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Adverbs are used to express how something is done (adjectives express how someone or something is). Example: The dog sleeps quietly. The dog is absolutely quiet.

Form In general: adjective + -ly adjective

adverb slowly


Exceptions in spelling exception silent e is dropped in true, due, whole y becomes i le after a consonant is dropped after ll only add y

example true → truly happy → happily sensible → sensibly full → fully

Adjectives ending in -ic: adjective + -ally (exception: public-publicly) adjective fantastic

adverb fantastically

Adjectives ending in -ly: use ‘in a … way / manner’ or another adverb with similar meaning adjective friendly likely

adverb in a friendly way in a friendly manner probably

Exceptions adjective good difficult public deep direct hard high late most near pretty short The following adjectives are also used as adverbs

adverb (meaning) adverb (meaning) well with difficulty publicly deep (place) deeply (feeling) direct directly (=soon) hard hardly (=seldom) high (place) highly (figurative) late lately (=recently) most mostly (=usually) near nearly (=almost) pretty (=rather) prettily short shortly (=soon) daily, enough, early, far, fast, hourly, little, long, low, monthly, much, straight, weekly, yearly, …

(without modification): Exercise on the form of adverbs

Comparison Comparison (-er/-est) one-syllable adverbs (hard) adverbs with the same form as adjectives (early)

Comparative ending Superlative ending in -er in -est harder hardest earlier


Comparison (more / most) Comparative formed with Superlative formed with more most adverbs ending in -ly (happily)

more happily

most happily

Irregular comparisons positive form well badly ill little much far (place + time) far (place) late (time)

comparative better worse worse less more further farther later

superlative best worst worst least most furthest farthest latest

The present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present. It puts emphasis on the result.

Form of Present Perfect Positive



I / you / we / they I have spoken. I have not spoken. Have I spoken? he / she / it

He has spoken. He has not spoken. Has he spoken?

For irregular verbs, use the participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed�.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ‘ed’ Exceptions in spelling when adding ed


after a final e only add d

love – loved

final consonant after a short, stressed vowel or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled

admit – admitted travel – travelled

final y after a consonant becomes i

hurry – hurried

Use of Present Perfect •

puts emphasis on the result

Example: She has written five letters. •

action that is still going on

Example: School has not started yet. •

action that stopped recently

Example: She has cooked dinner. •

finished action that has an influence on the present

Example: I have lost my key. •

action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking

Example: I have never been to Australia.

Signal Words of Present Perfect •

already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

Comparison of Adjectives When we compare two or more nouns, we make use of comparative adjectives and superlative adjectives.We use the following three forms of comparison when we compare two or more nouns.


The absolute form We use the absolute degree to describe a noun or to compare two equal things or persons. • My uncle is bald. My uncle is as bald as a cue ball. • His head is big. His head is as big as my head. • His wife-to-be is very charming. His ex-wife is not as charming as his wife-to-be. The comparative form When comparing two nouns, we use a comparative form of adjective to describe how one person or thing is when compared to another person or thing. In making such a comparison, we have to use the word than to show that one noun is bigger, longer, taller, etc. than the other one. • A hen's egg is bigger than a pigeon's egg. • Our fingers are longer than our toes. • This basketball player is taller than that footballer.

• •

She says her pet hen walks faster than her pet duck. His head is bigger than my head.

The superlative form When comparing three or more nouns, we use a superlative form of adjective. We use the word the when using the superlative adjective to compare. • My great grandfather is the oldest one in the family. • She has the prettiest face in the whole school. • He talks the loudest in his circle of friends. • Bozo is the funniest clown in the circus. • His head is the biggest in the family. More and most We can use the words more and most in front of an adjective to form respectively the comparative and superlative. Use the adverbial more with most adjectives that have two or more syllables, and most with all adjectives that have more than two or more syllables. For example, the word big has one syllable, funny has two syllables, and beautiful has three syllables. Regardless of the number of syllables, the adjective itself does not change in form when used with more or most. Two syllables • She is more careless with money than her husband is. • Sometimes, she was the most cheerful person in the office. Three syllables • The professor is more forgetful than his students are. • That is the most foolish thing he has ever done.