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3rd Asia-Pacific International PeaceMemorial

Civilian Stories of WWII (Initial collection) Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines Marie A. Balangue, S.E.E.D.S Inc

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

Personal stories are what link us as human beings, from one generation to another. Local histories further give a sense of identity and a collective struggle of survival that impacts us in our everyday life. This initial collection of stories from World War II still need to be validated, is a record of what was past, as a key to planning our future development as a nation, from the grassroots level. Kapangan was chosen as the first site for the collection of stories of World War II. This municipality served as the General Headquarters, Regimental Headquarters, Intelligence Headquarters, and many site of many training camps of the Guerilla Movement in Benguet, the home of war hero, Bado Dangwa. After the gathering of stories from war veterans (Project 66) that culminated in a documentary film, NOWHERE YET EVERYWHERE: THE UNTOLD STORIES OF THE 66TH INFANTRY, it was decided by the organizers of the Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial) that civilian stories be gathered, too. Not only do the civilian stories supplement the soldiers’ stories, their stories are often overlooked, with more focus on the decorated soldiers who were the front-liners of the war. It is believed that by gathering these stories, a whole picture of how a community survived the war will help facilitate nationbuilding from the family, to the community levels. For Kapangan, the collection aims to (1) gather stories of World War II from civilian survivors, (2) learn from these stories how life before the war was, (3) contemplate on peace-building activities, (4) economize a community’s history through historical tours and other ideas that may spring out, and (5) facilitate nation-building from the family, to the community levels. The expected outputs are a compilation of stories from different areas of the municipality to perhaps jumpstart community historical tours and gather articles for the planned War Museum. For the Team APIPM, Kapangan’s participation in the Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial activities. From August 10 until September 27, 2012, 17 stories had been collected from 3 barangays (of the 15). These will be further validated and added onto during the 1st Historical Exploration Tour of Kapangan this October 2012.

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

Expected Output #1: Collected Stories Stories from Amburayan Note: The Amburayan River is mentioned in the adventures of the Ilocano mythical hero, Lam-ang. It flows from the foot of a hill [still to be known] from Atok, Benguet, and passes through Tabao-ao, Kapangan; San Gabriel, La Union, and _ _ _ _ _ [still to be followed up]. 1. Key Informant: Randy Arandia (guide, Kapangan Environmental Guides Association) Story: The Americans came to Kapangan in 1932 at Amburayan. “Arandia”, my family name, is a foreign name to Kapangan. My grandfather, Macario, was taken by an American to “go to Amburaan and test the gold.” A facility was set up next to the Amburayan River, where the Amburayan Bridge now stands. When the American got sick sometime before the outbreak of WWII, he asked Macario Arandia to look after the facility. Macario continued to look after the “gold mill,” living on the supplies that the American left behind. It is said that corned beef was canned in cans with diameters of at least a foot long! (Nowadays, corned beef is available in 5cm diameter cans). Macario married a gal from Kapangan. However, she sold off parts of the facility – spades and even part of the roof. No one knew the reason why, and then she left my grandfather. My grandfather married again, and he and my grandma continued to live in Amburayan. 2.

Key Informant: Randy’s grandmother, Story: Before the war, I was a merchant. My mother and I would carry vegetables to the Baguio City Market to sell. [What vegetables?] I remember that Burnham Park was made by people. [What did they do?] Here in Kapangan, the first grocery was established by the Laguinas. They were of Chinese origin. The Japanese, as we know, were disciplined. It was only during 1944 when the Japanese came to Manila and raped some women. Here in Kapangan, our elders told us, “Balasang ti away, nagllipit ti paggay.” So, we would run and hide whenever we would see a Japanese.

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

Stories from Central Kapangan 3. Informant: Pangi Alilao, Jr [to be validated] Story: The Elementary School of Central used to be a Japanese garrison. Stories of bones being found under the school. [needs follow up] 4. Informant: Pangi Alilao, Jr [to be validated] Story: They [Japanese] hung him like a frog, made him drink water, and stepped on him. 5. Informant: Pangi Alilao, Jr [to be validated] Story: Bagyonas is a massacre site. It can be reached after a 6-hour hike from Central. 6.

Informant: Pangi Alilao, Jr [to be validated] Story: The grand march, “pinadaongan”, is only danced in Kapangan.

7. Informant: Pangi Alilao, Jr [to be validated] Story: Roman Igorot Egayap was being trained as a Macabebe/McBabe scout before the WWII. He was captured during WWII and became a detainee at Camp Dangwa. He escaped by jumping on a truck going out of the camp and he walked to his hometown where he hid and became the leader of Camp Shangrila. One story of assistance that Roman did was to help Serafina, Crosby, and Osial escape from captivity. They were captured by Japanese and used as a shield by the Japanese soldiers while they were walking through “guerilla country”. At Liteng (an area near Camp Shangrila). When the group was passing through a dayukong or trench, where the Japanese and the captives had to move forward single file, Roman shot the commanding officer with a rifle. The Japanese soldiers ran to their comrade and during the commotion, the 3 captives escaped. 8. Informant: Pangi Alilao, Jr [to be validated] Story: Someone rescued the last Japanese, Haroshiri. 9. Expected informant: Roman Igorot Egayap Story: Camp Shangrila 10. Expected Informant: Lola Gusing/ Abraham Annie Poncio 11. Expected Informant: Malado Padilla 12. Expected informant: not yet identified Story: Puga Cave (Not visited during the Walk through September 24-27, 2012) 13. Expected informant: not yet identified Story: Kibatay Cave (No stories related to war)

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012 14. Expected informant: not yet identified Story: Foxhole 15. Expected informant: not yet identified Story: Puy-akan Falls (Not visited during the Walk through September 24-27, 2012) 16. Expected informant: not yet identified Story: “Kalajo kait, pit-pito era” as “dying song” of a captured member of the Kapangan community. 17. Key Informant: Bukto Palacsa Former councilman of Kapangan

I(1): Could you tell us something about the war? BP: I am 85 years old. When the Japanese came, we ran away to the bakir (gardens). I(2): Who was the mayor during your time? BP: Legaspi Balangcod. At this time, we realized he didn’t remember much, and bid him goodbye.

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

Stories from Sagubo, Kapangan 18. Informant: Lais Tagtag Born 1929 September 5 Contact details: c/o Kerril, the granddaughter -- 0947 401 9600 Interview: I (1): How did you know it was wartime? L: Japanese came in 1942. I(2): Where did they [Japanese] go first? L: Kapangan Central School. I(3): What did they [Japanese] do there? L: They lived there. It became their garrison. There, they asked old people where the guerillas were. All older people were captured and placed in the garrison. No one was killed in the school, but the Japanese maltreated the community. They burned their faces, too! I(4): Did they take any of your relatives? L: Yes. Two (2) of my uncles – Wal-ak and Amano were captures. And they also took Lieutenant Tumalyek Menchie. They asked them where Dangwa was. They burned their fingers in an effort to get the people to talk. Someone’s wife gave tapuey to the soldiers. There was a hole in the school, and through it, Wal-ak escaped to Sagapa and went to Gaswil. Next to escape was Tumalyek. As for Amano, he was brought to Pacdal, and we haven’t heard from him. I(5): What did you eat during the war? L: Kamote, kamoteng kahoy, aba/pising, ube. We also had canned goods of Alaskan salmon, corned beef, and lechon (roasted pig) in a square can until 1945. Meat were taken by the guerillas. I(6): What did you do? L: I escaped to the woods. We evacuated – 5 siblings and our parents. And we built our house there [in the woods]. I(7): Did you see the Japanese? L: Only when they visited. I(8): Did you become a soldier? L: I was 12 years old when the war broke out. No, I didn’t become a soldier. Dangwa did not allow us. We only brought food and deliver letters to the guerilla because the Japanese didn’t inspect us [children]. We also guarded the guerillas.

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012 I(9): Do you know any Japanese words? L: Ohayo! Arigato! I(10): How about English? L: Yes, I knew, cause we were taught in school. I(11): Did you help any American? L: Yes. Major Volckmann, Culvert, and Murphy. I(12): Did they give you any letters to deliver? L: No. I(13): How did you go to school during the war? L: I was in Grade 4. We didn’t have classes when the war broke out. Then, after the war (1945), I went to finish til Grade 6 at Sagubo Elementary School (est 1937) I(14): Are there any existing structures? L; None. Our houses were destroyed through the years. I(15): Did all your siblings live? L: Yes. I(16): Did you ever see anyone die? L: Guerilla. At Sagapa, we were going to give their food but they were having a battle at the top of Salat. Good thing, the Japanese didn’t go to Utopia. I(17): Did you keep anything during the war? L: Yes, but I sold the canteen to an antique dealer. I(18): Is there a cannon at Camp Uotopia? L: No. Mortar only. Machine guns, 50 mm caliber. I(19): Were there vehicles? L: No. We only walked. I(20): Do you know the old Spanish trail? L: It’s the same road til 1937 – up to Landing. I(21): When was the landing site established? L: 1953, it was started; 1965, it was finished. [Lutheran missionaries built it for their supply planes] I(22): Were you paid for your work? L: No. The Lt. Galian was in charge of the receipts. He died from an illness. I(23): What did Dangwa tell you? /marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012 L: As long as you’re alive, we can pay. Only a few of us went to get reimbursement. I(24): How old were you when you got married? L: 25 years old. My missus was 3 years old during the war. I(25): What were the finances like? L: In 1945, a can of sardines cost P0.25 (25 centavos), P0.30 (30 centavos) for corned beef. I(26): Where did your money come from? L: Contract work with the farms. I(27): Who had farms? L: Amano Sison, Wallang, Battil, Benggala, Mauting. I(28): Did you hide any Chinese? L: Yes, those who evacuated. The owner of Dainty Restaurant, City Bakery, Hokkien Grocery. [to be validated] I(29): By the way, what clothes did you wear? L: Bahag. We only used pants when the people evacuated because the Ilocanos sold their pants. It cost P1.50. A bahag cost 15 centavos. I(30): Do you still have your bahag? L: No, I changed it to pants (laughter). Even the guerillas wore bahags. Few wore pants, like Dangwa, because he was a businessman. I(31): Did you see Molintas? L: Yes, at the Headquarters. I(32): Who else (leader) did you see? L: Philippine Scouts. Velasco from Kapapes, organized the 43rd. Velasco used to be in Tuplat, then he went to Utopia. Agayap from Central. Lt. Tiw-tiw from Tabao-ao. Lt Picasen from Kadtoy, neighbor of Dangwa) Molintas from Kabajo) who organized the 11th infantry. Lt. Galian, he had a younger brother, a sergeant. Dangwa, who organized the 12th infantry. I(33): Was anyone pulling rank? L: No. I(34): What made the men in Kapangan leaders and war heroes? L: [after much thinking], I don’t know. Do not be arrogant so that people will look up to you. I(35): How many children do you have? L: Six. One male. They all live here, except for one working in Hong Kong. I(36): What religion do you have? /marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012 L: Lutheran, since 1955. The Catholics, Anglicans, and Jehovah’s Witnesses came here, but we didn’t like them. Pre-war, we had animism. I(37): So it wasn’t religion that helped with the war effort? L: In Kiangan, Tualo was a mambunong. He looked at an egg to see whether the Japanese were coming. Chickens (button) were sacrificed. The mambunong looked at the bile and when it was bloody, no attacks were made. We hid. I(38): What were your lessons from the war? L: We worked. We worked on the roads – Camp 30 to Km 52. We were “comboys” and that is how Isaw Kabayan. The Americans gave P1.50. The Japanese also gave P1.50, but those were Japanese money here to Tiwangan. We sold. 5 centavos for paper, sometimes, 50 centavos. All of life is difficult. Now, I cannot work. I want to farm and take care of the sayote. I(39): What did you use to farm? L: Rice. I(40): How did yo have rice during the war? L: At Lanas, there were rice fields. At Km 26 (Saddle), there was a rice storage in Atok. I(41): Did you ever see a soldier eat a human being? L: No, but we heard a story the Japanese killed a female fro Loo. The delicious parts were, from most delicious: the forefoot, the palm of the hand, and the breasts. Grilled, it tasted like monkey. We were told. I(42): Were there any other atrocities you heard about? L: There was a soldier – Sagad, we called him. He was ruthless. He captured people, esp women and raped them. They got spies from the lowlands and they went to Kapangan. It is said, that here, he captured a woman. However, the 66th Infantry met with him (real name: Major Kobas, 121st Infantry) and asked him to let her go untouched and unharmed. Otherwise, the 66th Infantry would have killed him.

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

19. Informant: Walek Bilas Born 1925 August 10 He was 16 years old when war broke out. I(1): What was it like BEFORE the war? W: In 1939, we were working at Zobel (Camp John Hay), an American company. In 1941, Camp John Hay was bombed and people evacuated because the Japanese were killing. Our American employer told us, “Go home, join the army, fight the Japanese.” I got employed as a server of food to the Japanese [later in the interview, he would change this to the 66th Infantry]. I(2): Were you paid for your work? W: No. But in 1945, we were given Japanese money. I(3): What happened after the war? W: In 1950, it was peace time. After the war, we worked in the rehabilitation of houses. I built my house. Then, people helped each other build houses. It’s our “aluyon” or “aduyon” or bayanihan. I(4): When did you know that you can heal? W: 1936 [ later, he would change it to 1950]. I knew hilot (indigenous Filipino touch therapy) and buyon (fortune-telling). I look at the egg. I would know when it can be prayed for or canao was needed. I(5): Did you see that the war was coming? W: Yes. We were very tired bringing food to the Japanese (basketed rice and fish). I(6) Why did you serve the Japanese? Were you a spy? W: No, I worked for Dangwa. I(7): Were you paid for your services to Dangwa? W: Dennis Molintas gave us the reimbursements for our salary and food rations (kamote, rice, cow, pig, carabao). We had 7 cows and we sold hem for food, at P50 per head. I(8): When you butchered, did you read the gall bladder? W: No, because our army did not believe in it. But Scout Tualo could see if the Japanese were coming. He would point the bayonet on top of the egg. If the egg sat, the Japanese were coming and we would evacuate. I(9): Di you heal anyone during the war? W: Yes, many. Those who fell, etc. /marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

A doctor didn’t believe in me. However, when he displaces his hip, he came to me. I fied him, and the doctor said, “You’re better than me!” I(10): Did you assist in childbirth? W: Yes, I helped turn the kid around before it came out. That, I did with neighbors, but not Mrs. Osmena. I(11): How did you turn the babies? W: With my hands. I(12): Where did you get oil for hilot during the war? W: In Baguio. P20 per 250 mL. I(13): Did you get paid for your services? W: Sometimes, depends on the giver. I(14): Are you still healing? W: Yes. I only use my left hand now, though. I got sick, and can now only use my left hand. I(15): How do you heal? Do you hear voices or some other way? Do you go to Heaven? W: I hear voices. They tell me what to do. There are many people in Heaven. It’s peaceful there. The old men are separate from the old women, men and women. I(16): Did you know we were coming? W: Yes, someone called. I(17): How did the Philippines win the WWII? W: MacArthur bombed Nagasaki. Dangwa organized. The Japanese suffered because they didn’t have supplies. Many died of hunger. Some even ate the ferns. If you look at Mt Te-yeng, that mountain that looks like tadpole because up there, carabaos stay in their water puddle ponds… Americans had airplanes that would burn the grasses and the Japanese there were burned alive. I(18): Were women in Kapangan raped during the war? W: Yes, but they did not come to me. I(20): Do you know Camp Minahaha or any other camps? W: Atok, Tabao-ao, San Gabriel.

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012 I(21): How did you survive the war? W: We walked in the dark with a flashlight. Somebody else would come to distribute stuff. I(22)Would you help us for the peace offering? What do we need? W: Yes. You need ganza, tapuey, solibao, tayaw (sadong), and ules is with the Mayor.

20. Expected Informant: Ponciano Bayas 21. Informant: Ventura Batil Born 1939 January 23 He was 2 years old when war broke out. I(1): What do you remember about the war? VB: I saw an American when I was young. He threw a piece of bread at me. I didn’t catch it. He came over and lifted my shirt. I was told that Sagubo had no soldiers, the residents only carried bullets.

22. Key Informant: Ambo Rosendo Born pre-war I(1): How old were you when the war broke out? AR: My milk teeth were being removed when the war came. They told me I was nine (siyam). I(2): What do you remember of the war? AR: I don’t remember much. I only heard, “The Japanese have a war” from our neighbor, Pontino. Our neighbor came home. He was a soldier. In Binmultong, I remember the hose from Camp Liteng. That hose flows to the General Headquarters or what they call “Mental” [He must mean Regimental]. The water was used for electricity in their camps. I also knew that the Japanese gathered at Punduan and Alawin (near Camp Utopia). When a leader would come, he had a message for me to carry on a piece of paper. I would hand the message to Joseph Bigote. We called him that because the cook had a moustache. Or I would /marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012 hand the message to Takap, my uncle at Kapap. I am to tell the Japanese when I was questioned where I was going to not say “Alawin.” The Japanese were looking for [Bado] Dangwa. I don’t know why. I did know that Dangwa would go to the Mental, Alawin. The soldiers of the 66th Infantry would always pass by our house. After the war, when the Japanese were about to leave, the soldiers went to Darigayos. I don’t know what it is now. Then someone came to our house and asked if we had seen anyone. My mother said, “No one.” They got mad, saying, “The Japanese slept here!” but it was not true. I(3): Where was your father during the war? AR: My father was killed during the war, near the end of it. The Japanese didn’t reach our place. It was only nearing the end of the war when they Japanese came to Binmultong and killed my dad. My father was asked by widow of Velasco to get a carabao for the canao for her husband [believed to be killed by an envious Filipino soldier, shooting from Velasco’s back]. My father went to Tuplak. There, he saw that the Japanese were in a cave, surrounded by soldiers all around. The Filipino soldiers told my father that he should not pass by the Japanese. My father wanted to see a Japanese, so he disregarded their advice. True enough, he was shot by the Japanese. I(4): How did you know that your father had died? AR: There were no cellphones during the Japanese time. My mother wanted to find out what has happened to my father. We had a rope (“tudo”) and my mother used it as we trailed after her. Then the Igorots came, all bloodied. I asked my mother why they were such, and my mother answered, “They killed your father.” I(5): Why were the Japanese in the cave? AR: The Japanese were waiting for the messenger of hand grenades. Good thing, the messenger from Camp Utopia was fast. He took the grenades and even threw one near the river. I(6): Do you remember any more stories? AR: Legleg is where the Japanese soldiers slept. One night, they burned the cottage, including their wounded Japanese soldier. At Kabilisan (Paddong), they ran out. They went to the river. When the Japanese were running away, they met a wood cutter and killed him. Also, four Japanese soldiers went to bomb the Liang Cave near Camp Utopia, thinking that guerillas were hiding there. That area is called Tagumtungao. We were kids during the war, we didn’t know fear. We were running around, playing, but the ground rose up in “smoke”. I went to see what it was, I went to get it, and I saw a sharp object. It was too hot to the touch. I(7): Did you ever see Camp Utopia?

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012 AR: I went to Camp Utopia after the war. During the war, I couldn’t go because my mother said that even civilians were killed in Camp Utopia when the civilians were spies. I(8): We heard that there was infrastructure up in Camp Utopia. What were they like? AR: The roofs of the houses were made of runo/grass. There was a cave for killing civilian spies. During the war, Camp Utopia had a lot of pine trees, too. There was also grazeland. From October to January, the clouds were low. March and April, it is not cloudy. It’s a wonder you were able to have a sunny time at Camp Utopia. AR: Have you heard of Tuwalo? I: Yes. (9) What do you know of him? AR: Tuwalo was a Kiangan soldier living in Camp Utopia. When ie is told about the Japanese, Tuwalo would put a bayonet on an egg. “Nabunbunungan.” I(10): Speaking of bayonets, do you have any artifacts from WWII? AR: I hid a Japanese helmet, but I don’t know where it is now. Right after the war, I saw huge “gripos” at the Powerfalls site, but after a while, no more. I(11): Do you remember a hospital near here? AR: Vicente Arandia gave injections. That I know. Then, there was a lady who was carried to Camp Utopia, Regimental Headquarters, … and we don’t know where she gave birth. I(12): Do you remember anything else? AR: (singing) First landing Darigayos To the Street for Kapangan To contact Colonel Baban The head of the Machine Gun The Head of the Guerilla The head of Mr. Dangwa! AR: My wife’s father was a volunteer soldier in WWII. One story goes, he had wanted to do his toilet and climbed up a rock where the “anupo” were. He had just removed his bahag and squatted, when he heard, “Kora!” He looked back and saw Japanese soldiers. He quickly put on is bahag and fled the site.

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

Stories from Pungayan 23. Key Informant: Constantia Garcia Tiw-tiwa Born 1938 December 18 She was 3 years old when war broke out. I(1): What do you remember about the war? CGT: First off, my records show I was born in 1937 so I could attend elementary school earlier. Second, my uncle (brother of my father), Paraso ABento joined the Philippine Army while his nephew joined the US Army. My uncle died of hunger at Fort Santiago. Third, the Japanese were coming here before World War II. They asked for chicken, eggs, and rice. I(3): Did the Japanese pay for their food? CGT: I don’t remember if they paid, I just knew that they got the chickens, eggs, and rice. I(4): Anything else? CGT: Evacuation sites were in Bengaongao Cave, Ambongdolan Cave, Diba Cave (all in nearby Tublay, Benguet) and Gaswiling. The Bengaongao Cave was very beautiful. There was even a stone in the middle that looks like a table. Three (3) families lived there. My younger brother was born in 1941 and was very loud when he cried. My parents were afraid the Japs would enter our house. Our house burned down accidentally in 1986. I(5): How did you eat in the caves? What did you eat in the caves? CGT: I don’t remember how we ate. We probably had sardines, because we played with the cans. Also, we had corned beef. I(6): How big were the cans? CGT: They were small. The size is like those of the sardine cans that are available now. After the war, my father, my father was able to procure big cans of corned beef. I(7): Do you have any more memories of the war? CGT: You could ask Gibson Bacuso in Central. He is now more than 80 years old. (Randy Arandia noted that GB is now bedridden) Also, there is Minita Gomez-Arlon.

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012 My sister used to put a banner of the Japan flag on her clothes when there were Japanese coming. She carried food – our food during the war. I(8): When did you go to school? CGT: After the war, we went to school. I(9): How is it like to be the descendant of a British national? Did you have any special favors during the war or in peacetime? CGT: Unlike Japanese descendants, we didn’t go to the UK. 24. Key Informant: Gibson Bacuso

Born 1932 or 1935 I(1): Do you remember when the Japanese came to Kapangan? GB: I don’t remember. I(2): What do you remember of the World War II? GB: I think I was probably born in 1935. I even sold sugar cane to the Japanese. /marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

I(3): How did you sell sugar cane to the Japanese? GB: When the Japanese were at Central, they settled themselves at the Municipal Hall. They were going around. I sold my sugar cane for 25 centavos. The 25 centavos was paper money. I(4): What else do you remember? GB: The Japanese got leaders from the community, like Sasa Cocoy. Other one was Busoy. In Paddang, they had Bay-on. In Sitio Saga-pa, Deneco. Deneco was our neighbor so we knew the Japanese went to look for [Bado] Dangwa. Everyday, the Japanese would come to talk to the leaders to look for Dangwa. Then they would come back during the day to check if the job was being done. Later in the war, the Japanese started picking up people. Here, no one was imprisoned. I(5): How did that happen [that no one was imprisoned]? GB: We pretended to look for Dangwa. Instead, we were going to our uma (gardens) far from here. I(6): Anything else you remember? GB: The Japanese were afraid of dead people. For instance, in Saga-pa, there was one who died. The people there had done “sangadil” or they tied the corpse to a chair [for mummification]. Upon seeing that, the Japanese left to go back to the leader’s house. Also, there were interpreters. They were Ilocanos. The Japanese also brought Virginia tobacco. They’d give it to the people to give to their fathers when they came home [looking for Dangwa]. I(7): Do you know why they were looking for Dangwa? GB: Only Dangwa was known to be the trainor. I(8): How many houses were in this area during the war? GB: There were only 7 houses. There was a sawmill at Bubok. There, my father was able to get GI sheets. Sasako and Busoy were the first ones to get GI roofs and not only for 2 hourses. Mrs. GB: Our father’s house was hit with a lot of bullets. I(9): Any other stories? GB: The guerillas would come here and collected balangoy and kamote for the trainees. There is a story that Dangwa even went to the Munisipyo in a bahag. I(10): Do you remember who was the mayor during wartime? GB: Martin was Mayor. Son: So you were probably born in 1932.

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012 I(11): Do you know of anyone being maltreated during the war? GB: There were stories that people who were caught not looking for Dangwa were put in prison for 9 days without food and water. In Tuel, one died from hunger. Another one ate this t-shirt to survive. I(12): to Mrs. Gibson Bacuso – Do you remember anything from the war time? MGB: I don’t remember much. We evacuated. I was born in 1936, so I was 5 years old during the war. We evacuated twice to Ratchawan (Gaswiling). Camote (bucco), gabi, cassava, and mais were our food at the evacuation sites. We would be gone for ten (10) days. Once, we went to Pay-yay. There, we stayed in the residents’ houses. The residents of Pay-yay went to Pok-kong to escape the Japanese at Tuel. Our second evacuation, we went to Balete. GB: One night, I remember staying under a wooden bridge while the Japanese walked on the bridge. I remember I carried the cow’s leather and when it rained, I used it for shelter. In the abong (house) we came upon, it was flooded, so we put leaves on the floor and then put the leather on top so we could sleep. I(13): How were people protected during the war? GB: The people were protected by machine guns on higher ground. The Japanese cannot move upwards. I(14): Did the Americans help you? GB: No! The Americans didn’t know how to hide! Even if the Japanese were firing at them, they were yelling, “Bullshit” to the Japanese and would be shot and died. I(15): Do you know anything of the Japanese Army? GB: Morishita was almost the one who led the Japanese but it was Yamashita instead.

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

Stories from the Kapangan Ibaloi-Kankanaey Indigenous Peoples Organization (KIKIPO) 25. Key Informant: Luisa Gulian-Fianza Born 1932 September 21

In the photo, Luisa is in pink, Primitiva in blue. I(1): What do you remember of the war? LGF: I was a cargador of sweet potatoes. I brought it from Ambiang, Taba-ao to Kabilisan, Pundong (food station for Camps Liteng and Utopia). I carried these camotes in a medium kayabang. Sometimes, I also brought camote, ready-to-eat-rice for the soldiers. You could say I was a volu-girl (volunteer). The place were we pounded the rice was Tayangen. I(2): How did you find out that war had started in the Philippines? LGF: When the Japanese bombed Camp John Hay, our relatives came home. /marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

I(3): Did you evacuate during the war? LGF: No, only near the end of the war, when the Americans started bombing. In 1943, the landing site for supplies was made in Paykek. I(4): Do you remember if you helped any Chinese? LGF: Yes, a family was with us. I(5): What were your clothes like during that time? LGF: We wore gay-gayet (flour sacks). When we went to Baguio, each of us had to wear a piece of cloth with the Japanese flag on it, so the guard at the foot of the Benguet Capitol allowed us to pass through. I(6): Were you in school then? LGF: I was studying in Kapangan Central Elementary School. It was the only school. I(7): What was the medium of instruction in your school? LGF: English was the medium of instruction. I(8): Do you remember any other experiences during the war? LGF: There was a cliff in Talayn (Kabilisan, Padong). There were waka stairs made so that everyone could climb up the cliff. The men would watch the women climb up because they wore no panties then. From Am-asi, we would to the cave, then to Camp Utopia. I(9): What other differences in the landscape do you see? LGF: A long time ago, Kapangan was covered with pine trees. 26. Key Informant: Primitiva Bado Binay-an Born in 1940 I(1) What do you remember of the war PBB: 2 Japanese left in Kayapes and went to Lom-on. They passed by our field and we hid. But they did not mind looking for us. We hid in the sabah (rice stalk).

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

Expected Output #2: Historical Tourism (WWII) Exploration Areas (to be expanded) Contact: SB Chairperson for Tourism (2010-2013 – Manny Fermin, 0918 942 0527 Randy Arandia, KEGA, 0912 641 3760 Barangay Central: 1. Central School, garrison of the Japanese Army 2. Municipal Hall, headquarters of the Japanese Army 3. Camp Shangrila – 2 hours hike from Central School Barangay Pungayan 1. Pungayan Trail to Bengaongao Cave and Ambongdolan Cave in Tublay – 2 hours 2. Old native houses – 45 minutes (from the Municipal Hall) Barangay Sagubo (jump off point: Barangay Hall or Elementary or High Schools) 1. Camp Utopia – 2 hours from the Elementary/High School or Barangay Hall 2. Camp Liteng – 1.5 hours from the Elementary / High School or Barangay Hall 3. Camp Minehaha – 2 hours from Camp Utopia 4. Camp Liyang – 2 hours from Camp Utopia Barangay Gaswiling 1. Old Spanish Trails to La Union Barangay Balacbac 5. Camp Company “L” 6. Camp Kilim 7. Camp Isbu Barangay Taba-ao Site of makeshift war hospital **Others: 1. Paykek airstrip 2. Camp Eureka 3. Cagas Alatiw Ranch 4. Duntog House of Paper Suggested places to stay at: 1. Laguinia, Taba-ao 2. Taba-ao Catholic Church 3. Manny Fermin’s home, Central

Suggested food & drink to try: 1. Kini-ing 2. Bucco 3. Taro pie 4. Farmers’ Bakery products (Sagubo) 5. Kapangan Tapuey

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

Expected Output #3: Artifacts Collected for the Kapangan War Museum

Japanese Anti-aircraft gun This artifact was dug up by Bonnie Pacalso’s pet pig. The pig was roaming in Camp Liteng and Utopia while Bonnie was clearing land for an uma (garden). Later, he would stumble on it. Bonnie says that he tried to have it smelted to make into a farm implement. However, the panday (smith) cannot pound it for its metallic strength, so Bonnie settled on keeping it until he would find a ironsmith who could work with it. Randy Arandia and I bought it off Bonnie for PhP1,000 on September 26, 2012. We figured that if it is no longer valuable and used for scrap metal, Bonnie would have made money for keeping a historical piece to prove the existence of Camp Utopia. If the price is higher, we would give back to Bonnie his due. Currently, the gun is being cleaned by Robin Conchu. He has researched it and will make sure that it could be kept for posterity (no longer a prey to rust). (Photo by Randy G. Arandia) /marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories of WWII, Kapangan, Benguet, Philippines August 10 –September 27, 2012

Antenna holder and Electric Dynamo In the photo are 3 generations of the Rosendo family, headed by war civilian Ambo. The pieces were found by his sons, from the stories Ambo had told them. Given the chance to sell it, they opted to keep it as a legacy for their family to share to residents. As Mr. Ambo said, “The money we gain from selling, we will buy to eat rice and then poop it out. This way, when we have these artifacts in a museum, we could go on looking at it, remembering our family.”

(Photo by Randy G. Arandia)

/marie balangue for S.E.E.D.S Inc (co-organizer for Asia-Pacific International Peace Memorial)

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Civilian Stories from WWII (Initial Collection)  

Collected from survivors in Kapangan, Benguet, these 19 stories (with some targetted respondents) will be used for the Historical Exploratio...

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