!

s t n o r F m r a W M R A W e


Warm Fronts are true to their name. They do bring warm weather and temperatures! In a warm front, the warm air collides with the cold air mass. The warm air mass starts going up and pushes the cold air mass in the direction its going. Warm Fronts not only bring warm weather, they also bring rain and fog. Sometimes, they can last several days; since warm fronts are slower moving than cold fronts. After a warm front, your best chance for weather is warm and humid. For those who like snow, you would best want a warm front in winter!

e v o M 't n a C y e h T : s t n o r F y r


Stop! It's the stationary front. In this front, no one can win the battle and its a even match. Stationary fronts happen when cold air and warm air meet and cannot move. Literally! In this front the warm and cold air stop moving, resulting in a front staying in one position. After some time, the warm or cold air masses will start moving and it will become a cold or warm front. In a stationary front, the weather starts to become cloudy and rainy. When there is a stationary front, it's best to get an umbrella.

s e o d a n r o T d n a s e n a c i r r u H : s e c r o F y l d a The De Hurricanes- Hurricanes are cyclones that form in warm oceans. They happen when an ocean uses heat from the ocean to condensate. When they hit land the hurricane starts to slow down. Tornadoes- Tornadoes are spinning winds. They form when a warm airmass (usually from a thunder storm) rises into a cold one. When this happens, unstable winds begin to spin and it creates a funnel shaped cloud. It becomes tornado when the cloud hits the ground.

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S P A M T U O B INFO A In the first map, you can see an isotherm map. These maps are showing the weather. In that map, you can see colors which are representing different colors. Separating the colors, are black lines called isotherms. In the second map, you have many things. The circles are snow and they are forming around the cold front since cold fronts can bring snow. Low Pressures, occluded fronts, stationary fronts, and warm fronts can bring rain, and that's why there is a lot of rain. The H is high pressure and no rain forms there.

r a b o s I d n a Isotherm Isotherms are lines drawn on a weather map dividing two temperatures and linking all points of constant weather. Isobars are lines connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure. The closer the isobars are, the stronger the winds.

n o i t a t i p i c e r P , n o i t a t i p i c e r P , n o i t a t i p i c e Pr Precipitation is when it snows, Its the rain that makes grass grow, but when it hails, your dad gets mad and needs a new roof top. When Clouds cool, They start to condense,and turn into things like rain, snow, hail, and sleet that fall to the ground. Rain is water, snow is a white, icy powder, sleet is like slushy ice, and hail is hard pieces of ice. These are the four main types of precipitation.

! s d u o l C t u o All Ab Clouds form when water vapor in the air becomes liquid water or ice crystals. For water vapor to condense, it needs tiny particles which are salt crystals, smoke, or dust. The three major clouds are cirrus, stratus, and cumulus. A cumulus cloud looks like cotton in piles. A stratus cloud are clouds which look like flat layers, and cover most of the sky. A cirrus cloud is a wispy, feathery clouds which are made from ice crystals.

s t n i o P w e D Dew Points are the temperatures at where condensation begins up in the air. When the dew point is below the freezing point, the water vapor in the air may turn to ice crystals which can form cirrus clouds. As condensation forms, clouds also form. Dew Points either create water droplets or ice crystals.

s e g a m I t e G s t s i t n e i c S Where do Scientists use satellites to get their images. Satellites are machines that were put in outer space. They let you watch TV and your parents use their cellphones. Because satellites are so high up, they can take cool pictures of the earth that scientists can use to study the earth. Using these satellites, meteorologists can predict what weather will be in a certain city or state. They can predict if it will rain or snow, or if it will be a sunny day. They can also use satellite images to track big storms like hurricanes.

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Have you ever seen those metal crosses with a N, W, E, or S on each tip that people put on their roofs, well those are called weathervanes and they measure wind direction. A rain gauge is used to measure how much it rains. You can even make your very own rain gauge, all you need is a cup a ruler and some tape. Tape the ruler to the cup, then put it outside on a rainy day then measure how high the water went. The Barometer is a tool that measures air pressure. Using this, scientists can predict short changes in weather. In a barometer, there is a glass container half filled with water. There is a spout that opens to the atmosphere. When the air pressure is low, the water rises, and when the air pressure is high, the water level drops. Anemometers measure the wind speed. The wind turns the "cups" on the anemometer and the "cups move as fast as the wind is moving.

Table Drew- Slide 1, 2, 4, 10, 15, 18, 19 Asad- Slide 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 20 (this slide)

Period 1, Asad and Drew, All About Weather 4 Kids