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ABIDING ARCHITECTURE Haiti  2011-2014

Marie J. Aquilino 1


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ABIDING ARCHITECTURE Haiti  2011-2014

Marie J. Aquilino

A collaboration École Spéciale d’Architecture, Paris Portland State University, Oregon 1


2


FORWARD FATHER CHARLES MOISE

For Haitians, Titanyen is a place given to whispers. For years Duvalier executed his enemies and effaced their lives in this barren landscape. After the earthquake in 2010 tens of thousands of bodies were dumped here away from the road. It has always been a place of death. Then people began moving in, staking out new beginnings.

Today eighty-six children live here; thirtytwo staff help me run the foundation, and hundreds of day school students from the local villages study in our classrooms.

We have been helped and supported by a constellation of people, notably Caritas Italia. But ironically it was much easier to begin our project--first as a series of summer camps and later as Ever since I returned to Haiti in the 1990s, the Montesinos Foundation--than it has I’ve been troubled by the terrible way been to build our programs. Money and we neglect Haiti’s street children. These abundant resources came easy after children were abandon by their parents, the earthquake. Lots of people--nurses, imprisoned and released to eek out a judges, volunteers--raillied around the living, and more recently orphaned by the idea, but this enthusiasm faded quickly. earthquake. I wanted to create a home We now have dormitories and classrooms for them where they are welcome; where but we struggle to meet our day-to-day these children can attend classes, train expenses and pay salaries. So in spite of in vocations, work and learn from the the dust and the wind, we are developing land, and study music as a way of temsmall-scale commercial businesses, such pering their violence and hurt. I believe as a bakery and cyber cafe with the hope it is the mix of intellectual and practical of eventually becoming self-sustainable. skills that will offer these children good This year we will add a basketball court choices for a different future that would in front of the primary school; we hope keep them from returning to the streets. to finish a house that will welcome our The Bishop asked me to turn this fragile volunteers, so they can live on the site hillside in Titanyen into a place of life. in comfort for up to a year. This is still

an isolated community and the continued presence of people bringing their expertise, enthusiasm, ideas, personalities, and conversations is critical for our kids. And, of course, we continue to work on the master plan and water program with our friends from Paris and Portland, who remind us of the importance of beauty and the role of architecture for recovery. This is the story of our unique collaboration.

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WHAT I LEARNED FROM WORKING IN TITANYEN, HAITI Marie J. Aquilino

I

OUR STORY How this project came about Discovering the site How to tackle the problems 2011

2012

YEAR 1

2013

YEAR 1

YEAR 2

SEMESTER 1 - FALL 2011

SEMESTER 2 - SPRING 2012

SEMESTER 1 - FALL 2012

PARIS

PARIS

PARIS PORTLAND

YEAR 2 SEMESTER 2 - SPRING 2013 PORTLAND

P. 07 P. 11 P. 22

P. 30 December 2011 Haiti reconnaissance

4

P. 56 April 2012 off to Haiti

P. 64

December 2012 back to Haiti

P. 78


WHAT WE ACCOMPLISHED TOGETHER: A conversation with Marie Aquilino and Sergio Palleroni

II

SHIFTING PRIORITIES

III LOOKING BACK

Achieving relevance in an area of conflict and reconstruction Sergio Palleroni

Reflections from the classroom Reflections from the field 2014

YEAR 3 SEMESTER 1 - FALL 2013 PARIS PORTLAND P. 89

P. 127

P. 139

P. 98 June 2013 urgent intervention

P. 116

December 2013 our last visit together

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WHAT I LEARNED FROM WORKING IN TITANYEN, HAITI

Marie J. Aquilino Six students amble down a hill, laughing and chatting. They cross a busy highway together, agree on how to divide up the work and set their backpacks in the shade. The two in cargo shorts hold the tape measure, while another tucks the end of a large schematic map under his chin so he can mark the folded section with a pink felt pen. The others mill around, jotting down details about plants and alleyways as they peek into storefronts. Max stares off into space from under his baseball cap. Only Jisak, the young man from Thailand, starts to draw. They all ignore the panic in a man’s voice until his rage catches their attention. He is tall and powerful, fortyish, and already shouting as he rushes through the veranda. I am across the street talking to my guide as the men start to gather. Some voices defend the students, others join the fury. Most of the men are speaking in Créole, and each seems angry about something different. I rush to shake the big man’s hand and hold on tight with both of mine. He yells over my questions. But I don’t let go. Our hands gesture together as he tries to free himself from my embrace. The group of shouting men gets larger. No one from the blue and white police station moves to quiet the crowd. In French, my guide whispers that 7


the big man is terribly afraid of what we are going to do with our maps and drawings. He is sure they will be used against the village, given to people in the government to favor decisions beyond his control, used, he is sure, to force them to move. The lightning shift to violence in Haiti is not irrational. So I hold on to his calloused hand. I’m afraid that if I let go, our negligence could get someone hurt, or worse. I wouldn’t be among the injured or dead; neither would one of my students. The dead would be from the village, someone trying to be heard, someone ignored or forced to take sides. “Who authorized your visit,” another man wants to know. Yelling and shoving and pleading, we suddenly agree on the guides who will walk us through certain neighborhoods and keep us out of others. It could as easily have gone the other way. 8

Titanyen, Haiti has a tortured and brutal history. Thirty thousand of François Duvalier’s rivals were executed in the treeless hills during his three-decade reign. Then, as if this were a place given only to decay, tens of thousands of bodies, victims of the earthquake, were dumped in immense trenches hidden from the road. Today some 6,000 people live in all manner of tiny houses. Some homes are made from recycled corrugated metal, others are weak cement block that would never withstand another earthquake, a few are built of plywood and raised off the ground, and a handful are made of mud. Most were assembled by family members and are by now somewhat protected from neighbors by a fast-growing, spiny cactus that acts as a very good, thick, fence. Some have small gardens and


some occupy a strange zone between the neighborhood and the national highway, where twice a week a sprawling market extends in all directions. Of the twentythree water spigots, half are working. Roland, one of our new guides, tells me that no one believes the water is truly clean enough to drink, though residents must use it for every need. He laughs and shakes his head when I ask him about the enterprising newcomers claiming to sell miracle water. As we wend our way through tiny passages and shortcuts, we pass shops decorated with extraordinary, surreal paintings. The manicurist shows off her prowess in two wild images painted directly on the facade. Roland is talking about when he used to go to church and his concerns for the town. He is dumbfounded by how many people pass through offering

to build schools. There are already six schools in Titanyen, but only one clinic, and it isn’t well run. Nearly all of the young men who join the walk tell us that if they could leave, they would never come back. There is no electricity, Roland tells the students. In winter, when the days are short, the adults leave work early and few go back out. You can understand, he says, why the community does not tolerate individual ownership of a generator. I watch as a young girl wipes her little sister’s bottom and tosses the soiled paper into the street. Human waste in Haiti is still collected in plastic bags and thrown in piles that are burned at night. The greatest threat to health on the island is not an earthquake; it’s garbage. Riots broke out here when residents fed up with the living conditions burned a bus

and several cars. We are working at the Montesinos Foundation, just opposite the village. During the struggle, furious residents ran up the hill seeking refuge in the chapel. The army lobbed canisters of tear gas over the pews while eightysix children took cover with their teachers in the refectory. Father Charles has plans to move the chapel closer to the road, so doors and windows were never added to the building; everyone liked it this way. Then two of the demonstrators were shot dead. After more than three years in Titanyen, I’ve come to understand that the process we encountered here is typical in Haiti: unequal doses of poor advice, nepotism, good-will arrogance, interchangeable priorities, and an unrelenting sense of urgency that renders any distinction between chronic and acute need pointless. 9


Activity, however, is a good thing. While it mixes hope and promise with havoc and waste, and with what goes wrong every day, activity is also the proof that “things” are moving forward. I am, as a result, more inclined than ever to argue we champion the chaos, embrace its unsteady ambivalence and imperfection. I don’t mean to suggest we should recreate chaos or use its ubiquity to wiggle out of our responsibilities, but rather that we see in the chaos opportunities to abide one another.

and connecting. Abiding also troubles our grasp of what we are responsible for and to whom we owe this responsibility. In abiding, we stay on because abiding complicates our sense of time. In our efforts to grapple with abiding, we learned to read the process differently.

For our students to imagine and explore the relation between abiding and architecture requires, I found, that we hold two ideas simultaneously in play. The first, I call points of attachment or anchors. Anchors arise from never losing sight of the macro scale, the scale of territory, Abiding is much more than listening; it’s listening times ten, from both sides, in con- of the whole. But we also abide in a place. We reside, nest, squat and stay put. versation, with deference and humility. Abiding occurs in encounter and relation- Abiding comes from paying attention to how people arrange their lives, taking ship, in being available, in following 10

care, for example, to consciously grasp what role a home plays in negotiating chronic need; or in being aware of how people come to understand one another and agree, or not. Thus as we worked to temper the pace of urgent need in Titanyen, abiding began to underpin our modest ideas of anchors and modules as the place and the means of entering existing systems.


I OUR STORY

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HOW THIS PROJECT CAME ABOUT I direct a program at École Spéciale d’Architecture in Paris that teaches architecture students to work in contexts of extreme need. We were just about to begin our third semester when an earthquake struck near the Haitian capital of Port-au-Prince on January 12, 2010--a relatively mild physical blow that left nearly 300,000 victims of poor construction dead, 19 million cubic meters of rubble clogging downtown streets, and the fragile country reeling for several years. The seminar became an opportunity to think seriously about architecture as triage. We took on partial solutions for the camps, which were too cramped for tents let alone buildings and which grew more numerous and larger by the day. Residents, even those with homes still standing, realized quickly that medical attention, fresh water, sanitation services, food, and potentially a new house would more likely result from being counted as within the camp population. At their peak, there were more than 1500 spontaneous camps in and around the city. We tried to work in real time with the issues and problems as they unfolded. We were guided by Sandra d’Urzo, Senior Officer in charge of reconstruction for the International Federation of the Red Cross. It was a challenging semester, during which the students struggled to imagine

they could be of any use, especially from Paris: there was no program, no site, the needs and facts were changing everyday, there was no agreement, no easy solutions, and the crisis was enormous. In the end we developed a FloorKit: a micro intervention intended to get people up-and-out of the water during the heavy rains that plagued the campsites; a LifeHouse: a sort of gigantic nightlight, clean water, and a cellphone recharging station that would provide necessities and security, while establishing a location around which small communities and tiny businesses could be generated within individual camps; and a Flexible Foundation: a foundation that is inexpensive, easy to install, earthquake and cyclone resistant, and can adapt to the terrain. The idea was to offer an alternative to concrete, which would permit us to put small-scale temporary structures in the packed camps without taking up much space. The foundation became the base for 13


TITANYEN

the Floorkit. Each group was responsible for everything from design to material procurement and pricing. We turned our proposals over the IFRC, where they are being developed for Haiti and as potential solutions for projects around the globe. The following semester we continued to formulate how best to work from a distance; it’s a terrible mistake to send well-intentioned groups into a crisis only to overtax valuable local resources. Instead, we worked with Article 25, whose team is recognized worldwide as an outstanding non-profit organization that specializes in post-disaster reconstruction. The Ministry of Education in Haiti had asked them to oversee preschool reconstruction across the country, particularly in rural areas. Our students focused on the challenges related to materials and local building practices, and sought out regional options for tying the tiny schools directly into a variety of agricultural economies. School systems have proved critical to environmental 14

stewardship; so we approached the semester as an opportunity to help diversify and strengthen local agribusiness, while encouraging autonomy and self-reliance in remote townships. In parallel, Portland State University joined forces with KPFF Engineering to reproduce the Guide to Confined Masonry Construction according to the specific conditions and needs in Haiti, which included communicating a safe way of meeting the enormous demands for cement block masonry. The Portland team


TITANYEN

PORT-AU-PRINCE

As a result, for three years our two programs worked together to grasp the potential of the region north of Port-auPrince known as Titanyen. We are helping Caritas and the Montesinos Foundation plan, design, and program a residential school complex that would demonstrate a holistic and innovative approach to low-impact, low-energy construction designed to mitigate many of the risks that plague the area. Like so many of its neighbors, the soil on this treeless, scrubby hillside is particularly fragile, suffering from extreme erosion and exposure, and is mostly ill-suited to agriculture. There is no infrastructure, although power at the main road is on the grid; and despite the It was during this period of trying to unwell, water quality and quantity would derstand how best to integrate the limited remain a major concern. skills of young architects into disaster recovery that two of our graduate students from the Masters program in Barcelona, who were working with Sergio Palleroni and me in Haiti as interns rebuilding a school, fortuitously met Anna Zumbo from Caritas Italia and Father Charles Moise of the Montesinos Foundation. had the guide translated into CrÊole and prepared posters that would easily communicate its essential principles to local masons. KPPF Engineering ran hundreds of workshops for master masons in country. Students also tested propositions for prefabricated materials in the Green Buildings Research Lab for their application in a large-scale rebuilding program. The rigorous testing process, which was conducted according to military standards for tropical climates, resulted in a vital material redesign of Swiss Cell’s Haiti House. The discovery would prove critical to understanding the most appropriate building technologies for Haiti.

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200m Saint Phard 6 km

TITANYEN

100m

100m TE ROU ALE

ION NAT 1 NO.

50m

DISCOVERING THE SITE Caritas works closely with local parishes on small projects, but they had received an untenable sum to support the recovery effort in Haiti and desperately needed help managing their larger-scale investments, particularly in Titanyen, which required a complex of buildings and services. While Caritas would hold onto a steady vision, one that imagined the eleven-hectare site becoming a selfsustaining example of environmental and ecological recovery, Father Charles hoped to begin lodging street children there as early as October, 2011. His good intentions aside, the urgency and pressure he 16

felt after the earthquake to respond to Haiti’s most vulnerable population came up against the harsh reality that the site had no water or proper sanitation and no structures to house the children. It would be this relentless sense of urgency that would shape and distort the decisions we faced for the next three years, as the Foundation’s population nearly doubled and as the shifting priorities and exigencies gradually upended our hopes of planning the site for long-term development.


The situation was made more complex by the presence of a Miami firm with ties to the Dominican church who had done a master plan for the backside, which included dormitories and classrooms that looked more like plans for a resort hotel than a residential school. At enormous expense the architect terraced a section for secondary classrooms but left the four unfinished buildings on a precarious slope when they hastily departed. The same firm had encouraged Father Charles to buy this parcel instead of an agriculturally rich property that would have bolstered the community’s ability to serve its own needs. Contractual obligations between them and Caritas would limit our initial involvement and confine our work to the large parcel that fronts the national highway. Nonetheless, for the children of the Montesinos Foundation this promontory, which overlooks the aquamarine waters of an immense protected harbor, would provide the view from which Father Charles hoped they would strike a new path.

busy schedule; and being careful not to overburden our hosts, which limited our time on the ground to no longer than two weeks at a stretch. We were also occasionally undone by the weather, as heavy flooding leads to aggressive outbreaks of cholera and malaria. This said, our students, some sixty in Paris and another thirty in Portland would contribute to every aspect of the project: they researched local history (politics, culture, geography), analyzed community needs and priorities, measured the site, studied its slope and orientation, determined areas to be protected for agricultural production, drafted programs, situated the proposed buildings, procured materials, solved technical challenges related to sustainability, compiled construction catalogues, and designed and built the projects.

A note about working in Haiti. Titanyen remains a complicated place to work, especially with students. Our first concern was for their safety and well being, which meant living in a safe compound with clean potable water and safe food; traveling to and from the site daily (during the daylight hours), which added 1-2 hours of transportation time to our

17


HOW TO TACKLE THE PROBLEMS Address the unknowns regarding water at the site by encouraging Father Charles to control growth. His initial plan to house hundreds of street children who had been taken in provisionally by other parishes was girded by our commitment to determine how many young residents the site could support and help flourish. Though this question would be largely resolved by offering day school to older students in the afternoons and somewhat abated when water was found at the site several months after the first fifty children had arrived, water quality, the quality of the aquifer, and volume at the source remain today suspect and unresolved, severely limiting the site’s potential. Find an alternative to walling off the site, a very expensive proposition that would have devastated the budget. Certainly the site required a measure of security, as Titanyen remains restless even today. 18

But this was all the more reason to design a solution that would not alienate the local community. We would eventually settle on enlarging the soccer field and propose moving the chapel closer to the road so that Titanyen’s residents would feel at home here. A light, vegetal fence would be enough to articulate the boundaries and discourage the squatters. Consider the role of the vibrant, meandering market that invades the National 1 two days a week and makes it’s way up into the village but threatens to extend its reach onto the land the Foundation purchased. Midway into our second year, we realized that building stalls on the property along the highway, which would determine a more formal arrangement for some sellers and define a real edge, would in fact create greater tensions. The market, however spontaneous it may appear to our eyes, is highly organized


and stratified. There is a logic and that logic is respected. The present hierarchy offers many more spaces for individuals to sell their wares. Formal stalls would have greatly reduced that space. We finally proposed two solutions. One is to articulate the small trough that separates the highway from the property, making it physically difficult for the market to extend into and along the site; and two, exaggerate the corner that marks the entrance to the site with a large, airy commercial stall where Montesinos could conceivably sell whatever it produces locally (bread, pasta, tea, medicinal plants, as well as wood and metal work). Define opportunities to integrate modest economic initiatives into the building program that would slowly build selfsufficiency for the school. VISUELS DU PROJET /

Respect and address our neighbors across the street in Titanyen. Titanyen remains a closed village, and it would be two more years before we would be allowed to walk around with guides; although now the village has community meetings to address imperatives and its hopes for the future. And yet, however unlikely a candidate, Titanyen remains critical to resilient development in Haiti precisely because it is one of the many peri-urban zones north of Port-au-Prince. The capital’s bloated population is expected to grow by three million in the next twenty years, doubling current figures. Seventy-five percent of this growth will be in informal settlements. The price of wasting the opportunity offered by such peri-urban territories is inestimable. Listen well. Wear many hats (sociologist, anthropologist, advisor, friend). Design the process, not only the solution.

Propose phasing the development of the parcel so that the Foundation could easily follow a five-year plan that would address two critically different scenarios: a continuous funding stream; and an intermittent or discontinuous funding stream. This required thinking about how best to “anchor� the project.

Identify local partners--agronomist, water engineers, local builders and craftsman, who would help Father Charles develop the site over time.

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mangos $4.00

apples $2.00

tomatos $3.00

ACTIVITY: SELLING LEAR NING: B USINESS AND MONEY SKILLS BENEFIT: PROVIDES EMPLO YMENT AND EXTENDS BENEF ITS TO COMMUNITY

ACTIVITY: HARVESTING LEARNING: PROPER FOOD STORAGE METHODS BENEFIT: HIGHER YEILD AND LONGER LASTING CROP

money AND MONEY and TRADED tradedGOODS goods

ACTIVITY: COOKING LEARNING: HEALTHY FOOD PREPARATION AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF RECIPES AND BENEFIT: HIGHER LEVEL OF NUTRITION IMPROVES LEARNING AND ATTENDANCE

energy AND ENERGY andCOMPOST compost

ACTIVITY: GROWING LEARNING: PROPER/NEW FARMING METHODS BENEFIT: HEALTHY, LOCAL, ORGANIC FOOD ELIMINATES SHORTAGES AT HOME

above PAGES FROM CATALOGUE M. GOUPIT AND A. SPIJKERMAN right SUSTAINABLE CYCLE OF EDUCATIONAL, NUTRITIONAL AND ECONOMIC BENEFIT FROM “FOOD FOR THOUGHT: A NEW MODEL FOR HAITIAN EDUCATION”

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OUR INITIAL OBJECTIVES In all honesty, we came into this project with little idea of where it would take us. We met a visionary man who is trying with his very life to create a sense of self-worth among the street orphans, who remain outcasts in Haitian society. We tried to meet his vision by asking how architecture can become a humanizing force within the reconstruction process. During our tenure, which ends in late 2014, we programed our parcel to mitigate risk, manage water and soil, sponsor alternative practices in energy, grow viable crops, enable metal and brick work, and sell baked goods along a small

commercial strip. The buildings--fabrication spaces, classrooms, workshops, a water station, canteen, tiny shops, and storage--are designed to promote on-site learning by testing renewable technologies and identifying material resources and options. A series of gardens that will become test beds for site remediation are planned to explore opportunities for peri-urban agriculture. The proposal also includes vocational training intended to stimulate job opportunities for the neighboring community. The plans allow the site to grow without further damaging its potential to recover. It was hoped that the water station would generate a small but sustainable income for the school,


SUGAR CANE Family: Poaceae Plant height: 2,5-6 m Harvest / Y: 1 Yield: 4 kg/m2

MILLET Family: Poaceae Plant height: 1-1,3 m Harvest / Y: 1-2 Yield: 0,1 kg/m2

LETTUCE Family: Asteraceae Plant height: 10-20 cm Harvest / Y: 4-5 Yield: 3 kg/m2

PEPPER Family: Solanaceae Plant height: 40-50 cm Harvest / Y: 2 Yield: 0,8 kg/m2

CORN Family: Poaceae Plant height: 1-3 m Harvest / Y: 2-3 Yield: 0,3 kg/m2

BANANA Family: Musaceae Plant height: 2,5-4 m Harvest / Y: 1 Yield: 20 kg/plant

YAM (SWEET POTATO) Family: Convolvulaceae Plant height: 15-25 cm Harvest / Y: 2 Yield: 5 kg/m2

SQUASH Family: Cucurbitaceae Plant height: 20-30 cm Harvest / Y: 3 Yield: 2,5 kg/m2

CARROT Family: Apiaceae Plant height: 20-30 cm Harvest / Y: 3-4 Yield: 4 kg/m2

TOMATO Family: Solanaceae Plant height: 60-100 cm Harvest / Y: 1 Yield: 5 kg/m2

MANIOC Family: Euphorbiaceae Plant height: 1,5-3 m Harvest / Y: 1-2 Yield: 3 kg/m2

EGGPLANT Family: Solanaceae Plant height: Harvest / Y: 2 Yield: 2,5 kg/m2

ONION Family: Amaryllidaceae Plant height: 60-100 cm Harvest / Y: 3-4 Yield: 5 kg/m2

OKRA Family: Malvaceae Plant height: 90-200 cm Harvest / Y: 2 Yield: 0,7 kg/m2

GARLIC Family: Amaryllidaceae Plant height: 15-30 cm Harvest / Y: 1-2 Yield: 0,7 kg/m2

MELON Family: Cucurbitaceae Plant height: 20-40 cm Harvest / Y: Yield: 1,3 kg/m2

CABBAGE Family: Brassicaceae Plant height: 20-30 cm Harvest / Y: 3-5 Yield: 3 kg/m2

BEAN Family: Fabaceae Plant height: 80-180 cm Harvest / Y: 4 Yield: 0,25 kg/m2

CUCUMBER Family: Cucurbitaceae Plant height: 20-40 cm Harvest / Y: 4 Yield: 10 kg/m2

ZUCCHINI Family: Cucurbitaceae Plant height: 30-40 cm Harvest / Y: 4 Yield: 2,5 kg/m2

but water remains a fragile resource. The long-term goal is to ensure that the Haitian youngsters graduate as teenagers capable of leading the region toward greater self-sufficiency and food security, thus becoming their own first line of defense, practicing and monitoring resilient energy, water, waste, and agricultural systems. 2

1

3 4

5

WATER OXYGENE

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

SOIL INFILTRATION AGRICULTURE FOOD FARMING FERTILIZER FARMING BIOMASS

PUT THE TREES BACK INTO THE AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE DO NOT SEPARATE CROPS FROM PLANTS RESTORE SOIL METABOLISM MULTICULTURES IMPROVED SEED PRODUCTIVITY DO NOT DEPEND ON CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS

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THE TERRITORY SCALING THE PROBLEM

CUBA

Île de la Tortue Palmiste

20°N

Port-dePaix

St. Louis du Nord Anse-à-Foleur

Monte Criste

Le Borgne

Jean-Rabel Môle St.-Nicolas

NORD-OUEST Bombardopolis

Cap-Haïtien

Port-Margot

Palmiste

Pilate

Gros-Morne Anse-Rouge

Acul du Nord

Milot

Dondon

Saint-Michel de l'Attalaye

Grande-Saline

Ranquitte

Mont-Organisé

La Victoire

Pignon

Cerca-Carvajal

Dessalines

REPUBLIQUE DOMINICAINE

Cerca-la-Source

Maïssade

Petite-Rivièrede-l'Artibonite

Hinche

Saint-Marc

CENTRE Verrettes

19°N

Dajabon

Vallières

SaintRaphaël

ARTIBONITE

Ferrier Ouanaminthe

Perches

NORD-EST

Bahon

Ennery

Gonaïves

Phaëton Trou-du-Nord SainteSuzanne

Grande-Rivière du Nord Marmelade

FortLiberté

Caracol

Limonade

NORD

Plaisance

Terre-Neuve

Quartier Morin

Plaine du Nord

Limbé Baie de Henne

Thomassique

Thomonde

La Chapelle Belladère

Île de la Gonâve

Magasin

Mirebalais

Pointe-à-Raquette

Abricots

Îles Cayémites

Jérémie

Trou Bonbon

Dame-Marie

Corail

Chambellan Source Chaude

Anse-à-Veau

Baradères

Tiburon

Camp-Perrin

Cavaillon

SUD

Port-à-Piment

Côteaux

Roch-à-Bateau

Les Cayes

2500 m 2000 m 1500 m

Île à Vache

Frontière internationale Limite de département Cours d'eau

1000 m 750 m 500 m 400 m 300 m 200 m 100 m 50 m 0 -200 m -500 m

Régions agricoles Cafè Sucre Sisal Coton Cocao

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Jimani

Vieux Bourg d'Aquin

La Vallée de Jacmel Bainet Côtes-de-Fer

SUD-EST Jacmel

Cayes-Jacmel

Fonds-Verrettes

Marigot

BelleAnse

Thiotte

Grand-Gosier

Banane

St.-Jean du Sud

74°W

3500 m

Aquin

Chantal Torbeck

Port-Salut 18°N

St.-Louis du Sud

Fond Parisien

OUEST

Trouin

Maniche

Chardonnières

Ganthier

Kenscoff Grand-Goâve

L'Asile La Cahouane Les Anglais

Cornillon

Croix des Bouquets Pétion-ville

Léogâne Petit-Goave

Miragoâne

Les Irois

PORTAUPRINCE Carrefour

Petite Rivière de Nippes

NIPPES

MASSIF DE LA HOTTE

GRANDE-ANSE

Gressier

Petit Trou de Nippes

Pestel

Anse d'Hainault

Baptiste Savenette

Thomazeau

Presqu'île des Baradères

Roseaux

Moron

Lascahobas

Saut-d'Eau

Arcahaie PLAN - Regional 01 Duvalierville

Agglomérations Sommets Capitale nationale Chef-lieu de département Autres villes Projection UTM - WGS84 Datum

73°W

72°W

0 0

Anse-à-Pitres

(km) (mi)

50 30


YEAR 1 ~ SEMESTER 1 ~ FALL 2011

Our approach has been to address the site through different orders of scale. Working with the idea of anchors --critical points in the process of developing the site over time-- we remained aware of the macro scale, the scale of territory, of the whole. But scale, we would learn, is not simply size. Scale is not making something bigger, repeating or making more of something. Scale is a tension. Scale is the complex terrain that encompasses the physical and communal potential of a territory. Scale provides insight into what to hold on to and which points in the system to assure

and complete. Scale tells us where to anchor ourselves and also where we can be open and fluid. Scale, for us, became the narrative, the story of the place. Whether at the scale of community, the sprawling market, the need for water and better agricultural practices, or at the scale the parish church, scale, we have discovered, is the filter of exigencies and constraints. Working with scale in this way leads us away from before leading us toward design, as it required us to understand something of the diverse systems already in place before we rushed in.

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YEAR 1 SEM. 1 ~ FALL 2011

PARIS : OUR BEST WORK

RECLAIMING NATIONAL RESOURCES

out

in Zoom in and out often

Never underestimate the complexity of water

Understand who is leading the process Grasp when, where, or if buildings are needed

B C A

«The phases of the project must be flexible enough to absorb the changes that will occur as the population increases and the needs of the Foundation evolve. My master plan integrates water, the orientation of buildings, and infrastructure. The relation among voids, buildings and activities compliments the location of water channels, terraces, and the initial walls. Approaching the master plan in this way ensures the possibility of real progress at the site, which underlies the youthful spirit of the Montesinos Foundation.» Arne Wittenberg

A B

C

C/C -329 m

DIFF 33 m - 26%

NIVEAU 76 -114 m

B/B -505 m

DIFF 34 m - 15%

TOTAL 38 m

A/A -766 m

FIRST ANALYSIS : SLOPE

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DIFF 28 m - 17%

FIRST ANALYSIS: WIND


Y1/S1

PRODUCTION EROSION CONTROL

ENERGY WATER LEARNING

SPORTS

LIVING

NAL ATIO TE N ROU .1 E NO

FIRST ANALYSIS

STABILIZE THE TALUS ROAD CONSTRUCTION SITE PREPARATION INSTALL THE TANK CONSTRUCT ENERGY SUPPLY PROVIDE CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS

FIRST STEPS

FIRST STEPS Rainwater Harvesting and Filter System by Atopia (Image: Courtesy of ATOPIA Research)

25


YEAR 1 SEM. 1 ~ FALL 2011 PARIS: OUR BEST WORK ARNE WITTENBERG

LANDSCAPE EVOLUTION

ACTUAL STATE

CURVE ANALYSIS

STEP TWO

STEP THREE

STEP FOUR

STEP FIVE

26

RURAL REGENERATION Haiti is a particularly mountainous country, which makes farming difficult. Much of the land left to cultivate is either devastated by deforestation or subject to poor irrigation practices, giving way to erosion and landslides. Productive farmland is one of the keys to sustainable development in Haiti. IRRIGATION: ANALYSIS AND EVOLUTION Certain areas of the site are in danger of developing ravines or risk landslides. If the surface tension of the hill is concentrated on the highest grades the overall land surface will begin to smooth out, providing a more continuous grade. HEALING THE LANDSCAPE In the rainy season the soil gets washed down the hillside, producing unwanted ravines. Those ravines expand over time, increasing the risk of landslides and erosion. Prevent degradation while regenerating the soil.

IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM Planting and building require different approaches to the land and different methods of preparation. Orient the terraces toward Titanyen and the valley so that the easterly wind is drawn alongside the terrace walls, which are themselves oriented to the northeast and thereby improve the natural ventilation.

TRANSFORMATION

TERRASSES

CHANGES


Y1/S1

CANALS

WATER:THE SPINE OF LIFE In addition to rehabilitating and preserving the soil, water is essential to creating a sustainable environment. Water catchment could be situated along the upper tiers of the landscape in order to benefit from gravity feed. To irrigate the site as a whole, a system of canals is an easy option. Each canal requires a continuous grade of approximately 3%.

PHASES RainwaterRainwater - Catchment Catchment Constructionsite Construction site - Phase 1 Phase ONE

CANAL SYSTEM

Local Plantation Local plantation - Cultivation Area Cultivationarea Administration Administration Services Services

TENDENCE

Production Production Technical School Technical School

Drainage and Soil-Protection Drainage and Soil-Protection

RunoffcontrolControl Basin-Catchment Runoff Basin-Catchment

COMBINATION

DRAINAGE AND GREY WATER In addition to supporting water catchment to augment drinking water, I propose using a natural drainage system in combination with grey water to irrigate the planted areas of the site through a system of canals.

27


Y1/S1 PARIS ~ ARNE WITTENBERG

28


Y1/S1

FINAL PRESENTATION, PLAN AND SECTION OF DISPENSARY, MODEL STUDIES

29


THE SITE: WHAT TO ANCHOR WHERE?

30


YEAR 1 ~ SEMESTER 2 ~ SPRING 2012

In our second year, Paris students building that would permit the Foundaand faculty investigated construction tion to fabricate and sell sound concrete techniques and tested simple material blocks and train local masons and that make good builders. Haitian families have RELATIONsolutions DE L'ECOLE AVEC LAsense. VILLE_ URBANISME DUToday, PROJET Each student team detailed a carefully rebuilt nearly one-hundred thousand phased suite of master plans that would homes on their own, without the aid allow for greater connection with the of experts. In most of these homes the surrounding community and strengthen cement block has on average 30% of the site’s fragile ecology according to the minimum strength requirements, different priorities and budgets. During a catastrophe in the making. Decisions this period we designed and programed about infrastructure--water, energy, the brick factory, small ateliers, a bakery, building systems, agricultural parcels, DEVELOPPEMENT D'UN SEUL BÂTIMENT_ BLOCKand FACTORY and a water station, which were scheduland use--have been integrated to led as the first part of the technical enhance the site’s overall performance school to be built in late 2014. The brick during the long period of recovery. factory was to be a large-scale industrial

DEVELOPPEMENT DU PROJET COMPLET_ ECOLE TECHNIQUE

31


YEAR 1 SEM. 2 ~ SPRING 2012

PARIS : OUR BEST WORK

in Design for: closed loop systems building at the correct scale actions and not simply activities a temporal scale (what to do first, second, third) local partners simple methods (repair, repeat, reinterpret) an integrated approach for the future Build and test 1:1 scale models (parts) for each project Work with a structural engineer Equity matters Remember your neighbors Prepare detailed construction booklets intended for the local Haitian teams, enabling them to continue the work when we are not on site. This requires developing a clear and accessible communication strategy

out Complex architecture as an isolated object Creating more inequity

32

ÂŤIn a country ravaged by deforestation, each gesture of construction is accompanied by a gesture that augments the capacity to support vegetation and shade trees.Âť Pascal Agnel and Armel Joly


anyen we who finally nd we get w groups to h sketches n covering site, and he area N1 highway.

Sarah and xandre site with ng of a production hool. Every n theme as concrete y. The area ter well we agriculture, part of the d as green ortant part al was the posting bio s.

on we went enter of to see the onal Palace ral, the helters and Market. We alive after

FRIDAY

SATURDAY

SUNDAY

- The whole day was dedicated to getting material and building a pavilion on the lower part of the site. The cube shaped small building was designed by Prof. Bulle and assistant Turchetti and used construction techniques found in some of the students’ projects.

- The whole day was spent in Titanyen, finishing the pavilion. Me and Staffan attached the roof and the sides with wooden planks.

- During the last day in Titanyen we made the last small touches to the pavilion and we were honored with theatrical and musical performances by the orphans.

- The construction was divided into two teams one that made the foundation and one that worked with the elements of the pavilion. - On our way home we got stopped by the National Police who needed to see permittance papers, and it all ended up in Bulle paying a fee to let us proceed through. The car that left after us got into worse trouble, but that’s for them to tell.

- In the evening back at the compound we made Cuba Libre drinks from Haitian rhum, Coca Cola, sugar canes and sweet lime.

Y1/S2

- Before that the students went to hang out at a beach just north of Titanyen, which was a it of a struggle to find (took two hours...). - In the end we managed to get to the airport in good health (with one exception) and got back to Paris with tanned necks and a unique experience.

ngs around it started y, which oud sound ated metal

33


YEAR 1 SEM. 2 ~ SPRING 2012 PARIS: OUR BEST WORK JONATHAN GERSTON + STAFFAN ROSVALL

WAT E

RP

UM

PS

TAT

ION

PRODUCTION AND EDUCATION WA

TER

AG WAA RICLT W ARRREEEHO UTULRTU R HUUO SE USE E

SAL

ES S

TAT

ION

SAL

E

AAGGR WAA RCIC W UTULRT ARRREEEHUOLT HUUOSE EURE USE SCH

PUBLIC SALES AND CHAPEL

WO

OD

MET

AL CON

OO

CRE

L TEX

TIL

EP

ROD

TE

UCT

ION

LAV

ERIE FOO

D WA T SAL ER E

CYB CAF ER É

CHHAAP C EPL

EL

0

10

20

30

40

50

MASTER PLAN - CUT VIEW

FROM THE PROJECT PORTFOLIO:

34

«We have all along strived to maintain an open and flexible solution to the program requirements of the Montesinos site. This means not only designing the building for maximum shade and breeze but also leaving them open for a wide variety of different activities.

During our visit to Haiti we realized that the most comfortable and appropriate workplaces are those that are almost fully open to their surroundings. In addition to the obvious climatic benefits, this creates a social space and helps further secure the site.» Jonathan Gerston and Staffan Rosvall


Y1/S2

MASTER PLAN CUT VIEW ZOOM PRODUCTION AND EDUCATION

AG R W A IC ULT RE H U RE OU SE S AL

E

CYBER CAFÉ 1 x Main building 10 x 5 m WATER SALE STATION 1 x Main building 10 x 5 m

S AL

E

AG R W A IC ULT RE H U RE OU SE

SCH

WO

FOOD SALE STATION 1 x Main building 10 x 5 m

OD

MET AL

LAVOIR 1 x Main building 10 x 5 m

OO

CON

L

CRE

TEX

TILE

PRO

DUC

TE

CHURCH 1 x Unit

TIO

N

0

10

SCHOOL TEXTILE / WOOD METAL / MASONRY 1 x Classroom 10 x 5 m TEXTILE PRODUCTION 1 x Unit 20 X 7 m

2 20

INF O ///

WOOD PRODUCTION 1 x Unit 20 X 7 m

LAV

ERIE FOO

METAL PRODUCTION 1 x Unit 20 X 7 m

D WAT E SA L R E

CYB E CA R FÉ

C HA

MASONRY PRODUCTION 1 x Unit 20 X 7 m

AGRICULTURE WAREHOUSE 2 x Units 10 x 5 m

PEL

WATER PUMPS 1 x Unit 10 x 5 m 0

10

20

MASTER PLAN CUT VIEW ZOOM PUBLIC SALES AND CHAPEL

35


Y1/S2 PARIS ~ JONATHAN GERSTON + STAFFAN ROSVALL

RESERVOIR (HILL TOP)

2

RAIN HARVESTING + SITE WATER DISTRIBUTION

DORMITORY SHOWERS

POTABLE WATER

FLOW

TER

113m

R

CLEAN WATE

HILL TOP USE

GREYWA

HYGIENE

GREYWATER

250

IRRIGATION OF TREES/CROPS ON UPPER-MID LEVEL OF SITE (END USER)

150

100

RESERVOIR (MID LEVEL)

1

99m

R CLEAN WATE

LOWER SITE USE

CHAPEL MARKET SCHOOL PRODUCTION

IRRIGATION OF CROPS

FLOW

GREYWATER

200

ON LOWEST SITE POINT (END USER)

50

POTABLE WATER

0mm JU L AU G 94 S 12 EP 2 O 53 KT NO V 18 DE C 61

AY

JU N

23

46

AP R

M

2 14

B

AR M

86

FE

41

18

23

JA

N

GREYWATER

PRECIPITATION PORT-AU-PRINCE

RAINWATER HARVESTING + SITE WATER DISTRIBUTION Sheets of material that hold water can be spread over the slopes to collect and direct rainwater into hillside reservoirs and then used for irrigation. This technique has been implemented historically in many arid regions of the world as a water supply system.

36

HYGIENE

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE HEIGHT DIFFERENCE ON SITE 19+14=33 m

PUMP FILTER 80m


Y1/S2

FEATURES AQUEDUCT DESIGN

OVER GROUND

Water wall: The border towards the west is kept safe by a wall that also functions as a container for the water pipe, leading the pumped water to the two reservoirs.

IN GROUND

AQUEDUCT LONGITUDINAL

700

2600

500

AQUEDUCT LATERAL

WATER WALL FEATURES WALL DESIGN Future road border: In the future, the wall can be made into a two-sided public space that can be crossed at will.

GREYWATER (FOR IRRIGATION)

VISUAL CONTACT + PHYSICAL CONTACT

VISUAL CONTACT /// BUT DIVIDED 700

2800

CONNECTING ELEMENTS

600

PATHWAY ROUTE NATIONAL

ROUTE NATIONAL 1100 2400

400

ROAD BORDER SECTION

FUTURE ROAD BORDER

37


Y1/S2 PARIS ~ JONATHAN GERSTON + STAFFAN ROSVALL

AGRICULTURE SUGGESTED CROPS

Kgs 6000

GREYWATER (FOR IRRIGATION)

5000

0

CLEAN WATER

AMARANTH /// 630kg

1000

BUSH BEANS /// 6400kg

2000

CARROTS /// 4200kg

3000

SWEET POTATOES /// 5544kg

400 0

1200

TOTAL AGRICULTURE AREA ON E YIELD IF ALL SPACE USED 4200m² FOR A SI N GLE CRO P

SWEET POTAT.

CARROTS

BUSH BEANS

350

350

AMARANTH

500

375 500 125

1000

600 125

300

500

150 500

SWEET POTATOES

CARROTS

BUSH BEANS

AMARANTH

AGRICULTURE - SHADE MESH PLANT NURSERY The mesh diffuses the most direct sunlight while at the same time keeping moisture in the air. This helps seed the nursery. If kept well ventilated, the mesh can also be used to shade open spaces and as a protective cover for drying concrete.

5000 5000 2000 2000

BAG BAG

SOIL SOIL

PLANT PLANT

3000 3000

CROPS CROPS

350 350

2300 2300

500 500

2100 2100 1500 1500

3350 3350

2500 2500

850 850

38

BAGASS BAGASS URINE DRAINPIPE URINE DRAINPIPE FECES DRUM FECES DRUM

AGRICULTURE COMPOSTING TOILETS TRADITIONAL HANDLING OF SANITARY PROBLEMS 1 - Use 2 - Store 3 - Transport to composting facility


Y1/S2

START POINT TERRACES $15

1 NIGHT LIGHTS Site hill in original condition.

2

Cut small terrace into hill by hand.

3

On every roof beams’ end we want to attach a solar cell charged lightbulb to create a weak night light that forms a pattern outlining the buildings on site, making them visible at a distance. Conceived of on January 24, 2010, and launched June 10 of 2010, the the Nokero N100 bulb combines the best in solar and LED technology to create a superior, yet affordable, solar light. It’s made to last. The clear globe is made from the same shatter-resistant polycarbonate used in car headlights, and its high-temperature battery ensures it will charge efficiently even in the world’s hottest weather. GREEN TERRACES - SPIRULINA

Either make a compost ditch or dig SPIRULINA ponds. FOOD PRODUCTION

4 Let compost work.

5

Use soil created to plant trees or grow food.

Spirulina is an algae growing naturally under tropical conditions in alkaline water and can be cultivated in small ponds with little investment. Women can work the ponds and over time create sustainable businesses. The START POINT TERRACES is a concept made to provide the residents with a small scale, easy to initiate, improvement project that will benefit them economically and stabilize the hillside. This will slowly help fight erosion and exposure over the area without giving the impression of an overwhelming task. School children can also be given small plots to grow vegetables that they can, in turn, sell at the market. The money they make could go to school uniforms and playground equipment.

39


Y1/S2 PARIS ~ JONATHAN GERSTON + STAFFAN ROSVALL

CONCRETE BLOCK MODULES PRODUCTION UNIT

REINFORCEMENT BARS

SECTION

ELEVATION

1:20

1:20

STABILIZING L-WALLS

4000

STANDARD UNIT 2400

7800

19200

2600 7200

0

1

2

3

4

5

10

1:100

AGRICULTURE UNIT 0

1

2

3

4

5

10

1:100

250

1000

2000

150

2400 150

7250

11.5ยบ 4400

2600

3400 3000

2500

3500

700

100

5350

10600

5300

7400

9600

2400 STANDARD UNIT

40

2250

150


Y1/S2

WATER PURIFICATION SYSTEM

1. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

4

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WATER SOURCE BUILDING WALL ON SITE BORDERS RAIN WATER COLLECTION UNIT x 1 SOCCER FIELD

M E TA L

WATER SALE BUILDING

W OOD

S

AGRI.

UD TOILET x 1

SALE

HAND SANITATION x 1

SALES

CHAPEL FOOD SALE BUILDING UD TOILET x 2 HAND SANITATION x 1 LAVERIE METAL PRODUCTION WOOD PRODUCTION PLANTING SCHOOL SALES POINT

WO

L

OD

META

AGRI.

SALE

S

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

1

SCHO

CONC

OL

RETE

TEXT

ILE

2

A G R I.

AGRICULTURE BUILDING x 1

5

FARMING FIELDS FRESH WATER DISTRIBUTION N

1. CYBER CAFÉ 2. UD TOILET x 2

@

GRAY WATER DISTRIBUTION CONCRETE BLOCK FACTORY HAND SANITATION x 1 UD TOILET x 1

SCHO

RETE

WO

OD

L

AGRI. CONC

META

AGRI.

SALE

S

SALE

S

AGRI.

C O N C R E TE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

CONC

OL

RETE

TEXT

ILE

@

3

T E X T I LE

SCHOOL

AGRI.

TEXTILE PRODUCTION SCHOOL UD TOILET x 2 HAND SANITATION x 1 AGRICULTURE BUILDING x 1 FARMING FIELDS SALES POINT

AGRI.

SALE S

AGRI.

SALES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

SCHO

CONC

OL

RETE

TEXT

ILE

SEQUENCE OF DEVELOPMENT

41


Y1/S2 PARIS ~ JONATHAN GERSTON + STAFFAN ROSVALL

PRODUCTION UNIT LAYOUT AND MEASUREMENTS

2400 2300 1000 100

2260

100

800

PRODUCTION UNIT - REQUEST Required measurement 7x20 m (140 m2)

1000

4800 4000 3000

PRODUCTION UNIT - ACTUAL Actual measurement 7,2x19,2 m (138,24 m2)

50

8x2400=19200 x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

PRODUCTION UNIT - REQUEST Required measurement 7x20m (140m²)

Adjust measurements to standard plywood. Minimize waste, facilitate transport. PRODUCTION UNIT - ACTUAL Actual measurement 7,2x19,2m (138,24m²)

Measurement adjustment due to adaption to standard plywood measurments in order to minimize material waste and facilitate transport and construction.

x AREA MODULES 2400mm wide center-center. Inner area modules of 2400x2400 are set with a 50mm distance from the inner edge of the vertical beams. In corners the distance is 50mm to either beam. The beams alas meet edge to edge in the corners, creating a hollow facing outwards in each knot.

x

3x2400=7200

AREA MODULES 2400 mm wide center-center. Inner area modules of 2400x2400 are set with a 50 mm distance from the inner edge of the vertical beams. In corners the distance is 50 mm to either beam. The beams meet edge to edge in the corners, creating a hollow facing outwards in each knot. CONCRETE GROUND SLABS measure 2380mm square and are set with the same center as the AREA MODULES and as such fit into the entire building without interfering with the supporting structure. The 20mm slot in between each is to allow for seismic movements while still being so small that it does not interfere with the use of pallet jacks.

20mm

PRODUCTION UNIT - REQUEST Required measurement 7x20m (140m²)

x

2380mm

50mm

100mm

AREA MODULES 2400mm wide center-center. Inner area modules of 2400x2400 are set with a 50mm distance from the inner edge of the vertical beams. In corners the distance is 50mm to either beam. The beams alas meet edge to edge in the corners, creating a hollow facing outwards in each knot.

2300mm

MODULES 24 AREA MODULES MEASURING 5,76 m² 12 GATE MODULES

STRUCTURAL BEAMS 15 VERTICAL BEAMS 9 ROOFS BEAMS

AREA MODULE 2,4 x 2,4= 5,76 m² TOTAL BUILDING AREA 5,76 m² x 24 = 138,24 m²

GATE MODULES 2300 mm wide edge-edge to fit into the vertical beam frame

CONCRETE GROUND SLABS measure 2380mm square and are set with the same center as the AREA MODULES and as such fit into the entire building without interfering with the supporting structure.

BULDING BLOCKS measure 400x200x200mm (L/W/H) The wall is built in a U-section for rigidity and stability.

VERTICAL BEAMS are made from five layers of plywood fixated together and measures 240x100mm. (The actual value is 95,5mm, but due to losses in the assembly it is stated as 100mm for all practical purposes).

GATE MODULE

GATE MODULE CUT

12 TO BE MADE

12 TO BE MADE

9600mm

2300mm

1500mm

2260mm

600mm

7800mm 5°

300mm

BULDING BLOCKS measure 400x200x200 mm (L/W/H) The wall is built in a U-section for rigidity and stability.

3000mm

4800mm

1000mm

800mm

300mm

4000mm

CONCRETE GROUND SLABS measure 2380 mm square and are set with the same center as the AREA MODULES and as such fit into the entire building without interfering with the supporting structure. The 20 mm slot in between each is to allow for seismic movements while still being so small that it does not interfere with the use of pallet jacks. The 20mm slot in between each is to allow for seismic movements while still being so small that it does not interfere with the use of pallet jacks.

2400mm

7200mm

AREA MODULE 2400x2400mm

MODULE MEASUREMENTS

42

BULDING BLOCKS measure 400x200x200mm (L/W/H)

The wall is built in- aACTUAL U-section for rigidity and stability. PRODUCTION UNIT Actual measurement 7,2x19,2m (138,24m²)

VERTICAL BEAMS are made from five layers of plywood fixated together Measurement adjustmentand duemeasures to adaption to standard plywood measurments in 240x100mm. (The actual value is 95,5mm, but due to order to minimize material waste andassembly facilitateittransport and100mm construction. losses in the is stated as for all practical purposes).

240mm

AREA MODULE 2400x2400mm

AREA MODULE 2400x2400mm

AREA MODULE 2400x2400mm

VERTICAL BEAMS are made from five layers of plywood nailed together and measures 240x100 mm. (The actual value is 95,5 mm, but due to losses in the assembly it is stated as 100 mm for all practical purposes).


Y1/S2

1200mm 1200mm

100mm

240mm

300mm

240x480mm 240x480mm

780mm

780mm

2400mm

480mm

2400mm

480mm

240x480mm

2400mm

480mm

240x480mm

240x480mm

2400mm 720mm

240x480mm

240x780mm 240x780mm

480mm

240x780mm 240x780mm

240x480mm

240x1200mm

240x480mm

240x480mm 240x480mm

240x480mm

240x480mm

240x480mm

240x480mm

240x480mm

240x1200mm 240x1200mm

240x1200mm

240x2400mm

240x2400mm

240x2400mm

240x2400mm

240x2400mm

240x2400mm 240x2400mm

240x2400mm

240x2400mm

240x2400mm

240mm

100mm

300mm

240x480mm

1200mm 1200mm

720mm 480mm

CONSTRUCTION CATALOGUE CONSTRUCTION OF PILLAR PILLAR ASSEMBLY (X15)

720mm

Measuring 4800x240x100 mm required material for 1 beam: 1200x3648 mm board.

480mm

4800mm

480mm

720mm

4800mm

2400mm

480mm

FITTING OF NAILS The zig-zag pattern of the nails are inverted on either side for a more even spread of loads. MATERIAL USE To manufacture one beam you need 1,6 sheets of plywood. For every 4 of these units you manufacture you have left over material that is sufficient to assemble one extra beam. To make the 15 pillars necessary you will need 24 sheets of plywood.

480mm 2400mm 480mm

1

2

3

4

480mm

480mm

1

2

3

4

43


Y1/S2 PARIS ~ JONATHAN GERSTON + STAFFAN ROSVALL

DAY 1

DAY 2

DAY 3

DAY 4

DAY 5

16 / 04 / 2012 SUNDAY

17 / 04 / 2012 MONDAY

18 / 04 / 2012 TUESDAY

19 / 04 / 2012 WEDNESDAY

20 / 04 / 2012 THURSDAY

- At arrival at Toussant Louverture Airport, Port-auPrince, we immediately got struck by the moist hot air and the scenery of rubble and garbage along the roads.

- For some reason the local time we got from Air Caraïbes didn’t match the time that our professors had, so everyone was late in the morning.

- Back to Titanyen, and on the way there we stopped at some small material vendors to compare prices.

- We got a guided introduction by the Italian foreman at the concrete block production facility inside the compound. He explained their methods and the machines that they are using.

- Back in Titan meet Sergio w has arrived, and divided into new produce rough of a masterplan the whole site, a cularly the area to the N1 highwa

- To manage to rent two cars at the Hertz office took more than an hour and civil dressed guys guarded the area with revolvers and shotguns. - On the road to the Caritas Italia compound we learned how the normal scenery in Port-au-Prince looks like: people walking in the street, Tap Tap-taxis with various painted messages crowded with passengers, people selling stuff everywhere, colorful and very well done murals on the concrete walls and houses facing the streets and a lot of dirt, garbage and rubble both in and outside the plots.

- First visit at Titanyen, met Père Charles and the orphans and studied the site and the area. - We built the demounted models that we brought from Paris and presented to Père Charles and two persons from Caritas Italia. - In the evening PierreAlexandre managed to open some fresh coconuts so we all could enjoy them.

- In Titanyen we all visited the local market where you could buy anything from fresh limes and mangoes to live goats and baseball caps. - The students got divided into teams, and me, Staffan, Martin and Lucia took measurements of the site down by the N1 highway where the ground is quite flat. - Me and Staffan continued on our own to establish a border that marks the place where the ground starts sloping, to know where the best area to place buildings is. We marked it with standing branches and pieces of blue plastic and measured all the distances.

- Instead of going to Titanyen today we went up in the mountains and to Mirabalais to see a huge hospital under construction designed by an american team. The project has high ambitions but seemed a bit brutal and unrealistic, and it’s doubtful that it’s going to work in the long run with maintenance of all advanced equipment and distribution of goods, patients and workforce to the remote location. - We also visited a newly built school nearby which was very interesting and quite beautiful. The buildings were freely arranged and quite open, and the created nice spaces in between that has great potential to become even better when trees and vegetation grow big enough to provide shade. - We visited a community where there were dozens of artists making wall decorations and art by hammering and cutting metal sheets.

44

- Me, Staffan, Sa Pierre-Alexandre the site with uni ting of a market, p uction part and Every unit had theme as for exam crete blocks or ba The area around well we reserved culture, and the u of the hill we im green space. An i part in our prop the system of co bio waste and fec

- In the afternoon to the center of Prince to see the National Palace a dral, the situation ters and the reb Market. We felt lu alive after the vis

- In the evening 10-11 pm it starte heavily, which ma loud sound on th gated metal shee


Y1/S2

DAY 5

DAY 6

DAY 7

DAY 8

012 AY

20 / 04 / 2012 THURSDAY

21 / 04 / 2012 FRIDAY

22 / 04 / 2012 SATURDAY

23 / 04 / 2012 SUNDAY

got a guided on by the Italian at the concrete oduction facility compound. He their methods machines that sing.

- Back in Titanyen we meet Sergio who finally has arrived, and we get divided into new groups to produce rough sketches of a masterplan covering the whole site, and particularly the area closest to the N1 highway.

- The whole day was dedicated to getting material and building a pavilion on the lower part of the site. The cube shaped small building was designed by Prof. Bulle and assistant Turchetti and used construction techniques found in some of the students’ projects.

- The whole day was spent in Titanyen, finishing the pavilion. Me and Staffan attached the roof and the sides with wooden planks.

- During the last day in Titanyen we made the last small touches to the pavilion and we were honored with theatrical and musical performances by the orphans.

of going to today we went mountains and to to see a huge nder construction by an american project has high but seemed a and unrealistic, oubtful that it’s work in the long maintenance of all equipment and n of goods, nd workforce to e location.

visited a newly ol nearby which interesting and beautiful. The were freely and quite open, created nice between that t potential to ven better when vegetation grow gh to provide

ed a community re were dozens making wall ns and art by g and cutting ets.

- Me, Staffan, Sarah and Pierre-Alexandre organized the site with units consisting of a market, part, a production part and a school. Every unit had its own theme as for example concrete blocks or bakery. The area around the water well we reserved for agriculture, and the upper part of the hill we imagined as green space. An important part in our proposal was the system of composting bio waste and feces. - In the afternoon we went to the center of Port-auPrince to see the collapsed National Palace and Cathedral, the situation, the shelters and the rebuilt Iron Market. We felt lucky to be alive after the visit...

- The construction was divided into two teams one that made the foundation and one that worked with the elements of the pavilion. - On our way home we got stopped by the National Police who needed to see permittance papers, and it all ended up in Bulle paying a fee to let us proceed through. The car that left after us got into worse trouble, but that’s for them to tell.

- In the evening back at the compound we made Cuba Libre drinks from Haitian rhum, Coca Cola, sugar canes and sweet lime.

- Before that the students went to hang out at a beach just north of Titanyen, which was a it of a struggle to find (took two hours...). - In the end we managed to get to the airport in good health (with one exception) and got back to Paris with tanned necks and a unique experience.

- In the evenings around 10-11 pm it started raining heavily, which made a really loud sound on the corrugated metal sheet roof.

45


YEAR 1 SEM. 2 ~ SPRING 2012 PARIS: OUR BEST WORK ARNE WITTENBERG

RECLAIMING NATIONAL RESOURCES II TEMPORALITY Energy Energy pole Pole

70

Existing Existing Reference Reference Resulting Resulting Orientations Orientations

65 65

CanalsSystem System Canals Reference Tree Reference

65

WallSegments Segments Wall FixedGrid Grid / Subgrid Fixed Subgrid 85 80 100

2156 l.

17.920 l.

FIRST ORIENTATION: CANAL-SYSTEM AND WALL-SEGMENTS. BUILDING AND RESULTING INFRASTRUCTURE Geometric System Existing Reference Resulting Orientation Parallel Measures Reference Tree Building

Circular Measures Circular Measures

Water WaterCanals Canals

Existing Reference Existing Reference

WallsLimits Limits Walls

Resulting Orientations Resulting Orientations

Columns Columns

Parallel Measures Parallel Measures 80

Reference Tree Reference Tree 100

Building Building

2156 l.

17.920 l.

SECOND ORIENTATION ADAPTABLE DISTRIBUTION CANAL

46

THIRD ORIENTATION BUILDINGS INFRASTRUCTURE

RESULTING INFRASTRUCTURE WATER CANALS, WALLS AND COLUMNS


Y1/S2

HEIGHT MANGO

JAN.

FEB.

MAR.

APR.

MAY

JUN.

JUL.

AUG.

SEP.

OCT.

NOV.

PLANT AND TREE CATALOGUE

DEC.

35-40 m

LEMON

4m

BREAD TREE

15-20 m

PASSION FRUIT

50 meters rope

Reference point

DRAWING THE CIRCLE IN THE PARCEL

SWEET POTATO IGNAME TOMATO

60 days 60 days 40/50 days

3-10 m 10 m

CASHEW

10 m

CACHIMAN

9m

CORAL TREE

POPINAC

4-5 m

AGAVE

ROYAL PALM

20-30 m

VETIVER

PARLOUR PALM

2-3 m

CACTUS

TREES AND PLANTS: WHEN TO PLANT AND HARVEST

CHARACTERISTICS REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANTING

GUAVA BANANA

PLANTING AND HARVESTING JAN.

CROP YIELD (100 m²)

FEB.

MAR.

APR.

MAY

JUN.

JUL.

ORCHARD PLANNING AUG.

SEP.

OCT.

NOV.

DEC.

PROJECTED SEED 500

650 plants

400

650 plants

4000 m²

CROP YIELD

600 m²

3750 plants

600 m²

3750 plants

300

600 m²

800 plants

MELON

80 plants

200

300 m²

240 plants

PEAS

500 plants

400 m²

2000 plants

200 m²

5000 plants

100 m²

2500 plants

300 m²

1050 plants

300 m²

variable

ONION SCALION

50 days 50 days

2500 plants

60

20

40

350 kg

10

20

300 m²

1050 kg

130 plants

0 c°

0 mm.

300 m²

400 plants

350 plants

CAYOTE

variable

EGGPLANT

60 days

80

30

CUCUMBER

CHARD

40

2500 plants

JAN.

FEB.

MAR.

APR.

MAY

JUN.

JUL.

AUG.

SEP.

OCT.

NOV.

DEC.

TOMATO SWEET POTATOE

130 plants

100

HARVESTING CYCLE

IGNAME

ONION

MELON

SCALION

PEAS

SWEET POTATOE

CUCUMBER

EGGPLANT CAYOTE CHARD

81 m²

729 m²

20,4 m

4000 m²

SPACE NEEDS

39,7 m SEED STORAGE TOOLS STORAGE MATERIAL STORAGE WATER TANK COMPOST STORAGE PREPARATION OF HARVESTED PLANTS CROP STORAGE

NURSERY

Planting standard 1m² nursery = 100/200 plants

0,5 ha. plantation

FARMING FIELD

ORCHARD PLANTS 1 WEEK

1 MONTH

4 MONTH

Day

NATURAL LIGHT Toilet in use

CROSS VENTILATION Depth

Composting Trench

RAIN WATER COLLECTED ON ROOF STORED Lid-Heigh IN TANKS FEEDS SINK Mid-Low

Lowest Mesophillic VENTILATION PIPE AND INCOMING AIR DUCTS MAKE THE OPERATION Composting Reactants ODORLESS

Thermophillic

Cooling

Pathogens BASIN HAS A 30 DEGREE SLOPE TO Thermophiles HELP WASTE TURN AND COMPOST Secondary

URINE DIVERTED FROM BASON AND DILUTED FOR FERTILIZER

DRY COMPOSTING TOILETS

COMPOSTING EVOLUTION Compost for potting: 20 % coarse sand - 40 % loamy topsoil - 30 % weathered sawdust - 10 % compost

47


Y1/S2 PARIS ~ ARNE WITTENBERG

FIRST SCENARIO: START WITH THE BRICK FACTORY

FRONT WALL

48


Y1/S2

RUBBLE GABION Each home starts with a shallow, dry-rubble foundation. A temporary wooden frame is erected around the outside perimeter of the house. The frame provides support for the welded wire exoskeleton. The welded wire is lined with galvanized chicken wire. This prevents small pieces of rubble from falling out and provides extra gripping spaces for the concrete plaster coat. The wire is then passed through a custom metal brake and bent to form the shape of the wall. Two pieces of wire form the entire house. Once the walls have been filled in, the pressure treated wood roof structure is installed. Corrugated roofing sheets complete the roof and provide protection from the rain.

Door frames are hung before the frame is removed. The existing floor is repaired or replaced. From start to finish the process takes around eight days. (haitireplacementhomes.org) CORRUGATED GALVANIZED SHEETING CGI was invented in the 1820s by Henry Palmer, an architect and engineer at the London Dock Company. Originally made from wrought iron, CIG proved to be light, strong, corrosion resistant and easily transported: qualities that appealed to semi-skilled workers. Today the wrought iron sheets have been replaced by light steel and coil-painted sheets with complex profiles.

CONCRETE BLOCKS Unfortunately, Haitians use shovels to mix cement with aggregate on the ground. They place the semi-dry material into a simple mold, tap it lightly and leave it to air dry. There is no quality control and the critical pressure needed for the block to consolidate never happens. Cement is a difficult material that requires following the recipe, proper time to allow the blocks to cure (the norm is 28 days), and good quality basic ingredients.

WORK WITH WHAT YOU HAVE: TRANSFORMING MATERIALS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTREME POVERTY INTO BEAUTIFUL STRUCTURES

49


Y1/S2 PARIS ~ ARNE WITTENBERG

CONTINUOUS PROGRESS

50


Y1/S2

40.50m

Water Canal

Water from Well

4.50

3.78

2.56 1.05

Grey water

Rain water recolection

1.05

3.2m

-1.05

0.00

1.05

0.00

12.1m

Water from Well

9.6m

Water Canal Sand 16 m2

0.00

E - 1:200

Sliding doors

Grey water

PRODUCTION & SEQUENCE

Materials download zone

3.2m

2.00

12.1m

A

A

E - 1:200

9.22

9.6m

3m

39 m

PROGRAM

11.22

15.22

Materials download zone

Sliding doors

12 m

Pivoting panels 5x1.37m - 2,5 m passing height

18 m

1.05

Lime stone / gravel 7m 16 m2

Cement 6.4 m2

32 blocks

Palet zone

B 1.97

Sand 16 m2

1.6m

Circ.

256 blocks

1.05

2.00

Sand 16 m2

2m

1st MODULE TO BUILD

Cement 6.4 m2

2m

2m

1m

Blocks loading zone

SECTION A-A

Sand 16 m2

B

3m

Lime stone / gravel 7m 16 m2

PRODUCTION & SECUENCE DISTRIBUTION SCHEMES DISTRIBUTION SCHEMES

12 m

PLAN Cement

RAW MATERIAL STORAGE storage Raw material

Pivoting panels 5x1.37m - 2,5 m passing height

Cement 6.4 m2

6.4 m2

MIXING AREA area Mixing

Rain water recolection

1.6m 2m

39 m 32 blocks

2m

Circ.

Palet zone

2m

SECTION B-B

18 m

PRODUCTION & DRYING Production &AREA drying area FINAL PRODUCT STORAGE storage Final product QUALITY TEST Quality test SANITATION Sanitation OFFICE - ADMINISTRATION Office - administration

COVERED SPACES main hall 345,6 m2 + adm&sanitation 45 m2+ quality 6 m2= 425,4 m2 semicovered spaces 97,5 m2

COVERED SPACES

256 blocks

MAIN HALL 345,6 m2 + ADM&SANITATION 45 m2+ QUALITY 6 m2= 425,4 m2 SEMICOVERED SPACES 97,5 m2

Blocks loading zone

4,5 m

WALLS AND COLUMNS STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

PROGRAM

OPENING AND DIVISIONS NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

51


Y1/S2 PARIS ~ ARNE WITTENBERG

INSIDE THE MAIN PATH

52


Y1/S2 DRYING AREA

-2.00

0.75

STOCK AND SALES AREA

-1.00

ARTISANALE

CRAFTS WORKSHOP

1.00 POTTERY WORKSHOP

CAMP DE FOOT CLASSE 0.00

2.00 1.00

3.00

1.00

BOULANGERIE 2.00

2.00

2.00

3.00 3.00

CLASSE 1.00

CYBERCAFE

EAU

REFECTOIRE 3.00

SECURITÉ

3.00 3.50

CUISINE

4.00

4.00

RADIO

5.00

4.00

6.00

7.00

CHAPELLE

CENTRAL SCHOOL BUILDING GETTING STARTED My master plan focuses on infrastructure and on the particular role of water as it organizes and orients building patterns and locations. The overall distribution and phasing of the project responds to the fragility of the landscape, allowing the most fragile sections more time to rejuvenate.

FUNCTIONS AND VALUE The site itself should become a source of development for the Montesinos Foundation. I hope to design a scheme that encourages and enables the children and young adults who live here to be an active part of the processes of recovery and growth. My vision is to help respond to the need for jobs and education, community activities, as well as to the desire for sports and religious gatherings.

53


YEAR 1 SEM. 2 ~ SPRING 2012

OFF TO HAITI

The students presented their sketches, proposals and scale models for the brick factory to Father Charles and Anna Zumbo, director of Caritas Italia in Haiti, who worked with them to define the priorities within the master plan. The presentation was particularly valuable for the Haitian team, as it is terribly difficult for them to envision new construction technologies that are at once simple and inexpensive while at the same time providing elegant, ecological solutions for their program. Students and faculty also rapidly designed and built a small pavilion that functions as an outdoor classroom. The construction experience was a critical opportunity for our students to confront the available materials, the constraints of weather and climate, the exigencies of time, their ability to adapt and respond to the building process on site, and their capacity to work together to bring small-scale innovative solutions and insights to the field.

54


55


I5.. 6. - Maquette 1:20 2 -2Maquette auau 1:20

THE SITE: MODULAR THINKING

I . 3. 1 - Assemblage entre modules - 1.4 m de fer plats 40*10 - 8 Boulons Ă˜10 * 30

22 mm

100 mm

300 mm

0.70 m

300 mm

100 mm

56

x2


YEAR 2 ~ SEMESTER 1 ~ FALL 2012

Our experience in Titanyen has taught us that an abiding architecture is at once systemic and immediate. So this semester we made hundreds of modules scaled to the human body. Initially, these modules have no particular application, no preordained program, no precise scale, and no certain inside or outside; they are simple, affordable, modest, replicable units complete in themselves that could be walls, doors, floors, roofs, joints, bits of furniture or the beginnings of playgrounds.

will never be enough. Making, he contends, is vital to growth, productivity, and raising living standards. More, making modules helps us instill in our partners on the ground that good design is simple and consistent with their own practices, as well as easy to invest in. Good design continues across protracted building periods, which are subject to ebbs and flows of funding.

We eliminated the need for complicated tools and machines and relied on local knowledge and expertise such as boat making to apply the designs. Students maximize the potential of each module by working with what we call the REs: remake, repurpose, repeat, redo, reiterate, reconfigure, refit, rethink, rework, replace, recombine, research. Always working with their hands. Haitian families make their homes and lives incrementally, in stages, in and through their daily routines. This incremental architecture then begins to give shape to the anchors we discern from the analyses of scale. They begin to assemble. Renowned development economist Ha-Joon Chang encouraged the ESA team to take making things more seriously because a knowledge economy

57


YEAR 2 SEM. 1 ~ FALL 2012

Cargill Maxime

Week 2

PARIS : OUR BEST WORK

Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012

in Be modest

out Overdetermined programs

Cargill Maxime

Week 1

Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012

Suite des tests de panneaux de bambou. Superposition des éléments et mise en place d’une épaisseur dans les modules. Trouver des moyens d’assemblages des panneaux.

Test de panneaux en bambou avec de la corde. Entremêlés, superposés, attachés. Définir un module.

EXTRACT FROM MAXIME CARGILL CATALOGUE (testing bamboo panels with rope)

58

«Our approach to this semester was to work extensively with modules, which are often only developed as a means to present finished work. Modules in our case became instead a path from which to explore an alternative universe, allowing us to confront the potential of our projects. We were encouraged to let our modules accumulate by making small adjustments that we then tested at an extraordinary range of scales. This process of discovery provoked us to reveal our desires and negotiate our decisions about how architecture can provide surprising solutions while remaining simple and direct.» Maxime Cargill

«Working with curves and interstices, the play or light and shadow, repeating, multiplying the same band of corrugated steel. How does the same module become architecture?» Raphael Mougel «The metal modular units can be used for all of the elements: walls, floors, columns, ceiling, like a tatami in Japan.» Jirasak Makklang «Difference, repetition, traction, compression, flexibility, suppression. I’m looking for the principles of construction.» Youssef Haddadi


Y2/S1

I . 3 . Assemblage de l’arche

I . 4 . Poutres entre les arches

I . 6 . 5 - Maquette démontable au 1:20

I5.. 6. 1 - Maquette 1:50 1 - Maquette auau 1:50

I . 5 . La toiture

this page and left EXTRACTS FROM PASCAL AGNEL & ARMEL JOLY BOOK (Modular construction project)

59


YEAR 2 SEM. 1 ~ FALL 2012 PARIS: OUR BEST WORK JIRASAK MAKKLANG

Modules can be used as walls, slabs, ceiling, like the Japanese tatami

Looking for a technical solution to prevent clips from slipping

60


Y2/S1

Looking for double module for skin. Water station maquette.

61


Cargill Maxime

Catalogue

YEAR 2

SEM. 1 ~ FALL 2012

Cargill Maxime

Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012

Week 6

PARIS: OUR BEST WORK

Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012

MAXIME CARGILL

Cargill Maxime Cargill Cargill Maxime Maxime Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012

Week66 6 Week Week

Atelier AtelierFF .Bulle .Bulle: :Haiti Haiti2012 2012

Cargill Maxime

Week 7

Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012

Cargill Maxime Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012 Cargill Maxime

Week 7 Cargill Maxime Week 6 Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012

Week 5

Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012

Module à echelle 1 par assemblage de lamelles de bois. Et nouveau test de paroi par encastrement de modules.

Assembly of wood sheets. Test of module assembly Module Module ààechelle àechelle echelle 11par 1par par assemblage assemblage dede de lamelles lamelles dede de bois. bois. EtEt nouveau nouveau test test dede paroi paroi par par encastrement encastrement Module assemblage lamelles bois. Et nouveau test de paroi par encastremen de de modules. modules. to make a wall. de modules.

Fabrication à echelle 1 d’une poutre grace à l’assemblage de trois modules. Utilisation de vis et de chevilles en bois. Première essai d’une architecture graces à l’assemblage du module.

Fabrication à echelle 1 d’une poutre grace à l’assemblage de trois modules. Utilisation de vis et de chevilles en bois. Première essai d’une architecture graces à l’assemblage du module. Module à echelle 1 par assemblage de lamelles de bois. Et nouveau test de paroi par encastrement de modules.

62

Module à echelle 1/2. Assemblage de lamelles de bois, jeu sur la flexion de ce dernier. Test d’assemblage du module pour creer une paroi.


Cargill Maxime

Week 8

Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012

Y2/S1

Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012

Cargill Maxime

Accumulation des14 modules pour creer un espace. Assemblage de 14 module pour un élément. Assembly of modules

Cargill Maxime

Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012

63

Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2

Atelier F.Bulle : Haiti 2012

Essai repetition d’une architecture où le module de base devient par une répétition la structure de The of the basic module l’architecture. becomes the structure

Cargill Maxime

Week 10


RETHINKING THE URBAN FABRIC

64


en for Art &

17%

POPUL

"#

"!

"#

YEAR 2 ~ SEMESTER 1 ~ FALL 2011

POPULATION ACCESS TO IMPROVED SANITATION

HAITI

HAITI

U.S.A

SITE CONDITIONS

34% "!

12

"#

%

SITE MAP INDIA

64%

10

Plaza Programming

%

Cooperative and Public Wash Station and Community Kitchen for Art & Music

CHINA

99% "!

"#

U.S.A

2156 l.

12

10

Plaza Programming %

%

Cooperative and Public Wash Station and Community Kitchen for Art & Music INCREASE IN TREES AND GREEN SPACE CAN LEAD TO A DEACREASE IN CRIME

SITE CONDITIONS 2156 l.

3: Paint Creating Nieghborhoods

Each plaza becomes a hub for its surrounding community members. These nodes are dispersed throughout Titanyen to ensure each nieghborhood has access to at least one of each plaza typology.

In Portland the team worked on detailed proposals to develop Titanyen’s urban fabric. Students examined the potential for community integration around a textile co-op, wash station, common kitchen, and wood/metal working studio; analyzed the role of water and potential strategiesSITEtoCONDITIONS “green” the village and reverse the damaging effects of erosion; studied the expansion of roads, housing Creating Nieghborhoods developments and extended the potential of the commercial district; and designed public spaces that would include a library and laundry facilities, plazas, and semiprivate gardens. They also modified the Foundation’s school bus so that it can be used to transport all goods for sale locally, including those that require refrigeration. Thus transforming the school bus into a mini market. INCREASE IN TREES AND GREEN SPACE CAN LEAD TO A DEACREASE IN CRIME

"! "#

Creating Nieghborhoods

Each plaza becomes a hub for its surrounding community members. These nodes are dispersed throughout Titanyen to ensure each nieghborhood has access to at least one of each plaza typology.

in Distinguish land use early Reinforce natural tendencies within the existing landscape Establish synergistic programs around water Encourage agroforesty, bioswales, soil retention, shady places, root systems, green streets

out Leading with architecture

Each plaza becomes a hub for its surrounding community members. These Finally, the bus can be painted to make it nodes are dispersed throughout Titanyen to ensure each nieghborhood has accessbillboard. to at least one ofUsing each plaza typology.colors on vehicles bright

its own is a local tradition which would to call attention to the bus and advertise its contents. If on the move the bus can deploy Solar charging stations and chalk boards at kiosks while it delivers bread and water from the orphanage. Racks can be designed to attach to both the bus and kiosks, allowing deployment in a wider range of situations.

65


YEAR 2 SEM. 1 ~ FALL 2012

PORTLAND : OUR BEST WORK ANDREW DURKIN + ALI KARLEN

SOUTH OF HIGHWAY 1 DEVELOPMENT PLANNING FOR IDENTITY AND GROWTH

SECTION THROUGH LAUNDRY STATION, LOOKING WEST

1 GENERAL PLAN 2, 3 SPATIAL HIERARCHY

Vegetable/fruit garden Bioswale/drainage garden Permanent dwelling Commercial zone buffer Water acces point

66


Y2/S1

2

2 PUBLIC SPACES

3 ROADS

CENTRAL PUBLIC SPACE Contains essential community centers, including the school, library and laundry facility.

PRIMARY ROADS - 8 ft Follow the topography and double as major grey/rainwater management canals.

LOCALIZED PUBLIC PLAZAS Embedded in the fabric to provide localized access to essential facilities, bathrooms and water pumps. Also serve as a communal space for the residents to gather.

SECONDARY ROADS - 5 ft Define edges of city blocks, angled to control flow of water down hill and move water from one major canal to the next to prevent flooding and erosion.

SEMI-PRIVATE GARDENS Fitted within the inner zone of the city blocks, the gardens provide a space for the immediate residents to grow food and have a co-inhabited outdoor space for cooking, play and other activities.

TERTIARY ROADS - 3 ft Access footpaths for residents of each block. Placed to siphon water from drainage network to feed into interior block gardens.

3

PHASE 1: Main Plazas Schhol / Library / Garden Solar Kitchen Wash Staton

PHASE 2: First Roads Temporary Settlements Embed Initial Plaza Implement Gardens Integrate Drainage System

PHASE 3: Expand Road Network Add Permanent Dwellings Add Bathrooms Elaborate Path Network

PHASE 4: Extend Dwellings and Roads Increase Housing Density Increase Frequency of Gardens Establish Commercial District Expand Infrastructure

67


Y2/S1 PORTLAND ~ ANDREW DURKIN + AL KARLEN

WATER MANAGEMENT DRAINAGE CANALS ALONG SECONDARY PATHS TO GUIDE FLOW FURTHER DOWNHILL

DRAIN PIPE SIPHONS WATER FROM THE SYSTEM TO IRRIGATE GARDENS WITHIN THE BLOCKS

ADDITONAL WATER IS SIPHONED FROM THE SYSTEM AND FED INTO THE GARDENS

BIOSWALE DRAINAGE PATH RUNS ALONG PRIMARY ROADS

DRAIN PIPE CHANNELS EXCESS WATER DOWN HILL VIA THE SECONDARY PATHS

OVERFLOW FROM GARDEN IS FED INTO THE SYSTEM BY EXITING CANALS

RUNOFF IS GATHERED IN THE SYSTEM OF BIOSWALES AND DIRECTED DOWNHILL IN A CONTROLLED MANNER

ADDITONAL OVERFLOW CONTINUES DOWN HILL

LARGER BIOSWALES PLACED STRATEGICALLY TO SLOW THE FLOW OF WATER AND ALLOW IT TO PERCOLATE INTO THE GROUND, WHILE PROVIDING GREENERY AND SHADE

URBAN FABRIC: RAINWATER MANAGEMENT AND IRRIGATED GARDEN NETWORK Using the natural curve of the landscape, the infrastructure of south Titanyen doubles as a rainwater management system. Runoff and other sources of excess water is guided through a controlled system of canals along community walking paths. A drainage network eases runoff down the side of the hill, encouraging absorption and making use of the ямВow through gravity-fed canals that end in gardens. What is not absorbed by the ground or by plant growth is discharged into the agricultural zone.

SCHOOL W/ FARM, PUBLIC PLAZA & HOUSING DEVELOPMENT

1

FLOW

68

PUBLIC SPACE

3

2

A central public space can serve as a node for future urban development in Titanyen by promoting classes for children and adults in sustainable nutrition, urban farming, resource management, reproductive health, and literacy. The classes would include access to the community garden and chicken coop. Spaces for quiet study and skill building can also be incorporated.


Y2/S1

Food Production and Agriculture Education/ Skill Building Resource Management Community Engagement Health

1

PHASE ONE

4

2

5

1

Library

2

K-6 School

3

Chicken Coop & Garden

PHASE TWO

3

4

Solar Kitchen

PHASE THREE

production and maintainence of school uniforms

LAUNDRY STATION

phosphate-rich grey water runoff

5

Laundry Wash Station

6

Textile Co-op

7

Market Stalls

TEXTILE COOP school uniform production and repair textile-related skill building classes

waste

RESTROOMS

compost

offset managment responsabilities RESOURCE� FOR KIDS LEARNING

EDUCATION FOR KIDS

outdoor learning space education opportunity skill building opportunity

safe quiet study space after school hours

SCHOOL

LIBRARY to community literacy and education resources available ADULTS LEARNING

offset managment responsabilities education opportunity skill building opportunity

LOCATION FOR ADULT LEARNING (AFTER SCHOOL HOURS)

produce food for school meals assembly play

PUBLIC OPEN SPACE

URBAN GARDEN production benefits expanded scope of learning

CHICKEN COOP

material exchange food for community

material exchange food for community

COMMUNITY KITCHEN communal gathering and interaction for meals and festivals

69


YEAR 2 SEM. 1 ~ FALL 2012 PORTLAND: OUR BEST WORK SCOTT BURNS, ERIC WENZEL, ELYSSA KELLY

ECONOMIC STATISTICS

17% "!

"#

LO W PO Y NE T

EN M

.7

U.S. IMPORTED FROM HAITI

550

MILLION DOLLARS EXPORTED TO THE USA

85

PERCENT OF NATIONAL EXPORTS, TEXTILES

S

LE

TI EX

/T

OY

LI

PL EM

RY

ST

RT

UN

VE

RE

HAITI

POPULATION ACCESS TO IMPROVED SANITATION

SM

RI

DU

IN

TU

UL IC

OU

R AG

/T

40%

BE

80%

E IC

12 %

RV

38%

SE

50%

12 %

34 % "!

"#

INDIA

64 %

"! "#

CHINA

99 % "!

"#

U.S.A.

10 %

INCREASE IN TREES AND GREEN SPACE CAN LEAD TO A DECREASE IN CRIME

COMMUNAL IMPROVEMENT

2156 l.

SITE MAP

70

PLAZA PROGRAMMING Metal & Woodworkers, Textile Cooperative and Public Wash Station, Community Kitchen for Art & Music.

CREATING NEIGHBORHOODS Each neighborhood has access to at least one plaza typology.


Y2/S1

2%

2 E CO PL OF PEO NS N TO IO C LL RI MI ET 3 M 31 .0 X. 18 RO 2 LE A: PP CO OP S. U. .A: A OF PE U.S NS ION TO ILL C RI M ET .3 M X. 1 3 5. RO A: PP IN : A CH INA E 2 CO OPL CH OF PE NS ON I TO L IL C M RI ET 1.2 M . 5 OX 1. PR A: DI AP E IN A: 2 PL CO EO DI IN OF N P NS LIO TO IL C M RI .8 ET . 9 M X .3 PRO I: IT AP HA ITI: HA

0%

100 % 2012 DEFORESTATION

0%

260 %

2%

100 %

23%

22%

33 %

PERCENT OF FORESTATION

INTERVENTION INCREASE

EE TR NG TI IS EX S EE TR AZ A PL

EE

S

217 TR

1920 DEFORESTATION

32%

ET

100 %

RE

60 %

232

ST

0%

38%

N

CARBON EMISSION AND FORESTATION COMPARISONS BY COUNTRY

279

EE

THE SHADE FROM 1 YOUNG TREE HAS THE COOLING POWER OF 10 ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS

GR

PERCENT OF NEW TOTAL OF IMPLEMENTED AND EXISTING TREES

S

VEGETATION IMPACT

30%

7%

0 C0-2 A DENSE ROW OF TREES REDUCES WIND SPEED BY UP TO 85%

SITE MAP

1 YOUNG TREE CAN REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS OF 1 CAR ANNUALLY

GREEN STREETS Each plaza uses collected rainwater for varied purposes. The distribution of water helps connect the plaza to a series of shaded areas.

TREES AND THEIR ROOTS CAN REDUCE EROSION BY UP TO 70%

EROSION PREVENTION As the green streets develop, root systems will continue to densify. This root network will help prevent erosion during the rainy season, creating a more livable and beautiful city.

71


Y2/S1 PORTLAND ~ SCOTT BURNS, ERIC WENZEL, ELYSSA KELLY

102 OZ

49% 15%

IDEALLY NEEDED

50% RECEIVED

!" #"

HAITI

DRINKING

CHINA

PERCENT OF DAILY WATER NEED

SANITATION

10%

6% !"

!"

#"

570%

#"

INDIA

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

POPULATION WITHOUT ACCESS TO IMPROVED WATER

77 GALLONS

13.5 GALLONS IDEAL WATER SUPPLY (U.N.)

429%

3.9 GALLONS

CHINA

58 GALLONS

AVG. HAITIAN WATER SUPPLY

CLEAN WATER SUPPLY

1.8 GALLONS RURAL VILLAGE WATER SUPPLY

52% INDIA

30%

HAITI

7 GALLONS

4 GALLONS

WATER

USE PER PERSON PER DAY

EXISTING WELLS

MAP OF HYDROLOGY

WATER HAITI

2156 l.

SITE MAP

72

GROUNDWATER RUNOFF MANAGEMENT System that deflects water rushing down the roads and prevents erosion.

IDEAL IRRIGATION To prevent displacing existing housing, create a system that modifies city’s water management.

Titanyen is a water poor region. It is our goal to alter and control the flow of water through the village by creating a successful irrigation system, controlling erosion and establishing new paths, or “green” streets. We have also designed cisterns for the textile co-op and wash stations that will capture rain water from the roof tops.


Y2/S1

CULTIVATING TITANYEN / GEOGRAPHIC DATA CLIMATE STATISTICS 300

0

SOIL DATA

300 mm 40째C

20째C

SUN HOURS

0 mm

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE

ORPHANAGE

SAND

PRECIPITATION

GRACE VILLAGE UPPER TITANYEN LOWER TITANYEN

SILT CLAY MAP OF THE SITE ROADS 0-8 CM IN SOIL DEPTH

SAND SILT MAP OF HYDROLOGY

CLAY 0-40 CM IN SOIL DEPTH

AGRICULTURE

INTERSECTION

HIGHWAY-1 BURIAL GROUNDS CENTRAL PLATEAU

MAP OF SITE FAULT LINES

Farming in Titanyen is extremely difficult. The combination of rocky conditions, the lack of top soil and the dry season all limit opportunities to grow nutrient rich crops. Our initiative consists of four 1,000 gallon fish culture tanks, 4,000 square feet of hydroponic plant beds and all the necessary filtration equipment for an aquaponic system. The system is capable of producing over 2,500 lbs of protein-rich Tilapia fish per year, while growing 6,000 to 8,000 plants in the plant beds.

TITANYEN

PORT AU PRINCE BAY

DEMOGRAPHIC DATA HAITI

INTERNATIONAL POVERTY SCALE

RAISING AWARENESS

55%

HAITI

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

42% INDIA 14%

0%

41%

88% LITERACY RATE %

CHINA

USA

HAITI

INDIA

CHINA

U.S.A.

POPULATION: APPROX 9.8 MILLION AREA: APPROX. 10,714 sqmi

Intensity

POPULATION GROWTH / DENSITY

HAITI

POPULATION: APPROX 1.3 BILLION AREA: APPROX. 5,758176 sqmi

POPULATION: APPROX 1.2 BILLION AREA: APPROX. 1,972,357 sqmi

POPULATION: APPROX 313 MILLION AREA: APPROX. 6,106,010 sqmi

15%

55% LITERACY RATE %

73


Y2/S1 PORTLAND ~ SCOTT BURNS, ERIC WENZEL, ELYSSA KELLY

WASH STATION

SPATIAL DEMANDS The building is conceived of as having the space to produce both industrial tensile structures and as a place to teach children and adults domestic textile production. Diagrams, 2.1.and 2.2 show the difference between Industrial and domestic space requirements and uses. PRAGMATIC COMPONENTS The program consists of providing a clean safe place to mend clothes, make rugs, scarves, etc. for the local market, as well as allowing for the production of tensile strength structures that could be used in housing. SYNERGETIC RELATIONSHIPS The synergetic qualities and characteristics of this textile co-op are wide open. Introducing tensile structures can be a creative and effective way of designing innovative spaces and safer homes.

74

SPATIAL PLANNING DIAGRAMS 1.1: #15 5’ by 3’ tables, 1 person per table, equal to the space it would take for one person to work on tensile strength structures.

2.1: Section showing basic layout for domestic textile work stations.

1.2: A 50’ by 5’ table designed for sewing large cuts of canvas together.

2.2: Section showing industrial textile layout.

1.1

2.1

DOMESTIC TEXTILE LAYOUT 1.2

2.2

TABLE AREA DIAGRAM

INDUSTRIAL TEXTILE LAYOUT


Y2/S1

PLAZA SCHEMES WITHIN THE EXISTING FABRIC

SUPPLY DELIVERY STORAGE

WORK TABLES SEWING STATION

CUTTING/WORK TABLES

LUMBAR & TOOL STORAGE

STORAGE

WASHING STORAGE & SUPPLIES

WORK TABLES

DRYING RACKS

WASH STATION DRYING RACKS SOLAR KITCHEN

New Growth Trees Existing Trees Cobblestone Streets Current Titanyen Housing Permeable Stone

PATIO FOR SUMMER MONTHS COMMUNAL EATING MULTIPURPOSE SPACE

Exterior Decking

SCHEME 1 THE TEXTILE COOPERATIVE & PUBLIC WASH STATION FOR WOMEN A synergistic program is at the heart of our design. It centers around the existing tasks that women in Titanyen currently fulfill. We have provided a shared water source and space to socialize while working. The scheme consists of two buildings that face inward toward a courtyard. Water leads the design, as we attempt to capture and divert it. The roof catches water that is primarily used for washing/rinsing clothes from families in the surrounding district. By using eco-friendly and biodegradable detergent the grey water can be used to water the plants. The scheme also includes a textile cooperative where women can produce everything from school uniforms to tensile coverings for the plazas and green streets.

SCHEME 2 THE METAL SHOP & WOODSHOP The wood and metal shops use material from the resource center, repurposing them into products that can be sold at the market. SCHEME 3 COMMUNAL KITCHEN AND ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT CENTER Scheme three is for the families of Titanyen. People naturally gather around food and communal meals. Test gardens and the eggs from the chicken coop will contribute to the meals. We also include a multipurpose area flexible enough to accommodate after school activities, gallery and performance spaces.

75


Y2/S1 PORTLAND ~ SCOTT BURNS, ERIC WENZEL, ELYSSA KELLY

Provides Solar Powered Lighting

LAUNDRY SOLUTIONS Women from neighborhood can Income Generation (Gourde $) socialize while washing familyEducation/Skill laundry Building

WASHING/RINSING Water collected at scheme 1 plazas will contribute the majority of the water needed for laundry.

Community Engagement Food Production and Agriculture MAINTENANCE Resource Management Women can Health use the textile co-op

Cistern-overflow during rainy season goes to water bioswales & green streets

to repair clothing during the laundry trip Provides Solar Powered Lighting

SKILL BUILDING Men from neighborhood Income can use the metal Generation (Gourde $) and wood shops to buildEducation/Skill furniture, sculptures Building and other crafts or products Community Engagement

Public restrooms available at the edge of every text co-op/wash station

Food Production and Agriculture Resource Management Provides Solar Powered Lighting Health HOME ECONOMICS

Women from the communityIncome can learn Generation (Gourde $) to sew at the textile cooperative and use Education/Skill Building the sewing machines Community Engagement

RAINWATER RETENTION The roof of every plaza building is used to capture water that feeds into an on-site cistern

Food Production and Agriculture Resource Management

Health UNIFORM / PATIENT GOWNS Doctors and nurse uniforms (as well as patient gowns) will be made during the learn-to-sew classes the donated to the clinic

REUSE All wood/metal products that have the potential to be re-purposed will be sent to scheme 2 plazas

Provides Solar Powered Lighting Income Generation (Gourde $) ARTIFACTS Education/Skill Products of the wood and metalBuilding studios Community Engagement will be sold at the market

Food Production and Agriculture Resource Management Health

TEST GARDEN Food grown in the test gardens of the agricultural store will be used for communal meals

WATER DISTRIBUTION Water collected at scheme 2 & 3 plazas will feed green streets, fruit trees, and be used by the solar kitchen.

Provides Solar Powered Lighting

GALLERY Art produced in scheme 2 studios (Gourde gets $) Income Generation displayed for community gatherings at Education/Skill Building scheme 3 Community Engagement

Food Production and Agriculture ENTERTAINMENT Resource Management Scheme 3 plazas can serve as Health

extracurricular space for schools

Income Generation Generation(Gourde (Gourde$)$) Income Education/Skill Building Community Engagement EDUCATIONAL/SKILL Food Production and BUILDING Agriculture Resource Management COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT Health FOOD PRODUCTION AND AGRICULTUURE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

FRESH EGGS Chicken coops help produce eggs for communal meals

76

Provides Solar Solar Powered Powered Lighting Lighting Provides

HEALTH


Y2/S1

PHASE 1 PLAZA CONSTRUCTION Weave plazas into the existing city fabric. Start building the plazas with the textile cooperative & public wash station. The square emphasizes the value of commonly shared resources. WATER RETENTION Use the roof as a tool to capture rainwater. This will require onsite storage and filtration. PLAZA VEGETATION Use grey water to water the planters, nourish the bio swales, and increase the root system throughout the village. PLAZA REPETITION Repeat plaza schemes.

PHASE 2 CONNECTIONS After a series of individual plazas have been developed, a web of pathways can begin connecting them. WATER DISTRIBUTION The pathways are also an ideal way to distribute grey water from the plaza throughout the village. An open canal system along the pathways distributes water to new locations.

PHASE 3 GREEN STREETS Create large green streets throughout the village so that some grow into small parks. NEW RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Plan for future residential areas. As new areas of the hillside are settled, strategically placed similar schemes become the nuclei for the evolving community.

BIO SWALES Bio swales are a good means of controlling where water pools, giving it a chance to seep into the ground. PLANT TREE SEEDS / NOURISH TO SEEDLINGS The bio swales eventually nourish the ground sufficiently to raise trees.

PHASE 3

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

77


RESTORING THE LAND

78


G

YEAR 2 ~ SEMESTER 2 ~ SPRING 2013

LAUNDRY SHELTER

RETAINING WALL GREY WATER FILTRATION

In Portland the team developed detailed planting proposals with ecologist and landscape architect Rachel Hill that would help Montesinos restore the areas around the recently completed classrooms, dining hall and dormitories. The plans underscore the principles of agroforestry, which emphasizes plant diversity based on local species and the progressive principles of canopy ecology by relying on a system of terracing, anchor trees, and native perennials to stabilize the highly sloped, deeply eroded GRASS hill. Agroforestry, RETAINING as a form of permaWALL PATH culture, creates a long-term diversified ecology that can provide nutritious food for the community. The goal is to rebuild the natural ecology and the fresh-water capacity of the region by criss-crossing environmental strategies well known in Haiti with the best international practices in permaculture, integrated pest management, and landscape restoration.

in Work with water engineers to better understand the conditions of the aquifer, water quality and quantity, and where to plant Work with Haitian agronomists to better grasp the potential of the land, soil conditions, the time needed to regenerate certain parcels, and what to plant where/when/why

out Ignoring the need to work with local specialists Cliches that lead to naive assumptions about such concepts as water catchment

GRASS RETAINING WALL

PATH

79


YEAR 2 SEM. 2 ~ SPRING 2013

PORTLAND : OUR BEST WORK

t to

bo

bo

t to

m

RYAN BARTLETT, ALI KARLEN, ANDREW DURKIN

m

b ot

to m

*

b ot to m

[proposed b a k e ry s i t e

[proposed b a k e ry s i t e

]

]

TOP

*

*

*

*

*

cr i t ica l

* to m

t to

m

areas

bottom

b ot

bo

b

om ot t

eros ion

OVERALL SCHEME

WATER FLOW

[proposed bakery site]

[proposed bakery site]

ag

ro

fo

re

st

ry

b

o

u

n

d

ar

y

LAUNDRY WATER FILTRATION GARDEN

ALTERNATING STRIP AGROFORESTRY + SLOPE STABILIZATION

ry o r e st agrof d a ry boun

WIND BARRIER

GATHERING SPACES hierarchy of pathways PRIVATE

PEOPLE ZONES

80

NEED: SLOPE STABILIZATION

SHADE FOR INHABITATION + TERRACE SOIL /WATER FLOW SUPPORT LOW-LYING GARDEN ZONES

PUBLIC

TREES, WIND, SHADE


Y2/S2

AG RO

FO

RE ST RY

PLANTING SCHEME, VARIETY PLACEMENT

G

ST RI

P

Mango trees can be used as central elements in dorm yards, key visual elements in the gathering areas, and located in critical areas in need of shade and wind barriers.

AL TE R

NA TI N

[proposed bakery site]

LEMON CLASSROOMS SIGNATURE MANGOS

ORANGE CLASSROOMS MANGO CLASSROOMS AVOCADO CLASSROOMS

AREAS REQUIRING SHADE, WATER AND SITE-SPECIFIC PLACEMENT

MANGO GROVES

ORANGE GROVES

LEMON GROVES

LOW -LYING GARDENS

KEY MANGO TREE PLACEMENT

AVOCADO GROVES

ARBITRARY GROVES

MANGO GROVES Create shade, protection and strong visual center

ALTERNATING STRIP AGROFORESTRY

ORANGE GROVES

PLANTING SCHEME, RESULTING LAYOUT Agroforestry maintains slope stability and enables soil rejuvenation.

[proposed b a k e ry s i t e

]

LEMON GROVES SHADED LAUNDRY AREA

AVOCADO GROVES Located in areas protected from high wind GREENWAY LEADING UP TO THE HILLTOP

LARGE MANGO TREES

NON ORCHARD TREES Primarily purposed for shade, wind barrier and soil retention in inhabitable areas

CLASSROOMS

-

ADDED TREES TERRACING

-

ARBITRARY GROVES Can be any variety, located as wind barrier LOW LYING GARDENS Regular crops planted in alleys between groves to create alternating strip agroforestry

Shaded laundry area drains grey water into filtering plants. Established trees prevent future erosion. Greenway leading to the hilltop. Children identify with and learn from the specific fruits cultivated by their class. Terrace to retain soil. Tree to provide shade.

81


Y2/S2 PORTLAND ~ RYAN BARTLETT, ALI KARLEN, ANDREW DURKIN

EXTERIOR PLANTING SCHEME, NO-TREE ZONES AVOID PLANTING TREES IN PURPLE AREAS ALTERNATING STRIP AGROFORESTRY Where the topography is flat cultivate open strips between the rows of trees and plant crops. The rows of trees hold the slope in place and provide shade for the understory, while maximizing yield. Continue down the hillside.

[proposed b a k e ry s i t e

]

ALTERNATING STRIP AGROFORESTRY

TERRACED AREA

TERRACED AREA The primary purpose of trees in this area will be for shade and soil retention. ESTABLISHED GARDENS Establish trees around the gardens to prevent erosion and protect the site from the wind.

ESTABLISHED GARDEN

INTERIOR PLANTING SCHEME, FUTURE PLANTING PLANT FOR SHADE AND SOIL RETENTION

EXAMPLE OF SUPPLIMENTAL TERRACE TREES EXAMPLE OF KEY MANGOS

Install key retaining walls that consist of gabion walls, strategic rain gardens, and trees that manage water runoff and soil erosion.

ADDITONAL CLASSROON IDENTITY TREES

SHELTERED AREA, OPPORTUNITY FOR AVOCADOS GRAVEL PATHWAYS

82

After regrading and stabilizing the upper dorm yard, install a shelter for laundry that is shaded and has drying racks and a grey water filtration garden. This will close off the third side of this otherwise exposed courtyard.


Y2/S2

SMALLER SCALE SITE DESIGN PRIVATE/PUBLIC ORGANIZATION OF SPACES

UPPER DORM YARD LAUNDRY SHELTER & FILTRATION GARDEN

GREATER COMMUNITY RECREATION ZONE

LOWER DORM YARD

SMALLER SCALE SITE DESIGN CLASSROOMS WITH IDENTITY

83


Transport:

YEAR 2 SEM. 2 ~ SPRING 2013

g school bus which could be ransport and sell water, baked goods,

Original Configuration:

1: Remove Seats

The bus already has a wheel chair lift and door on the forward right side. It also has overhead storage rack. Both of these stock features will be helpful in converting it for use as a mobile point of sale or transport.

Seats will be removed to make room for water food, and craft shelving. In the case of the Titanyen project it is important to leave enough seats for the bus to continue to transport children when needed.

Removable netting can be added to the bus to hold in simple milk crates. These crates are easy to find in Haiti and can be reuseded as needed for sales each day. This system could carry 448 gallons (1792 L) of water or 896 loaves of bread

MOBIL SHOP / TRANSPORT

INTERIOR MODIFICATIONS THE TITANYEN ORPHANAGE HAS AN EXISTING SCHOOL BUS WHICH COULD BE TRANSFORMED INTO A WORKING SYSTEM TO TRANSPORT AND SELL WATER, BAKED GOODS, AND CRAFTS FROM THE ORPHANAGE

2: Build Net

1: Remove Seats

ift and door on overhead storage will be helpful point of sale or

PORTLAND: OUR BEST WORK 2: Build Net ZACH HAMPTON, JASON LEIGHTON, ERIC WENZEL

Seats will be removed to make room for water food, and craft shelving. In the case of the Titanyen project it is important to leave enough seats for the bus to continue to transport children when needed.

Removable netting can be added to the bus to hold in simple milk crates. These crates are easy to find in Haiti and can be reuseded as needed for sales each day. This system could carry 448 gallons (1792 L) of water or 896 loaves of bread

3: Add Water Blivets

2

Under each other remaining seats, one 25 gallon water blivet can be added. In this case over 250 gallons of water can be carried under the seats in collapsible blivets.

2: REMOVE SEATS Seats will be removed to make room for water food, and shelving. It is important to leave enough seats for the bus to continue to transport children when needed.

3: Add Water Blivets Under each other remaining seats, one 25 gallon water blivet can be added. In this case over 250 gallons of water can be carried under the seats in collapsible blivets.

3

1

4: Utilize Overhead Rack The existing overhead racks can be used to carry baked goods in bakery crates or crafts made at the orphanage.

n water ons psible

4: Utilize Overhead Rack

4

The existing overhead racks can be used to carry baked goods in bakery crates or crafts made at the orphanage.

ry the

3: BUILD NET Removable netting can be added to the bus to hold in simple milk crates. These crates are easy to find in Haiti and can be reused as needed for sales each day. This system could carry 448 gallons (1792 L) of water or 896 loaves of bread. 4: ADD WATER BLIVETS Under each of the remaining seats, one 25 gallon water blivet can be added. In this case over 250 gallons of water can be carried under the seats in collapsible blivets. 5: UTILIZE OVERHEAD RACK The existing overhead racks can be used to carry baked goods in bakery crates or crafts made at the orphanage.

5

84

1: ORIGINAL CONFIGURATION: The bus already has a wheel chair lift and door on the forward right side. It also has overhead storage rack. Both of these stock features will be helpful in converting it for use as a mobile point of sale or transport.


Mobil Shop / Transport: Exterior Modifications

Y2/S2

Just as in the interior, the outside of the bus already has features which can be utilized for the retrofit into a mobile shop or transport. The luggage rack will be expanded to hold a solar panel.

Original Configuration:

Original1:Configuration: Chalkboards

1:2:Chalkboards Solar Panel

2: Solar Panel

The bus already has a wheel chair lift and door on the forward right side. The door will be left unchanged for use as a loading door. The luggage rack on the roof will also be left in place

The bus already has a wheel chair lift and door on the Simple chalkboards can be hung from open forward right side. The door will be left unchanged for windows to advertise events, sales and to let use as a loading door. The luggage rack on the roof customers know what the bus is carrying for the will also be left in place day.

Simple chalkboards can be hung from open Adding a single 2’x6’ solar panel will allow the bus to windows to advertise events, sales and to let sell power to recharge 12 cellphones at a time. This customers know what the bus is carrying for the system would not need batteries to store the power day. which would reduce its cost.

Adding a single 2’x6’ sola sell power to recharge 12 system would not need b which would reduce its c

EXTERIOR MODIFICATIONS THE LUGGAGE RACK WILL BE EXPANDED TO HOLD A SOLAR PANEL 6: ORIGINAL CONFIGURATION: Configuration: The door Original will be left unchanged for use as a loadingThe door. The luggage racklifton roof bus already has a wheel chair and the door on the forward right side. The door will be left unchanged for will also be left in place. use as a loading door. The luggage rack on the roof will also be left in place

7: CHALKBOARDS Simple chalkboards can be hung from open windows to advertise events, sales and to let customers know what the bus is carrying for the day. 8: SOLAR PANEL Adding a single 2’x6’ solar panel will allow the bus to sell power to recharge 12 cellphones at a time. This system would not need batteries to store the power, which would reduce its cost. 9: PAINT Finally, the bus can be painted to turn it into a billboard. Using bright colors on vehicles is a local tradition which would call attention to the bus and advertise its contents. The bus can be deployed as a solar charging station and the chalk boards can be used as kiosks while it delivers bread and water from the orphanage. Racks can be designed to attach to both the bus and kiosks, so they can be used in a wide range of circustances.

1: Chalkboards

2: Solar Panel

Simple chalkboards can be hung from open windows to advertise events, sales and to let customers know what the bus is carrying for the day.

Adding a single 2’x6’ solar panel will allow the bus to sell power to recharge 12 cellphones at a time. This system would not need batteries to store the power which would reduce its cost.

6

8

7

9

MOBILE COMMUNITY HUB If stationary, the bus could be equipped with extra PV panels and chalkboards to become a stand alone point of sale, educational classroom, charging station, or community hub. Solar panels can be attached to the same racks, and chalkboards could be hung from the windows. Bread and water could be sold straight off the bus.

85


YEAR 2 SEM. 2 ~ SPRING 2013

BACK TO HAITI

86


87


88


II SHIFTING PRIORITIES

89


90


ACHIEVING RELEVANCE IN AN AREA OF CONFLICT AND RECONSTRUCTION Sergio Palleroni

Effective emergency relief and development work is challenging, both because of the conditions that exist after disasters and the level of experience and skill that are necessary for effective action. The work of development draws on a highly experienced body of professionals. When disaster recovery is addressed from within universities as an educational experience, it challenges the educator to make sense of complex situations, often difficult even for those with years of experience. Then we must lead students through situations that are as fluid and unpredictable as the regions and nations struggling to recover. Within the context of reconstruction, Haiti provides a particularly challenging set of conditions from which to educate students. In general, effective relief and reconstruction efforts require the work be relevant to the needs of the client and their community. In Haiti, the extreme conditions--underdevelopment, distorted politics, and a historical legacy of repression --are manifest in all aspects of the social and physical landscape, making building even a simple structure difficult.

It is then especially important that projects are undertaken with a good deal of sensitivity to multiple scales of action. This is a juggling act, one that both of our university teams faced during the three years we spent working with Father Charles and the Montesinos Foundation. The decisions we took as educators and advisors over the course of the project were our best efforts to respond to the layers of urgency, shifting needs, and a powerful vision; each fieldwork visit posed new and unexpected challenges.

91


Premier plan masse du groupe de 5 PROGRAMME

PLAN MASS

e1:500

The project began with an unclear set of demands. Father Charles wanted to provide an educational alternative for his community based on sustainable agriculture and safe, reliable construction; it was, he explained, a vision that would focus on social outcomes and not simply technical solutions. Our task was complicated from the outset by the presence of an existing master plan (see page 17). The master plan, which was based on the architect’s work as a resort developer in Florida, was a clear lesson in what not to do in development work. This sort of master plan is one of the most unfortunate outcomes of the early reconstruction work in Haiti: international firms, out of work during the recession and preying on the desperate need for expertise, went ///////////////////// /ENSEMBLE FONDATION MONTESINOS////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// after work for which they were neither école technique qualified for nor dedicated to. L'agencement et les bâtiments doivent être suffisamment souples pour s'adapter aux changements des communautés.

EGLISE

100 m²

110 personnes 8 rangées 1 autel

120 m²

1,2 m² par personne 100 eleves: 120 m² refectoire + 40 m² cuisine

110 personnes a l’interieur Capacitè a l’exterieur: flexible

Refectoire

REFECTOIRE

Capacitè de salle à manger= 100 eleves. Capacitè de salle à manger= 200 eleves.

Cuisine

Cabine Technique

RADIO

Connecté au terrain de football et à l'église.

40 m²

19,5 m²

Studio

50 m²

CYBER CAFE

L'espace exterieur sera généreux, comme extension de l'intérieur

SECURITE

24 m²

Un poste à proximité de l’eau et un autre de la Chapelle.

ECOLE TECHNIQUE - PARTIE THEORIQUE

150 m²

Seulement pour les Ateliers de mecanique, de maçonnerie et de menuiserie.

19,5m² (Cabine technique= 3x2,5m - Studio= 3x4m)

5/10 ordinateurs Cafétéria

Guérite point d’eau: 3x4m= 12m²

Guérite de la Chapelle: 3x4m= 12m²

50 m²= 20 à 50 élèves

20 élèves chacune = 60 élèves=150m²

ECOLE TECHNIQUE - UNITES DE PRODUCTION

EAU

100 m²

Extraction, stockage et vente sécurisés.

138 m²

82 m² pour travailler + 56m² pour stockage= 138

A proximité de l’arrêt de bus.

Poste de securitè à proximité

EAU

Stockage et Vente= 25x4m= 100m²

MENUISERIE

Showroom/vente= 56 m²

Atelier pour 25 personnes.

PEPINIERE

56 m²

PEPINIERE

150 m²

10x15m= 150m²

MECANIQUE ELECTRONIQUE

PARPAING

Estimation basique pour déterminer la couverture nécessaire en fonction du type de plante.

BOULANGERIE

PARPAING/Maçonnerie

- Production per day (8hs) - estimations: 3FTW= 256 blocks of 20 x 20 x 40 cms - 256 blocks per day in a 5 days cycle: 160m2 + CIRC - Spaces for blocks drying: 1024 blocks - 4 days production - Spaces for blocks drying: 8 pallets = 8 days production

MECANIQUE_ELECTRONIQUE

ESPACE COUVERT MAIN HALL 345,6 m² + ADM&SANITATION 45 m2+ QUALITY 6 m²= 425,4 m²

MENUISERIE

ESPACE SEMI-COUVERT 97,5 m²

COUTURE

520 m²

ARTISANALE

56 m²

Couvert: 8x7m= 56m² Découvert (devant): 8x10m= 80m²

58 m²

Entrepôt= 10m² Pétrissage= 15 m²

Espaces couvert et decouvert

BOULANGERIE

Les points chauds (four et refroidissement) sont séparés des autres espaces.

Refroidissement= 9m² Vente= 15m² (3,20m assez large pour la personne qui assiste, et pour la circulation de 3 personnes à la fois)

47 m² +

COUTURE

Atelier pour 25 personnes.

ARTISANAT

56 m²

138 m²

Atelier pour 25 personnes.

7,5 m²

TRANSPORT

Production= 47 m² Showrom/vente= 56 m²

82 m² pour travailler + 56m² pour stockage et vente= 138 m²

1,5x5m= 7,5 m²

Arrêt de bus : proche du point de vente de l’eau

ADMINISTRATION

18 m²

Administration generale.

INSTALATIONS SANITAIRES

18 m²

Toilettes (sans douches)

1,2 m² par personne 100 élèves: 120 m² réfectoire + 40 m² cuisine

Hommes= 9m² Femmes= 9m²

1,5 m de large.

CIRCULATION INTERIEURE

Parcours piéton: Chemin interieur pour les élèves DECHETS

Dimensions à définir.

Zone de traitement de déchets hors de la zone de production

TERRAIN DE FOOTBALL

Pour 2 équipes de 8 joueurs

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Marcos Houssay Fatou Dieng Lucía Barrantes Lucía Ciller Annie-Claude Broussillen

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80 m²

40x20m= 80m² Distances de séparation: 10m de la route et 5m des autres bords

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Faced with the shortcomings of the master plan, we quickly realized that our challenge was to translate the program elements, principally a technical school situated with an agriculturally productive site, into a design process and project that would educate both our students and the client on the pragmatics of asset based sustainable development. ESA’s first designs for the campus demonstrated that architecture and planning proposals based on local practices and traditions and on a real assessment of local assets and human capacity were within the client’s reach. The proposals provided viable design solutions and helped the client community see the shortcomings of the existing master plan, which had misguided their early development and misused an enormous sum of money. Operating at an intermediate scale, the scale of urban design, we were able to help clarify the community’s sense of identity, place and publicness. ESA’s proposed projects also helped identify the potential strengths and the missing pieces that would help link the Montesinos community to the existing settlement of Titanyen, which is on the other side of the highway. From this point on, rather than acting as a border the highway became a common asset and part of the urban fabric, essential to both the reconstruction as well as to future economic opportunities envisaged by the Montesinos community. 93


Portland State University extended the vision to the community by using ESA’s approach of simultaneously linking the scale of individual buildings to the scale of neighborhood. PSU students then began to explore the possibilities and processes of sustainable development based on assessing known resources. For instance, an earlier ESA assessment of viable water wells within Titanyen led to a community development plan that made each of these water sources an oasis and public space of combined water uses whose proposed sustainability and economy would engender community gardens and tree shaded streets. The approach introduced a new environmental logic to the existing fabric.

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In the midst of the second year of our design process an informal economy began to quickly gain a foothold along the new spine of the territory. A vast market, selling both agricultural products from the region and household goods twice a week, developed along the highway at the very heart of the community proposed by the two design teams. The market grew exponentially after the federal government was forced to rebuild the road in response to growing unrest and dissatisfaction with the pace of the reconstruction effort. The simple act of rebuilding this basic piece of infrastructure created an opportunity from which the informal sector, Haiti’s most vital economic force, developed the largest market in the immediate region within a matter of months.

The ESA and PSU visions were informed by and built upon this growing phenomena, eventually leading the teams to speculate on the potential of Titanyen becoming a regional center. PSU designed infrastructural elements that include a sport facilities, recycling centers, a common kitchen, a laundry facility and workshops-model communities--built around, and supporting, the linear public space of the highway and its marketplace. This development afforded our program the unique opportunity to witness the emergence of a vital informal economy. Its development also reaffirmed what until then had been design speculation on ESA’s part: the potential the highway provided for the village and the Foundation. And it further created an opportunity to investigate ways to bolster the potential economic opportunities that the market offered the Montesinos Foundation. PSU focused on ideas of tactical urbanism, creating, for example, a mobile fresh food market that would extend the street market throughout the week and make it available to more isolated communities. ESA developed a commercial compound anchored by the parish church and meant to serve both the school and the Titanyen community. Finally, as the project drew to a close this year (in 2014), both ESA and PSU focused their efforts on what had brought us here in the first place, the children of this visionary institution. In a counter intuitive


journey, both university teams had begun work for the Montesino’s community three years ago by addressing pressing urban design issues; but we did this for a speculative client and a program that for myriad reasons they never came to know. Three years later the collaboration finally brought both university teams back to the real clients who now inhabit this growing community and, as a result, back to the lives and experience of the children.

At PSU our final semester led to the construction of corridors and loggias that extend the dormitory complex into spaces where shade and the breeze create the kind of tectonic response that allows the poorly sited buildings to become livable in this hot tropical climate.

After three years of getting to know the children of the Montesinos Foundation, both universities returned to the fundamental lessons of designing for longterm recovery: observe, listen, respect, ESA’s designs and installations this last and work with the needs of your client. year explored the phenomenological and experiential opportunities that living, As we finished our work last winter, a learning and growing up on this remark- carnival-like ambiance and enthusiasm able site affords its residents. Their design pervaded the site: the children were finally being invited to experience new prototypes became installations that qualities in the landscape that is their invited the participation of the children, home; and now they can make those encouraging them to manipulate the space, search for privacy and togetherness, qualities their own. and experience the joy of play, all things missing at the site until now. 95


THE CHALLENGES OF NOT BEING THERE Six months later, in June 2013, our technical team returned to plan the third and final year, which we expected would finally involve building the primary anchors of the program. From down the road the Montesinos site seemed cleaner, tidier, better organized; still rocky and arid, but arranged, and somehow more correct. Six months later, it looked useful, if not yet productive. Small white boulders and large rocks now trimmed stepped contours. As we got closer and turned into the long, steep driveway leading up to the chapel, it dawned on me: the entire section alongside the national highway—all 4 hectares—had been lightly terraced and planted by hand. After two years of working to establish a long-term building program that would include a bakery, water station, brick factory, clinic, the chapel, test gardens, soccer field and some little shops and ateliers; after hundreds of drawings, dozens of meetings and a pile of master plans … Now mango, lemon, orange, 96

papaya, almond, coconut, mesquite, acacia, cherry, palm and banana trees were protecting the pineapple, sugar cane, tomatoes, cashews, melons and grapes that mixed with various beans, greens, corn, cotton and native grasses. Ten thousand trees and plants now resided on the site. We no longer needed to build anything here! In large measure this was good news. All too often the buildings go up before there is money to pay for their upkeep or the funds to insure that their programming goes forward. So they end up squatted, broken apart or abandoned. Competing priorities, the constant search for funding and the timing of this apparent gift had created a parti pris—a powerful position that will determine the site’s future by turning it into a small working farm, even if it does take decades. Ideally, the new function of the site would help nourish the 200 children who study here daily. More, the neat limestone curves tell everyone the site is occupied.

But planting the entire site wasn’t a strategy; it was a desperate act that positioned the Montesinos Foundation squarely in the middle of the debate over water security in the region. Titanyen is as critical to mitigating risk in the periurban zones north of Port-au-Prince as it is vulnerable to its own severe water shortages. The major limestone water resources in the mountains behind the village have never been prospected, so everyone depends on a few modest wells drilled into the mudstone and served, most likely, by a single aquifer.


The twiggy trees, vines and tufts of vegetables, all of them a sudden gift from Food for the Poor, were put in the ground all at once, without a gradual plan to determine how much water they would require, what system of irrigation would work best on a 40% slope, or who would pay for it. No one had calculated whether there was enough water in the system to support the daily needs of the Foundation and expansive, water-intensive crop production. And no one had as yet realized that rain water would be of little help because the high winds make water capture difficult, and the hot, severely eroded terrain allows even heavy rains to evaporate quickly. In this part of Haiti, long periods of monsoon rains are rare, so storing large quantities of water is virtually impossible.

would be stored, or, again, how these processes would be paid for.

Nor were there any water quality tests that would guide a planting strategy and help determine the filtration system. A standard pump was used instead of one In its present state the soil is so poor that suited to a particularly steep grade. The small diameter pipe that fits this pump it can’t nourish the very plants meant to nourish the children. More fertile sections size causes too much friction, so the can be boosted by considerable amounts of pump breaks. Not realizing the problem, the Foundation bought a new pump compost, which will help keep the water and installed a second pumping station in and prevent the plants from starving; midway up the hill to take the stress off but again, no one had factored in the the of the primary well. But the solution short-term cost of composting even a single hectare during the time it will take had little to do with the problem. The expensive pumps will continue to rupture to develop compost as part of a nursery. In those areas too vast to compost, we can trying to push water up hill through the narrow pipe lines. put in ground cover and native grasses, but it will take years to bring the ecology Since then a huge percentage of the back. No one had calculated how many crops have been lost, devastated by the man hours would be needed to harvest heat. On the back side of the hill, where and replenish the crops, howthe produce large plant beds edge the vast shadeless

plazas beside the service road, the calloused soil will not recover quickly enough to produce reliable vegetable gardens, though agroforestry may be possible there one day. For now, we are talking about replacing what’s in the ground with tea and medicinal plants that require little water or care. No one asked how much water is available at the on-site well or the true capacity of the aquifer. Scientific pump tests that would tell us whether the source can meet the daily needs of the Foundation and irrigate the crops were not part of the initial contracts. Once again the perverse generosity that we see often in Haiti overwhelmed the Montesinos Foundation and interrupted and disfigured planning, robbing the site of its resources and compromising its future.

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THE GESTE: HAND, BODY, TOOL

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YEAR 3 ~ SEMESTER 1 ~ FALL 2013

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assemblage du cadre au poteaux

From our modular studies we have come to understand that working with our hands amplifies and varies the structural result. More, the imprint of the hand, body, and tool, working together at the scale of the territory, result in an architecture that is shared across cultures. So our approach at ESA to the planting crisis, which forced us to radically alter our strategy, was to work during our last semester with small architectural interventions at human scale, apprenticing students in the details of assembly. Simple gestures generate inspired reflections about local knowledge and also required students to better read assemblage du cadre au poteaux their tools and materials in order to grasp the solutions and possibilities they suggest. Three groups of six students worked with ephemeral materials and improbable shapes on three modest and independent prototypes that would provide shade and bring to life the vast, sweltering plazas that separate the dormitories from the classrooms on the back side of the site. The children hang out on their beds during the hottest part of the day because outside only slivers of shade protect them from the sun. Ironically, the new refectory—a large, open, shady space that could have served all sorts of needs at the Foundation, from lunch to dance classes—is so poorly designed the wind accelerates as it passes through, blowing

so hard that it’s impossible to remain inside when it rains, and largely unpleasant during the windy afternoons. The disquieting silence of 86 children taking refuge from the heat led us to envision small follies that animate the site while encouraging dance, music, painting, theater, hair braiding, kite making, study and down time. The nid is an ambitious upside-down bird’s nest made of crisscrossing bamboo arcs that invites small groups to study together. The coquillage is a giant seashell-like form which opens and closes, and is made of eight triangular bamboo units knotted together; it gives the children a chance to lounge around, giggle, or play games like hideand-seek. And the merengue is a forest of grounded bamboo poles covered at irregular heights and angles with large squares of bamboo-framed tarp that welcomes meetings with friends and band practice as much as freeform gymnastics as the poles sway and dance with the wind. The Paris team worked with simple gestures--pounding, bending, shaping, cutting, tying, wrapping--and local materials to create intriguing forms which would protect the kids from the brutal weather while remaining easy to repair, reproduce, displace, and adapt. Cord was our only high-tech tool.

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PARIS : OUR BEST WORK MONTAGEMONTAGE DE LAMONTAGE STRUCTURE DE LA STRUCTURE DE LA STRUCTURE

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Know your materials Bamboo was widely hailed as a building material after the devastating earthquake in 2010. It is both flexible and strong, so it holds up well during crises. Bamboo also grows quickly and is a light and durable material that can be translated into wonderful structures, manipulated to resemble xylophones or birds’ nests, and promises architecture in the place of the poor cement blocks which litter the Haitian landscape by the millions, everywhere from Canaan to Cabaret.. #3

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Approach the word ‘local’ critically Do countless material studies before settling on what should and should not be sourced locally. It is disturbing how little emphasis is placed on materials at ESA. Focused on object design, neither the lead architect nor the structural engineer for our project was sensitive to the properties of the materials we planned to use in the context of Titanyen’s quirky climate. Test, anticipate, verify, repeat Do not order anything until you have tested the material at the site (or have properly prepared the materials for the site conditions). Start early Get good local advice Ask Haitian colleagues about your material choices and employ local professionals to demonstrate how best to work with them. Run workshops as you go Our three teams (a total of ten students and two professors in Haiti) were joined daily by children and teenagers who learned to tie complicated knots, helped put the structures together, steadied pieces as they were put place, helped clean and prepare the sites, and helped

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us haul our materials and tools. We even held knot-tying contests while our young apprentices goaded one another to be ever more rigorous and precise. Unfortunately we hadn’t anticipated the full potential of these events, so we didn’t allow enough time to continue the workshops intensively once the structures were up. Our schedule necessitated that we leave the next day, which was too bad. Although the students at the Montesinos Foundation were curious and interested, they had wandered onto our mini-construction sites in fits and starts. A few stuck around and worked for a bit; others teased and laughed at their friends then peeled off.

out Neglecting material knowledge Bamboo is little used and was never previously exploited in Haiti. Never mind that it takes at least five years for the first crop to yield structurally reliable poles. Or that bamboo is also very sensitive to the sun and doesn’t especially like being wet, at least not the young Taiwanese strain of bamboo that we bought. Bamboo also needs to be cut at least two to three weeks prior to use, so that it can dry comfortably in the shade. Additionally, some of its knots need to be opened with a special fork-tooth device so that the poles can breathe, as bamboo cracks and splinters if it dries too quickly. Flaming the bamboo by hand can hurry the process and create a beautiful mottled surface. But it’s a costly practice that doubles the price. Underestimating local climate and geography. Though each project was the result of countless structural studies, each collided head on with the realities of the site. The students were stunned by the monstrous winds at Montesinos. The draft can be relentless, biting at your skin, snapping your most elegant designs in half, blowing through rice sacks, silencing conversation, and whipping up crazy

dust dramas around your feet. So choosing where to place each project was challenging. The two giant seashells came to rest on “pebble beach,” a broad swath of open space that separates the girls’ dormitories. The nest and merengue were positioned near and off to one side of the primary school, leaving room for the long-awaited basketball court, but marking out alternative spaces from which to view the sea. Ignoring the legacy of human action Decades of misguided forms of aid in Haiti have also engendered a profound sense of passivity. Although our structures can be repaired or duplicated--as we left lots of extra materials behind--would anyone bother to patch the seams, retie the knots, replace the bamboo, or experiment with material options for the fun of it. Or would they simply become damaged and avoided like so many carcasses in Titanyen. We have our answer. The sea shells collapsed in 24 hours. No matter where we tried to place them, the wind was a threat. The bamboo poles quickly lost their covers to the violent gusts, so the sun turned them into brittle and dangerous long sticks that succumbed to gymnastics. And the nid has cracked and split in places. In spite of the children’s love for our aliens, no one has taken on the repairs or investigated alternatives.

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Enthusiastic Ignorance: Be reasonable Forget about rice sacks and banana, coconut, or whatever leaves for weaving anything that is going to be used outdoors. All these materials look great in photographs, but the rice sacks disintegrate in the sun and woven leaves, though beautiful, dry out and become brittle almost immediately. The wind and heavy rains will also make quick work of them. Consider cord a highly technical material and invest in the appropriate mix of resistance and rebound. Don’t sew anything. Investigate light, stretchy fabrics and wrap small rocks into the corners to fix them into the frame instead of sewing; this way you can remove the fabric during bad weather. Short-Term Thinking: Training is not Education We misjudged how best to follow through immediately, thinking it would be fine to turn up for workshops in the Spring, and imagining that someone else would take up our work after we left. In so doing, we missed a crucial opportunity. We miscalculated the amount of time that would be necessary to train our friends at Montesinos in the upkeep of our structures, thinking an extra week would be enough. In fact, despite the wonderful photographs of all of us sitting side by side working together, an extra week was

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nowhere near long enough, and following through is hardly a mere question of time.


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«Haiti is a territory in transition, with an often hostile climate, equivocal political and social history, and a fragile territory charged with revolt. At the same time this unruly site is full of poetry. I was searching for an image that would at once seem as though it grew directly out of the site while remaining only an apparition.» Youfang Peng «Having a very simple and light structure allows the children to create their own shaded spaces for relaxing or playing outside. The module is made of bamboo and can be connected to buildings or to each other in different configurations. My advice to anyone working with these sorts of light structures: know your materials. We soon discovered that bamboo is slippery, so the rope we bought refused to hold. Bamboo also shrinks as it dries, so our knots were not tight enough. Rice sacks decompose almost immediately. The structure was much heavier than we thought. So we had to fix it to the ground and prevent it Haïti from closing. If I were to build the project again I would insist on aggressively testing our materials. At the same time, the kids started playing in the structures before we finished putting them together!» Hanna Christianson

Haïti

Hanna Christiansson HAITI | Atelier Fabienne Bulle | Marie Aquilino | Assistant César Silva Urdan

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YEAR 3 SEM. 1 ~ FALL 2013 PARIS: OUR BEST WORK LOUIS FALCON DE LONGEVIALLE MARC-ANTOINE GALUP HORTENSE PROT PAUL SERIZAY

«THE MERENGUE»

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elevation

Le dessin des juxtapositions des modules est le moyen de créer des densités et des respirations dans l’ensemble. Ce sont 2 elles qui rythment le parcours et mettent en place les différentes zones de l’intervention. Parallèlement, les variations de hauteurs des toiles permettent de qualifier les différentes zones dessinées de manière morphologique et lumineuse.

assemblage du cadre au poteaux

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YEAR 3 SEM. 1 ~ FALL 2013 PARIS: OUR BEST WORK LENA ANDRASCHKE HANNA CHRISTIANSSON | Matériaux | Matériaux| Matériaux Semaine Semaine 2 |Semaine Références 2 | Références 2 | Références

| Principes de construction | de Principes de construction | Principes construction

BAMBOO

1x

1x

1x

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THIN ROPE Wooden pole

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Bamboo pole

TEXTILES

2 x 2500x60 1 x 1500x60

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REBAR Flax woven

Sisal fabric

Wood woven

Leaf tissue

MATERIALS - ELEMENTS AND FILLING

Textile fabric

REFERENCES, MATERIALS, CONSTRUCTION PRINCIPLES

Hanna Christiansson Hanna Christiansson Hanna Christiansson HAITI | Atelier HAITI Fabienne | Atelier Bulle Fabienne | HAITI Marie|Bulle Aquilino Atelier | Marie Fabienne | Assistant Aquilino Bulle César | Assistant | Marie SilvaAquilino Urdaneta César Silva | Assistant Urdaneta César Silva Urdaneta

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METEOROLOGICAL ANALYSES: WIND, TEMPERATURE, SHADE

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TIMING

«THE SEASHELL»


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Module Triangulaire-

Détails Implantation au sol 2x

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ASSEMBLE 1 Module Triangulaire-

Détails Implantation au sol

ASSEMBLE 2 (2, 4, 8 modules and pole)

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Implantation au sol

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Installer le module dan la position et l’orientation voulue au sol. Plier des fer à beton en forme d’U . Le haut de chaque U ayant la mesure de chacun des trois angles du module. Dans le module lié au sol enfocer les fer à beton dans chacun des trois angles du module, ayant les perches serrés entre le fer et le sol.

FIX TO THE GROUND

Hanna Christiansson HAITI | Atelier Fabienne Bulle | Marie Aquilino | Assistant César Silva Urdaneta

Triangulairee Triangulaire- Ouvrir Ouvrir / fermer / fermer l’assemblage 3 x l’assemblage

Triangulairee Triangulaire- Ouvrir Ouvrir / fermer / fermer l’assemblage l’assemblage 132

Implantation au sol

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memblage assememblage des des trian- trianermet es permet une modularité une modularité ment l’élément construit. construit. l’aide d’uned’une perche perche placée placée memblage assememblage triantriantremité a l’extremité de lades de structure, lades structure, ermet es permet une une modularité modularité t peut venir venir ouvrir ouvrir celle-ci celle-ci ment l’élément construit. construit. ière manière contrôlée contrôlée selonselon la la l’aide d’une perche placée placée ur ngueur de lad’une de perche. la perche perche. a tremité l’extremité de la de structure, lavient structure, nsi même la même structure structure vient t peut venir venir ouvrir ouvrir celle-ci celle-ci érents rir différents usages usages selon selon le le nière manière contrôlée contrôlée selon la la acement ent (ou non) (ou et non) la etselon la ur ngueur de la la de de perche. la perche perche. ur ngueur de perche la nsi même la même structure structure vient vient outée. érents rirperche différents usages selon le le us la usages perche est longue est selon longue acement ent (ou structure non) (ou et non) la et la ouus structure la sera sera ouur ngueur deetlapermettra de perche la aux perche trtepermettra usaaux usaoutée. .s d’être tre debout debout sous sous l’abri. l’abri. us perche la perche, perche est l’abris longue estferlongue ns perche, la l’abris se se feraus structure la structure oueièrement entièrement et sera invite et sera invite les oules rte tcupants permettra et permettra aux ou usaauxàou usa-à nts à s’asseoir à s’asseoir tre s d’être debout debout sous sous l’abri. l’abri. er. llonger. ns perche, la perche, l’abrisl’abris se ferse fereièrement entièrement et invite et invite les les nts cupants à s’asseoir à s’asseoir ou àou à er. llonger.

Installer le module dan la position et l’orientation voulue au sol. Plier des fer à beton en forme d’U . Le haut de chaque U ayant la mesure de chacun des trois angles du module. Dans le module lié au sol enfocer les fer à beton dans chacun des trois angles du module, ayant les perches serrés entre le fer et le sol.

Hanna Christiansson HAITI | Atelier Fabienne Bulle | Marie Aquilino | Assistant César Silva Urdaneta

OPEN / CLOSE

aHanna Christiansson Christiansson |HAITI Atelier | Atelier Fabienne Fabienne Bulle |Bulle Marie| Marie Aquilino Aquilino | Assistant | Assistant CésarCésar Silva Urdaneta Silva Urdaneta

aHanna Christiansson Christiansson HAITI | Atelier | Atelier Fabienne Fabienne Bulle Bulle | Marie| Marie Aquilino Aquilino | Assistant | Assistant CésarCésar Silva Urdaneta Silva Urdaneta

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Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

FROM PROJECT HISTORY DOSSIER

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Week 6

Week 10

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Y3/S1 PARIS ~ LENA ANDRASCHKE HANNA CHRISTIANSSON

Haïti

Haïti

eta

eta

eta

Hanna Christiansson HAITI | Atelier Fabienne Bulle | Marie Aquilino | Assistant César Silva Urdaneta

Hanna Christiansson HAITI | Atelier Fabienne Bulle | Marie Aquilino | Assistant César Silva Urdaneta

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YEAR 3 SEM. 1 ~ FALL 2013 PARIS: OUR BEST WORK CHARLOTTE ARRES CAROLINA CANALE AURÉLIEN CHATELOT YOUFANG PENG

«THE NID»

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STEP 2: ASSEMBLE

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STEP 3: TIGHTEN

STEP 4: BEND


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PROCESS TRESSAGE # 1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6

PROCESS TRESSAGE # 1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6

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STEP 5: KNOT AND FILL HOLES WITH GRAVEL

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Y3/S1 PARIS ~ CHARLOTTE ARRES CAROLINA CANALE AURÉLIEN CHATELLOT YOUFANG PENG

PROCESS FORME # 1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7

MATERIAL TESTS AND PROTOTYPING

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BUILD TO LAST: THE RIGHT TO SHADE

PERMANENT KIOSK Sun Diagram

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June - 9AM

December 21 - 1PM

Average P 300mm

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December 21 - 6PM

precipitation

This diagram shows the worst solar situation to the building. In this case, the solar altitude is considerable into the covered area at the south facade. The solution by the sticks screen shall be able to cope with that. Then, providing a vertical protection against the sun and tha heatness of this area. Creating a confortable shaded area at the warmest situation.

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This diagram depicts the time in an average year that the site will receive the most sun exposure. The sun is strong and low, therefor bringing unwanted heat into the pavilion. This becomes our reasoning for wrapping the kiosque in a permeable skin (made from woven twigs). We provide both shade as well as ventilation for the inhabitants.

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YEAR 3 ~ SEMESTER 1 ~ FALL 2013

In Portland, the team developed a prototypical commercial space situated at the junction of the teaming marketplace and the entry to the Foundation; a structural module for the proposed on-site bakery; and a courtyard trellis system to mediate the harsh climate and provide shade and decorative planters that will greatly enhance the living quarters of the girls’ dormitories. The loggias provide outdoor living and education spaces open to the breeze but protected from the sun. Working closely with KPFF Engineering, the student teams built full-scale mockups in steel and tested these at the i-Star US Federal Earthquake Laboratory for earthquake response. This cycle of building and testing prototypes provides a “proof of concept” that allowed us to create strong relations between the School of Architecture, the PUF Haiti Project, and the Federal i-Star laboratory, paving the way for future disaster relief research and response. Students also learned invaluable skills in structural welding, metalwork, and assembly. Future plans to extend the courtyards will complete and improve the performance of the mediocre buildings provided by Food For the Poor.

in Build together Build for the long term

out Giving up on local materials

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PORTLAND : OUR BEST WORK

«I left for Haiti with no experience working in steel and very little experience working with concrete. However, there were several people in our group who had a lot of knowledge to share in these particular areas who assumed leadership roles, giving everyone a chance to learn new skills and work in a large, dynamic group where everyone had an opportunity to contribute.» Josiah Henley «Haiti was an unbelievable experience. I spent about a year working on different projects concerning the site and the surrounding area, but when I actually arrived there it was another world. The country itself is very beautiful, but it is a perfect example of how man can over use his resources.» Andrew Durkin «The Haiti trip has taught me many life lessons and changed my point of view on my lifestyle. Resources in Haiti are limited, fresh clean drinking water is hard to come by. Spoiled by the clean water in Portland, I was not prepared to suffer through drinking highly chlorinated water. I never really thought about how wasteful I am.

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The trip has also taught me a very valuable life lesson that I will forever change my way of living. What Todd Ferry (one of our instructors) mentioned during a car ride back to the compound where we were staying really changed the way I look at knowledge. It was something along the lines of, “no knowledge is ever wasted, you just don’t know when it will come in handy.” It has changed my approach to learning new things: I was the type of guy who wouldn’t put much effort into learning something new if I didn’t think it would be beneficial or that I would ever use it in life.» Paul Thanakorn Vorapanich «The hands on experience entirely changed my view of designing. As architecture students we have been designing on computer or paper, but we have never seen a final product. This experience taught me what would work and what would not work in the reality. Design is only the first stage in architecture. When it comes to reality, it’s the construction that counts.» Andy Chung

GRACE AARAJ KRESTINA AZIZ SIU HANG CHUNG HEIDI CRESPI JACQUELINE DAVIS  ANDREW DENEAULT JOEL DICKSON   ANDREW DURKIN  JOSIAH HENLEY MICHAEL PUCKETT CALEB ROACH PAUL THANAKORN VORAPANICH  ERIC WENZEL


Y3/S1

The exposure to real world problems and solving them through architecture should become integrated in the way we learn and the way we work. Expecting every architecture graduate to work in humanitarian design is unrealistic; but it is crucial to expect architects to work with high ethics towards the limited resources we have on this planet-- prior to or post-disaster. Designing on site, feeling the heat, smelling the trees and sensing that the wind was so powerful left its impact on the way we designed and the way we built. I don’t recall any media or digital simulation that could recreate these conditions and encourage a responsive design on paper. Grace Aaraj

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YEAR 3 SEM. 1 ~ FALL 2013 PORTLAND: OUR BEST WORK CERQUEIRA ARAUJO SAINT CLAIR ELYSSA KELLY SEBASTIAN MARTICORENA

ÂŤPERMANENT KIOSK PROJECTÂť

PERMANENT PERMANENT KIOSK KIOSK Sun Diagram Sun Diagram

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1

2

1

21 - 1PM

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION (RAIN/SNOW) IN PORT AU PRINCE, HAITI

2

Average Precipitation (rain/snow) in Port auinPrince, Haiti Average Precipitation (rain/snow) Port au Prince, Haiti

300mm 300mm

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December December 21 - 6PM 21 - 6PM

3

3

23

3

150mm 150mm

0mm

2

0mm jan feb jan mar feb apr mar mayaprjunmay jul jun aug julsep aug oct sep nov oct dec nov dec

AVERAGE MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM TEMPERATURES IN PORT AU PRINCE, HAITI 1

1

Average minimum Average minimum and maximum and maximum temperatures temperatures in Port auinPrince, Port au Haiti Prince, Haiti

40 deg. C40 deg. C

30 deg. C30 deg. C

20 deg. C20 deg. C jan feb jan marfeb apr mar mayaprjunmayjul junaug julsepaugoctsep nov oct dec nov dec

N

N

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Y3/S1

PERMANENT KIOSK

Construction Detail | Connecting Truss to Moment Frame

PERMANENT KIOSK

Construction Detail | Connecting Truss to Moment Frame

PERMANENT KIOSK

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Construction Phasing Gantt Chart

PERMANENT KIOSK Obisque nimusant ma num idelessi cus, cusanihilic temoloriati dolorat emporep erferem erum, cuptur, comnimodit volest ut labo. Ihillaut omnit ex eicabor untibus ulparciis mo ipsunt es mi, cusae. Tem volecae veruptat. Bus ma nus veligendus sitatum quatiis ciist, que entiam as nonsenderrum ea premper itatume volore voluptium volloribus dolor maximpo reicium eos saeste vidus idendia spidundit es sin pos volupturepro quaturis simaximet est ex et aut init as qui ditiunt esequam lab intis volectur aut laut quatem non comnisquo ipsaerum cullandest, sundel int volorem. Lis aute vellaut re dolorem deliquide doluptas id milit, sam repro mil ius simil issimaObisque con eliquinimusant autet voluptibus ulpacusanima numeostrum idelessi cus, audandit suntiorit quunt eatur erum, hilic perciam temoloriati doloratperum emporep erferem sum abo. cuptur, comnimodit volest ut labo. Ihillaut omnit

Construction Phasing Gantt Chart

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PERMANENT KIOSK ex eicabor untibus ulparciis mo ipsunt es mi, cusae. Tem volecae veruptat. Bus ma nus veligendus sitatum quatiis ciist, que entiam as nonsenderrum ea premper itatume volore voluptium volloribus dolor maximpo reicium eos saeste vidus idendia spidundit es sin pos volupturepro quaturis simaximet est ex et aut init as qui ditiunt esequam lab intis volectur aut laut quatem non comnisquo ipsaerum cullandest, sundel int volorem. Lis aute vellaut re dolorem deliquide doluptas id milit, sam repro mil ius simil issima con eliqui autet voluptibus eostrum ulpa Obisque nimusant num idelessi cusaniaudandit perciamma suntiorit perum cus, quunt eatur hilicsum temoloriati abo. dolorat emporep erferem erum, cuptur, comnimodit volest ut labo. Ihillaut omnit ex eicabor untibus ulparciis mo ipsunt es mi, cusae. Tem volecae veruptat. Bus ma nus veligendus sitatum quatiis ciist, que entiam as nonsenderrum ea premper itatume volore voluptium volloribus dolor maximpo reicium eos saeste vidus idendia spidundit es sin pos volupturepro quaturis simaximet est ex et aut init as qui ditiunt esequam lab intis volectur aut laut quatem non comnisquo ipsaerum cullandest, sundel int volorem. Lis aute vellaut re dolorem deliquide doluptas id milit, sam repro mil ius simil issima con eliqui autet voluptibus eostrum ulpa audandit perciam suntiorit perum quunt eatur nimusant ma num idelessi cus, cusanisum Obisque abo. hilic temoloriati dolorat emporep erferem erum, cuptur, comnimodit volest ut labo. Ihillaut omnit ex eicabor untibus ulparciis mo ipsunt es mi, cusae. Tem volecae veruptat. Bus ma nus veligendus sitatum quatiis ciist, que entiam as nonsenderrum ea premper itatume volore voluptium volloribus dolor maximpo reicium eos saeste vidus idendia spidundit es sin pos volupturepro quaturis simaximet est ex et aut init as qui ditiunt esequam lab intis volectur aut laut quatem non comnisquo ipsaerum cullandest, sundel int volorem. Lis aute vellaut re dolorem deliquide doluptas id milit, sam repro mil ius simil

Construction Phasing Gantt Chart

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48cm

East Elevat

PERMANENT KIOSK

Construction Phasing Gantt Chart

12cm

Building Plan and Section

PERMANENT KIOSK

Top | North elevation detail. Bottom | Section facing east of detail

6cm

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ex eicabor untibus ulparciis mo ipsunt es mi, cusae. Tem volecae veruptat. Bus ma nus veligendus sitatum quatiis ciist, que entiam as nonsenderrum ea premper itatume volore voluptium volloribus dolor maximpo reicium eos saeste vidus idendia spidundit es sin pos volupturepro quaturis simaximet est ex et aut init as qui ditiunt esequam lab intis volectur aut laut quatem non comnisquo ipsaerum cullandest, sundel int volorem. Lis aute vellaut re dolorem deliquide doluptas id milit, sam repro mil ius simil issima con eliqui autet voluptibus eostrum ulpa Obisque nimusant num idelessi cusaniaudandit perciamma suntiorit perum cus, quunt eatur hilicsum temoloriati abo. dolorat emporep erferem erum, cuptur, comnimodit volest ut labo. Ihillaut omnit ex eicabor untibus ulparciis mo ipsunt es mi, cusae. Tem volecae veruptat. Bus ma nus veligendus sitatum quatiis ciist, que entiam as nonsenderrum ea premper itatume volore voluptium volloribus dolor maximpo reicium eos saeste vidus idendia spidundit es sin pos volupturepro quaturis simaximet est ex et aut init as qui ditiunt esequam lab intis volectur aut laut quatem non comnisquo ipsaerum cullandest, sundel int volorem. Lis aute vellaut re dolorem deliquide doluptas id milit, sam repro mil ius simil issima con eliqui autet voluptibus eostrum ulpa audandit perciam suntiorit perum quunt eatur sumObisque abo. nimusant ma num idelessi cus, cusanihilic temoloriati dolorat emporep erferem erum, cuptur, comnimodit volest ut labo. Ihillaut omnit ex eicabor untibus ulparciis mo ipsunt es mi, cusae. Tem volecae veruptat. Bus ma nus veligendus sitatum quatiis ciist, que entiam as nonsenderrum ea premper itatume volore voluptium volloribus dolor maximpo reicium eos saeste vidus idendia spidundit es sin pos volupturepro quaturis simaximet est ex et aut init as qui ditiunt esequam lab intis volectur aut laut quatem non comnisquo ipsaerum cullandest, sundel int volorem. Lis aute vellaut re dolorem deliquide doluptas id milit, sam repro mil ius simil

PERMANENT KIOSK

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Construction Detail | Roof Beams Connecting Deck to Truss

6cm

North Elevat 48cm

12cm

Top | North elevation detail. Bottom | Section facing east of detail

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6cm

12cm

PERMANENT KIOSK TRUSS

121

48cm


YEAR 3 SEM. 1 ~ FALL 2013 PORTLAND: OUR BEST WORK HEIDI CRESPI JASMEEN EZAT-AGHA JOSIAH HENLEY JESSE POLLARD MICHAEL PUCKETT

«THE LOGGIAS»

Dimensioned Elevations & Detail 9’ 2”

Haiti Design/Build Porch Concept 11’ 11”

6° 5° 5°

1’ 2”

5° 5°

Seating

Vines for Shade Cable

Anchor Bolts Vegetation Soil retainer 8’

Footing

8’

Growing medium

ELEVATION 16.1” 90°

4.3”

90°

Bracket 6”

Scale: 1” =1’

Side Elevation 6’ 6”

Scale: 1/4” =1’

1/4” 1”

6”

3”

90° 90°

94.25”

6’ 6”

SIDE ELEVATION

122

COLUMN DIMENSION FOR PRODUCTION LAY-OUT


Y3/S1

3

4

2

1

5

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8

PORCH BUILD SEQUENCE 1) Column Brackets are constructed in the PSU Metal lab. 2) Column construction begins on site using templates drawn on a concrete floor. 3) Roof frame modules are welded, clamped to columns and adjusted on floor templates prior to welding in place. 4) Additional roof structure is added.

5) Purlins are attached to the metal frame. 6) Corrugated gutter system is attached between purlins. 7) The remaining corrugated roofing is cut and attached to the purlins. 8) Cable system is added for vertical shading and the porch is complete.

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Y3/S1 PORTLAND ~ HEIDI CRESPI JASMEEN EZAT-AGHA JOSIAH HENLEY JESSE POLLARD MICHAEL PUCKETT

124


Y3/S1

CREEPING VINES

DORMITORY

SHADE STRUCTURE

PATHWAY BIOSWALE

CREEPING VINES DORMITORY

CONCRETE BRIDGE CONCRETE BRIDGE

BIOSWALE

CITRUS TREE

Beam connection to (E) dormitory

Parameter beam

A

PLAY STRUCTURE

SECTION A-A

COURTYARD SHADE PLAY STRUCTURES AND RAIN CATCHMENT: PLAN, SECTION AND DETAILS OF LATERAL BRACING AND VERTICAL SHADE TRELLIS

RETAINING WALL COURTYARD

EXISTING COVERED PORCH

A Column footing

Concrete bridge beyond Gravel

Lateral Bracing Design Alternatives

1

- Clothesline opportunities - Vegitation integration

WATER OUTLET 2

1 Concrete bridges are made by cutting oil barrels in both directions, creating an arch to pour concrete on top. 2 Design Alternatives: Clothesline opportunities, Creeping vine trellis, temporary infill of palm thatching.

STUDIES FOR PLAYGROUND AND WATER CATCHMENT SYSTEMS

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III LOOKING BACK

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REFLECTIONS FROM THE CLASSROOM BEYOND PROJECTS First and foremost the joint ESA/PSU program encouraged students of architecture to take their place within a broader global conversation, among the experts in humanitarian aid, anthropologists, conservationists, ecologists, bankers and economists, structural engineers, environmentalists, energy and communication specialists, public health officials, and within the context of policy makers, government, NGOs, and communities. As a result, we have learned that scale is gaining confidence to read the process

through the realities and shifting priorities of local government, money, land, history, and partnerships. This insight, which we are working to develop with UN-Habitat in Haiti, is critical to being effective in post-disaster contexts. Smarter choices and good decisions come from invested systems that can justify and leverage limited resources and capacities into a broad and coherent vision for reconstruction that is fair and equitable over time. Our modest anchors are the creative solutions that add value and momentum by shifting investment from front-loaded projects and short-term

fixes to systems that enable people’s effort over the long term. The program also ensures we learn from one another. We who live in wealthy nations are not immune from disasters, and we, too, struggle with our own disinvested communities, inequalities, and poverty. The students quickly realized that learning from extreme conditions in the developing world can be a powerful source of creativity at home. At the same time, we must acknowledge our limits.

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WE ARE NOT OPERATIONAL, PERIOD Our academic calendars, schedules, priorities and mandates along with the ways in which we privilege what students should learn, as say fourth-year candidates, as opposed to what they need to know in the field make it near impossible to respond to a crisis of any sort in a timely, efficient and consistent manner. I am currently testing an approach that takes ongoing build projects from agencies working in disaster recovery from around the world who have little time to reflect or experiment. I give them to a group of advanced seminar students. If we invest ourselves in long-term solutions rather than urgent maneuvers our students have the time, tools, materials, and energy to ponder and test solutions that the busy, understaffed agencies (whether one of the big guns or a small office) with far too little time to think no less reflect would ever consider. We give our proposals back to the “clients� and they develop them in ways they see fit, or not. Though much of this collapses into architecture, we have the license to work with partial solutions, rethink bad endings, and profit been a hard sell to the administrators from good processes and hindsight. of an architecture school. Now more than ever, I personally feel that it is better to put our interns in government offices for a month, where they will have far more exposure to how policy and money work than if they are given isolated projects. This view has 130

Certainly, the program enabled us to test and develop coursework for architects based on two pedagogical ideals that we consider essential for programs in disaster recovery and mitigation: 1) evidence-based design and 2) participatory research.

Still, this project was not easy to teach. In Portland, we prepare our design/build work in the field where students would spend up to twelve weeks living with our clients. But Haiti challenged many of the classroom strategies we have developed over the years. It was particularly difficult to use a case study method to inform our work in the classroom, as there are few comparable situations. The absence of general education and decades of repression in Haiti have taken a heavy toll on human agency. When we began this project in 2011, Haiti was neither as secure nor stable as it has become. We compensated for our limited time


on the ground by treating the project as an archive of growing opportunities that were handed down from one semester of students to the next. Slowly over three years we began to produce increasingly effective and realistic proposals and interventions. But in the end, such realities require a different approach. Unless our programs begin to address how the capacity we help build is tied to larger goals within the society we will remain condemned to projects. OUR STUDENTS BENEFIT IN EVERY WAY This is not to say that developing a sound pedagogic program in recovery and disaster mitigation is easy or obvious. It is not. Only that short of getting malaria or being abducted our students benefit. The limited resources and difficult contexts encourage them to think well beyond their studios; the opportunity to design, build and finish structures with the community makes them humble and nervous; and the often trying circumstances force them to confront who they are as human beings. It’s a no brainer.

and the refectory are still hot and desolate. Our classroom must expand to Haiti. There is an urgent need to share knowledge and experience through the trades--from professional to professional--and with government officials and municipalities. Local organizations should be engaged on a rolling basis, modules for university and polytechnical programs need to be developed, local construction industries and businesses need to be given real incentives to participate. These initiatives must be developed from the get go rather than remaining the language of grant proposals and all too rarely implemented. Buildings are so much easier and self-evident.

The benefit, however, is wildly lopsided; it is far more difficult to benefit, truly benefit, the communities with whom we work. Even the lovely verandas with their seats and swings only benefit the girls at the site; the vast, open spaces that remain between the primary classrooms 131


REFLECTIONS FROM THE FIELD After three years of working in Titanyen, which has been a rare and extraordinary privilege that has led to friendships, being blessed and sung to, and to having our hair braided, what can we say of value about our role in a project that has shifted radically over the six semesters.

and reason counts for nothing. We see this in the way the children ignore their surroundings: garbage piles up; kids step over exposed electrical wires and broken gutters; and everyone forgets about the thousands of fruit trees and vegetables spoiled by the lack of water.

I’ve talked about abiding as a flourishing within chaos, as the depth of complicated, ongoing, not-at-all easy encounters and conversations that are driven by an unpredictable mix of argument and deference; and I’ve talked about abiding as opportunity. When abiding becomes submission, as it has in Ttitanyen, time stands still

Is it then possible that our modest anchors can become the points of attachment that bridge doubt, frustration, neglect and urgency to an incremental approach for development and to a deliberate sense of momentum three, five, and ten years on? Will folding specific acts of making into existing chaotic systems

132

lead the children of Montesinos to abide in place, get started right now, speed along, hurry up, and keep going? Maybe. But only if we transform workshops into curricula, into education. If everyday the children and young adults clean and prepare their terrain; if everyday they help fill the gabion cages that will terrace the walkways between their secondary school classrooms; if everyday they consciously transform the stagnant land under their feet, where they stand, into small gardens that grow everything from medicinal plants and tea to almondiers, spinach, and citrus; and if everyday they


learn to redraw and reassemble, rethink and repair their follies so they accumulate and disappear from their landscape at will, only then will we abandon the nonsense that reason and action are natural cohorts and allow abiding to take root as the first principle of long-term recovery. RETHINKING OUR ROLE In response to the planting crisis Sergio and I returned with ecologist and landscape architect Rachel Hill to help articulate a water resource plan that would address the need for extensive irrigation. We worked with the young agronomy student, Robenson, who led the initial planting strategy, to understand his logic and document the plants. I then returned with members from Northwater and V3 Water’s Haiti branch, which have over ten years of experience 133


working here on large-scale hydrology problems. Their team will run a series of tests to evaluate day-to-day and longterm well capacity, assess vulnerability to contamination, study the aquifer, inspect the pumping system and the condition of the well, study the geophysics of the borehole to optimize yield, disinfect the well, evaluate water quality and recharge rates to assess sustainability, optimize the system design to reduce operating and maintenance costs, and recommend irrigation techniques that would meet agricultural needs as well as separate 134

potable water from other uses. This is a water starved region with low-lying water sources drawn from mudstone, the least favorable substrate for water production. With the health of nearly two hundred people in the balance, all of these tests should have been carried out from the get go. As far as we know, Caritas Italia has agreed to pay for the tests and retrofit the water system; but this investment also draws funds away from the support they thought would go to other infrastructural needs. We hope that good water management will

support well-informed and cost-effective decision making regarding water use, perhaps eventually turning the Montesinos Foundation into a model for smart water development in the region. Though many of the 10,000 original plants have vanished, we also engaged Cean Reginald, a Haitian agronomist, who will lead the revised planting strategy based on water knowledge. The site is far too vast to cultivate all at once, so Cean advises a system that isolates fruits and vegetables gardens, creates corridors


and dry walls, restores the soil, integrates native plants in the driest zones, employs smart recycling techniques, and cultivates trees to protect the site from the wind. Wind is an adversary at Montesinos, but it is also a useful ally as wind keeps the moisture out of the air, impeding sickness and disease in the plants. In an effort to develop community supported agricultural practices, man hours, storage and transport need to be factored in. The system should function as a closed loop: prepare, produce, irrigate, pick, stock, distribute, transport, sell, market. Cean has divided the parcel into three zones, transitioning through a planting strategy over time from the most to the least productive areas, while establishing a system of conservation. A drip irrigation method would work well but it’s complicated and demanding and requires intensive management; so a simpler system, such as flood irrigation, would be best. Planting several large trees, such as almonds and flamboyants, for shade will lower the ambient temperature, and incorporating sugar cane and citronelle, plants with strong root systems, will stabilize the unpredictable slopes behind the secondary classrooms. We have also advised Father Charles to develop a small greenhouse and plant medicinal plants and tea around the dormitories because they are low impact, durable and need very little water.

YAM

BASIL

SUGAR CANE BANANA

CHIVE PARSLEY THYME

CORN

MINT

TAPIOCA

EGGPLANT MILLET CUCUMBER MELON ZUCCHINI ONION OKRA CARROT BEAN CABBAGE

TOMATO PEPPER

GARLIC LETTUCE

SQUASH

FRIENDLY CULTURES

YAM

BASIL

SUGAR CANE BANANA

CHIVE PARSLEY THYME

CORN

MINT

TAPIOCA

EGGPLANT MILLET CUCUMBER MELON ZUCCHINI ONION OKRA CARROT BEAN CABBAGE

TOMATO PEPPER

GARLIC LETTUCE

SQUASH

ENEMY CULTURES

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MAKE FRIENDS AND GET TO KNOW YOUR NEIGHBORS We see our future with the Montesinos Foundation as trying to integrate our work into a shifting regional strategy that requires a long view of the radically changing neighborhood, which will bring new demands on water but now promises a sprawling technical school, hospital, and bus stop. It took us two years to explore future opportunities with other groups working in this region. Mission of Hope has twenty years experience in the area and is presently conducting valuable surveys within Titanyen, as well as building the local technical school to which we can contribute an agroforestry program, and a small surgical hospital that eliminates the need for a clinic at the Montesinos site. The meeting was immensely valuable. We are now able to avoid duplicating the work being done locally and focus on how MOH and the Montesinos Foundation can support and reinforce one another’s initiatives and serve a larger segment of the population while conserving valuable resources. USAID is in the process of building 148 new homes directly across the street from the Montesinos Foundation that will have a dramatic impact on the neighborhood. These new middle-class homes are changing the landscape. In addition to site improvements that

situate agriculture at the heart of good site management and future growth, we are studying the viability of rehabilitating local wells, integrating water infrastructure, and offering training in agroforestry as a means to better integrate the site with the changing dynamics of the town. Helping to develop water security and agroforestry in the region will allow the USAID program to better integrate very different populations around a strategy of common resources.

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WHAT WE ACCOMPLISHED TOGETHER: A CONVERSATION WITH MARIE AQUILINO AND SERGIO PALLERONI

HAVE WE PROVIDED THE HELP THAT IS NEEDED? MARIE AQUILINO: Yes and no. Yes in that the combined American and French teams have provided master plans, designs, models, prototypes, planting strategies and catalogues full of information--a sort of working vocabulary--that could help the Montesinos Foundation animate the site according to an internal logic that would render it far more resilient and independent over the next five years. And, of course, the small shaded area in front of the girls’ dormitories dramatically underscores not only the desperate need for shade at the site but the challenges warming climates pose to relief agencies if we continue to think in terms of shortterm fixes. No, in that the ability to interpret and apply our work in Haiti by the people living and working at the Foundation is not at all supported by our process. We come and go, and during our long absence we are largely forgotten. There are, after all, other pressing matters.

We presented our work but we never established routine education in site management. There is no consistent means with which to understand our proposals, formulate the choices that the work suggests, or organize an approach and stick to a planning process that would benefit from our three years with the Foundation. Instead of addressing what to finish and to what degree, we provided the options without creating the skills to judge them. And even if we had, I would return to my commitment that training is not education. So we retreated to pedagogy and institutional guidelines, ignoring the exigencies of the priorities that can be established. What options and choices exist really, pragmatically speaking? Apart from having made important connections for Father Charles, and these are based in personal friendships and not particularly part of formal strategy, what have we left him with? In large measure this question will not be answered by thinking in terms of our projects and proposals, but by inserting the Foundation’s needs within a more global plan for shared water resources in the region that will

liberate and render the use of its tiny operational budget more creative. SERGIO PALLERONI: There are really two answers to this question. Our principal goal was to educate our students about the issues and choices that define disaster relief and in the processes of reconstruction that lead to greater resilience. At the core of our efforts were the roles and possibilities for designers, architects, and planners in situations of extreme need, which our students will increasingly face during their professional lives. We did this both in the classroom and in the field with considerable success. If we often suffered from drift, it is because there was little real direction from our clients and no master plan that would tie us to national or regional priorities, which at the time were themselves the subject of vigorous debate after the earthquake. Success in meeting the real needs of the community that we worked with--the children, teachers, and leaders of this small community--followed largely because the grant afforded us the rare opportunity to keep coming back. 139


We made many visits; so little by little we were able to develop a road map toward how to be effective within the many and competing needs of the Foundation. In the end, I think we did the community a real service. In some respects this is the result of helping them envision the different scenarios by which they could grow and develop. We also encouraged Father Charles and our colleagues at Caritas to think of design as a way to test the feasibility of different ideas and proposed visions. And our capacity to vet potential opportunities for our clients enabled the residential school to weather long periods with scanty resources. Our process has been one of experimentation, trial and error, and turning designs into full-scale interventions, all of which, in unequal measures, have influenced 140

the site design, resource use, and the evolution of simple buildings into more complex forms that can be truly lived in.

DID WE ADD VALUE? MA: Again, yes and no. No, because we continue to argue for architecture; though this is not entirely wrongheaded. There is a desperate need to see what dreams look like when they emerge and take shape in a landscape. What is disquieting is that architecture still leads our process rather than following the clues and emerging from the competing exigencies of the land, agriculture, money and good governance (and here I mean management). In spite of everything we have learned, we still privilege architectural solutions when, in fact, whether

in steel or bamboo, they aren’t so much solutions as they are eccentricities. Yes, if we follow through by addressing the true material exigencies of the region and think about things like the supply chain. Our limited budget forced the American team to use a thinner steel that was dramatically less expensive, but they then worked out a design that guarantees a certain resilient, viable solution. The steel is Haitian. Our desire to use cord and textiles was not mistaken, but we didn’t go nearly far enough to ask: what materials are truly needed in Haiti; what materials need to be highly performant and invested in; how can we correct the erroneous supply chain to privilege strategic investments that would favor advances, for example, in


textiles and cord and local steel, instead of leaving people with so few options? Where, indeed, should we innovate and with what evidence? How do we help educate local communities, address the government, work with universities and local professional centers to develop new protocols or trade secrets and insights that would change the logic of materials supply, demand and distribution? SP: Value in design comes from its use. And it took us a while to figure out how to be of use to our clients. This is a common problem for clients of public design processes; it takes a while for them to understand their situation well enough to give their project a strategic and effective direction. The role of a public interest design process is to help the client figure out where the resources and assets are, how the design process can help them create consensus, and how viable and relevant the different possibilities are. Both ESA and PSU helped bring clarity to the development of this site, while helping inform some of the more fundamental decisions that allowed the community to survive. By the end of our tenure with the Foundation, we were producing studies and interventions that resonate equally with the children and staff who live there. ESA studied new forms and ways of inhabiting the site; and PSU transformed the otherwise in hospitable dormitories into places of joy, rest, and exchange. 141


TRAINING VS EDUCATION? SP: Always education. Though training has a role, in a situation of many unknowns knowledge and understanding how to apply it is more essential; it equips students with the ability to work with the changing conditions of the site and requires them to have an evolving understanding of what might be needed and how to address those needs. The emergence of impact entrepreneurs is teaching us that we cannot simply send people into the field because they have the capacity to apply a solution, they must understand, adapt, test, and rethink their assumptions to be effective. MA: Planning workshops will never be enough. Savoir-faire is not enough. And training, though critical and essential, is not simply a technical challenge. Training is not education. Neither Father Charles nor any of the adult monitors organized working groups that could teach the children how to repair, redo, or reinvent our work. In fact—and this was perhaps the most difficult constraint on our work during our tenure with the Montesinos Foundation—it was nearly impossible for Father Charles to engage in or follow through with the very processes he initiated; he is, quite simply, overwhelmed. Without any real professional help or guidance this is a daunting task. The push to create short-term internships and certificate degrees in Haiti often 142

confuses the need to support and engage the fragile but highly competent Haitian professional class. Haitian architects, engineers, agronomists often find themselves shunted aside, tasked with menial labor, or maligned and ignored outright. This must change if Haitians are to take on reconstruction (and new construction) as a means of securing their future. Today in Haiti, (and I am writing this in June 2014) 320,050 people remain in the squalid conditions of 385 camps, where the risk of cholera, malaria, and rape remain very high. Eighty-four percent of these residents have been there since the earthquake struck ten kilometers southwest of Port-au-Prince on January 12, 2010, killing nearly three-hundred


thousand people and dispersing one-third of the country’s panicked population. Today, ninety-nine campsites remain highly vulnerable to mudslides; 67,000 households still have no prospect of moving out and on to better lives, though one third risk being evicted. Fifty eight percent of the adults living in the camps have no work, yet they live in the metro area. Homes consist of precarious, makeshift structures that are battered and destroyed repeatedly during the hurricane season. Some 86 per cent of the residents never received the transitional shelters; although the aid community spent 500 million dollars on the steel and wood structures. Of the 385 sites only 22, which host nearly 96,000 individuals, have dedicated camp management. Four and a half years later as the country struggles

to move forward, these numbers are a stark reminder of the unrelenting and irrefutable relation between acute poverty and disaster risk. The former Senior Technical Advisor to UN-Habitat Maggie Stephenson has argued that architects have the unique ability to speak about how cities are shaped and made. Our role, she suggests, is to envision alternative, coherent, prosperous cities. If, as architects, what we have to say about where we live, how we address social needs creatively, and how cities will work better twenty years from now is to be relevant, even important, this conversation must include a vision for the peri-urban zones, where most of the world’s population lives.

In our view, the way to help people flourish is to withhold judgment, embrace chaos, open ourselves to the other person’s possibilities, and realize that desires are mappable onto one another. Writer George Saunders suggests that “universal human laws-- need, love for the beloved, fear, hunger, periodic exaltation, and the kindness that rises up naturally in the absence of fear/hunger/pain--are constant, predictable.” But judgment and mercy stymie abiding. To ensure people’s safety and foster their ability to prosper, to promote fellowship and self-determination, I would suggest we begin with dignity’s guiding principle and follow through on education with constant acts of abiding.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The entire team would like to thank Father Charles Moise, Director of the Montesinos Foundation and his amazing staff, Anna Zumbo and Caterina Ballesio from Caritas Italia, and the Brothers, Sisters, staff, and humanitarian aid workers who shared the compound of the Scalabrini Order with us: who welcomed us, fed us homemade ice cream, became our friends, guides, and partners, lent us their vehicles in a pinch, solved so many of our problems, drank beer and told stories with us, and gave us the opportunity to fall in love with Haiti. I would also like to thank the extraordinary Maggie Stephenson, Senior Technical Officer at UN-Habitat in Port-au-Prince for her remarkable insights and friendship; and the all-too-generous assistance of Chris Ward at USAID for his pragmatism. A special thanks to Stuart Dykstra, James Adamson, Rachel Hill, and Cean Reginald for jumping in and helping us sort out the water/agriculture crisis. We have also had tremendous engineering support from Philippe Coeur, who followed our students for four semesters. In Paris, architect Fabienne Bulle skillfully led our ateliers.

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In Portland we had technical support from Craig Totten and David Tarries at KPFF engineering, who guided us through the details of civil and structural engineering; Tim Elley and Seth Moody, PAE Engineering, weighed in on environmental and mechanical engineering questions; James McGrath at CH2MHill Engineering helped out with planning. In the classroom we had the privilege of working with David Perkes from Gulf Coast Community Studio, who taught us about disaster relief; Jay Ruskin of Oregon Resilience Plan provided insight into resilient thinking; Mort Anoushiravani from Mercy Corps spoke with us about infrastructure and reconstruction; and Matt Streng, also from Mercy Corps, taught us about how to engage children during disaster relief and reconstruction efforts. And thank goodness Todd Ferry, Aldo Turchetti, Katalina Kazeka and Alexander Schrepfer assisted our students in the field. I would also like to deeply thank the brilliant Sam Lowery and Khadija Guihai for keeping us on track; without you we would never have been able to figure out the budget. And to the wonderfully gifted Emanuela Not, who designed this catalogue, much of it during bits of her summer vacation, thank you. It has been our great privilege to work with all of you.


OUR STUDENTS

Finally, it was our great honor to represent the Franco/American Cultural Exchange. Financed through their Partner University Fund, Portland State University and Ecole Spéciale d’Architecture were afforded the rare opportunity to collaborate in Haiti. Thank you for the confidence you extended us and for the continued support that made this unique partnership an extraordinary experience.

IN PARIS Lena Andraschke; Pascal Agnel; Charlotte Arres; Lucía Barrantes; Grégoire Bret; Aurélie Bouet; Charlotte Caillon; Carolina Canale; Maxime Cargill; Aurélien Chatelot ; Hanna Christiansson; Lucía Cillier; Lisa Coryell; Hugo Delord; Fatou Dieng; Charly Duchosol; Laurent-Emmanuel Duburg; Louis Falcon de Longevialle; Thomas Feraud; Marc Antoine Galup; Jonathan Gerston; Arnaud Gillet; Martin Goupit; Geoffroy Griveaud; Guillaume Grondin; Youssef Haddadi; Louis Henry; Marcos Houssay; Diana Ibarra Rake; Mélanie Jaulin; Armel Joly; Safae Kettani; Cédric Laussinotte; Jean-Christophe Lèfevre; Guillaume Lavard-Meyer; Martin Le Carbouclec; Jirasak Makklang; Ludovica Malago; Maria Luisa Martin; Raphael Mougel; Océane Patole; Youfang Peng; Pierre de Pignon; Hortense Prot; Julien Remond; Staffan Rosval; Sarah Safoui; Paul Serizay; Antoine Spikerman; Murielle Marth Tegeul; Pierre-Alexandre Treust; Guillaume Valente; Arne Wittenberg, Femi Hinson Yovo

IN PORTLAND Grace Aaraj; Cerqueira Araujo Saint Clair; Krestina Aziz; Ryan Bartlett; Siu Hang Chung; Heidi Crespi; Jacqueline Davis; Andrew Deneault; Joel Dickson; Andrew Durkin; Zach Hampton; Josiah Henley; Ali Karlen; Elyssa Kelly; Jason Leighton; Sebastian Marticorena; Michael Puckett; Caleb Roach; Andrew Ryan; Paul Thanakorn Vorapanich; Eric Wenzel 145


PHOTO CREDITS We had the terrific luck of having several talented photographers among our students and faculty. The lion’s share of these images were contributed by Pascal Angel, Marc-Antoine Galup and Jirasak Makklang from the Paris team, and Todd Ferry from the Center For Public Interest Design, Portland. CREDITS First Published In France in 2014 “Abiding Architecture, Haiti 2011-2014” copyright © 2014 Text copyright © 2014 the authors All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any other information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the author. Any copy of this book issued by the author as a paperback is distributed subject to the condition that it shall not by way of trade or otherwise be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the author’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including these words being imposed on a subsequent purchaser. ISBN: 978-2-9551240-0-0 Graphic design: Emanuela Not / tamassociati 146


ABOUT THE AUTHOR Marie Aquilino is professor of architectural history at École Spéciale d’Architecture (ESA) in Paris and a specialist in contemporary urban redevelopment and risk mitigation. For the past eight years she has been giving seminars on the architect’s role in disaster prevention, mitigation and sustainable recovery as a means of talking with students and professionals about architecture’s role in social justice. Marie is also the author and editor of Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity (Metropolis Press, 2011), which aims to inform, educate, and sensitize architects to the best practices of reducing disaster risk worldwide. She was twice honored by the French government with a Competences and Talents Visa to develop a program at ESA that educates and trains architecture students to work in the contexts of extreme need and crisis in the developing world. Marie is currently part of an international working group on the reconstruction of Haiti, and is a recent laureate of the Partner University Fund for her work there in Titanyen. A respected specialist in post-disaster recovery, Marie speaks frequently at international conferences.

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Profile for Marie J. Aquilino

Abiding Architecture - Haiti 2011-2014. By Marie J. Aquilino  

Three years, two universities, four professors, eighty plus students, four assistants, eleven languages, eighty-nine kids, myriad partners,...

Abiding Architecture - Haiti 2011-2014. By Marie J. Aquilino  

Three years, two universities, four professors, eighty plus students, four assistants, eleven languages, eighty-nine kids, myriad partners,...

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