THE WORLD IS YOURS

Page 1

Marie Dalle

Exploring the Future of Fashion in Paris

( THE WORLD IS OURS )



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Marie A.F. Dalle DAL14424368 BA (Hons) Creative Direction for Fashion Year 3 - Term 1 : FMP Research & Development Unit Leader : Jason Kass

[ EXPLORING THE FUTURE OF FASHION IN PARIS ]



La Haine (1995) Dir. Mathieu Kassovitz. [Film]. France : Studio Canal



Wierzbowski, L. (2016) Untitled.

« [FASHION IS] ALL IN ALL AN OBSOLETE SYSTEM MANAGED BY A TIRED GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS AND AGENCIES »

Edelkoort, L. (2015) Anti-Fashion : A Manifesto For The Next Decade. Paris : Trend Union. pp.5



Bazdarev, A. (2016) Aventure à Paris.

« PARIS WILL ALWAYS BE TRUE TO ITS CORE VALUES AND UNIQUE STATURE BY REMAINING THE HOME OF LIMITLESS CREATIVITY AND EMOTIONS »

Toledano, R. (2 October 2015) ‘La Mode aime Paris’. Paris, France.



Research Evaluation

A New Creative Wave

Initiatives of Promotion

Design Tests

Appendices

Bibliography

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Paris : Fashion City



RESEARCH EVALUATION 13

When researching the image of Paris

Paris is seen as the world’s capital

as the ‘world capital of fashion’ and

of fashion in international popular

the impact of this reputation on

culture (Zajtmann, 2015). As the home

Parisian brands’ identities during

of worldwide luxury groups LVMH,

my second year of BA, I discovered

Kering and L’Oréal and of French

a

local

powerhouses Chanel, Dior, Vuitton,

creative scene I had no idea existed.

etc. ; Paris is indeed, historically, the

Outside of the clichés of elegance

‘city of fashion’ (Godart, 2015). Last

and sophistication, young people

term, my research showed that this

are challenging the wider fashion

image is communicated through

system and trying to create spaces for

different mediums by a variety of

themselves in a city stuck in its elitist

Paris-based brands. The city is a

vision of style. I set out to research

brand in itself, a fantasy exported

these emerging Parisian creatives

worldwide, associated with delicate

during the summer, and ended

crafts, heritage and the timeless

up discovering even more about

style

the cultural and societal changes

(Rocamora, 2009 & Chauve, 2015). It

currently happening in the capital

is the only city in the world to host

and their relationship with fashion

a Haute Couture Fashion Week, thus

communication.

theory,

reinforcing its brand of elegance and

interviews, observation and analysis

luxury (Qu’est-ce que la Haute Couture

; I explored the future of fashion in

?, 2016). Paris is also, historically, a

Paris. There is a lot to discover on

place where fashion and art meet

the topic, especially since this future

and blend, culminating during ‘les

has been developing under the radar,

années Palace’ in the 80’s (Garcia,

away from the medias.

1999 ; Drake, 2010 & Bergé, 2011).

diverse

and

fascinating

Through

of

the

Parisienne

woman


14

The French fashion industry is

and promote young creatives in

generating a lot of money, especially

fashion. And recent events - from the

from foreign consumers (Toledano,

terrorist attacks to the Seine flooding

2015). But recently the status of the

and violent protests against the El-

Paris as the world capital of fashion

Khomri law - have driven tourists

has been challenged by the creativity

away in masses (Insee, 2016). Anne

of London and Seoul, the exposure of

Hidalgo, the Mayor of Paris, is trying

New York and the commercial power

to reverse the situation by promoting

of Milan (Delpal, 2015). The over-

the city’s fashion industry (appendix

influence of luxury groups (Appendix

1) as it is one of the main attraction

10)

obsession

for foreign tourists (Al Jazeera, 2016).

with money, networks, elites and

She has also very recently partnered

consumerism have been criticized

with the Fédération Française de

by respected voices of the industry

la Couture du Prêt-à-Porter des

like Lidewij Edelkoort (2015) and

Couturiers et des Créateurs de Mode

Loïc Pringent (2016). Furthermore,

(the French Fashion Council) in

the Paris fashion scene is difficult to

order to make Paris more attractive

access for new designers (Vulser, 2016),

to businesses and talents (Neuville,

without enough help and recognition

2015) and reinforce its international

from the professional organisations

soft power through fashion (Dupuis

and a limited access to quality fashion

& Miel, 2016). Mrs Hidalgo has been

education in France (Mellery-Pratt,

an outspoken advocate for a revival

2016). And, in a country where cultural

of fashion and creativity in Paris,

elitism is very present (Lamont, 1992),

making the Mairie de Paris and the

the emergence of new styles is often

Fédération ideal clients for my final

ignored by what I consider a classist

major project focused on the future

fashion industry (appendix 9).

of fashion in the city.

and

the

system’s

My research showed that the system in Paris (and France) is failing to support

My findings about the fashion industry in Paris led me to research the critics


15

of the system and the ways in which

independent publications to promote

brands such as Jacquemus (Appendix

their work. They have online shops

11) and Vêtements have managed to

instead of Collette collaborations.

gain international attention without

They try to produce locally and

fully participating into it. The elitism

ethically

in the Parisian industry, closed off to

Their creations reflect their identities

new ideas, has driven talents to leave

- a mix of international visions, post-

the country and settle abroad, where

digital aesthetics, streetwear and

they have more creative freedom and

irony - and are influenced by what my

resources to produce their visions

research showed were the new style

(Le Monde, 2013). But with the rise in

tribes in Paris (appendix 2). From my

France of social movements fighting

discussions and analysis, I can see that

for alternative systems such as Nuit

each in their own ways, they challenge

Debout (a French Occupy Wall

the fashion system, its elitism, its

Street), young people are finding ways

obsession with taste and elegance.

of expressing themselves in their own

They become political, because the

terms, including in fashion.

people around them are. They are also

I analysed the new generation of Paris-

part of a wider revival of the French

based designers based on discussions

creative industries, an interesting

and observations both in Paris and

opportunity

online in order to profile them and

When I talked with some of these

get a clear sense of their styles and

young creatives for my research,

values. They all come from diverse

they all expressed the need for more

backgrounds and countries. Ignored

support in finances, networking and

by the mainstream fashion medias,

promotion. They want international

they have built their own niche

visibility,

networks of communication. They

without censorship and a space

rely on social media, underground

for themselves - may it be physical

‘fashion gangs’ (Allwood, 2016) and

or moral (appendices 4, 5 & 8). My

(L’Instant Parisien, 2016).

an

for

collaborations.

independent

voice


16

project will focus on achieving their

content specifically tailored to their

ideals.

specificities. The same content is even more interesting if it offers something

I then set out to research ways in

different and only possible on an

which organisations like the Mairie

online platform in order to justify the

de Paris and the Fédération could

use of digital instead of print media

support new designers. I interviewed

: streaming, VR, video, interactions,

participants, visited places, collected

… Social medias have reinforced our

diverse examples and analysed them to

sense of community, giving a space

pinpoint the most interesting features

for young people to meet develop

of each of them : online platforms,

subcultures (Bennett, 2004). These

communities, spaces of experience

exchanges break the boundaries of

and brand identities (appendix 3).

culture, class and borders ; and offer

With these informations, I then

new communication opportunities

looked at communication trends in

(WGSN, 2016). In an industry like

order to get a general concept for my

fashion,

project.

key to the exposure and success

Many brands have a consistant online

of young designers (Vulser, 2016),

presence, both on social medias and

building communities and support

websites, because it allows them

networks can be helpful. Inspired

to reach to a global audience in

by the ‘Sharing Economy’ and the

a short time. It attracts attention

emergence of co-living communities

and encourage the organisation of

sharing

communities. Most fashion brands

work (LS:N, 2015), I would like to

have their own online stores and

incorporate this sense of collective to

the ones that don’t choose to do so

my project.When Simon Porte started

to preserve a sense of exclusivity for

his brand Jacquemus, he struggled to

their customers (Tuzzi, 2016). Online

find a space where he could produce

platforms are ideal for international

and show his collections (Quotidien,

communications,

2016). High rents in capital cities

but

they

need

where

spaces,

connections

experiences

are

and


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often force creatives away. A space

the creatives’ identities, all while

is also beneficial to the creation of

avoiding

experiences. People are attracted to

players away with too harsh critics.

memorable physical experiences (Pine

With my research, I was able to

& Gilmore, 2011). They have become

identify a gap in the market : the

a strong trend in communication

absence of support and promotion

because they bring publicity and

platforms for young designers in

make a lasting impression. In light of

Paris, especially for designers that

my research, it makes sense for me to

do not fit the mold of the Parisian

combine online platforms and social

fashion system. The Paris City

mechanisms

experience

Council and the Fédération de

in a physical space for my project.

la Couture want to reinvigorate

Finally, I have realised that a few of

fashion creation in the city to attract

the platforms of promotion that I

jobs and publicity, so they are the

researched fail to present consistant

ideal clients for a communication

brand identities, which makes them

project on the future of fashion in

less efficient to communicate to their

Paris. And, with my enquiry into

audiences (appendix 3). I want my

platforms of promotions, I was

project to be different. Inspired by the

able to get ideas of what my final

‘Backlash Brands’ trend (LS:N, 2016)

major project could be and what it

and by the political youth movements

could incorporate.

with

an

taking over the streets of Paris ; I hope to create a brand with strong values and a manifesto reflecting the new designers’ rejection of the traditional system. I want to use this difference to make a lasting impression, but am aware of the need to keep a balance between my project’s and

driving

industry

key


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COLLECTION OF RESEARCH 19

A VISUAL SUMMARY OF RESEARCH TOPICS, FINDING AND ANALYSIS PARIS : FASHION CITY History, Heritage & Image Fashion System in Paris Paris Now

A NEW CREATIVE WAVE Voices of Contestation The New Creatives What they want and need

INITIATIVES OF PROMOTIONS Examples & Case Studies Online Spaces Communities & Collaboration Spaces of Experiences Brand Identity & Manifesto



PARIS : FASHION CITY



Mairie de Paris (2016) La mode aime Paris campaign.

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WORLD CAPITAL OF FASHION BUILDING THE MYTH

Films

The Devil wears Prada (2006) Directed by David Frankel.

Paris is seen as the « world capital of fashion » in popular culture across the world. Fashion is part of the brand identity of the city (Rocamora, 2009).

Advertisement

Mert & Marcus (2013) YSL Paris je t’aime.

Heritage

Roger Schall (1935) Coco Chanel.

La Parisienne Berest, A., Diwan, A., de Maigret, C., Mas, S. (2014) How to be Parisian : Wherever you are. De la Fressange, I. (2010) La Parisienne.


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Home to the biggest brands

Chanel (1989) & Louis Vuitton (2014)

Parisian groups leaders of the worldwide luxury market The only Haute Couture Fashion Week Dior Couture (SS11)

FASHION WORLD LEADER

Unique Crafts

Maison Lesage (2012)


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ECONOMIC BENEFITS

The reputation of Paris as the ‘city of fashion’ attracts many tourists and fuels the retail industry, making it one of the priorities of the City Council (Neuville, 2015). They heavily advertise it across various channels (Appendice 1) and invest a lot of money in fashion events and initiatives. The fashion and tourism industries are vital to the economy of the city (see below).

Number of tourists in the Paris region in 2015

46,300,000 (Office du Tourisme, 2016)

Percentage of travel budget spent on shopping by tourists in Paris

15,2% (Office du Tourisme, 2016)

Money generated every year by fashion-related events in Paris (Fashion Weeks, ...)

400,000,000€ (Gouvernement.fr, 2016)

Number of people working in the fashion industry in France (inc. retail)

1,000,000 (IFM, 2016)

Money generated by the French fashion industry each year

34,000,000,000€ (Gouvernement.fr, 2016)


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VISUAL IDENTITY OF THE PARISIAN BRAND Eiffel Tower

Jean Paul-Goude (2006) Galleries Lafayette Ad.

Illustrations

Virginie Morgand (2014) The Parisianer Cover.

Luxury

Terry Richardson (2009) Hermès Boxes for Vogue Paris.

The visual & aesthetic elements used by brands to communicate their Parisian identity, based on observations conducted during Year 2 & the summer of 2016.

Delicate Craft

Pierre Le-Tan (2016) 70 ans de Paul Bert Serpette (detail).


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Bold Colours & Typographies Studio Les Graphiquants (2014) Christian Dior Quotes.

Heritage

Jean Cocteau (1930’s) Coco Chanel.

Romance & Sensuality

Billy Kidd (2016) YSL Campaign Mon Paris Perfume.

Humour

Olympia Le-Tan (SS16) Hello Kitty Face Milk Box Handbag.

Scandalous

Mert & Marcus (2010) Lara Stone for Vogue Paris.

Graphic Shapes

Les Graphiquants (2015) Kering Yearly Report.

Poetic

My Little Box (2016) Claudie Pierlot Packaging.


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CRITIQUES OF THE SYSTEM MONEY & ELITES

Martin Parr (2013) Chanel Fashion Show.

Sociocultural elitism is very present in France (Rocamora, 2001) and especially in fashion, driving customers away (Appendice 9). Money rules, along with a small elite rules the system and has an immense power over designers (Appendice 10).

CLOSED-OFF WORLD

Martin Parr (2013) Stéphane Rolland Show.

Entering the fashion world in France is difficult from the start : fashion education in the country has an obscure reputation and is often expensive (Beghin, 2016). And the reluctance from the Fédération (French Fashion Council) to accept new designers does not help to bring about change (Abriat, 2016).


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COMMERCIAL FASHION

Martin Parr (2007) Louis Vuitton.

Under pressure to generate more and more money and appeal to a very large audience, Parisian fashion brands have been criticised for their lack of creativity and their sacrifices to commerciality in the recent years (Eedelkoort, 2015).

TOO MUCH TOO FAST

Martin Parr (1998) Fashion Week.

The debate on the fast rhythm of fashion is especially relevant in Paris where it impacted designers and their brands, from carefully crafted couture brands closing down (Appendice 10) to Raf Simons leaving Dior because of the pace forced on him by the fashion calendar.


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DARKEST YEAR The succession of tragedies in Paris between 2015 & 2016 drove both tourists and industries away from the city, another difficulty adding to an already bleak economical context (Insee, 2016). In response, the Mayor of Paris has just recently launched a six years plan to make the city attractive again and restore its image (Le Point, 2016 ; Appendice 1).


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Paolo Pellegrin (2015) Aftermath of the Paris Attacks. Richard Kalvar (2016) Paris during the flood. JĂŠrĂ´me Sessini (2016) Protests against the El-Khomri Law.


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THE FUTURE OF FASHION IN PARIS

“ For some, France is also the world center of luxury and fashion, an industry that alone accounts for 5 to 10% of the world economy and is at the heart of the creative industries (…). But this pre-eminence is being undermined by London, New York, Milan and an increasing number of "creative cities", from Beijing to Sao Paulo (…). This feeling of relative decline of fashion in Paris (shared by many observers) is accompanied by a sometimes bleak overall assessment of the country's performance and prospects in the creative industries: London and New York have more international museums, the American landscapes attract more and more, the best restaurants are Spanish or Danish ... A recent ranking of fashion schools, where Paris does not shine by its presence, seems to announce the end of the "monarchical" position of Paris in the world of creation. ” Godart, F. (2015) ‘La créativité source de soft power pour la France ? Le cas de Paris et de la mode’. In Mode de Recherche, n°22, December 2015. Paris : IFM.

Daniel Arnauld (2015) Beyond Paris Fashion Week.

A SLOW DECLINE ?


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PLANNING THE FUTURE The support system for young designers in France is not very developed. The country has a few competitions, but they are extremely selective and not limited to brands based in France. There is also a few spaces entirely dedicated to communities of emerging fashion creatives, two of them outside of Paris (grey zone below). There is three different trade show to which they can participate, but none of them is entirely dedicated to fashion. Finally, the Government is in charge of DEFI, an organisation for the development of fashion businesses in France, but it is fairly new and still has to make a real impact on the creative scene (Neuville, 2015).

Initiatives supporting young fashion designers (Grey = outside of Paris) : Solidarité Mode Prix Bettencourt Prix Mercedes-Benz

Maisons de Mode

Festival Hyères

Talents de Mode

Salon Tranoï

Prix ANDAM

Ateliers de Paris

Festival Dinan

Prix LVMH

Designers Apart.

Who’s Next

Fondation DEFI

COMPETITIONS

SPACES

EVENTS

ORGANISATION


CLIENTS

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FÉDÉRATION FRANÇAISE DE LA COUTURE DU PRÊT-À-PORTER DES COUTURIERS ET DES CRÉATEURS DE MODE The Federation, the French equivalent to the BFC, is an old institution completely in control of the fashion scene in Paris. They have developed a reputation of being very selective, making it difficult for new designers to show at PFW.

Stéphane Manel (2014) Designers Apartment. Daniel Arnold (2016) Paris Fashion Week. Fédération (2006) Logotype.

But recently, they have decided to dedicate fundings to projects reinvigorating creativity in fashion, amongst which the brand new Designers Apartment (Abriat, 2016). They are open to new projects and have planned on partnering with the Mairie de Paris to promote the future of fashion in the city (Dupuis & Miel, 2016).


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PARIS CITY COUNCIL Anne Hidalgo, the new Mayor of Paris, has been a vocal supporter of the local fashion industry since she came to power (Guibault, 2016).

She understands its economic importance and the benefits of the position of Paris as a leader in the fashion market. Given the situation, the Mairie de Paris (Paris City Council) would be an ideal client for a project promoting the future of fashion because they have announced as one of their priorities for the upcoming years (Dupuis & Miel, 2016).

Bertrand Rindoff Petroff (2016) Anne Hidalgo with Ralph Toledano at the La Mode aime Paris soirĂŠe. Mairie de Paris (2016) La mode aime Paris campaign. RĂŠmy Artiges (2015) Anne Hidalgo.



A NEW CREATIVE WAVE



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France Télévision (2015) Jacquemus : L’Enfant Terrible.



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OBSTACLES FOR YOUNG CREATIVES FINANCES

Starting any business without a budget is always difficult, and there isn’t many funds helping young designers to kickstart their career in France.

NETWORKS Networks of industry insiders, suppliers, manufactures, etc. … are out of reach without introductions, an aspect overlooked by fashion schools in France.

MENTALITY

The current mentality in France isn’t very open to the idea of new styles and new businesses in general ; a consequence of both cultural elitism (Appendice 9) and a stagnant economical context.

FEDERATION The Fédération (French BFC) is extremely selective and recalcitrant to welcoming new designers in the organisation and allowing them a slot during PFW (Abriat, 2016).

PRESS

The French Fashion press is known to favour well established brands and the main publications rarely run articles on emerging designers ; which affects the coverage and exposure of their work as well as its perceived legitimacy (‘validated’ by the press).

(See Appendices 4, 5, 6, 8)


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VOICES OF CONTESTATION DREAMING OF A NEW SYSTEM Nuit Debout, a protest movement similar to Occupy Wall Street, has been taking over the public spaces in France since late 2015. They oppose the oligarchy and the capitalist system and gather to discuss alternatives for a better world. In a way, they crystallise the opinions of a youth fighting for their future in a world that constantly undermines their talents and voices.


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IP3 PRESS/MAXPPP (2016) Place de la République. MAXPPP (2016) 4 Avri, Nuit Debout en Charente.

COMMUNICATION & COMMUNITY Nuit Debout reflects a shift in group behaviours : they do not have a specific leader, the community has the power and everyone can voice their ideas. They created networks of communication online, with DIY videos and structures sourced by everyone. They are the proof of a possible alternative, in the vein of the Sharing Economy.


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THE NEW STYLE TRIBES For young people, the fashion scene in Paris is detached from reality and does not represent the real population of the city (Appendice 8). During the summer, I wandered around Paris, cataloguing the people I saw in the street to make an inventory of the general style tribes I encountered and thus get a better perspective of the current trends. They can be found in most of the Western world nowadays, but each had a little twist that made it local (Appendice 2).

KITSCH & PROUD

Eclectic mix of colours & styles in an effort to stand out against the elegant background of Paris.


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The symbol of ethnic & culural diversity in Paris, a mix of inspirations from around the world with elements of the latest trends.

CULTURE REBEL


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STREET MINIMAL

They might be from the middle to upper educated classes fascinated by the lifestyle of the Parisian banlieues ; or the authentic street kids affirming their difference & distate of the system.


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Half clichĂŠ Parisien(ne), half cool kid : the balance between a chic & elegant style and an extra fun twist to make it youthful.

COOL FRENCHIE


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PAVING THE WAY

VÊTEMENTS Vêtements’ rise to fame was very fast (Madsen, 2016), helped by a sudden craze for their postmodern approach to streetwear, shining a new light on PFW and proving that there is more to it than couture and timeless chic.

Vêtements (2016) Chloé Le Drezen (2016) Pierre-Ange Carlotti (2016)


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JACQUEMUS Jacquemus is the new darling of the fashion scene. With his instantly recognisable style and his unusual journey to prominence, he is building a strong brand destined to last and already inspiring young designers (Appendices 8 & 11).

Bertrand Le Pluard (2015) Jacquemus La Femme Enfant. LĂŠa Colombo (2014) Backstage. David Luraschi (2016) Jacquemus Campaign #PrĂŞtALiker


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EMERGING PARISIAN FASHION DESIGNERS

EXPLORING THEIR IDENTITIES, COMMON INTERESTS & CREATIVE VISIONS The following moodboards are an analysis of the styles and aesthetics common to the new wave of Paris-based fashion designers. Eclectic and vibrant, their work is the reflection of an evolving society in which the youth of the city is trying to find its place and make its voice heard. Always political in their own ways, they pay hommage to the complex dynamics between heritage and future in Paris, showing that the local fashion scene still has a lot to offer.


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MULTICULTURAL ROOTS

Richard Kalvar (2016) Paris Euro FanZone.


Maison Chateau Rouge

Is inspired by the African community of Paris.

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Ignacia Zordan

Celebrates her Chilean & Native American roots.

OUI-Paname

Was created by a FrenchKorean couple.

Aalto International Brings a Finnish spirit to Parisian style.

Nattofranco

Designer NoĂŠmie Aiko Sebayashi mixes her French and Japanese heritage.

Atelier Beaurepaire

Celebrates African textiles.


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BOLD COLOURS & SHAPES

Michel Stoupak (2015) Paris- Siège du Parti Communiste.


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Jacquemus

Aalto International

Atelier Bartavelle

Mille Neuf Cent QuatreVingt Quatre Coralie Marabelle


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A SIMPLE KIND OF LIFE

Martin Parr (2015) Paris - Le Bon MarchĂŠ.


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Frater Paris

Côme Editions Pallas

Never follows Fashion Weeks & split profits with charities.

Mazarine

Bespoke clothes.

Prôèmes de Paris Promotes poetry & reading as a lifestyle.


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SOMETHING TO SAY

Lorenzo Meloni (2016) Nuit Debout.


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Nanaseasons

Celebrates youth culture.

Vêtements

Lighting the way for emerging creatives.

Club Pétanque

Special collection to support victims of the terrorist attacks.

Isakin

Voice of Barbès, the multicultural Paris.

Club 75


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POSTDIGITAL REVOLUTION

Yu Fujiwara (2016) PFW SS17.


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Wanda Nylon

Hiding & showing.

Clara Daguin

Technology integrated in clothing.

Drône

Is Not Dead

Reflects on privacy of information & invisibility to governments, reasons for the name ‘Drone’.

Ferrari Concept

AVOC

Political & unisex clothing.


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THE LIMITS OF ‘GOOD TASTE’

Martin Parr (2012) Paris.


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Faucon Friedlander Entreprises

Neith Nyer

Y-Project

AmĂŠlie Pichard

Nattofranco


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POWER IN THE STREET

Yanis Dadoum (2015) Banlieues de Paris.


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Pigalle Paris Andrea Crews

Inspired by Paris street culture.

Applecore

Racket Paris

Postmodern critic of the fashion industry.

Hit the Road Jacques

Makes accessible fashion.

VĂŞtements


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DO IT YOURSELF

Marie Dalle (2016) Place de la République.


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Victoria/Tomas Afterhomeworks Jacquemus

Started his own business all by himself & remains fully independant.

Entirely homemade by young teens still in high school.

KochĂŠ

Mixes high fashion craft with street culture.

Off-White

Questions notions of race & gender in Parisian streets.

Niuku


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METHODS OF COMMUNICATION

They use the streets of Paris and their own gangs of friends to showcase their creations.

Gucci Gang Yulya Shadrinsky (2016) The Gucci Gang.

STREETS OF PARIS & STYLE GANGS

Marie Dalle (2016) Atelier Beaurepaire..

Yu Fujiwara (2016) PFW SS17.


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Emerging designers have found ways to communicate outside of traditional medias. They rely mainly on social networks and digital content for their promotion, creating unique websites and selling online to an international audience.

ONLINE SPACES

Avoc Website

Andrea Crews Instagram

Nattofranco Website


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Maison Château Rouge

Nattofranco

Maya Fuhr (2016) Nattofranco.

Boycott Magazine

Jacquemus

They also have their own DIY aesthetics, cheap to make and visually efficient, that they present in independent French publications.

DIY AESTHETICS & INDIE PRESS

Taylor Murphy (2015) Emerging Fashion Visionaries.

Antidote Magazine

Nichons-nous dans l’Internet


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A PLAN OF ACTION

After reviewing my research and my interviews with young creatives, I was able to pinpoint which elements to prioritise in a plan to support the future of fashion in Paris (see Appendices 4, 5, 6, 7, 8).

1 2 3 4 5

MONEY - Funds for designers - Low-interest loans - Financial advice & counseling - Tax exemptions for specific aspects of the business (eg. employment, ‌)

SPACE - Low-rent studio spaces - Designer residencies - Communal workshop spaces - Showroom, presentation & shopping spaces

NETWORK - Networking events for emerging designers - Mentoring programs with established professionals - Facilitated contact and exchanges with members of the industry - Organisation of collaborations

VISIBILITY - Events & experiences promoting emerging designers’ work - Large-scale campaign of promotion - Specific platforms of communication online & offline - General promotion program in partnership with press, social medias & fashion organisations

EDUCATION - More free quality fashion education with international recognition - Bursary programs for private & international fashion schools - Workshops & short courses for young designers focusing on starting a business & building a brand



INITIATIVES OF PROMOTION



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Skander Khlif (2016) Paris Paris Paris.



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SUPPORTING & PROMOTING Initiatives promoting, supporting and/or emulating emerging creatives are numerous. They exist in various forms, from events, to education, to spaces. After analysing 13 of them across the world (with a focus on fashion and Paris), I was able to find strengths, weaknesses and patterns informing my research on their methods of communication (appendix 3).

Online Platforms

Communities & Networks

The Dirty Art Department

DAD (2016) The Wandering School.

Spaces of experience

Chanel The Fifth Sense Es Devlin (2016)

Branding

Soyez Chic - Brand Identity

Juri Zaech & Samantha Alexandre (2016)


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ONLINE SPACES

MULTIPLE PLATFORMS

Simon Porte Jacquemus (2016) Instagram Profile. Jacquemus (2016) Online Shop.

Internet is the best showcase space for emerging creatives. Cheap, international, easy to use, it allows them to share their work with thousands around the world and find people with whom it will resonates. Across multiple platforms (social medias, websites, blogs, online magazines, …), they curate their own identities and sell their products. Having a platform online, for young designers, is a first step to legitimacy all while keeping control over their brand. Emerging brand Vêtements skyrocketed to fame thanks to the online ‘buzz’ its products created on social medias (Pfeiffer, 2015). Another example, Jacquemus, shows its capacity to curate a song brand across all online platforms with little means. The designer’s trademark DIY aesthetics work perfectly for a post-digital society looking for bold colours and simple yet strong images easy to share and consume quickly (Appendix 11).

‘Selling’ your brand & selling online.


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The digital revolution has broadened the possibilities for image-making. No longer limited to still images in magazines (although they still play an important role in fashion), brands are communicating using made-for-screen content. The rise of YouTube has made video formats extremely popular, including fashion films. Curated video websites like NOWNESS are examples of how to find a balance between art, video and editorial content : carefully created clips with strong concepts and art direction.

MADE FOR SCREENS Online spaces allow brands to use more experimental communication mediums, from .gifs to augmented and virtual reality. New technologies are used to create unique campaigns and editorial content. The more original they are, the more attention they will attract.

Made-for-screen content is an efficient way of communicating to a large online audience. JJ Ren (2016) Suki for W Mag. Jaime Martinez (2013) MIA for Versus Versace. NOWNESS (2015) Homepage. Samsung UK (2015) Years & Years VR Experience. STYLEDUMONDE (2016) Russian FW.


COMMUNITIES

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SHARING CULTURE

Social medias have facilitated the creation of communities with shared interests. A large number of online subcultures have appeared (Bennett, 2004). They find a space online where they can share their interests and spread their ideas. In an age where we live behind screens, the need for communities and human interactions is increasing (Allmer, 2015). The multiplication of initiatives responding to this need with ‘sharing culture’ led to the development of the ‘Sharing Economy’ (Aigrain, 2012). Companies like AirBnb and initiatives like the FabLabs are examples of this new trends nonprofessionals sharing their skills and ressources, of groups of people coming together to create something bigger than themselves.

AirBnb (2015) Create your own logo. MCCKC (2013) Fablab.


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THE NEW COMMUNE In 2015, LS:N reported on a trend that they titled ‘The New Commune’. They described it as the rise in co-working and co-living spaces, where groups of individuals come together in a space around a project or a concept. For emerging creatives, forming communities is often beneficial. They can exchange skills and ideas, support each-other, collaborate. Initiatives like the Dirty Art Department (Appendix 7) emulate this atmosphere of creative exchange. Artists’ communities were prominent in the Paris scene during most of the XIXth and XXth Centuries. If they are still present in the city, they lost in influence at the end of the Années Palaces - a period of time during the late 70’s when artists and designers from all around the world met up at the Palace night-club and collaborated on various projects (Drake, 2010).

WeWork (2015) Aldgate Tower space. Unlnown (1977) Yves Saint Laurent, Pierre Bergé & Andy Warhol at the Palace.


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SPACES OF EXPERIENCE Artist Space Korakrit Arunanondchai (2015) Painting With History In A Room Filled With People With Funny Names

Es Devlin (2016) Chanel - The Fifth Sense.

Artist x Brand Space

The Experience Economy encompass the whole notion of experiences, feelings and senses as branded content (Pine & Gilmore, 2011). In our post-digital society, we live things in real life to then report about it online, via social medias. Thus, if we are reporting about a branded experience, we help spreading advertisement and consolidating a company’s identity and space in popular culture.


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Brand Spaces Gucci (2015) Dover Street Market New York.

Jean Paul Gaultier (2015) Grand Palais Exhibition. Chanel (2016) Saint Tropez Pop-Up Store.

This is why branded experiences have become a trend in communication : Chanel the Fifth Sense, pop-up stores, ‌ all these physical spaces are designed to make visitors feel and, ultimately, consume. There is still a lot to imagine and create when it comes to experiences as communication.


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DESIGN TESTS


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BRAND IDENTITY

Coming up with options of names for the initative. Still needs to be refined. Could depend on the physical location.


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VISUAL IDENTITY MOODBOARD Antoine Bonnet

Cordova Canillas Creative Agency

Virginie Morgand Sandra Andreasson

Halftone

Claude Viallat

Daniel Buren

Franรงois Peyranne Drawswords Studio


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LOGOTYPES IDEAS

Testing with a potential name in two languages, various colours and types.

Some of them feel too much like the V&A Museum’s logo. There needs to be a clear balance of contemporary style and Parisian identity : mixing serif type with bright colours.


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ILLUSTRATION STYLES TESTS

Testing a variety of fashion illustration styles to use for the brand’s content based on people.


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Because fashion & Parisian brand identity both use illustration a lot, and it is a creative medium. Could be use in designing the brand’s visual identity.


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SOCIAL MEDIA PRESENCE

Social media content : use of bright colours, illustrations, ... a way of attracting viewers. An example of art/fashion collaboration that could be emulated by the platform.


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ONLINE PLATFORMS

Mock-up design of a feature & editorial website.


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A visually-led website as an international platform to promote Parisian designers, with content created specifically for digital platforms : videos, gifs, interactive experiences. Design concept 1 Very simple, not enough options when entering the website.


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Colourful and simple design, easy to navigate and engaging.


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Website design test version II More detailed website, missing some bright colours.


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Homepage

Editorials

Videos

Digital content


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Informations

Designers profiles

Online Shop


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Contact

Application

Other logotype tests for the website. More post-digital. Could be an animated .gif


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ONLINE CONTENT

3D animation motion design test for Nattofranco / to be featured on the online platform as exclusive content promoting the brand. Too simple to be a full feature, but can be used on Instagram/Facebook/Twitter.


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CONCEPT FOR A PROMOTIONAL EVENT


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Happening, during Paris Fashion Week, inspired by Jacquemus & Backlash Brands Trend.


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A SPACE IN PARIS 7

2

6 5

1

4

3

Where the space could be in Paris ? 1 - East Bank, near the Maison de la Radio, an area 6 - RĂŠpublique, the home of Nuit Debout and protest currently developing its cultural attractivity.

movements, could be a symbol of the change that emerging designers can bring in the fashion scene.

2 - Triangle d’Or, in between all the high-fashion maisons, at the heart of Parisian fashion, to show the 7 - Montmarte, the historical center of the Parisian art scene. difference and unicity of the emerging designers. 3 - Montsouris, a multicultiral area with a lot of students and young people, and the international center for foreign students, a place of youth and future change. 4 - Quartier Latin, main art and design universities of Paris, historical area line dot philosophers and writers, close but not too close to famous landmarks. 5 - Beaubourg, near the Pompidou Center, an attractive area with an already present and lively creative community.


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Mock-up facade of the space / In an Haussman style building to convey Parisian identity, but with bright colours and strong visuals outside to draw the eye. Example of building, but not the one to use.


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A multipurpose space, open to the public but with private work spaces for the designers.

Mixing medias in a space - to develop.


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Marie Dalle (2016) Vue depuis l’Institut du Monde Arabe.



APPENDICES



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PARIS JE T’AIME

APPENDIX 1

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF A SHORT FILM DIRECTED BY JALIL LESPERT AND COMMISSIONED BY THE MAYOR OF PARIS TO PROMOTE TOURISM IN PARIS. Title : Paris je t’aime (Paris I love you) Director : Jalil Lespert Length : 2:30

Music : Just need your love by Hyphen Hyphen Commissioned by : Mairie de Paris (Paris Mayor Office)

A couple wakes up together in a bed : playing with the cliché of Paris, city of love and sensuality.

The woman goes to open the window.

A view of the Champs Elysées.

She stands, smiling, in front of a sunny view of Paris, with the Eiffel Tower in the background.

A woman is cycling on a Velib’ in a very clean street (by Paris standards).


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A young girl visits le Louvre, she looks fascinated Meet-cute with a boy in front of a painting : : culture interesting to all. again, city of love.

Two girls take pictures of jewelry in a department The stained-glass ceiling of the Galeries store : shopping in Paris. Lafayette, a high-end department store.

Skateboarding on the Place de la RĂŠpublique A Balenciaga runway show with the Eiffel Tower : hommage to the victims of recent attacks, in the background. symbol of street culture.

The audience at the Balenciaga show : the logo A Parisienne, well dressed, visits a museum : is very visible in the background. symbol of Parisian chic & culture.


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Two children in dance attire practice on the Another shot of the Eiffel tower : let’s be clear rooftop of the Opera Garnier, with a large view of Paris : high-culture made to look cute and that we’re in Paris. accessible.

Champs-Elysées and the Arc de Triomphe.

Another beautiful Parisienne in a museum : the international fantasy.

The young couple that met at le Louvre before Other tourists taking silly pictures in front of is taking a selfie in front of the famous pyramid the pyramid : visiting Paris is a fun experience. : tourist activities, fun, youth.

Another shot of the Eiffel Tower.

Diverse group dancing together : cool, street culture, vibrant city.


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White nuclear family looking happy : visit Paris Shot of the Seine, Eiffel Tower in the background. with your family, it’ll be fun.

Family having fun together.

The same family with a large view of Paris behind them.

Sunny weather. The Sacré Coeur.

The Opéra Garnier.

A dancer in the halls of the Opera Garnier, A joyful couple in a vintage car : cliché of the doing a jeté. romantic Paris, out of time.


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The same couple, sharing a kiss : city of love, Models at a Chanel runway show. The name of again. the brand is never shown.

Karl Lagerfeld closes the show, confirming that Another couple sharing a kiss in front of a very it was for Chanel. Parisian background.

The white nuclear family is taking a selfie in People shopping in a street market : evokes front of Notre-Dame. happy, wholesome, healthy living.

Either friends or a same-sex couple in le Marais, A shot of the door of the Dior headquarters. the Paris gay district : inclusive city. The name of the brand is clear.


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The couple from the beginning of the video A Dior runway show, as announced by the shot shares a passionate kiss in the lift up to the top beforehand. of the Eiffel Tower.

They start dancing at the top of the Eiffel Tower Chefs preparing a delicate meal : advertising of : the ultimate clichĂŠ of romance in Paris. the world-famous French cuisine.

A famous French chef tasting the meal : quality An artful shot of the Seine with the sun setting and luxury of the Parisian lifestyle. down.

A couple of dancers on stage at the Opera : A woman running along the Seine : healthy high-culture, luxury, chic. lifestyle, pure air (as pure as it gets in Paris).


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People partying on the docks of the Seine on a A party in the street : Paris is a lively city. sunny day.

The FanZone during the 2016 Euro Football The couple at the top of the Eiffel Tower, still competition : city of sports and world-class dancing. events - probably trying really hard to get the next Olympic Games.

Anne Hidalgo, the Mayor of Paris, proud of her David Guetta’s gig during the Euro : a famous six-years plan to boost tourism in Paris (which French, fun city. includes the video).

Fireworks with artful night shots of the Eiffel Tower and Paris by night : vibrant nightlife in Paris.


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Sponsors of the video include luxury groups Kering and LVMH, department store Galeries Lafayette and a variety of tourism & travel organisations. If Disneyland Paris is part of the sponsors, the park is never shown in the video, maybe because it was deemed not ‘classy’, chic or cool enough for the video.

PROMOTING FASHION AND THE PARIS BRAND The video was commissioned by the Mayor of Paris as a part of their large plan to boost tourism in Paris in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks (Le Point, 2016). It was directed by Jalil Lespert, whose most famous work as a director is the 2014 film Yves Saint Laurent, a biography of the eponymous fashion designer. He’s also well-known for his stylish and artful visuals. The choice to have him direct what is essentially a 2:30 minutes long advertisement for the city of Paris makes sense : he reminds people of high-fashion and culture, two elements that attract a lot of tourists to the city. This position is reflected in the video, with three different sequences showing fashion shows from renowned brands (Chanel and Dior, the flagships of French couture ; and postDemna Balenciaga for a bit of originality,

even if their sequence is as sleek and polished as the others). The brands are very clearly shown, proving that Paris wants to advertise its place in the fashion industry as one of its main characteristics. The rest of the video is a good example of the branding of Paris, with elements of sensuality, romance, vintage, chic, style, … all to the sound of a famous French band representing the creative industry in the country. The video sparked the creation of another one, Paris on t’aime aussi (Paris we love you too) filmed by amateurs and showing a less polished, more realistic and more diverse vision of Paris (2016).


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STYLE ETHNOGRAPHY

APPENDIX 2

OBSERVING AND CATALOGUING THE STYLES OF THE PARISIAN YOUTH DURING A YARD SALE IN PARIS, AUGUST 2016.

Vintage Sportswear

Full Charity Shop Look

All in the Attitude

Message T-Shirts

Ethnic Fashion

Casual

Mixed Prints

(All images (c) Dora Moutot, posted with authorisations from the subjects on the yard sale’s Facebook page).


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13 PLATFORMS OF PROMOTION

APPENDIX 3

OBSERVING AND ANALYSING 13 DIFFERENT PLATFORMS PROMOTING AND/OR SUPPORTING CREATIVES, WITH A FOCUS ON EXISTING FRENCH PLATFORMS AND FASHION RELATED INITIATIVES.

1. I-D FRANCE i-D France was only launched in 2015 and exists solely online. Their content is a mix of articles translated from the English version and original features concentrating on French culture and fashion. The editorial team wants it to be « as vibrant as the youth of France, youth that many judge apathetic and disillusioned » to show another side of it (i-D France, 2015). How they support creatives : They’re more or less the only media outlet in France that write consistently about emerging fashion designers and underground culture. Because their advertisers aren’t the same as the rest of the fashion press of the country (no LVMH or Kering) and they’re part of the politically vocal Vice Group, they have the freedom to promote the most obscure designers just starting out, to write entire features about them and to have their clothes in editorials.

+:

established reputation of the magazine in the fashion world, freedom of content, in touch with the youth and their concerns

- : French version of i-D still unknown for a wider audience (so less exposure), not enough

of the content focuses on fashion


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2. FESTIVAL INTERNATIONAL DE MODE ET DE PHOTOGRAPHIE D’HYÉRES The International Festival of Fashion and Photographie of Hyères is held every year in the Villa Noailles, a renowned cultural spot in Provence, in the South of France. How they support creatives : 10 emerging designers from all around the world are selected each years. They can receive up to 3 of the 4 different prizes of the Festival (often money to help their brand). The Grand Prix and the Mention Spéciale are selected by a jury of industry professionals. The Prix Chloé is selected by members of the Chloé group, and receive mentorship from them. The Prix du Public is voted by inhabitants of the local city who are invited to a large-scale open-for-all catwalk show where they get to choose their favorite designer.

+ : Outside of Paris for a change, has a reputation of simplicity/not pretentious, more than

one chance to win, the Prix du Public is very good for the democratization of fashion

- : impossible to get selected without professional and expensive collections that not all

designers can afford, most of the brands that won a prize there have yet to make it on a larger scale because the coverage isn’t very good

Villa Noailles (2012) Logotype. Villa Noailles (2016) Logotype 31st Festival. Manuel Obadia-Wills (2016) La Mode de demain est à Hyères for i-D France.


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3. PRIX ANDAM & LVMH The ANDAM & LVMH prizes are organized by different people, but they are quite similar. They select emerging design brands from France (ANDAM) or all around the world (LVMH). The winner is selected by a panel of highly respected members of the industry. Both competitions are funded by luxury groups. How they support creatives : Each competition gives its winner a large sum of money to invest in their business and a year of mentorship. + : great press coverage, usually quite helpful for the designers who won - : extremely selective and difficult to access if you aren’t already backed up by investors, as the brand has to be already a few seasons in

4. THE DIRTY ART DEPARTMENT Founded in 2011 at the Sandberg Instituut in Deutschland, The Dirty Art Department is both an art degree and an art collective. How it supports creatives : By offering a space and an context in which to meet and collaborate with other creatives. Students come from all backgrounds and are encouraged to create as much as they want in their allocated space, all while reflecting on larger problematics of philosophy, politics and social sciences. + : Unique concept, very efficient branding, community in its true form, a space, open to all - : Could be seen as too conceptual, online platform not very engaging Read more about the Dirty Art Department in Appendice 7. The Dirty Art Department (2016) Website Homepage, Making Space for Art, Non-Stop Plaza Exhbition


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5. ATELIERS DE PARIS The Paris Workshops are a collective financed by the Mayor of Paris destined to encourage craftsmanship and creativity in the city, with a focus on fashion, accessories & product design. How they support creatives : Each year a few creatives/brands are chosen to be part of the project. They receive a space with reduced rent, finance and business mentoring and are encouraged to collaborate together. Each year, they come together by producing an exhibition shown in a gallery in Paris around a common topic. + : very practical help, useful to launch your brand, collaborative aspect, the offer of a space of creation and a space of display/expression - : relatively unknown, not recognized by fashion organisation, communication and branding often awkard/not very efficient, online platforms not always well made or managed Read more about the Ateliers de Paris in Appendice 4. Ateliers de Paris (2011) Logotype. Ateliers de Paris (2014) Photographs for Website. Ateliers de Paris (2016) Exhibition posters for : Mobilier National & Sous le Soleil Exactement.


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6. VILLA BELLEVILE The Villa Belleville is a place dedicated to the support, showcase and production of fine arts. They’re based in Belleville, a part of Paris often associated with a reputation of poverty and criminality. The initiative goes against this reputation to show the diversity of ideas and talents that can emerge from where people least expect it. They organise a lot of cultural events open to all in order to make art more accessible. How they support creatives : Artists can apply for a 3 or 6 month residency, during which they’ll have access to a space in the Villa to create their project. The place is equipped with everything that they could need for print, construction, sculpture, … The workshops are open to the public and people can visit them to see artists at work. They have an exhibition space to showcase the creation of the residents. The artists in residency at the Villa Belleville often collaborate together. + : very effective brand image, focused on social aspects, proud of its local community, art for all, a space to create and showcase - : residencies might be too short, participate in the gentrification of Belleville, lack of a consistant online platform Collectif Curry Vavart (2015) Villa Belleville Pressbook.


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7. PALAIS GALLIERA - MUSÉE DE LA MODE DE LA VILLE DE PARIS The Palais Galliera is the historical Museum of Fashion of Paris. It is located just at the end of the Avenue Montaigne, the main high-end shopping street of the city (with Chanel & Dior flagship stores) and next to various spaces of culture (Palais de Tokyo, Museum Of Modern Art, Museum of Asian Arts and the Fondation Pierre Bergé and Yves SaintLaurent). How they support creatives : The Palais doesn’t showcase or support non-established designers, but it made the list because it is the main public and accessible-to-all noncommercial space dedicated to fashion in Paris. + : Excellent reputation, beautiful space - : If not elitist, the Palais is mainly focused on historical fashion and less on what is being done in the moment. Their branding is a very reflection of this : heritage, classic, the cliché of Paris

Pierre Antoine (2015) Palais Galliera - Fonds pour la ville de Paris.


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8. LA GAITÉ LYRIQUE A space dedicated to medias and creation in the center of Paris, the Gaité Lyrique multitasks as an exhibition gallery, a concept store, a library, a community space, a performance venue, a workshop, a café, etc … Their focus is on the then and now, and specifically on digital and post-digital creation. How they support creatives : The Gaité Lyrique funds contemporary art & design projects, showcases unknown artists creating work outside of the codes of fine art and generally tries to have a program centered around young creatives. They also encourage the creation of art collectives and support them in their practice by offering spaces, ressources and connections if they need them. + : Beautiful brand identity, a space in the center of the city with a lot of possibility, a diverse offer (workshops for everyone, children activities, free access to culture, library, coding classes …) - : They need a more interactive online platform, especially considering their focus on digital and post-digital practices Read more about the Gaité Lyrique in Appendice 12. Marie Dalle (2015) Front of La Gaité Lyrique. La Gaité Lyrique (2013) Promotional Picture.


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9. MUSÉE DES ARTS DÉCORATIFS Often nicknamed « the French V&A Museum », the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris specializes in applied arts, craftsmanship and design. Currently undergoing a rebranding, they are trying to focus more on fashion and contemporary creation in order to attract more visitors. How they support creatives : Recent exhibitions on the history of fashion showcasing work from emerging designers including Vêtements and Jacquemus ; they also have a concept store (107 Rivoli) that sells a large selection of creations from unknown fashion and product designers. + : Can make an impact on a large audience due to its position (National Institution) and its location (right next to Le Louvre) ; has substantial economical power - : Restrictions of the Museum space ; More for showcase and awareness than support

Marie Dalle (2016) Musée des Arts Décoratifs Entrance & 107 Rivoli Boutique


10. LES DOCKS - CITÉ DE LA MODE ET DU DESIGN The Cité is a space on the docks of the Seine (cue the name) dedicated to fashion and design. It is home to the IFM (Institut Français de la Mode - French Fashion Institut, a private fashion university currently at the top of the country’s fashion schools rankings) and to many exhibitions, workshops and event focused on the practice of design. How they support creatives : Residency for design and fashion brands looking for a well exposed space ; Showcasing the latest in design ; Home to a fashion school ; A space of interactions and collaboration ; Large number of workshops for those who want to hone their skills. + : Good visibility, Beautiful brand image, a large offer

Marie Dalle (2015) Les Docks en été.

- : Everything is expensive, from the school to the workshop and the exhibitions

11. THE NEW DESIGNERS With its posters telling all of Paris «Haute Couture is dead» (like the ones I photographed around the world famous Galleries Lafayette), The New Designers had everyone’s attention. Launched in 2015, their website is an online shop selling designs from various emerging Paris-based creatives. They’re positioned and branded as an urban/steet/sportswear company. How they support creatives : Selecting unknown designers and offering them a way of being discovered and making money, they also mentor them and take care of their campaigns. + : strong brand identity and unique advertisement (Backlash Brand), a straightforward concept - : very specific in their style, so not accessible for every designers ; still a bit underground

Marie Dalle (2015) Chaussée d’Antin Lafayette


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12. NOT JUST A LABEL The Cité is a space on the docks of the Seine (cue the name) dedicated to fashion and design. It is home to the IFM (Institut Français de la Mode - French Fashion Institut, a private fashion university currently at the top of the country’s fashion schools rankings) and to many exhibitions, workshops and event focused on the practice of design. How they support creatives : Residency for design and fashion brands looking for a well exposed space ; Showcasing the latest in design ; Home to a fashion school ; A space of interactions and collaboration ; Large number of workshops for those who want to hone their skills. + : Good visibility, Beautiful brand image, a large offer - : Everything is expensive, from the school to the workshop and the exhibitions Marie Dalle (2015) Les Docks en été.

13. NEWGEN An initiative from the British Fashion Council, NEWGEN has helped young designers to achieve international recognition and to build sustainable brands (Marques’Almeida, Holly Fulton, ...). How they support creatives : NEWGEN works in various fields to support the designers they selected : finance and management training, marketing and merchandising counselling, financial support, industry connections and networking, communication, collaboration opportunities, … The BFC is there to help them in every aspect of their development until the brands can continue by themselves or find private investors. + : Complete and covers every aspect, Proved efficient in the past, Makes sure to integrate the designers to LFW, doesn’t overshadow the individual identities of the brands they support - : Not really any negative aspects Read more about NEWGEN in Appendice 6.


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INTERVIEW MAZARINE

APPENDIX 4

MAZARINE IS A PARIS-BASED BRAND LAUNCHED IN 2010 . « WINNER OF THE THE CITY OF PARIS’ 2015 GRAND PRIX DE LA CRÉATION, [MAZARINE] IS A CONTEMPORARY BRAND WHICH INVITES ITS CLIENTS TO CREATE THEIR OWN EXCLUSIVE COLLECTIONS ». THEY ARE CURRENTLY BASED AT THE ATELIERS DE PARIS.

Q : The genesis of a young brand is never easy. by participating and winning a variety of What, in your opinion, was the most difficult competitions, looking for the support of part of your development so far ? And your main some key players, etc. advantages to counter it ? Treasury is essential. As it is for any new Trust is difficult to establish as a young brand just starting. You need to support brand. Why us and not another ? Do we the costs of production to have things to really have something new to propose in present while not selling anything to any an ultra-saturated market ? You have to buyers because they are yet to trust you. prove to buyers, workshops and institutions Wholesale buyers wait to see you on the that we’re trustworthy because we’re 100% market for a few seasons to make sure we’ll invested and convinced by our project.One be able to produce their orders. There of the support in France, in regard of the isn’t many private costumers able to afford economic system, are the public authorities clothing at a « designer » price so they wait that support worthy projects both financially to hear more about the brand season after and with a network. That’s what we did season (through press, social media, etc.)You then need to find ways to help with treasury problems : you need money when you start, you can convince people around you to help (love money [sic]) and constantly think about where it is best for you to invest this money (is it time to favor communication ? distribution ? production ? development ? etc.) Q : Now imagine that you had access to unlimited ressources to develop Mazarine. In which aspect(s) of the brand would you invest in priority ? Is there a specific project you’d like to realize ? Human Ressources. Having a motivated, dynamic team invested in every task part of the production system. Communication : Having quality products would be easy with unlimited ressources Fiona Torre (2015) Mazarine AW16 Lookbook.


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(materials, production, etc‌). Having a coherent, thought-through brand image on a long-term basis and offering a different universe to its costumers is more complex. You again need to make sure to select the right people, for which you need time and money. Q : You received the Grand Prix de la CrÊation de la Ville de Paris in 2015. What was its impact on the brand Mazarine ? Credibility and legitimacy because we won a prize from an institution. Visibility (press). Financial support. Q : You are one of the brands in residency at the Ateliers de Paris. How would you sum up your experience there ? What were the main positive aspects ? Support of public authorities (credibility, legitimacy, network, formation)Financial support (workshop with reduced rent allowing us to focus our money on developing the brand)Synergy/collaboration with the other brands part of the project (textile designers, product design, etc.)

Fiona Torre (2015) Mazarine AW16 Lookbook.


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ORIGINAL INTERVIEW CONDUCTED IN FRENCH à la meilleur allocation qu’il est possible de VIA E-MAILS WITH QUENTIN, HEAD OF PRESS FOR faire sur un budget (est-ce le moment pour MAZARINE privilégier la communication ? la distribution ? Q : Le parcours d’une jeune marque à ses débuts n’est jamais très facile. Qu’est-ce qui, pour vous, a été le plus difficile dans votre développement jusqu’ici ? Et quels ont été vos principaux atouts pour y faire face ? La confiance est difficile à instaurer en tant que jeune marque. Pourquoi nous plutôt qu’une autre ? Propose-t-on réellement quelque chose de nouveau dans un secteur ultra-saturé ? Il faut donc prouver aux acheteurs, ateliers, et institutions que nous sommes dignes de confiance car investis à 100% et convaincus de notre projet. L’un des leviers en France, au vu du système économique, est de trouver appui au sein des pouvoirs publics qui appuient les projets méritants tant au niveau financier qu’au niveau réseau. Nous avons misé sur cet axe en candidatant et gagnant des concours, recherchant l’appui de certaines personnes clés etc.

la production ? le développement ? etc.) Q : Imaginons que vous ayez accès à des ressources illimitées pour développer Mazarine. Dans quel(s) domaine(s) les investiriez-vous en priorité ? Y a-t-il un projet en particulier que vous aimeriez réaliser ? Les ressources humaines. Avoir une équipe motivée, dynamique, investie dans chacune des tâches afférente à l’ensemble du système de production. La communication. Avoir des produits de qualité est très simple lorsque les ressources sont illimitées (matières, production etc.). Avoir une image de marque cohérente, réfléchie sur le long terme et proposant un univers différent à ses clientes est plus complexe. Il faut donc savoir bien s’entourer et donc encore une fois bien recruter, ce qui prend du temps et de l’argent.

Q : Vous avez reçu le Grand Prix de la Création de la Ville de Paris en 2015. Quel en a été l’impact sur La trésorerie est capitale. Comme pour toutes la marque Mazarine ? les marques en lancement. Il faut pouvoir supporter les coûts liés au fait de produire Crédibilité et légitimité du projet car récompensé pour se faire connaître et de ne rien vendre par une institution (voir question 1).
Visibilité car l’ensemble des acteurs attendent d’avoir (presse).
Appui financier. confiance en vous : les acheteurs internationaux (wholesale) attendent de nous voir sur le marché plusieurs saisons pour être certains que nous serons en mesure de livrer leur commande. Les acheteurs particuliers sont peu nombreux à pouvoir se permettre de s’acheter un vêtement au prix « designer » et attendent donc d’avoir eu vent de la marque de manière plus importante au fil des saisons (presse, réseaux sociaux etc.) Il faut donc trouver des systèmes pour pallier ce problème de trésorerie : en avoir un peu de départ, convaincre quelques personnes de son entourage (love money) et réfléchir constamment

Q : Vous faites partie des marques en résidence aux Ateliers de Paris. Comment résumeriez-vous cette expérience pour vous ? Quels en sont les principaux points positifs ? Appui des pouvoirs publics (crédibilité, légitimité, réseau, formation).
Appui financier (atelier au loyer réduit permettant de focaliser les finances sur le cœur de métier de la marque).
Synergie/collaboration avec les autres métiers hébergés au sein de l’incubateur (designer textile, plumassier, designer d’objet etc.)


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INTERVIEW OUI PANAME

APPENDICE 5

OUI PANAME IS A FRENCH-KOREAN BRAND FOUNDED BY JULIEN COUSTON & EUNSONG YOO IN PARIS. THEY SPECIALISE IN CASUALWEAR AND PRINTED GRAPHIC T-SHIRTS AND SWEATSHIRTS MIXING FRENCH AND KOREAN CULTURES. THEY RECENTLY MOVED TO SEOUL TO EXPAND THEIR BUSINESS.

Q : How did the genesis of your brand OUI «Oui » because EunSong’s full name (Yoo PANAME happen ? From the original idea, the Eun Song) made a « YES » and we translated it in French. Also « oui » is a positive word and creation … we wanted something positive in the name, So at the beginning we hadn’t really planned as a lucky charm. « Paname » [Translation on creating a brand : it’s a long story, but I’ll note : Paname is a nickname for Paris used tell you about it.My little brother took over by young people and associated with street a small pizzeria in Lyon that my uncle and slang] because we thought « Paris » first my dad own.He wanted to do something because we were from Paris but it wasn’t right else of the space so I suggested to print and a friend suggested « Paname » instead. t-shirts and to teach him how to use the It’s better. « Paris » is too couture, it didn’t machines, I went to Lyon for 3 days and as fit.Today, we keep on making sweatshirts « I an example I printed 5 t-shirts with « Je suis am Korean » and we still deliver our t-shirts Coréenne » (« I am Korean »).These t-shirts and sweatshirts in pizza boxes. were for my girlfriend EunSong, with whom I created OUI Paname.We lived in Paris and Q : What was the most difficult thing for you in every time she’d meet someone they’d ask the adventure of your brand ? the same question : « are you Chinese ? Or Japanese Maybe ? »So when I came back to So far, the most difficult thing was moving to Paris, I gave her the t-shirts and she wore Korea. What I mean is that when we arrived them all the time and all the Koreans of in Seoul in January of 2016, we had to start Paris we knew started ordering these t-shirts everything all over again and find suppliers « I am Korean ».With the money of the 5 with the right quality we were looking for, buy first orders, we made 20 t-shirts, then 40 … the machines to print everything ourselves, We sold the t-shirts in pizza boxes that we find a workshop, … everything while keeping found in my brother’s workshop, and he did up with the stores’ calendars and the orders the printing. A friend of EunSong who had (that’s why our latest collection was late). It’s a clothing shop in Korea ordered t-shirts also hard to work both on OUI Paname and after seing them online on EunSong, then on other stuff at the same time. I [Julien] work she ordered more because the sold really full time for OUI Paname since September well. At that time we had no name, no logo, only, before, in Paris, I worked as a stylist for no other products … nothing.So we came Lacoste, and when I arrived in Korea I went up the next day with a name : OUI paname. to university for 4 months to learn Korean. I


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and Korean cultures, and it’s true that what people like in Korea doesn’t necessarily work in France, and vice versa. In Korea, we rarely sell clothing with printed text in Korean for example, while we do in France. […] In France, I think our costumers like the double culture concept while Koreans are more attracted to our « non conventional » image, the press really likes it. (Magazines are a bit tired to see Korean brands copy off each-other and present the same ideas. They see that we’re more simple with less ressources, and they like it.) Q : What would you say are your main sources of inspiration in your creative process ? Is there maybe some brands/creatives/artists that inspire you or interest you currently in Korea and in France ?

OUI Paname (2014) Oui, c’est Paname.

had to stop to work on OUI Paname because we kept on expanding.EunSong got a job as creative director of a Korean brand that’s she’s currently creating with more resources than when we started OUI Paname (but said brand doesn’t belong to us, contrary to OUI Paname). The lack of ressources we have for OUI Paname makes everything more difficult but it’s also part of our singularity and we actually like to communicate on the fact that we are a very small brand, and that we do what we can with what we have, nothing more. EunSong and I both come from modest families and OUI Paname really represents who we are. In France it’s not really unusual but in Korea, it’s almost taboo. No one says « our brand has very little ressources and it doesn’t bother us for our image ».

That’s not an easy question because personally I don’t really look at what other brands do, neither at fashion shows … I’m more inspired by films, animes, illustrators, what I see in museums, in window displays or the front of Korean restaurants … I’m more the graphic designer for Oui Paname, so that’s what I concentrate on. […]Another very important source of inspiration for me is all the colors and color combination that can be found in Thailand, or on the packaging of Thai products. […] EunSong is in charge of the styling and creation. She looks a lot at other brands, but we don’t have any specific reference. Difficult to give a name or a brand. Q : Why did you chose to relocate your brand in Korea after a few seasons in Paris ?

It’s a mix of personal and professional reasons that drove us to move to Korea.[…] And, even before leaving, we sold a lot more in Korea than in France, so we wanted to Q : Oui Paname is between two cultures and two get closer to our customers. And Korea has countries. How would you compare the reaction more freedom when it comes to starting a business, producing, communicating, … In to your work in between France and Korea ? Korea everything is quicker, especially in We always try to exchange about our French business.


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ORIGINAL INTERVIEW CONDUCTED IN FRENCH nom, comme une amulette pour nous porter VIA E-MAILS WITH JULIEN COUSTON, CO-FOUNDER chance. “paname” parce qu’au debut on pensait AND ART DIRECTOR OF OUI PANAME mettre “Paris” pour montrer qu’on venait de Q : Tout d’abord, comment s’est passé la genèse paris mais c’etait un peu pourri et une amie a de Oui-Paname ? L’idée originale, le processus de nous nous l’a dit et nous a proposé de prendre “paname” a la place. C’etait mieu.”paris” ça création, ... faisait trop couture, ça allait pas. Aujourd’hui on Alors au début on a pas vraiment prévu de faire continue de faire des sweat “Je suis Coréenne / une marque en fait : c’est un peu long mais je coréen” et on continue de livrer nos Tshirts et te raconte l’histoire. Mon petit frère a recupéré sweatshirts dans des boites a Pizza. une petite pizzeria a Lyon dont mon oncle et mon père sont proprietaires. Il voulait faire autre Q : Qu’est-ce qui jusqu’ici a été le plus difficile dans chose du lieu et donc je lui ai proposé de faire l’aventure de la marque ? de l’impression deTshirts et pour lui apprendre a se servir des machines, je suis allé a Lyon 3 jours et pour lui faire un exemple j’ai fait 5 Tshirts imprimés “ Je suis Coréenne”. C’etait des Tshirts pour ma copine EunSong, avec qui j’ai crée ensuite OUI Paname. On habitait a Paris et a chaque fois qu’elle rencontrait quelqu’un elle avait droit a la même question : “ t’es chinoise? heu... Japonaise alors..?” Du coup quand je suis rentré a paris, je lui ai donné ses Tshirts qu’elle portait tout le temps et tous les Coréens de Paris qu’on connaissait se sont mis a nous commander ces Tshirts “Je suis Coréen /Je suis Coréenne” . Avec l’argent des 5 premières commandes on a fait 20 Tshirts, puis 40... On vendait les Tshirts dans les boites a Pizza qui restaient dans l’atelier de mon frère et on lui faisait faire l’impression de nos Tshirts. Une copine d’EunSong qui avait un magasin de vêtements en Corée nous a passé une commande de ces Tshirts qu’elle avait vus sur internet portés par EunSong, et nous a demmandé ensuite d’autres Tshirts parce qu’ils se vendaient bien. Mais a ce moment on avait toujours pas de noms, pas le logo, pas d’autres modeles... rien. Donc on a décidé le lendemain d’un nom : OUI paname. “oui” parce que les initiales d’EunSong c’est “YES” (yoo eun song) et on l’a francisé. Et aussi surtout parce que “OUI” c’est positif et qu’on voulait avoir quelque chose de positif dans le

Ce qui a été le plus difficile pour le moment je crois que ça a ete de déménager en Corée. Je veux dire qu’en arrivant a Seoul (le 1er janvier 2016), on a du un peu tout recommencer de zero et retrouver des fournisseurs avec la qualité qu’on voulait, acheter les machines pour pouvoir tout imprimer nous mêmes, trouver un atelier... mais tout en restant dans le calendrier des magasins et des commandes. (c’est pour ça qu’on a ete en retard d’ailleurs pour notre collection fw1617). Et puis aussi le fait de bosser dur pour OUI paname, tout en bossant sur d’autre trucs. Moi je bosse a plein temps pour OUI paname seulement depuis Septembre, mais avant, a paris, j’etais styliste chez lacoste, et en arrivant en Corée j’suis allé a l’université pour 4 mois pour apprendre le Coréen. j’ai du arrêter pour m’occuper de OUI paname qui grossissait de plus en plus. EunSong, elle, a eté embauchée comme directrice artistique pour une marque Coréenne qu’elle est en train de créer avec bien plus de moyens que OUI Paname. (mais cette marque ne nous appartient pas, contrairement a OUI Paname). On pourrait d’ailleurs aussi dire que le manque de moyens pour OUI Paname rends le travail moins facile mais c’est aussi ce qui fait notre singularité et on aime justement mettre l’accent sur le fait qu’on est une toute petite marque et qu’on fait ce qu’on peut avec


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ce qu’on a, pas plus. On vient tous les deux avec EunSong, de familles modestes et OUI paname est vraiment a notre image. En france ça n’a rien d’incroyable mais en Corée c’est presque tabou: personne ne dit “ notre marque a peu de moyens et ça nous pose pas de problème d’image” Q : Oui-Paname se situe au croisement de deux cultures et deux pays. Comment compareriez-vous la reception de votre travail entre la France et la Corée ? On essaye vraiment de toujours parler de notre culture française et Coréenne, et c’est vrai que ce qui plait en Corée ne plais pas toujours en France, et inversement. En Corée, on ne vend presque pas de vêtements avec des imprimés avec du texte en coréen par exemple. Alors qu’en France oui. En France, les clients aiment nos Tshirts “LUNDI” “MARDI” (etc) et les choisissent surtout en fonction des jours de la semaine qui sont imprimés, alors qu’en Corée, les clients s’interessent surtout a la couleur du print.En france je pense que nos clients aiment surtout le concept de la double culture alors que les Coreens sont plus attirés par notre image un peu “non-conventionelle” et qui plait surtout a la presse. (Les magazines en ont un peu marre de voir des marques Coréennes se copier entre elles et avoir toutes les mêmes idées et envies et ils voient qu’ on fonctionne plus simplement et avec peu de moyens et ils aiment ça) Q : Finalement, quelles sont vos principales sources d’inspiration dans votre création ? Y a-t-il des marques/créatifs/artistes que vous inspire ou vous intéresse en ce moment en Corée et en France ? Alors ça c’est pas une question facile parce que personnellement je ne regarde pas trop ce que font les autres marques, ni les defilés... je m’inspire plutôt de films, de dessins animés, d’ illustrateurs, de ce que je vois dans les musées, des devantures de magasins ou de restaurants Coreens... Pour OUI paname je suis plutôt le

graphiste donc je me concentre sur ça. Et puis une source d’inspiration très forte aussi pour moi c’est toutes les couleurs et les combinaisons de couleurs qu’on peut retrouver en Thaïlande, ou sur les packagings de produits Thaïlandais. J’ avais vu au cinema a sa sortie le film Thaïlandais “citizen dogs” et les couleurs un peu folles de ce film sont toujours aujourd’hui une référence pour OUI paname. Je sais que ça n’a rien a voir avec ce qu’on fait mais ça influe sur tous nos choix esthétiques pour OUI Paname. EunSong, elle, est plus styliste et regarde beaucoup plus les autres marques mais on a pas vraiment de marques de références en fait. difficile de te donner un nom, une marque. Q : Je ne savais pas que vous étiez installés en Corée (je crois que votre site mentionne encore Paris ?). Si je peux me permettre de te demander, qu’est-ce qui vous a décider à vous installer là-bas ? C’est un mélange de raisons familiales et professionnelles qui nous a fait déménager en Corée. EunSong avait appris le français en venant a Paris alors moi j’avais envie d’apprendre aussi correctement pour pouvoir discuter avec ma belle famille... Et puis on vendais deja, avant de partir, plus en Corée qu’en France donc ou voulais aussi se rapprocher de nos clients. Et la corée c’est aussi plus de liberté pour entreprendre,fabriquer, se faire connaître. En Corée tout va plus vite, surtout pour le business.

WWW.OUI-PANAME.COM


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KATIE RAWLE OF THE BFC ON NEWGEN

APPENDIX 6

THE PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE OF ONE OF THE MEMBERS OF THE BFC BUSINESS DEPARTMENT ON SUPERVISING THE NEWGEN INITIATIVE [NOTES FROM HER LECTURE TO BA CDFF YEAR 1 STUDENTS ON THE 08/11/2016]

Net-a-Porter (2016) Ryan Lo Skirt.

The BFC has 5 strategic pillars : Business, Education, Digital & Innovation, Investment. There is a team dedicated to each of these elements.

With NEWGEN, the BFC helps emerging designers to expand their brands by supporting them mainly in the business, finance, manufacturing and network fields. Without this help, they rarely would be able to make more than a few collection and produce orders from stockists. The goal is to make the brand sustainable and independent. For this, they train the designers and their teams to business development, leadership, brand positioning, … The NEWGEN team at the BFC tries to build a personal relationship based on « mutual trust » with each brand in order to understand them better and offer the right advice. They are constantly in touch with them and the designers are encouraged to reach to them if they have any question.

The Digital & Innovation team is very active at the moment because designers are not always in touch with the latest technologies or reluctant to make online content ; so the BFC makes sure to encourage and support NEWGEN also support the designers in them in these fields. their promotion by financing and providing a space for Fashion Week presentations or NEWGEN supports emerging designers, catwalk shows. They make sure that they chosen every year by a panel of BFC people, find the right balance between commercial industry specialists, stockists, press … The and creative ; an important element if they designers need to re-apply every year for a want to attract stockists. chance to be part again of NEWGEN, a way of making sure everyone can get a chance NEWGEN makes a point of providing their to enter the program. The BFC makes sure protégées with various opportunities from to continue following and supporting the commercial projects (Topshop collection designers that leave the program. …), press features, exhibitions (Molly Goddard at the NOW Gallery) and art The BFC also has a showroom space in Paris collaborations. They have recently paired for the designers their support, so that they menswear designers with art graduates to can showcase to buyers from all across the produce a show mixing art and fashion that world and get orders. Their other initiatives was showed at Christies. include the Fashion Trust that founds specific projects and the Fashion Fund that « We are pushing designers to go deeper supports a specific brand every year. than just the beautiful image » says Ms.


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Rawle, « We ask them : what is it that you want to say ? ». They encourage the creatives to express their opinions on gender, feminism, diversity, sustainability, …When asked if they let designers do everything they want, Ms. Rawle says « We might give them a stir when it comes to merchandising, business (…) and social media. »

Daniel Fraser (FW16) Paula Knorr


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THE DIRTY ART DEPARTMENT

APPENDIX 7

PERSPECTIVE OF AURELIEN LEPETIT, SECOND YEAR STUDENT AND ASSISTANT COORDINATOR AT THE DIRTY ART DEPARTMENT - INTERVIEW CONDUCTED VIA E-MAIL. Q : Could you tell me a little bit about yourself to have a more ‘experimental’ way of seeing and your experience as a student at The Dirty and practice within the art and design field. What I like in the DAD is that we are open Art Department ? to do whatever we want, BUT, we have to Thank you very much for you interest in the be accurate on the context! And I think we are also challenged during the year to work Dirty Art Department. My name is Aurélien Lepetit, I’m a french into different situations and experimenting second year student at the Dirty Art every kind. Department and also assistant coordinator. Regarding your e-mail, I’m glad to give you From my background behind the stage, in my point of view and my feeling towards the the shadow, I’m experimenting now the front stage space with experimental performances. last year I spent there. To give you a quick introduction about Actually, I’m using my Designer’s skills to myself, my background is in Set and Stage build, create and develop a pleura-disciplinar Design (Bachelor Degree) and Exhibition practice in between Art and Design. Design (Master Degree). I studied at the [...] Fine Arts of Lyon in France and wanted to experiment new forms of art or design Every student is coming from a different background, sometimes from Fine Arts, within my personal artistic practice. Design, Fashion, Music and Sociology. what is the Strength of our Department is Q: Why did you choose the DAD ? that even we are working on our personal First, I know that the Dutch Design has a practice, we have also a strong group feeling tremendous history and an aesthetic that I and we build stuff together (The Milan like. Also, it was an opportunity for me to Project). study in another European country which I think I learned more about myself, my have an education in English without going capacity and what I like/want to do in the to a Native English Speaking Country. It was last year. It is a precious experience for me also a question of money, I couldn’t afford with its good Qualities and also its Defaults. the crazy prices of the school in London, because at the beginning, I wanted to apply THE MILAN PROJECT : for the RCA.

WWW.WANDERINGSCHOOL.COM

I heard first about the Dirty Art Department from my Thesis Director, Catherine Geel, who was the co-director of the DAD and who advised me to study there if I wanted

THE DIRTY ART DEPARTMENT : WWW.DIRTYARTDEPARTMENT.COM


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All images (c) The Dirty Art Department


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INTERVIEW MARION VIEL

APPENDIX 8

INTERVIEW WITH A RECENT FRENCH FASHION GRADUATE TO UNDERSTANT THE HOPES AND IDEALS OF A YOUNG DESIGNER TRYING TO MAKE IT INTO THE INDUSTRY. Q : Can you tell me a little bit about yourself and on your break. It’s maximum two months. Not a lot. It isn’t well thought-through, it’s really your journey to London ? not enough. So you see for me a 4-months M : So, well, I got a baccalaureate in Economics long internship was necessary. I can’t try to and I went to the Ecole de Condé in Nancy, start a professional career like that, with a 5 a school of applied arts and photography weeks long internship. Employers wouldn’t etc. I did a foundation year there and 2 years take me seriously. of BTS in Fashion Design [translation note : a BTS is a two-years degree of technical Q : So you’ve started looking for a job ? practice in French higher education] […]. So, well, I’ve finished it. I did a mandatory M : Yes, I’ve already sent applications. I internship in between my two years of BTS answered a few offers … but, you know, in Lyon in a ready-to-wear brand in the there’s so much more offers for internships Village des Créateur [TN : a community of than for jobs … […]. Anyway, everything is in fashion designer based in Lyon, France], Paris in Fashion, so I’ll need to move there. called Blue Moustache. My internship was 5 Right now I’m looking to find a job that’ll weeks long. And currently, since the end of help me to become financially independent, August, I’ve been interning at Teatum Jones but my ultimate goal is to create my own in London. A long internship, in a luxury brand. brand - luxury ready-to-wear. Q : Oh okay ! Let’s imagine your hypothetical brand : how to you see it ? In which field ? Which Q : Internship that you’ll finish when ? aesthetic ? M : In December, so it’ll be 4 months. M : Mm, really, I don’t know … I’m into sportswear. Not the idea of the very chic Q : But you already have your degree ? woman. I don’t know … I have a few projects, M : Yes. This is my internship before I find you see … But it won’t be like Elie Saab, you a job. I am still under agreement with my see. Not that type of style. Not Couture. More university, but it wasn’t mandatory, I chose like something active, more original. Readyto do one because it’s easier to find an to-wear, I’m sure. For men and women. internship than a job right now. In my school, we only had one mandatory internship, it’s Q : As in Unisex or two collections menswear/ not very well done. Because it’s just one womenswear ? internship and it’s during the summer break in-between the two years, so you have no M : I don’t really know … two separate choice but to do it but you have to take time collections and some unisex pieces. […]


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Marion, courtesy of Marion Viel.

not trained to the technical side, but we know how to build solid projects, which makes sense since we’re supposed to be the creatives. But for the development of my brand and my personal projects, not knowing how to sew is a burden. I feel it especially during my internship, because I really can’t sew. […] Q : Did you get a formation in economy during your BTS ? M : Yes. That’s one of the positive aspects. We learned about all the different types of businesses, how to calculate an income ... Everything you need to start a business and start freelancing. For our final projects, we had to create our own brand like in real life. So I had to make a whole case file explaining why I created my brand in EURL status, all that. The pros and cons, benefits, costs, sales, all calculated based on everything I used and planned on using ... That was a positive aspect of my degree. It’s nice to have this background if I ever want to start my own brand.

Q : Can you tell me a little bit more about your education ? We already talked about your Q : What do you think of Vêtements ? problem with internships … M : The negative aspect of it is that we didn’t really learn how to sew. So that’s the big negative point for me. So for our projects we had to do with the basic knowledge that we had. We were supposed to have sewing classes, but they were very conceptual, not concrete. So I’m pretty bad at sewing. I practice at my internship, but it is not very good. There was really little time dedicated to teaching us sewing skills. Q : But you’re still taught creation well ? M : Yes, that was fine. And everything that’s to do with graphic design, Photoshop, Illustrator ... I’m good at it. We were more focused on the concept, the creation. That and technical drawing. I’m really good at it. I spent hours on Illustrator. We were

M : The brand ? Frankly, I like it. It’s modern, it really represents the current society. The spirit of people, nowadays … […] Q : What do you think of Jacquemus ? M : I love Jacquemus ! I especially like his collections where he took existing clothes to make new ones with them. A bit like Ann De Meleumester did this year. I love that kind of stuff. When you see something by Jacquemus, you recognize it straight away. He really has a ... he has his trademark. And he’s still independent, he’s right not to sell to LVMH. You know, at least, that way he will not end up like Maxime Simoëns, who was sunk by the big groups. […] I think that LVMH and others really can be negative to designers. You think that it’ll work out, that they’ll help you to launch your business.


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But if it doesn’t work out the way they want, it’s not always easy. What do you think ? they’ll let you down. M : It’s hard. Compared to London, where Q : I was also thinking about Carine Roitfled, you have a lot more help, and where fired from Vogue, who’s blacklisted by Condé everyone’s much more open to creation. Nast now … You want to work with the big In Paris, in France, it isn’t a priority. While groups because it helps, but you have to be London is a city proud of its creatives. You careful … what do you think ? can feel it when you look at London Fashion Week, every season they have new designers, M : In any ways, you have to be careful. And while in Paris it’s always the same ones that look at Jacquemus : he’s doing very well come back because nobody can get through without the support of a big group. It’s part to get to Fashion Week . When I see how it’s of his brand. It would be almost weird if he done in France, if I want to make it, I think were to loose his independence. why not going to another country and work there. Like in London. […] Q : Do you talk about this controversial aspect of the big luxury groups with other young designers Q : The big Parisian brands mostly have creative ? directors from other countries. Why is it, why do you think ? Is it because in France we don’t give M : Yes, a little bit. We did talk a lot about a chance to French designers ? Maxime Simoëns. […] M : I don’t know … that, or maybe in France Q : i-D Magazine launched in France last year. we’re less … the education is better abroad They publish a lot online and they’re really good … I don’t really know … for emerging designers. Did you know about it ? Q : If I tell you that we can get you anything you M : No, but it’s good to know. […] want to start your own brand, what would be the first three things you’d ask for ? Q : Do you, or the other designers around you, make politically orientated creations ? M : Well, money, straight away ! [Laughs] A studio, funded by someone. A network.These M : In my case, not really … but it depends three things can be found in a community on what you consider to be political … it’s of creatives for example. They’re the basics. hard to tell. It doesn’t mean that there isn’t Setting up your brand without money is any reflexion behind what I do, but it’s not a hard. You can’t just put up moodboards, necessarily obvious. We do talk about it, we you need concrete stuff. And fabrics are asks questions on the topic. already so expensive ... You have to invest. Find suppliers. Then you have to be able to Q : And your final collection, what was it about ? communicate. M : I was inspired by tennis : the dress codes, the clichés, the codes of architectures (straight lines …), the cultural codes, … the whole thing, for a sportswear collection. I kind of did my own thing with the Lacoste cliché.

Q : How would you communicate for your own brand ? What do you find the most interesting these days in the field of communication ?

M : Social medias, mainly. You have to be present online. Organising events also, for example in concept stores ... an experience Q : There’s a lot of interesting things happening of the brand, a cocktail, a presentation. right now in France, but to make it in fashion, Magazines, yes, but it’s hard if you’re not a


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minimum well known. Ideally Vogue. No it- to integrate in your own brand, your own work ? girls for me … […] M : Human rights first. For example, not Q : What do you think of the concept of a creative producing my stuff in China just because community, a communal space of creative it’s cheaper. I prefer to produce more exchange ? expensive things than to exploit people, to use chemicals, all that ... Also animal rights, M : Right now I’m working in a space like that. the whole thing about fur. (...) I also want It’s called Make Space Studios and there’s to dress the people that I see on the street. a bit of everything in the same building: I don’t want to dress the elite. I mean if graphic designers, designers, architects, they want to wear my creations, that’s fine. illustrators, ... all the studios are in the same But for me the most interesting clients are place, and we share the common rooms. It’s normal people. I would be more pleased an interesting concept, it can give way to to have people around me or people that collaborations. It’s always interesting to have I see in the street wear my stuff ... I don’t contacts that do different things right next want to make clothes for 3000 € that nobody to you. Having graphic designers in your will buy. It will be a designer price, but a entourage is also super helpful. For example reasonable designer price. Like Jacquemus. in my school, we also had graphic designers. There’s a distance between fashion in Paris I had friends in graphic design and several and what’s happening in the streets in Paris. times I did ask them for help : how to make Chanel, Dior, the ancestral French brands a layout from something, if they had any … The only people who wear them are on idea of a font I could use, all that ... We have the red carpets. You’ll see more street styles notions of graphic design but they’re actual with Vêtements than with Dior. It’s for the professionals. I think that, in order to create elite. a visual identity and everything, you have to have graphic designers in your entourage. And so yes I think that being in a studio, like that, surrounded by the right people, allows you to have useful contacts in all areas. Even having an interior designer who can help you with your scenography, or artists to collaborate with. It gives you something extra. […] Q : If you had the choice between having your work featured online or in a print magazine, which one would you choose ? M : I think that ... more people will go online, it’s more accessible, and accessible for free ; while for a magazine you have to a actually go out to buy it from a newsagent. I like the concept of q magazine : it’s the traditional medium. But I think that, in order to reach more people, I would choose the online platform. It’s more efficient. […] Q : Last question : which values would you like

Marion Viel final collection, courtesy of Marion Viel.


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ORIGINAL INTERVIEW CONDUCTED IN FRENCH c’est de créer ma marque. IN LONDON ON THE 10/11/2016

Q : Oh ok ! Imaginons, une hypothèse, ta marque Q : Est-ce que tu peux me parler un peu de ton : comment tu la vois ? Dans quel domaine ? parcours ? Quelle esthétique ? M : Donc, euh, j’ai fait un bac général ES et ensuite je suis rentrée à l’école de Condé Nancy, une école d’arts appliqués et de photographie, etc. J’ai fait une année de MàNAA et ensuite j’ai fait 2 ans de BTS Design de mode […]. Donc voilà, j’ai fini ça. J’ai fait un stage obligatoire entre mes deux années de BTS à Lyon dans une marque de prêt-à-porter issue du Village des Créateurs à Lyon, qui s’appelle ‘Blue Moustache’. J’ai fait un stage de 5 semaines làbas. Et là actuellement depuis fin Août je suis en stage chez Teatum Jones à Londres. Un stage long, dans une marque de luxe (prêt-à-porter de luxe).

M : Bah, franchement, je ne sais pas trop … Je suis orientée sportswear. Pas l’idée de la femme super chic. Je ne sais pas … j’ai plusieurs idées de projets, tu vois … Mais ça ne sera pas du Elie Saab, tu vois. Pas des trucs de ce genre. Pas de la couture. Plutôt des trucs plus actifs, plus originaux. Prêt-à-porter ça c’est sûr. Pour hommes et femmes.

Q : Stage que tu finis quand ?

Q : Est-ce que tu peux me parler un petit peu de tes 2 ans de BTS ? On a déjà évoqué le fait qu’il n’y avait pas beaucoup de stages …

M : En Décembre, donc ça fera 4 mois. Q : Mais tu as déjà ton diplôme ? M : Oui. C’est mon stage avant de trouver un job. Je suis quand même conventionnée par mon école, mais c’est pas obligatoire, c’est moi qui ai choisit d’en faire un parce que c’est plus facile de trouver un stage plutôt qu’un job. Dans mon école on n’avait qu’un seul stage obligatoire, c’est un peu mal fait. Parce que c’est un seul stage et c’est pendant tes vacances d’été entre les deux années, donc tu es obligé de le faire mais tu dois prendre tu temps sur tes vacances pour le faire. C’est deux mois maximum. C’est pas beaucoup. C’est pas bien fait, c’est vraiment pas suffisant. Donc tu vois pour moi un stage de 4 mois c’était incontournable. Je ne peux pas essayer de me lancer dans la vie active comme ça, avec un stage de 5 semaines. Les employeurs me riraient au nez. Q : Et donc du coup tu commences à chercher un emploi ?

Q : Dans le sens unisexe ou deux collections menswear/womenswear ? M : Je ne sais pas trop … deux collections distinctes et quelques pièces unisexe. […]

M : Pour donner le côté négatif, on a pas vraiment d’apprentissage de la couture. Donc ça c’est le gros côté négatif. Du coup pour nos projets on doit se débrouiller avec les connaissances de bases que l’on a. On été censé avoir des cours de couture, mais ils était très conceptuels, pas concrets. Donc je suis assez nulle en couture. Je m’entraîne pendant mon stage, mais ce n’est pas terrible. On avait vraiment peu de temps impartit pour l’apprentissage de la couture. Q : Mais sinon vous êtes bien formés à la création, tout ça ? M : Oui, alors ça ça allait. Et tout ce qui est infographie, photoshop, illustrator … Je suis douée pour ça. On est plus axés sur le concept, la création. Ca et le dessin technique ça va, j’ai été super bien formée. J’ai passé des heures sur Illustrator. On est pas formé au côté technique, mais on sait faire des dossiers de projet super solide, ce qui est logique comme on est censés être les créateurs. Mais bon pour le développement de ma marque, mes premiers projets, ce n’est pas facile. Je ressent les points négatifs de mon diplôme dans mon stage, parce que je ne sais pas coudre.[…]

M : Oui, j’ai déjà envoyé des demandes. Je réponds aux annonces … mais bon, y’a beaucoup plus d’annonces de stages que de jobs … […]. De toute manière, tout est à Paris dans la mode, donc il va falloir que j’ailles m’installer là-bas. Pour l’instant je cherche du travail pour devenir Q : Tu as une une formation en économie indépendante mais, le but final, le but ultime, pendant ton BTS ?


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quelque chose dont vous parlez entre jeunes M : Oui. Alors oui ça c’est bien. On a apprit créateurs ? tous les différents types d’entreprises, comment calculer son taux de revenu … Tout ce dont tu M : Oui, un peu, on en parle. On a pas mal parlé as besoin pour créer une entreprise et pour se de Maxime Simoëns. […] lancer en freelance. Dans notre projet final, on doit créer notre propre marque comme si c’était Q : i-D Magazine s’est lancé en France l’année réel. Donc j’ai dû faire tout un dossier expliquant dernière. Ils publient pas mal sur internet et ils pourquoi je créais ma marque en statut EURL, sont très bien pour les jeunes créateurs. Tu le tout ça. Les inconvénients, les avantages, les savais ? coûts de revient, de vente, calculer en fonction de tout … Ca c’était un aspect positif de mon M : Non, mais c’est bon à savoir.[…] diplôme. C’est bien d’avoir ça d’acquis si jamais je veux monter ma marque. Q : Est-ce que toi, ou les autres autours de toi, vous avez tendance à faire des créations Q : Qu’est-ce que tu penses de Vêtements ? politisées ? M : La marque ? Franchement j’aime bien. C’est moderne, ça représente bien l’esprit actuel de la société. C’est l’esprit des gens aujourd’hui … […] Q : Qu’est ce que tu penses de Jacquemus ? M : J’adore Jacquemus ! J’aime surtout ses collections où il a prit des vêtements existants pour en faire des nouveaux. Un peu comme l’a fait Ann De Meleumester cette année. J’aime beaucoup ce genre de trucs. Puis, tu vois du Jacquemus, tu reconnais. Il a vraiment une … il a sa marque de fabrique. Et il est toujours indépendant, il a raison de ne pas s’allier à LVMH.Tu sais, au moins, comme ça il ne finira pas comme Maxime Simoëns et Christian Lacroix, qui ont été coulés par les grands groupes. […] Je pense que LVMH et autres peuvent un peu être les ennemis des créateurs. Tu penses que ça va marcher, ils vont t’aider à te lancer. Mais si ça ne marche pas assez bien, ils te laissent tomber. Q : Je pensais aussi à Carine Roitfeld, virée de Vogue, persona non grata chez Condé Nast désormais … Tu veux bosser avec les grands groupes parce que c’est bénéfique, mais c’est toujours à double tranchant … qu’en penses-tu ? M : De tout façon il faut faire attention. Et regardes, Jacquemus marche super bien sans être soutenu par un grand groupe. Ca fait partie de sa marque. Ca le dénaturerai presque s’il perdait son indépendance.

M : Non, pour moi pas vraiment … après, ça dépends ce que tu considère comme politique ou politisé … Difficile à dire. Ca ne veut pas dire qu’il n’y a pas de reflexion derrière ce que je fais, mais ce n’est peut-être pas évident. On aborde ces sujets, on se pose des questions. Q : Et toi, ta collection finale, de quoi parlaitelle ? M : Je me suis inspirée de l’univers du tennis : code vestimentaire clichés, code architecturaux (lignes droites, …), codes culturels … tout l’univers, pour une collection sportswear. J’ai fais mon truc à moi avec les clichés Lacoste. Q : Il y a plein de choses intéressantes qui se passe en se moment en France, mais pour y percer dans la mode, ce n’est pas toujours facile. Ton avis ? M : C’est galère. Comparé à Londres, où tu as beaucoup plus d’aides, c’est beaucoup plus ouvert à la création. Paris, en France, ce n’est pas la priorité. Alors que Londres c’est fier de sa ville de créateurs. Ca se sent, quand tu vois la Fashion Week de Londres, chaque saison tu as des nouveaux créateurs, alors qu’à Paris c’est toujours les même qui reviennent parce que personne n’arrive à percer pour arriver jusqu’à la Fashion Week. Quand je vois comment ça se passe en France, si je veux percer, je me dis pourquoi ne pas aller dans un pays étranger. Par exemple venir à Londres.[…]

Q : A la tête des grandes marques parisiennes, Q : Est-ce que cet aspect un peu obscur, un peu on voit beaucoup d’étrangers. Comment ça se controversé des grands groupes de luxe, c’est fait selon toi ? Est-ce que c’est parce que en


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France on ne donne pas assez de chance aux créateurs français ? M : Je ne sais pas … Ca, ou peut-être qu’en France on est moins … les formations sont meilleures à l’étranger … je ne sais pas trop …

eux c’est vraiment des professionnels. Je pense que pour créer une identité visuelle et tout, il faut avoir des graphistes dans ton entourage. Et donc oui je pense que être dans un studio, comme ça, entouré, ça te permet d’avoir des contacts utiles dans tous les domaines. Même Q : Si je te dis qu’on peut te donner ce que tu veux avoir un architecte d’intérieur qui peut t’aider pour lancer ta propre marque, quels seraient les pour ta scénographie ; ou des artistes avec qui trois premières choses que tu demandes ? collaborer. Ca donne un truc en plus.[…] M : Bah de l’argent déjà ! [rire] Un studio, financé par quelqu’un. Un réseau. Ces trois trucs là on peut les trouver dans un village de créateurs par exemple. C’est la base. Monter ta marque sans argent c’est galère. Tu ne peux pas présenter juste des planches, il te faut du concret. Et rien que pour te fournir en tissu, car rien que des tissus de base ça coûte super cher … Faut investir. Trouver des fournisseurs. Puis il faut aussi pouvoir faire ta communication.

Q : Si on te donnais le choix entre une feature sur une plateforme en ligne ou dans un magazine papier, tu préférerais quoi ?

M : Je pense que … plus de personnes vont consulter en ligne, c’est plus accessible, et accessible gratuitement ; alors que le magazine faut aller l’acheter chez le marchand de journaux. J’aime bien le concept du magazine : c’est un peu le support traditionnel. Mais je pense que pour toucher plus de monde, je choisirai la Q : Comment est-ce que tu ferais la plateforme en ligne. C’est plus efficace. […] communication de ta marque ? Qu’est-ce qui t’intéresse le plus en ce moment dans ce Q : Dernière question : quelles valeurs domaine ? souhaiterais-tu intégrer à ta marque, à ton travail ? M : Réseaux sociaux, surtout. Il faut être présent en ligne. Organiser des évènements, par exemple M : Les droits de l’homme en premier. Par dans des concepts stores … une expérience exemple ne pas aller faire produire mes trucs de la marque, un cocktail, une présentation. en Chine tout ça parce que c’est moins cher. Je Magazines, oui, mais c’est dur si tu n’es pas un préfère faire produire plus cher que d’exploiter minimum renommé. Idéalement Vogue. Pas de des personnes, utiliser des produits chimiques, it-girls pour moi …[…] tout ça … Pareil avec les animaux, la fourrure. (…) Je veux aussi habiller les gens que je vois Q : Qu’est-ce que tu penses d’une communauté dans la rue. J’ai pas envie d’habiller l’élite. Bon de créateur, un espace communautaire après si ils veulent porter mes créations, c’est d’échange créatif ? bien. Mais pour moi la cible la plus intéressante c’est les gens normaux. Je serais plus contente M : En ce moment je travailles dans un espace d’avoir des personnes de mon entourage ou comme ça. Ca s’appelle Make Space Studios et de croiser des gens dans la rue, lambda, qui il y a un peu de tout dans le même bâtiment portent mes trucs, … j’ai pas envie de faire : des graphistes, des designers, des architectes, des trucs à 3000€ que personne de va acheter. des illustrateurs, … tous les studios sont au Ca sera du prix de créateur, mais du prix de même endroit, et on se partage des salles créateur raisonnable. Comme Jacquemus. Il y a communes. C’est un concept intéressant, ça peut une déconnexion entre la mode à Paris et la rue donner lieu à des collaboration. C’est toujours à Paris. Chanel, Dior, les marques ancestrales intéressant d’avoir des contacts qui font des françaises ; les seuls gens qui portent ça sont choses différentes juste à côté de soi. Avoir des sur les tapis rouges. Tu verras plus des street graphistes dans ton entourage c’est aussi super styles avec du Vêtements qu’avec du Dior. Ca intéressant. Par exemple dans mon école, ils s’adresse à l’élite. faisaient aussi design graphique. J’avais des amis en design graphique et plusieurs fois j’allais leur demander de l’aide : comment faire une mise en page partir de ça, et-ce que tu as une idée de typo, tout ça … On a des notions de graphisme mais


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CLASSISM & ELITISM IN FASHION : OPINION

APPENDIX 9

MY PERSONAL REFLECTION ON THE ISSUES OF CLASSISM AND ELITISM IN FASHION.

My vision of the fashion industry in general, and especially in France, has been influenced by my upbringing and personal experiences. The classism of the industry has been commented on by a variety of people, but I felt that it was important that I added my own reflection on the matter since it did influence my research and the conception of my brief. France has a deeply rooted tradition of classism based on judgement of cultural capital (Lamont, 1992). This behavior bled into the popular culture notion of fashion. Agnès Rocamora commented on the topic when she compared the approach of fashion in British newspaper The Guardian and its French counterpart Le Monde (2001). She noted that to French audiences, the fashion industry was more often associated to highculture and socioeconomic elites than in Britain. The French fashion journalist and documentary maker Loïc Prigent often mocks how out of touch with reality the fashion world can be, reporting on its obsession with money, status and image on his Twitter and his recent book J’adore la mode mais c’est tout ce que je déteste (I love Fashion but it’s everything I hate, 2016). He underlines the fact that fashion is seen as made for a small elite, and that people consider that they can’t understand it or access it. According to Lidewij Edelkoort, this mentality is one of the main obstacles to the rise to prominence of young designers originating from modest backgrounds in France (2015). Nonetheless, Belot notes that Internet offered an access to high-culture to the larger population, which includes fashion as well. A shift could be happening,

but it will have to face century-long notions of class. I was raised in a French upper middle class family where the notions of class and class behaviour were very important. I was taught early on that you should not try to gain access to things that aren’t part of your cultural capital, that you should keep to your own socioeconomic background. Even if you had enough money to do so, buying high-fashion was seen as vulgar because you were not considered to have the necessary cultural capital to wear something designed for the higher class. I was also taught that I should never enter an high-end shop, because it wasn’t my place in society. I have met many French people during my life who, no matter their social backgrounds, were raised in the same way. French culture is deeply rooted in the separation of classes, where cultural capital and presentation of the self play a very important role, something that was noted by Bourdieu in his Distinction (1979). I then experienced classism when interning in the fashion industry, both in Britain and France, and in various forms. It was rarely directed toward me, but I observed it or had to reluctantly participate into it (as a production assistant on set for fashion campaigns, having to physically segregate assistants and workers from clients and high-up). I know that my vision of the industry can be seen as bitter or too driven by personal sociopolitical convictions. But the existence of classism and elitism in fashion cannot be ignored or contested, as it is part of larger problematics of inclusion, finances, prejudices, etc. that plague various fields in our contemporary world.


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LACROIX & SIMOENS : THE WEIGHT OF LVMH APPENDIX 10

TWO CASE STUDIES OF THE DIFFICULT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUXURY GROUP LVMH AND THE CREATIVE VISIONS OF FASHION DESIGNERS. CHRISTIAN LACROIX French fashion designer Christian Lacroix had often been described as creative genius (Sarfati, 2006). His unique style fascinated. He launched his own maison in 1987 with the help of Bernard Arnault, CEO of LVMH and one of the most powerful man in the worldwide luxury industry. Mr Lacroix had complete creative freedom when it came to his collections and he decided to concentrate on elaborate couture and rare crafts. His creations were considered masterpieces for some and are still often shown in museums (Lacroix, Maoris & Saillard, 2007). But financial difficulties and internal conflict pushed LVMH to sell the brand in 2007 to an American holding group who closed the couture and clothing departments (Desnos, 2009) and ultimately drew Christian Lacroix himself to leave his own maison in 2010. LVMH attracted many critics for failing to support Christian Lacroix and his unique vision. The main reason for their separation was the financial decline of the brand, but critics suggested that a commercial empire as powerful as the LVMH group could afford to support at least one designer, even if he did not produce profit, like they would support an artist whose vision needs to be preserved. Ultimately, the case was an example of the conflict between art and profit, creation and finance (Picart, 2010). It also asks if the luxury industry is really trying to fuel and encourage creativity - or if instead they just care for profit, thus explaining why they are rarely interested in young designers.

Maison Christian Lacroix (FW09) Wedding Dress.


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Jean-Baptiste Mondino (2011) Maxime Simoëns.

MAXIME SIMOENS Maxime Simoëns launched his own brand in 2009 to critical and commercial success, a rare occurence for a young designer in the Parisian fashion scene. He even managed to be integrated to the extremely selective official Paris Fashion Week calendar only two years later, which owned him the nickname of « new Yves Saint-Laurent » (Brunel, 2011). Maxime Simoëns was set to be successful, especially after his company was bought by LVMH and that the group appointed him as creative director of another of their brands, Léonard (O - Le Cahier des Tendances, 2013). But soon after, Maxime Simoëns disappeared from media outlets and stopped showing at PFW. During two years, nothing came out of the brand. The situation sparked interest from the press, especially since the brand’s situation beforehand had seemed perfect : excellent coverage, commercial success and the backing of a giant luxury group. Reports finally emerged in 2015 that Mr Simoëns

creative vision had been menaced by his partnership with LVMH, so he had chosen to cease activities until he could come to an agreement with the owner of his brand, which never happened. Maxime Simoëns left LVMH and still exists as a company, but is currently inactive (Journal du Luxe, 2015). Maxime Simoëns is a unique case, but it demonstrates the power that luxury groups have on the fashion industry nowadays : in two years, LVMH completely erased from the fashion scene a designer who was just starting on his way to a very promising career. The whole case is difficult to review because many elements were never reported and the reason for the disappearance of the brand are still unclear. But again, it proves that luxury groups can have a negative impact on creation, and are not always helpful to emerging creatives whose’s vision they’d try to control or forge into something else.


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JACQUEMUS : THE ANTI-SYSTEM

APPENDIX 11

PORTRAIT OF SIMON PORTE JACQUEMUS, HIS BRAND AND HIS UNUSUAL JOURNEY TO SUCCESS. MAIN SOURCE : INTERVIEW WITH QUOTIDIEN ON THE 05/10/2016. October the 5th, 2016. Simon Porte Jacquemus is invited on the popular French television talk show Quotidien (TMC, production Bangumi). The host introduces him to the audience as the « new prince of fashion ». He appears relaxed : Paris Fashion Week is just finished and his show, his biggest so far, got positive reviews from worldwide critics and promises to be a commercial success. Quotidien is a show focused on culture and politics, often considered to be leaning on the left of the spectrum. Straight away, the financial status of his brand is brought up : Jacquemus is entirely independent and Simon Porte owns his whole company. No big luxury groups, no private investors. With a proud face, the designer says that he indeed was approached by potential buyers, but he refused all the offers. « I’ve been offered a lot of money », he adds « but the answer is always no ». « I am proud to write my story by myself (…) I’m not in it for the money ». Simon Porte is passionate when talking about his origins : « I come from a family of farmers ». He recalls a modest but happy upbringing in the Southern countryside of France, in Provence, which influences heavily his work. The host plays a recording of cicadas. Jacquemus smiles. « The sound of home » he says. He then explains how it became the theme of his collection ‘Santons de Provence’ that he just showed at PFW. He seems proud of his roots, not looking to hide them. To him, this is why he want to make « affordable fashion ». The host remarks that his brand

isn’t affordable to the general public (a shirt retails at 400€ minimum). Simon Porte shows no discomfort. He explains that, for pieces that are shown at PFW, this is relatively cheap. The fashion journalist Loïc Prigent, invited as well on that day, approves and gives examples of higher price ranges. Jacquemus continues on the topic, explaining that they use the cheapest materials they can find in order to keep the prices low. The interview is coming to an end. They talk communication strategy. « I don’t care about celebrities » cuts Simon Porte when asked about Kim Kardashian. He wants to make fashion for people and for himself. The interview was relaxed, easy. Simon Porte Jacquemus is proud of his work and seems to use his unique journey to advertise his brand, insisting on his difference. His choice of Quotidien, a very popular show, for one of his first TV interview, is deliberate : he knows he’ll reach a young audience who will appreciate his positions and his audace. It’s also a good way for him to embed slowly his brand in popular culture and show that he isn’t afraid to interact with a larger audience.

Quotidien (05/10/2016) [TV Program]. Paris : Bangumi.


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Jacquemus (2011)

Jacquemus is different. From his modest background to his youth and inexperience, nothing could have predicted his success. But his audacity set him apart. He made his first collection by himself, at 20 years old,in a tiny apartment in Paris, where he had just moved, and got his friends to model the pieces in the streets during PFW, staging a protest with banners reading ‘Jacquemus en Grève’ (‘Jacquemus on strike’). It caught the attention of the press and soon, Jacquemus was the rising star of fashion in Paris. His audacity and his difference are part of his brand values, but also of his communication strategy. His style and image are the opposite of everything that popular culture associates

with Parisian fashion : happy, colorful, fun, without complex, slightly tacky, affordable and never pretentious. His recent collections have progressed towards a more commercial, more conventional style, but the spirit is still there, in the colorful website or the way Simon Porte Jacquemus uses Snapchat and Instagram - joyful, quirky, like if he was a friend with a simple life. He managed to succeed against the system, independent and proud of his difference. His example is cited as an inspiration by young creatives, because he stayed true to himself since he started (or, at least, appears to have). Every article about him and his brand will mention it, building the myth, reinforcing the legend.


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LA GAITÉ LYRIQUE

APPENDIX 12

OBSERVATION OF A SPACE IN PARIS MIXING ART, CULTURE & CREATION.

La Gaité Lyrique is a space in the heart of Paris where a variety of cultural practices meet and interact. Most of their programmation means to promote new technologies and the interesting and interactive ways in which they can be used in art. They have, in the same building : - A film studio - A Dance studio - Exhibition spaces for their regular exhibitions focused on contemporary art, design and postigital practices - A video game space accessible to all where you can come at any time to play independent video games selected by the art director - An auditorium for talks and masterclasses - A free-access library with ‘work-pods’ for group work and an extensive collection of

books on art and digital practices (coding, video, websites, …) along with a collection of independent magazines and zines from across the world. - A recording studio - A residency space for artists chosen by the Gaité Lyrique to create a 6-month project for them - Archives of documents dedicated to arts and culture - Two theatre spaces for performances - Workshop spaces for emerging artists and art students wanting to practice under the guidance of established professionals. - A café & restaurant - A concept store selling limited edition design products and clothing. Map of the building (2014) La Gaité Lyrique.


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“ I founded my art collective with friends while on a workshop at la Gaité Lyrique. The staff encouraged us to form groups and work on bigger, long-term projects together. They provided us with a space and fundings in order to create our first pieces of installation art. They also offered us mentoring and taught us how to integrate new technologies like motion capture in our work .”

LINN VINCEY, FOUNDER OF ART COLLECTIVE ‘DEUX CENT DIX’ - VIA TEXT, 23/10/2016

Playing video games in the video game space (2015) Marie Dalle. Exhibition Extra Fantômes on privacy & invisibility in the Internet age (2016) Marie Dalle.


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Mairie de Paris (2016) La mode aime Paris campaign.

Marie A.F. Dalle DAL14424368 BA (Hons) Creative Direction for Fashion Year 3 - Term 1 : FMP Research & Development Unit Leader : Jason Kass