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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 1

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text

level F

Reading for the TEKS

N O I T A C I L Y B P U O P C Strategies for E F R O P O Informational Text PR

Measured on the STAAR


Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 2

ISBN 978-1-4204-8221-8 R 8221-8 Copyright ©2014 RALLY! EDUCATION. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Printed in the U.S.A. The following selections Copyright © Highlights for Children, Inc., Columbus, Ohio: The Milky Way, Our Home © 2002, A Coaching Legend © 2002, New Windows on Our Minds © 2002; Bringing Music to Life © 2012, Dropping the Time Ball © 2000, What’s So Hot About Spices? © 2000, He Made Trees Live Again © 2000. Photo credits: p. 8–9 iStockphoto/Neutronman; p. 11 courtesy of the European Southern Observatory; p. 33 University of Notre Dame Archives; p. 36 Notre Dame Sports Information Department; p. 89 Paula Becker; p. 90 & 91 Ray A. LaPanse; p. 117 Wikimedia Commons/Christopher Ziemnowicz (Indianapolis Motor Speedway); p. 118 iStockphoto/ia_64 (soldiers); p. 167 & 171 courtesy of The Library of Congress; p. 207 & 208 courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C.; p. 217 (bottom left) courtesy of Jennifer Billing, (bottom right) photo by Frank DiMeo, courtesy of Paul Sherman; p. 229-232 courtesy of Mira Nakashima-Yarnall. 1013.MAQ RALLY! EDUCATION • 22 Railroad Avenue, Glen Head, NY 11545 • (888) 99-RALLY

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Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Unit 1 Analyzing Details; Identifying and Summarizing Central Ideas; Finding Evidence to Support Inferences; Analyzing How an Individual, Event, or Idea is Introduced, Illustrated or Elaborated Upon in a Passage Readiness TEKS: 3-10A, C, D; 3-19D, E Supporting TEKS: 3-10B The Milky Way, Our Home. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Modeled Instruction, Guided Instruction, and Independent Practice A Coaching Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Modeled Instruction, Guided Instruction, and Independent Practice Unit 2 Determining the Meaning of Words; Analyzing the Development of an Idea; Describing the Structure of a Passage Readiness TEKS: 1-2B, 3-10A, C, D; 3-19D, E Supporting TEKS: 3-10B New Windows on Our Minds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Modeled Instruction, Guided Instruction, and Independent Practice Bringing Music to Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Modeled Instruction, Guided Instruction, and Independent Practice

Unit 3 Integrating Text, Graphics, and Quantitative Information; Analyzing Arguments and Claims; Using Evidence to Evaluate Claims; Identifying Key Events; Comparing and Contrasting Presentation of Events Readiness TEKS: 1-19F, 3-10A, C, D; 3-19D, E Supporting TEKS: 3-10B, 3-11A, B; 3-12B, 3-13A, C Paired Passages: Be Part of the Nano Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 No to Nano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Modeled Instruction, Guided Instruction, and Independent Practice Paired Passages: War Is Upon Us! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Sumter Is Surrendered. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Modeled Instruction, Guided Instruction, and Independent Practice Unit 4 On Your Own. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Review of all TEKS Informational Social Studies Passage: Dropping the Time Ball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Short-Response and Extended-Response Questions Informational Science Passage: What’s So Hot About Spices?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Short-Response and Extended-Response Questions Informational Passage: He Made Trees Live Again . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Short-Response and Extended-Response Questions Procedural Text Passage: Playing Pig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Short-Response and Extended-Response Questions

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 4

Introduction Reading for the TEKS: Strategies for Informational Text Measured on the STAAR provides students with the opportunity to utilize and develop different skills to help analyze and evaluate what they read. Throughout this book, students will learn about the different Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) as they read each passage and complete the activities that follow. The passages are grouped into four different Units. Units 1–3 develop different reading comprehension skillsets. Unit 4 is called “On Your Own,” and provides a section for the students to practice using all the different skills they have learned in the other units. Listed below are the specific TEKS that are addressed in the activities associated within Units 1–4.

Reporting Category 1: Understanding and Analysis Across Genres (1-2)

Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. (1-2B)

(1-9)

Students are expected to use the context (e.g., cause and effect or compare and contrast organizational text structures) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words. Readiness Standard

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author’s purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. (1-9A)

Students are expected to compare and contrast the stated or implied purposes of different authors writing on the same topic. Supporting Standard

(1-11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis.

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(1-11A)

Students are expected to compare and contrast the structure and viewpoints of two different authors writing for the same purpose, noting the stated claim and supporting evidence. Supporting Standard

(Figure 1-19) Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. (1-19F)

The student is expected to make connections (e.g., thematic links, author analysis) between and across multiple texts of various genres, and provide textual evidence. Readiness Standard

Reporting Category 3: Understanding and Analysis of Informational Texts (3-10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository texts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. (3-10A)

Students are expected to summarize the main ideas and supporting details in text, demonstrating an understanding that a summary does not include opinions. Readiness Standard

(3-10B)

Students are expected to explain whether facts included in an argument are used for or against an issue. Supporting Standard

(3-10C)

Students are expected to explain how organizational patterns (e.g., proposition-and-support, problem-and-solution) develop the main idea and the author’s viewpoint. Readiness Standard

(3-10D)

Students are expected to synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres. Readiness Standard

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Reading for the TEKS

(3-11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. (3-11B)

Students are expected to identify simply faulty reasoning used in persuasive texts. Supporting Standard

(3-12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. (3-12B)

Students are expected to interpret factual, quantitative, or technical information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams. Supporting Standard

(3-13) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. (3-13A)

Students are expected to explain messages conveyed in various forms of media. Supporting Standard

(3-13B)

Students are expected to recognize how various techniques influence viewers’ emotions. Supporting Standard

(Figure 3-19) Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. (3-19D)

The student is expected to make inferences about text and use textual evidence to support understanding. Readiness Standard (Expository)/Supporting Standard (Persuasive)

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

(3-19E)

The student is expected to summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order within a text and across texts. Readiness Standard (Expository)/Supporting Standard (Persuasive)

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 8

Unit 1 Unit 1 includes a passage titled The Milky Way, Our Home. You will learn about the galaxy we live in, and you will also learn reading and writing skills that include analyzing details, identifying and summarizing central ideas, and finding evidence to support inferences. Directions: Read the passage below.

The Milky Way, Our Home By Tony Helies 1

On dark, clear, moonless nights, far from city lights, you can see a hazy band of light stretching across the sky. If you look at this glow with binoculars, you will see that it is light from thousands of stars. These stars, and all the stars you see in the night sky, are part of a huge system of stars called the Milky Way galaxy.

2

Our Sun is a star in the Milky Way too. So when you look at the sky from Earth, you are looking at the Milky Way from the inside. If you could view our galaxy from far away, it would look very different.

Panoramic image of the Milky Way arching toward the Radio Telescope near Fort Davis, Texas

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

3

Imagine that you are a space traveler in a rocket ship far from our galaxy. From your spaceship window, the Milky Way looks like a glowing pinwheel. In the center of the pinwheel, you see a bright yellow bulge. Spiraling out from the center, the arms of the pinwheel look light blue against the darkness of space.

Old Stars, New Stars 4

As you rocket closer, you see that the Milky Way is made up of stars and clouds of glowing gas. The center of the galaxy is a mass of old yellow, orange, and red stars, formed when our galaxy was young. They have been burning for a long time. In the outer spiral arms of the galaxy, new stars are being formed. The brightest of these young stars are very hot and, like a really hot flame, they give off a blue light.

5

Our Sun is a yellow, middle-aged star about halfway out from the galactic center in one of these brilliant spiral arms. But you probably wouldn’t even be able to pick out our Sun in the blaze of starlight coming from the galaxy. That dazzling light comes from more than 200 billion stars!

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Reading for the TEKS

6

As your spaceship finally reaches the outer edges of the galaxy, you may worry that you will crash into some of those stars. But the stars are spread across a lot of space. The Milky Way is so big that it takes light more than 100,000 years to travel from one side of the pinwheel to the other. If you built a scale model of the Milky Way with each star the size of a grain of salt, your model would have to be twenty-five times wider than Earth. In this model, the grains of salt in the spiral arms would be seven miles apart. So even though our galaxy is enormous, it is mostly empty space.

Speeding Stars 7

The Milky Way not only looks like a pinwheel, it spins like one too. All the stars are speeding around the galactic center. Our Sun is traveling at 140 miles per second. That’s 300 times faster than a speeding bullet. The Earth moves with the Sun in its rapid journey around the galaxy. We don’t feel as if we are moving for the same reason airline passengers feel no motion when their plane is cruising at a steady speed.

8

The Milky Way is one of 100 billion galaxies in the universe. Most of these galaxies are too far away for us to see without a telescope. The Andromeda galaxy, one of the Milky Way’s closest neighbors, is more than 10 billion billion miles away. When seen through a powerful telescope, the Andromeda galaxy is a beautiful swirl of glowing gas and billions of stars.

9

No one has ever seen the whole Milky Way through a telescope. It’s not possible to take a rocket ship to Andromeda to look back at the Milky Way. So how do we know what our galaxy looks like?

“Seeing” the Milky Way 10

Even without a telescope we can see that stars have different colors: light blue, white, yellow, and orange. We can easily see that some stars are brighter than others. But to understand what our galaxy looks like, we have to know the distance from Earth to each star. That is the hard part!

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Galaxy M100 (above) is similar in appearance to the Milky Way.

11

To determine distance for each star, astronomers compare the stars’ positions against the backdrop of distant stars and galaxies. As the Earth moves around the Sun, the stars appear to move, much as trees appear to whiz past your car window as you drive by. The closer the tree, the faster it appears to move. Using this idea, astronomers have been able to determine the distance of stars from Earth.

12

By carefully plotting the positions, color, and brightness of each star, astronomers discovered that a large number of older yellow stars were clustered in one place, surrounded by bands where younger blue stars are being formed. That is exactly what they saw in their telescopes when they looked at distant spiral galaxies such as Andromeda and M100. Seen from far away, the Milky Way would look similar to these galaxies.

13

You may not be able to take a rocket ride into deep space, but you can see the Milky Way galaxy. All you need to do is look up at the night sky.

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Modeled Instruction Determine a Central Idea When you read a passage, you may find more than one central idea. You need to look through the passage to find details that are related in some way and help convey different ideas to the reader. Each of the main ideas presented by the author is an example of a central idea. In the following activities, you will learn how to determine a central idea in three steps: 1) Identify Details That Are Related or Connected 2) Analyze Details to Identify a Central Idea 3) Summarize a Central Idea

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

Identify Details That Are Related or Connected Some details in a passage are related or connected. When details that are related or connected are put together, they help the reader understand a central idea. A central idea is the main piece of information that the author wants to present to the reader. Reread Paragraphs 1–3 and look for details that are related or connected in some way.

1

On dark, clear, moonless nights, far from city lights, you can see a hazy band of light stretching across the sky. If you look at this glow with binoculars, you will see that it is light from thousands of stars. These stars, and all the stars you see in the night sky, are part of a huge system of stars called the Milky Way galaxy.

2

Our Sun is a star in the Milky Way too. So when you look at the sky from Earth, you are looking at the Milky Way from the inside. If you could view our galaxy from far away, it would look very different.

3

Imagine that you are a space traveler in a rocket ship far from our galaxy. From your spaceship window, the Milky Way looks like a glowing pinwheel. In the center of the pinwheel, you see a bright yellow bulge. Spiraling out from the center, the arms of the pinwheel look light blue against the darkness of space.

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Reading for the TEKS

Think It Through You can list the details from this part of the passage that you think are related or connected. A few details have been listed below. See if you can add at least two more details to the list. • On some nights, you can see a hazy band of light in the sky. • The hazy band of light is the light that comes from thousands of stars. • The stars that you see at night are part of a system of stars called a galaxy. • Our Sun is part of a galaxy called the Milky Way. • If you could view our galaxy from far away, it would look different. • • What details did you add to the list? You could have added the following: • The Milky Way looks like a glowing pinwheel. • The arms of the glowing pinwheel look light blue against the darkness of space.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Analyze Details to Identify a Central Idea In order to identify a central idea, you must analyze the details that appear to be related or connected. Think about what the details tell you. Ask yourself, “What does the author want me to know?” Look again at the list of details from Paragraphs 1–3. Analyze the details listed and determine the central idea.

Think It Through Analyze each detail by thinking about what it tells you. After you have analyzed all of the details in the list, you should be able to identify the central idea. Keep in mind there may be some details in the list that are helpful to know but are not needed to determine the central idea. You can cross these ideas off the list. Focus on the remaining details to identify the central idea. An analysis of the details from Paragraphs 1–3 is provided on the next page. Write what you think the central idea is in the box beneath the chart.

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Reading for the TEKS

Detail

Analysis

On some nights, you can see a hazy band of light in the sky.

The author wants to tell the reader about a band of light you can see in the sky.

The hazy band of light is the light that comes from thousands of stars.

The author explains that the band of light is actually light that comes from stars.

The stars that you see at night are part of a system of stars called a galaxy.

The author wants the reader to know that a group of stars makes up a galaxy.

Our sun is part of a galaxy called the Milky Way.

The author points out that our sun belongs to a galaxy called the Milky Way.

If you could view our galaxy from far away, it would look different.

The author explains that our galaxy would look different if you could see it from far away.

The Milky Way looks like a glowing pinwheel.

The author describes what the Milky Way looks like.

The arms of the glowing pinwheel look light blue against the darkness of space.

The author explains that the darkness of space makes the light from the stars appear blue. Most of the details help to describe the Milky Way.

All of the other details help describe the Milky Way. This detail tells about the Milky Way but does not help describe it. This detail does not help the reader identify the central idea.

Central Idea

Write your answer here.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 17

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

What did you identify as the central idea presented by the author in Paragraphs 1–3? You could have written that the central idea is that we live in a galaxy, or very large group of stars, called the Milky Way.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 18

Guided Instruction Identify Details That Are Related or Connected Reread Paragraphs 4–5 and look for details that are related or connected.

4

As you rocket closer, you see that the Milky Way is made up of stars and clouds of glowing gas. The center of the galaxy is a mass of old yellow, orange, and red stars, formed when our galaxy was young. They have been burning for a long time. In the outer spiral arms of the galaxy, new stars are being formed. The brightest of these young stars are very hot and, like a really hot flame, they give off a blue light.

5

Our Sun is a yellow, middle-aged star about halfway out from the galactic center in one of these brilliant spiral arms. But you probably wouldn’t even be able to pick out our Sun in the blaze of starlight coming from the galaxy. That dazzling light comes from more than 200 billion stars!

On Your Own In the space below, list at least five details from Paragraphs 4–5 that are related or connected in some way.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

Analyze Details to Identify a Central Idea Use the list that you just made for Paragraphs 4–5 to help determine the central idea of this part of the passage.

On Your Own List the details from Paragraphs 4–5 that are related on the left side of the chart on the next page. Provide your analysis of each of these details on the right side of the chart. Explain what the author wants you to know. After you have completed the chart, try to identify the central idea. Cross out any details that do not help you identify the central idea. Think about how the remaining details are related or connected. Write the central idea for Paragraphs 4–5 in the box beneath the chart.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Detail

List details from Paragraphs 4–5 here.

Analysis

Write your analysis of each detail here.

Think about how most of the details are related. What is the central idea?

Central Idea

Write your answer here.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 21

Modeled Instruction Summarize a Central Idea After you read a passage, you may be asked to summarize what you read. You can summarize a passage, or part of a passage, by explaining the central idea in a simple way that is easy to understand. Your summary should be based on what is stated by the author. You should not include personal opinions or judgments in your summary. Reread Paragraphs 1–3 and think about how you would summarize this part of the passage.

1

On dark, clear, moonless nights, far from city lights, you can see a hazy band of light stretching across the sky. If you look at this glow with binoculars, you will see that it is light from thousands of stars. These stars, and all the stars you see in the night sky, are part of a huge system of stars called the Milky Way galaxy.

2

Our Sun is a star in the Milky Way too. So when you look at the sky from Earth, you are looking at the Milky Way from the inside. If you could view our galaxy from far away, it would look very different.

3

Imagine that you are a space traveler in a rocket ship far from our galaxy. From your spaceship window, the Milky Way looks like a glowing pinwheel. In the center of the pinwheel, you see a bright yellow bulge. Spiraling out from the center, the arms of the pinwheel look light blue against the darkness of space.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Think It Through Ask yourself, “What is the central idea in this part of the passage?” You may want to look back at the chart for Paragraphs 1–3. Look at the related details in the chart and the analysis. This information can be used to help write a summary. The paragraph below shows one way you might summarize Paragraphs 1–3.

In Paragraphs 1–3, the author tells about a galaxy that is called the Milky Way. The author explains that a galaxy is a huge system of stars. The Milky Way is the galaxy that we live in. Our sun is just one of many stars in the Milky Way. There are so many stars in the Milky Way that from a distance it looks like a glowing pinwheel. The author explains that the stars in the Milky Way spiral out from the center and form long arms. On a clear night, you can see the light from these stars stretch across the sky.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 23

Guided Instruction Summarize a Central Idea Look again at Paragraphs 4–5. Write a brief summary of this section of the passage.

4

As you rocket closer, you see that the Milky Way is made up of stars and clouds of glowing gas. The center of the galaxy is a mass of old yellow, orange, and red stars, formed when our galaxy was young. They have been burning for a long time. In the outer spiral arms of the galaxy, new stars are being formed. The brightest of these young stars are very hot and, like a really hot flame, they give off a blue light.

5

Our Sun is a yellow, middle-aged star about halfway out from the galactic center in one of these brilliant spiral arms. But you probably wouldn’t even be able to pick out our Sun in the blaze of starlight coming from the galaxy. That dazzling light comes from more than 200 billion stars!

On Your Own Think about the central idea of this part of the passage. You may want to look back at the chart you previously made for Paragraphs 4–5. Look at the related details in the chart and the analysis you provided. Write a summary of Paragraphs 4–5 on the lines below.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 24

Modeled Instruction Make Inferences and Support with Evidence Some information you can learn from reading a passage is not directly stated. You need to use the information that is given to make inferences. You must think about what the provided information suggests. A good inference can be supported by evidence presented in the passage. In Paragraph 6, the author provides information about the stars in the Milky Way. Based on this information, you can make an inference about the distance between the stars in this galaxy. Reread Paragraph 6 and think about what inference you could make.

6

As your spaceship finally reaches the outer edges of the galaxy, you may worry that you will crash into some of those stars. But the stars are spread across a lot of space. The Milky Way is so big that it takes light more than 100,000 years to travel from one side of the pinwheel to the other. If you built a scale model of the Milky Way with each star the size of a grain of salt, your model would have to be twenty-five times wider than Earth. In this model, the grains of salt in the spiral arms would be seven miles apart. So even though our galaxy is enormous, it is mostly empty space.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 25

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

Think It Through Look for information in the passage that suggests something about the distance between the stars in the Milky Way. Make an inference that you can support with evidence from the passage. The graphic organizer below shows one inference that you could make and the evidence from the passage that supports the inference.

Inference: The stars in the Milky Way are very far apart from each other. This fact is not directly stated in the passage. You can only make this inference based on evidence provided by the author.

Evidence: But the stars are spread across a lot of space. So even though our galaxy is enormous, it is mostly empty space. These two statements are made by the author in the passage. They suggest that the stars in the Milky Way are very far apart. This evidence supports the inference that has been made.

The paragraph below shows how you might explain the inference that has been made and how evidence from the passage supports the inference.

Based on the information the author provides in Paragraph 6, you can infer that the stars in the Milky Way are very far apart from each other. The author explains that the stars are spread across a lot of space and points out that most of the galaxy is empty space. Since the stars are spread out and there is a lot of empty space between the stars, this suggests the stars are far apart from each other.

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Guided Instruction Make Inferences and Support with Evidence In Paragraph 8, the author provides information about different galaxies in the universe. Based on this information, you can make an inference about the size of the universe compared to the size of the Milky Way. Reread Paragraph 8 and think about what inference you could make.

8

The Milky Way is one of 100 billion galaxies in the universe. Most of these galaxies are too far away for us to see without a telescope. The Andromeda galaxy, one of the Milky Way’s closest neighbors, is more than 10 billion billion miles away. When seen through a powerful telescope, the Andromeda galaxy is a beautiful swirl of glowing gas and billions of stars.

On Your Own Look for information in the passage that suggests something about the size of the universe compared to the size of the Milky Way. Make an inference that you can support with evidence from the passage. Write your inference on the lines below.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

What evidence in the passage supports your inference? List the details from the passage that support your inference on the lines below.

Explain how the evidence provided supports the inference you made.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 28

Independent Practice 1

Reread Paragraphs 10–12 and answer the question that follows.

10

Even without a telescope we can see that stars have different colors: light blue, white, yellow, and orange. We can easily see that some stars are brighter than others. But to understand what our galaxy looks like, we have to know the distance from Earth to each star. That is the hard part!

11

To determine distance for each star, astronomers compare the stars’ positions against the backdrop of distant stars and galaxies. As the Earth moves around the Sun, the stars appear to move, much as trees appear to whiz past your car window as you drive by. The closer the tree, the faster it appears to move. Using this idea, astronomers have been able to determine the distance of stars from Earth.

12

By carefully plotting the positions, color, and brightness of each star, astronomers discovered that a large number of older yellow stars were clustered in one place, surrounded by bands where younger blue stars are being formed. That is exactly what they saw in their telescopes when they looked at distant spiral galaxies such as Andromeda and M100. Seen from far away, the Milky Way would look similar to these galaxies.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 29

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

What is the central idea of this part of the passage? What details are related to the central idea? Complete the graphic organizer below.

Central Idea

Write the central idea of Paragraphs 10–12 here.

Details Related to the Central Idea

List details that are related to the central idea here.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 30

Reading for the TEKS

2

Reread Paragraph 7 and think about the central idea of this part of the passage.

7

The Milky Way not only looks like a pinwheel, it spins like one too. All the stars are speeding around the galactic center. Our Sun is traveling at 140 miles per second. That’s 300 times faster than a speeding bullet. The Earth moves with the Sun in its rapid journey around the galaxy. We don’t feel as if we are moving for the same reason airline passengers feel no motion when their plane is cruising at a steady speed.

On the lines below, summarize this paragraph. Explain the central idea and include at least two details from the passage in your summary.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 31

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

3

Read the statement below from Paragraph 9. It’s not possible to take a rocket ship to Andromeda to look back at the Milky Way. What inference can you make based on this statement? Explain your answer.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 32

Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

4

Reread Paragraph 4 and answer the question that follows.

4

As you rocket closer, you see that the Milky Way is made up of stars and clouds of glowing gas. The center of the galaxy is a mass of old yellow, orange, and red stars, formed when our galaxy was young. They have been burning for a long time. In the outer spiral arms of the galaxy, new stars are being formed. The brightest of these young stars are very hot and, like a really hot flame, they give off a blue light.

Which sentence in this paragraph supports the inference that the color of a star is related to the temperature of the star? Write the sentence on the lines below.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 33

Unit 1 also includes a passage titled A Coaching Legend. You will learn about a famous football coach, and you will also learn reading and writing skills that include analyzing how an individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, or elaborated upon in a passage. Directions: Read the passage below.

A Coaching Legend By Paul Robert Walker

Knute Rockne (top center of photo) with Notre Dame’s assistant coaches before a game. 1

Notre Dame was in trouble. The Fighting Irish were playing Army—the best college football team in the nation. The first half had been scoreless, but the Notre Dame players didn’t have much energy left. At least they thought they didn’t.

2

Knute Rockne, the Notre Dame coach, looked around at the dirty faces in the locker room. Rockne was famous for his inspiring speeches, but now he needed to say something really special.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 34

Reading for the TEKS

3

“You’ve all heard of George Gipp,” he began. His raspy voice was very quiet. Eight years earlier, in 1920, George Gipp had died of a throat infection not long after leading Notre Dame to the national championship.

4

“I was at his bedside the day he died,” Rockne said, “and Gipp made a special request. ‘Some time, Rock,’ he said, ‘when the team’s up against it; when things are wrong and the breaks are beating the boys—tell them to go in there with all they’ve got and win just one for the Gipper.’”

5

Rockne paused and looked at his players’ faces, one by one. “Well,” he said finally, “I’ve never used Gipp’s request until now. This is the time. It’s up to you.”

6

The players filed quietly out of the locker room and returned to the field. The fans who were packed into Yankee Stadium expected to see a weak and tired Notre Dame team get crushed by the powerful Army squad. Instead they saw the Fighting Irish play with new spirit. When halfback Jack Chevigny soared into the end zone for a touchdown, he threw the ball into the air and shouted, “That one was for the Gipper!”

7

The final score was Notre Dame 12, Army 6. It was the biggest college football upset of 1928.

An Inspiration 8

The “Gipper” speech is symbolic of Knute Rockne’s ability to inspire young men to do their very best. In his thirteen years as the head coach at Notre Dame, Rockne’s teams had five undefeated seasons and six seasons with only one loss.

9

Knute Kenneth Rockne was born in Voss, Norway, in 1888. He came to the United States with his family when he was five, and grew up in Chicago. In high school he ran on the track team and learned to play American football and baseball.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 35

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

10

After high school, Knute took a full-time job instead of going to college. He worked at the post office for four years while saving money to continue his education. Eventually he enrolled at Notre Dame, which was a relatively unknown college in South Bend, Indiana.

An Innovation 11

Although he was somewhat small, Rockne became a star end on the college’s football team. At the time, the passing game was different from the way it is in modern football. The end would run a short distance, turn around, and catch the ball against his stomach while standing still. Rockne had a different idea. He and quarterback Gus Dorais practiced a new style of passing. Dorais would throw the ball, and Rockne would catch it in his hands while running.

12

In 1913, Notre Dame faced Army, and few people expected Notre Dame to win. But Rockne and Dorais pulled out their secret weapon. Early in the game, Rockne caught a 25-yard pass over his shoulder and crossed the goal line for the first passing touchdown ever scored against Army. The passing attack led Notre Dame to a 35-13 victory.

13

The success of Notre Dame’s passing game marked an important turning point in American football. Soon other college teams developed passing attacks.

14

While a student at Notre Dame, Rockne also participated in track and field, played the flute in the college’s orchestra, wrote for the school newspaper, and acted in several plays. He believed in developing into a “whole man,” not just an athlete.

15

Rockne graduated in 1914 with a degree in chemistry. He was accepted into medical school but could not afford to pay the tuition. Instead, he returned to Notre Dame as a chemistry teacher and assistant football coach. He became head coach in 1918. In 1919 and 1920, with the brilliant George Gipp at halfback, the Fighting Irish were undefeated.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 36

Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

16

The players on Rockne’s team were often smaller than their opponents, but Rockne taught each player how to use his skills for the good of the team. He demanded hard work and discipline, but the players loved him.

17

Unfortunately, Rockne’s life ended early. While he was flying to Los Angeles on a business trip in 1931, the small plane crashed. Coach Rockne and seven others were killed.

18

More than 100,000 people lined the streets of South Bend for the funeral procession. The funeral service was broadcast throughout the country as well as to Europe, Asia, and South America. Knute Rockne was loved and admired for all he had given to others.

19

Rockne once wrote, “Football and all athletics should be a part of culture, the culture that makes the whole man, not the part-time thinker.” That was the secret of his success. He taught his players to be whole men, on and off the football field.

Knute Rockne scores a touchdown after catching a pass during Notre Dame’s win over Army in 1913.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 37

Modeled Instruction Analyze Details About an Individual, Event, or Idea A passage may provide information about different individuals, events, or ideas. The information that the author provides throughout the passage can usually be grouped into three different categories. The author can provide details that 1) Introduce an individual, idea, or event 2) Illustrate something about an individual, idea, or event 3) Elaborate about an individual, idea, or event In each of the following activities, you will learn how to look through an entire passage to find the information you need to analyze an individual, event, or idea. You will need to look in different parts of the passage to find the information you need.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 38

Reading for the TEKS

Analyze How an Individual, Event, or Idea Is Introduced A passage may include information about different people, events, or ideas. The author of the passage will usually introduce a person, event, or idea to the reader by providing a few details that will draw the reader’s attention or interest. In the passage you just read, the author introduces a man named Knute Rockne. Reread Paragraphs 1–2 to see how the author of the passage introduces Knute Rockne to the reader.

1

Notre Dame was in trouble. The Fighting Irish were playing Army— the best college football team in the nation. The first half had been scoreless, but the Notre Dame players didn’t have much energy left. At least they thought they didn’t.

2

Knute Rockne, the Notre Dame coach, looked around at the dirty faces in the locker room. Rockne was famous for his inspiring speeches, but now he needed to say something really special.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 39

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Think It Through Look for details that tell you who Knute Rockne was. Think about what the author of the passage wants you to know about Knute Rockne. Listed below are details from this part of the passage that tell you something about Knute Rockne. The analysis beneath each detail helps explain why the detail is important. Analysis has been provided for the first two details. Write your analysis of the last detail in the space provided.

Detail

The Fighting Irish were playing Army—the best college football team in the nation.

Analysis

The author begins the passage by telling the reader about a football game. This suggests that Knute Rockne was involved with football.

Detail

Knute Rockne, the Notre Dame coach, looked around at the dirty faces in the locker room.

Analysis

This detail explains how Knute Rockne was involved with football. It tells the reader that Knute Rockne was the coach of the Notre Dame football team.

Detail

Rockne was famous for his inspiring speeches, but now he needed to say something really special.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 40

Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

What did you write for your analysis of the last detail? You could have explained that this detail lets the reader know that Knute Rockne was known for giving inspiring speeches to his players.

Going a Step Further Based on the analysis of the information provided in Paragraphs 1–2, you can write a brief summary to explain how the author introduces Knute Rockne to the reader. The paragraph below shows what you might write.

The author of the passage introduces Knute Rockne by telling the reader about a football game between Notre Dame and Army. The author wants the reader to know that Knute Rockne was the coach of the Notre Dame team when this game took place. The author also tells the reader that Knute Rockne was known for his ability to inspire players with his speeches.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 41

Guided Instruction Analyze How an Individual, Event, or Idea Is Introduced In part of the passage you read, the author tells the reader what Knute Rockne thought about developing athletes so they will be successful. Reread Paragraph 14 to see how the author introduces this idea. Explain what the author wants you to know.

14

While a student at Notre Dame, Rockne also participated in track and field, played the flute in the college’s orchestra, wrote for the school newspaper, and acted in several plays. He believed in developing into a “whole man,” not just an athlete.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 42

Reading for the TEKS

On Your Own Listed below are two details from Paragraph 14 that introduce an idea to the reader. These details tell you something important about what Knute Rockne believed. In the space beneath each detail, provide your analysis. Explain what you know from reading each detail.

Detail

While a student at Notre Dame, Rockne also participated in track and field, played the flute in the college’s orchestra, wrote for the school newspaper, and acted in several plays.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

Detail

He believed in developing into a “whole man,” not just an athlete.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 43

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Based on your analysis of the details from Paragraph 14, explain what idea is introduced by the author of the passage and how the idea is introduced to the reader.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 44

Modeled Instruction Analyze How Key Points About an Individual, Event, or Idea Are Illustrated After an author introduces an individual, event, or idea, he or she will usually provide some additional information to give the reader a more complete picture about the individual, event, or idea. In the passage you read, the author introduces Knute Rockne as a football coach who was good at motivating his players. Look in the passage for details that show how the author illustrates this key point. Reread Paragraphs 3–7 and look for details that help illustrate that Knute Rockne was good at motivating his players.

3

“You’ve all heard of George Gipp,” he began. His raspy voice was very quiet. Eight years earlier, in 1920, George Gipp had died of a throat infection not long after leading Notre Dame to the national championship.

4

“I was at his bedside the day he died,” Rockne said, “and Gipp made a special request. ‘Some time, Rock,’ he said, ‘when the team’s up against it; when things are wrong and the breaks are beating the boys—tell them to go in there with all they’ve got and win just one for the Gipper.’”

5

Rockne paused and looked at his players’ faces, one by one. “Well,” he said finally, “I’ve never used Gipp’s request until now. This is the time. It’s up to you.”

6

The players filed quietly out of the locker room and returned to the field. The fans who were packed into Yankee Stadium expected to see a weak and tired Notre Dame team get crushed by the powerful Army squad. Instead they saw the Fighting Irish play with new spirit. When halfback Jack Chevigny soared into the end zone for a touchdown, he threw the ball into the air and shouted, “That one was for the Gipper!”

7

The final score was Notre Dame 12, Army 6. It was the biggest college football upset of 1928.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 45

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

Think It Through Think about what happens in this part of the passage. What information does the author provide that helps the reader understand how good Knute Rockne was at motivating his players? Listed below and on the next page are details from this part of the passage that tell about a time Knute Rockne had to motivate his players during a football game. The analysis beneath each detail helps explain why the detail is important. Analysis has been provided for the first four details. Write your analysis of the last detail in the space provided.

Detail

Eight years earlier, in 1920, George Gipp had died of a throat infection not long after leading Notre Dame to the national championship.

Analysis

Knute Rockne decided to tell his players about another player who once played for Notre Dame and led his team to winning a championship. He explained that this player died soon after winning the big game.

Detail

“I was at his bedside the day he died,” Rockne said, “and Gipp made a special request.”

Analysis

The player who knew he was going to die was named Gipp, and he made a special request to Knute Rockne.

Detail

“Some time, Rock,” he said, “when the team’s up against it; when things are wrong and the breaks are beating the boys—tell them to go in there with all they’ve got and win just one for the Gipper.”

Analysis

The request that Gipp made was that he wanted Knute Rockne to promise that he would tell the Notre Dame football team to win a game for him.

Detail

“I’ve never used Gipp’s request until now. This is the time. It’s up to you.”

Analysis

Knute Rockne shared Gipp’s request with his players to motivate them to win the game. 45 © RALLY! Education. No part of this document may be reproduced without written permission of the publisher.


Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 46

Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Detail

The final score was Notre Dame 12, Army 6.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

What did you write for your analysis of the last detail? You could have explained that this detail lets the reader know that Knute Rockne’s speech helped motivate the players to win the game.

Going a Step Further Based on your analysis of the information provided in Paragraphs 3–7, you can write a brief summary to explain how the author illustrates that Knute Rockne was good at motivating his players. The paragraph below shows what you might write.

In this part of the passage, the author tells the reader about a speech that Knute Rockne gave to his players during an important football game. During the speech, Knute Rockne told his players about a request that was made by a former player who died. The player, whose name was Gipp, asked Knute to promise that he would ask the Notre Dame football team to “win just one for the Gipper.” When Knute Rockne shared this story with his team, it inspired them to play with new spirit and win the game. This story illustrates how good Knute Rockne was at motivating his players.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 47

Guided Instruction Analyze How Key Points About an Individual, Event, or Idea Are Illustrated Look again at the part of the passage where the author introduces the idea that Knute Rockne believed it was important to develop the “whole” person. The author provides details to illustrate how strongly Knute Rockne believed in this idea. Reread Paragraphs 15–16 and explain how the author is able to illustrate what Knute Rockne believed.

15

Rockne graduated in 1914 with a degree in chemistry. He was accepted into medical school but could not afford to pay the tuition. Instead, he returned to Notre Dame as a chemistry teacher and assistant football coach. He became head coach in 1918. In 1919 and 1920, with the brilliant George Gipp at halfback, the Fighting Irish were undefeated.

16

The players on Rockne’s team were often smaller than their opponents, but Rockne taught each player how to use his skills for the good of the team. He demanded hard work and discipline, but the players loved him.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 48

Reading for the TEKS

On Your Own Listed below are four details from Paragraphs 15–16 that illustrate Knute Rockne believed it was important to develop the “whole” person. Think about what you know from reading these details. In the space beneath each detail, provide your analysis. Explain what each detail tells you.

Detail

Rockne graduated in 1914 with a degree in chemistry.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

Detail

He returned to Notre Dame as a chemistry teacher and assistant football coach.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

Detail

He became head coach in 1918.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 49

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Detail

The players on Rockne’s team were often smaller than their opponents, but Rockne taught each player how to use his skills for the good of the team.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

Based on your analysis of the details from Paragraphs 15–16, explain how the author illustrates the point that Knute Rockne believed it was important to develop the “whole” person.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 50

Modeled Instruction Analyze How an Author Elaborates About an Individual, Event, or Idea After an author illustrates a key point about an individual, event, or idea, the author will usually elaborate on what he or she has written. When an author elaborates about a topic, he or she expands, or adds to, what has already been written. Elaborating about an individual, event, or idea will provide the reader with very specific details that add to what has already been introduced and illustrated. Reread Paragraphs 8–10 and look for details that elaborate on who Knute Rockne was.

8

The “Gipper” speech is symbolic of Knute Rockne’s ability to inspire young men to do their very best. In his thirteen years as the head coach at Notre Dame, Rockne’s teams had five undefeated seasons and six seasons with only one loss.

9

Knute Kenneth Rockne was born in Voss, Norway, in 1888. He came to the United States with his family when he was five, and grew up in Chicago. In high school he ran on the track team and learned to play American football and baseball.

10

After high school, Knute took a full-time job instead of going to college. He worked at the post office for four years while saving money to continue his education. Eventually he enrolled at Notre Dame, which was a relatively unknown college in South Bend, Indiana.

Think It Through This part of the passage provides some very specific information about Knute Rockne. It describes some of the things he did and accomplished in his life. Think about what you learned about Knute Rockne from reading this part of the passage.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 51

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

Listed below are details from this part of the passage that elaborate about the life of Knute Rockne. The analysis beneath each detail helps explain why the detail is important. Analysis has been provided for the first three details. Write your analysis of the last detail in the space provided.

Detail

In his thirteen years as the head coach at Notre Dame, Rockne’s teams had five undefeated seasons and six seasons with only one loss.

Analysis

The author provides the reader with specific details about Knute Rockne’s success as a coach.

Detail

Knute Kenneth Rockne was born in Voss, Norway, in 1888. He came to the United States with his family when he was five, and grew up in Chicago.

Analysis

Information is provided about Knute Rockne’s life before he became a coach. This information tells where he was born and where he grew up.

Detail

In high school he ran on the track team and learned to play American football and baseball.

Analysis

This sentence tells the reader when Knute Rockne became interested in sports.

Detail

After high school, Knute took a full-time job instead of going to college. He worked at the post office for four years while saving money to continue his education.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 52

Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

What did you write for your analysis of the last detail? You could have explained that this detail lets the reader know that Knute Rockne did not go directly to college after high school. He had to get a job and save the money he needed to pay for college.

Going a Step Further Based on your analysis of the information provided in Paragraphs 8–10, you can write a brief summary to explain how the author elaborates about Knute Rockne. The paragraph below shows what you might write.

In this part of the passage, the author provides some specific details about Knute Rockne’s success as a coach. We learn that as the head coach at Notre Dame, Knute Rockne had five undefeated seasons and six seasons with only one loss. The author also goes on to elaborate about Knute Rockne’s life before football. He explains that Knute Rockne was born in Norway and moved to the United States. He grew up in Chicago and played many different sports in high school. Before he could go to college, Knute Rockne worked at a post office for four years to save the money he needed to continue his education.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 53

Guided Instruction Analyze How an Author Elaborates About an Individual, Event, or Idea In part of the passage you read, the author provides details that elaborate on Knute Rockne’s belief in developing the “whole” person. The author explains how this approach to living had an impact on Knute Rockne’s life. Reread Paragraphs 17–19 and explain how the author elaborates on the idea that it is important to develop the “whole” person.

17

Unfortunately, Rockne’s life ended early. While he was flying to Los Angeles on a business trip in 1931, the small plane crashed. Coach Rockne and seven others were killed.

18

More than 100,000 people lined the streets of South Bend for the funeral procession. The funeral service was broadcast throughout the country as well as to Europe, Asia, and South America. Knute Rockne was loved and admired for all he had given to others.

19

Rockne once wrote, “Football and all athletics should be a part of culture, the culture that makes the whole man, not the part-time thinker.” That was the secret of his success. He taught his players to be whole men, on and off the football field.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 54

Reading for the TEKS

On Your Own Listed below are four details from Paragraphs 17���19 that elaborate on the idea that it is important to develop the “whole” person. Think about what you know from reading these details. In the space beneath each detail, provide your analysis. Explain what each detail tells you.

Detail

More than 100,000 people lined the streets of South Bend for the funeral procession.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

Detail

Knute Rockne was loved and admired for all he had given to others.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

Detail

Rockne once wrote, “Football and all athletics should be a part of culture, the culture that makes the whole man, not the part-time thinker.” That was the secret of his success.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 55

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Detail

He taught his players to be whole men, on and off the football field.

Analysis

Write your analysis here.

Based on your analysis of the details from Paragraphs 17–19, explain how the author elaborates on Knute Rockne’s belief that it is important to develop the “whole” person.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 56

Independent Practice 1

Reread Paragraph 1 and answer the questions that follow.

1

Notre Dame was in trouble. The Fighting Irish were playing Army— the best college football team in the nation. The first half had been scoreless, but the Notre Dame players didn’t have much energy left. At least they thought they didn’t.

a) This paragraph describes a football game. What do you know about the game from reading this paragraph? Make a list of the things you learned from reading this part of the passage.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 57

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

b) The author makes the following statement: … the Notre Dame team did not have much energy left. At least they thought they didn’t. Why does the author make this statement? What does the author want the reader to know?

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 58

Reading for the TEKS

2

What happened between the first and second half of the football game between Notre Dame and Army? Explain how the author illustrates the important event that took place.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 1_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:53 PM Page 59

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

3

The author of the passage explains that after Knute Rockne delivered his speech, one of the Notre Dame players scored a touchdown and shouted, “That one was for the Gipper!” Why did the author include this detail? What does it tell the reader?

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4

Reread Paragraph 11 and answer the question that follows.

11

Although he was somewhat small, Rockne became a star end on the college’s football team. At the time, the passing game was different from the way it is in modern football. The end would run a short distance, turn around, and catch the ball against his stomach while standing still. Rockne had a different idea. He and quarterback Gus Dorais practiced a new style of passing. Dorais would throw the ball, and Rockne would catch it in his hands while running.

What idea does the author introduce in this paragraph? Use at least two details from the passage to support your answer.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

5

How does the author elaborate on the idea that Knute Rockne helped change the way the game of football was played? Identify at least two details in the passage that illustrate the impact Knute Rockne’s style of catching the ball had on the game of football.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 62

Unit 2 Unit 2 includes a passage titled New Windows on Our Minds. You will learn about the human brain, and you will also learn reading and writing skills that include determining the meaning of words, analyzing the development of an idea, and describing the structure of a passage. Directions: Read the passage below.

New Windows on Our Minds How does the brain work? New machines can give us answers. By C.W. Dingman 1

Our brain is a wonderful and complicated organ. And scientists have been working for centuries to understand how it works.

2

In recent years, they have discovered new ways to study the brain. Scientists can now watch the activities of different parts of our brain while it is at work. We can think of these techniques as new windows on our minds.

3

One new research method is called fMRI. It can take pictures of your brain in much the same way as an X-ray machine can take pictures of your bones. This method makes use of the fact that whenever a part of your brain becomes more active, it uses more oxygen.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

4

If someone were to use this technique to study your brain, your head would be surrounded by a device that includes a big magnet. This device can detect tiny signals coming from oxygen. With the help of a computer, it turns these signals into pictures. By taking pictures every few seconds, scientists can tell which parts of your brain become active when you think of something, such as multiplying three times ten.

Memory Storage 5

Storing memories is one of the most important jobs our brain does. Without stored memories, we would not be able to recall new words we have learned or find our way home.

6

Everything we learn must be stored as memories in our brain. And storing a memory requires that something somewhere in our brain changes. Once a change is made, it must remain, even after the effort to learn has stopped. If the change doesn’t remain, we will forget what we’ve learned.

7

Like the memory in our computers, most of our memories are stored away out of our awareness. But when we need them, they can be “copied” and temporarily placed in what is called our “working memory” for immediate use.

8

Dr. Yang Jiang is one of the scientists using fMRI to learn more about how the brain works. She works in a laboratory at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland.

Where Do Memories Live? 9

Dr. Jiang told me that she and her colleagues wanted to know more about where in the brain our working memories were kept. So they asked this question: where do we store the memory of a face we are looking for when we are surrounded by people we know?

10

For example, which parts of your brain are activated when you are at your brother’s birthday party and want to find your mother in a room filled with other relatives? And then, once you’ve spoken to your mother, what happens when you want to find your brother to give him a gift?

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

11

Dr. Jiang and her colleagues learned that when you want to search for your mother, you first put your memory of her face in one part of your working memory. This is the part that has the job of remembering who it is you are looking for. And this part is found near the front of your brain.

12

The memories of the other familiar faces, such as your brother’s, are kept in another part of your working memory. This part is located near the back of the brain and has the job of letting you ignore the faces of people you are not seeking. When you see your mother’s face, you activate those areas of your brain that control your movements toward her.

13

Next you want to give your brother the gift you brought for him. Now his face will replace your mother’s face in the part of your brain’s working memory that has the job of remembering the person you are seeking.

Mind-Reading Machines? 14

Does all this research mean that we will soon be able to read others’ minds and know what they are thinking? Most likely not, but for scientists like Dr. Jiang, there are plenty of exciting experiments to do to learn more about how the brain works.

15

Here is one of the next questions Dr. Jiang wants to ask: how does the brain perceive complex motion? This is like asking how an outfielder knows where to run to catch a baseball that is flying through the air.

16

If you were a scientist who studies the brain, what questions would you like to ask?

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Modeled Instruction Determine Common Usage Meanings of Words Many words can be used in different ways. The way in which words are used most of the time is referred to as common usage. However, there are also times when words are used in special or unique ways to express different meanings. For example, the word boot is most often used to refer to something you wear on your feet. But someone who works with computers would also use the word boot to refer to turning on a computer. Throughout this book you will learn about the different types of meanings that words have. First, we will look at how to use context clues to determine the common usage meanings of words. Reread Paragraphs 1–2 and look for clues that help you understand what the word techniques means as it is used in this part of the passage.

1

Our brain is a wonderful and complicated organ. And scientists have been working for centuries to understand how it works.

2

In recent years, they have discovered new ways to study the brain. Scientists can now watch the activities of different parts of our brain while it is at work. We can think of these techniques as new windows on our minds.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Think It Through There are a few different clues in this paragraph that help you understand what the word techniques means. These clues are listed in the chart below.

Clues

What do the clues tell you?

And scientists have been working for centuries to understand how it works.

This sentence tells the reader that scientists have been actively involved in learning about the brain for a long time.

In recent years, they have discovered new ways to study the brain.

Since we know that scientists have discovered “new ways” to study the brain, we know there must be other ways they have tried to learn about the brain.

Scientists can now watch the activities of different parts of our brain while it is at work.

This sentence describes a method or way in which scientists study the brain.

The context clues in Paragraphs 1–2 tell how scientists have explored different ways to learn about the brain. These clues suggest that techniques are different methods or ways of doing something. In this case, the author is referring to different methods scientists use to study the brain.

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Guided Instruction Determine Common Usage Meanings of Words Reread Paragraph 15 and look for clues that help you understand what the word perceive means as it is used in this part of the passage.

15

Here is one of the next questions Dr. Jiang wants to ask: how does the brain perceive complex motion? This is like asking how an outfielder knows where to run to catch a baseball that is flying through the air.

On Your Own Complete the chart below. On the left side of the chart, list clues from the passage that might help you understand what the word perceive means. On the right side of the chart, explain what each clue tells you.

Clues

What do the clues tell you?

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

On the lines below, write what you think the word perceive means. Explain what clues in the passage helped you figure out the meaning of the word.

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Modeled Instruction Determine Technical Meanings of Words Some words have technical meanings and are mainly used by people in a specific field or knowledgeable about a certain subject. These words may not be familiar to someone without special training or knowledge. For example, a doctor knows the technical meanings of many words that most other people do not know. A doctor understands that a “CAT scan” refers to a type of medical procedure that provides detailed images of the inside of a person’s body. Someone who is not a doctor may think CAT has something to do with the animal instead of a type of medical procedure. When you read a passage, you may need to look for context clues to help you understand the technical meanings of some words. Reread Paragraphs 3–4 and look for clues that help you understand what an “fMRI” refers to.

3

One new research method is called fMRI. It can take pictures of your brain in much the same way as an X-ray machine can take pictures of your bones. This method makes use of the fact that whenever a part of your brain becomes more active, it uses more oxygen.

4

If someone were to use this technique to study your brain, your head would be surrounded by a device that includes a big magnet. This device can detect tiny signals coming from oxygen. With the help of a computer, it turns these signals into pictures. By taking pictures every few seconds, scientists can tell which parts of your brain become active when you think of something, such as multiplying three times ten.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Think It Through There are a few different clues in this paragraph that help you understand what an “fMRI” is. These clues are listed in the chart below.

Clues

What do the clues tell you?

One new research method is called fMRI.

An fMRI is used for research. This means it has something to do with gathering information.

It can take pictures of your brain in much the same way as an X-ray machine can take pictures of your bones.

This sentence tells you that an fMRI can take pictures of a brain that is inside a person’s body.

This method makes use of the fact that whenever a part of your brain becomes more active, it uses more oxygen.

An fMRI can show what parts of a person’s brain are active.

By taking pictures every few seconds, scientists can tell which parts of your brain become active when you think of something, such as multiplying three times ten.

Doctors can use an fMRI to see how a person’s brain is functioning at different times.

The context clues in Paragraphs 3–4 describe how an fMRI can be used. These clues suggest that an fMRI is a special procedure that doctors can use to study a person’s brain and how it functions.

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Guided Instruction Determine Technical Meanings of Words Reread Paragraphs 6–7 and look for clues that help you understand what “working memory” refers to.

6

7

Everything we learn must be stored as memories in our brain. And storing a memory requires that something somewhere in our brain changes. Once a change is made, it must remain, even after the effort to learn has stopped. If the change doesn’t remain, we will forget what we’ve learned. Like the memory in our computers, most of our memories are stored away out of our awareness. But when we need them, they can be “copied” and temporarily placed in what is called our “working memory” for immediate use.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

On Your Own Complete the chart below. On the left side of the chart, list clues from the passage that might help you understand what “working memory” refers to. On the right side of the chart, explain what each clue tells you.

Clues

What do the clues tell you?

On the lines below, write what you think “working memory” refers to. Explain what clues in the passage helped you figure out the meaning of the phrase.

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Modeled Instruction Analyze Development of an Idea Information that is presented in a passage is usually arranged so that different parts of the passage explain different ideas. You may need to look at the information in one paragraph or a few paragraphs to understand an idea and how it has been developed by the author. In order to analyze the development of an idea, you must look closely at each paragraph and think about how the information fits together. Reread Paragraphs 5–8 and identify an idea that is developed in this part of the passage.

Memory Storage 5

Storing memories is one of the most important jobs our brain does. Without stored memories, we would not be able to recall new words we have learned or find our way home.

6

Everything we learn must be stored as memories in our brain. And storing a memory requires that something somewhere in our brain changes. Once a change is made, it must remain, even after the effort to learn has stopped. If the change doesn’t remain, we will forget what we’ve learned.

7

Like the memory in our computers, most of our memories are stored away out of our awareness. But when we need them, they can be “copied” and temporarily placed in what is called our “working memory” for immediate use.

8

Dr. Yang Jiang is one of the scientists using fMRI to learn more about how the brain works. She works in a laboratory at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland.

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Reading for the TEKS

Think It Through Read each paragraph one at a time and analyze the information that is given. Ask yourself, “What is the main point the author is trying to make in this paragraph?” Then, think about how the main points being made in each paragraph fit together. By doing this, you should be able to determine the idea being developed in this part of the passage. The graphic organizer on these two pages shows how you can analyze each paragraph and determine the idea being developed by the author. Analysis has been provided for each paragraph. In the box at the bottom of the graphic organizer, write what idea you think the author is trying to present to the reader.

Paragraph 5 Storing memories is one of the most important jobs our brain does. Without stored memories, we would not be able to recall new words we have learned or find our way home. Analysis A person’s brain can store memories. The words we use and other things we learn are stored in our memories.

Paragraph 6 Everything we learn must be stored as memories in our brain. And storing a memory requires that something somewhere in our brain changes. Once a change is made, it must remain, even after the effort to learn has stopped. If the change doesn’t remain, we will forget what we’ve learned. Analysis When information is stored in a person’s memory, something in the brain must change. When changes to the brain do not remain, a person forgets what he or she has learned.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Paragraph 7 Like the memory in our computers, most of our memories are stored away out of our awareness. But when we need them, they can be “copied” and temporarily placed in what is called our “working memory” for immediate use. Analysis Some memories are stored away when we are not using them. When we need to use information that has been stored away, it is copied to another part of the brain for immediate use. Paragraph 8 Dr. Yang Jiang is one of the scientists using fMRI to learn more about how the brain works. She works in a laboratory at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Analysis There are some people who study how the brain works. These people use special equipment and work in laboratories.

What idea is developed in this part of the passage? Idea Developed in Paragraphs 5–8 Write your answer here.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

How did you complete the graphic organizer? You could have written that the idea being developed in this part of the passage is how the brain stores information that is learned.

Summarize How an Idea Contributes to the Overall Structure Each part of a passage provides different information. After you have analyzed the development of an idea in one part of the passage, you can explain how this idea is related to the rest of the passage. You can write a brief summary that describes how an idea discussed in one part of the passage contributes to the overall structure of the passage.

Think It Through Look again at the graphic organizer for Paragraphs 5–8. Think about the idea that was developed in this part of the passage. You can use details from the passage and the analysis of these details to help write a summary. Your summary should explain how the idea developed in Paragraphs 5–8 contributes to the overall structure of the whole passage. The paragraph below is an example of a summary that a person might write.

In this passage, the author wants to tell the reader how a person’s brain works. In Paragraphs 5–8, the author discusses one specific function of the brain. The author develops the idea that the brain can store information that is learned. The author develops this idea by explaining that information that is learned is stored as memories. The author goes on to explain that most of our memories are stored out of our awareness and must be moved into our “working memory” when we need to use this information. This part of the passage contributes to the overall structure of the passage by providing important information about the process of storing information as memories.

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Guided Instruction Analyze Development of an Idea Reread Paragraphs 9–13 and identify an idea that is developed in this part of the passage.

Where Do Memories Live? 9

Dr. Jiang told me that she and her colleagues wanted to know more about where in the brain our working memories were kept. So they asked this question: where do we store the memory of a face we are looking for when we are surrounded by people we know?

10

For example, which parts of your brain are activated when you are at your brother’s birthday party and want to find your mother in a room filled with other relatives? And then, once you’ve spoken to your mother, what happens when you want to find your brother to give him a gift?

11

Dr. Jiang and her colleagues learned that when you want to search for your mother, you first put your memory of her face in one part of your working memory. This is the part that has the job of remembering who it is you are looking for. And this part is found near the front of your brain.

12

The memories of the other familiar faces, such as your brother’s, are kept in another part of your working memory. This part is located near the back of the brain and has the job of letting you ignore the faces of people you are not seeking. When you see your mother’s face, you activate those areas of your brain that control your movements toward her.

13

Next you want to give your brother the gift you brought for him. Now his face will replace your mother’s face in the part of your brain’s working memory that has the job of remembering the person you are seeking.

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Reading for the TEKS

On Your Own Analyze each paragraph in this part of the passage. Tell what you learned from reading each paragraph. Write your analysis in the space provided beneath each paragraph. In the last box, write what idea you think the author is trying to present to the reader in Paragraphs 9–13.

Paragraph 9 Dr. Jiang told me that she and her colleagues wanted to know more about where in the brain our working memories were kept. So they asked this question: where do we store the memory of a face we are looking for when we are surrounded by people we know? Analysis Write your analysis here.

Paragraph 10 For example, which parts of your brain are activated when you are at your brother’s birthday party and want to find your mother in a room filled with other relatives? And then, once you’ve spoken to your mother, what happens when you want to find your brother to give him a gift? Analysis Write your analysis here.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Paragraph 11 Dr. Jiang and her colleagues learned that when you want to search for your mother, you first put your memory of her face in one part of your working memory. This is the part that has the job of remembering who it is you are looking for. And this part is found near the front of your brain. Analysis Write your analysis here.

Paragraph 12 The memories of the other familiar faces, such as your brother’s, are kept in another part of your working memory. This part is located near the back of the brain and has the job of letting you ignore the faces of people you are not seeking. When you see your mother’s face, you activate those areas of your brain that control your movements toward her. Analysis Write your analysis here.

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Reading for the TEKS

Paragraph 13 Next you want to give your brother the gift you brought for him. Now his face will replace your mother’s face in the part of your brain’s working memory that has the job of remembering the person you are seeking. Analysis Write your analysis here.

What idea is developed in this part of the passage? Idea Developed in Paragraphs 9–13 Write your answer here.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Summarize How an Idea Contributes to the Overall Structure Write a brief summary to describe how the idea being developed in Paragraphs 9–13 contributes to the overall structure of the passage.

On Your Own Look again at the graphic organizer for Paragraphs 9–13. Think about the idea that was developed in this part of the passage. You can use details from the passage and your analysis of these details to help write a summary. Your summary should explain how the idea developed in Paragraphs 9–13 contributes to the overall structure of the whole passage. Write your summary on the lines below.

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Independent Practice 1

The word colleagues is used two times in the passage. Reread Paragraphs 9 and 11 and tell what the word means.

9

Dr. Jiang told me that she and her colleagues wanted to know more about where in the brain our working memories were kept. So they asked this question: where do we store the memory of a face we are looking for when we are surrounded by people we know?

11

Dr. Jiang and her colleagues learned that when you want to search for your mother, you first put your memory of her face in one part of your working memory. This is the part that has the job of remembering who it is you are looking for. And this part is found near the front of your brain.

What does the word colleagues mean? Explain how you know.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

2

Read the sentence below from Paragraph 3 in the passage. It can take pictures of your brain in much the same way as an X-ray machine can take pictures of your bones. a) What is an X-ray machine?

b) What words in the sentence help you understand what an X-ray machine is?

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Reading for the TEKS

3

Reread Paragraphs 1–4 and answer the questions below.

1

Our brain is a wonderful and complicated organ. And scientists have been working for centuries to understand how it works.

2

In recent years, they have discovered new ways to study the brain. Scientists can now watch the activities of different parts of our brain while it is at work. We can think of these techniques as new windows on our minds.

3

One new research method is called fMRI. It can take pictures of your brain in much the same way as an X-ray machine can take pictures of your bones. This method makes use of the fact that whenever a part of your brain becomes more active, it uses more oxygen.

4

If someone were to use this technique to study your brain, your head would be surrounded by a device that includes a big magnet. This device can detect tiny signals coming from oxygen. With the help of a computer, it turns these signals into pictures. By taking pictures every few seconds, scientists can tell which parts of your brain become active when you think of something, such as multiplying three times ten.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

a) What idea does the author develop in this part of the passage?

b) Explain how the author develops this idea. Include details from the passage in your response.

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Reading for the TEKS

4

Reread Paragraphs 14–16 and answer the questions below.

Mind-Reading Machines? 14

Does all this research mean that we will soon be able to read others’ minds and know what they are thinking? Most likely not, but for scientists like Dr. Jiang, there are plenty of exciting experiments to do to learn more about how the brain works.

15

Here is one of the next questions Dr. Jiang wants to ask: how does the brain perceive complex motion? This is like asking how an outfielder knows where to run to catch a baseball that is flying through the air.

16

If you were a scientist who studies the brain, what questions would you like to ask?

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

a) Explain how Paragraphs 14–16 contribute to the overall structure of the passage. Why is the information presented in this part of the passage important?

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Reading for the TEKS

b) Identify the idea being developed by the author in this part of the passage. List two details that are used to help develop this idea.

Idea Developed in Paragraphs 14–16:

Details Used to Develop the Idea: 1)

2)

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Unit 2 also includes a passage titled Bringing Music to Life. You will learn about a talented orchestra conductor, and you will also learn reading and writing skills that include determining the meaning of words, analyzing the development of an idea, and describing the structure of a passage. Directions: Read the passage below.

Bringing Music to Life By Christine Liu-Perkins

1

Music can make us feel happy or peaceful, energize us to dance, or move us to tears. As an orchestra conductor, Amy Andersson brings music to life, allowing people to experience the many feelings that music can evoke.

2

Andersson fell in love with music as a child. She sang in school choirs and musicals starting in first grade, began studying piano at age seven, and started composing at age nine. Although her school district had no orchestra, she says, “I bought many recordings of the world’s great orchestras and conductors and listened to them for hours on end.”

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Reading for the TEKS

3

When Andersson was in high school, she conducted her high school choir, performing music she had composed. After high school, she studied conducting in college and in graduate school. She then taught conducting in Berlin, Germany. As a conductor for both youth and professional orchestras, she has directed performances in the United States and in Europe.

Amy Andersson conducts the High Plains Youth Symphony in Boulder, Colorado.

What You Don’t See 4

During a concert, the audience sees the back of a conductor and the arm movements she or he uses to lead the orchestra. What audiences do not see is all the work the conductor has done beforehand to prepare for the performance—first alone, and then in rehearsals with the orchestra.

5

Months before a concert, Andersson studies a piece of music by playing it on the piano. She decides how she wants each section to sound. Should it be fast or slow? Loud or soft? She listens to recordings, reads about the composer’s life, and reviews historical events that would have influenced the composer. Her goal is to recreate the music as the composer intended.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

6

While conducting, Andersson uses her whole body to express how the music should sound and feel. Her movements are dramatic when the music is energetic and gentle when the music is peaceful. She uses a baton in her right hand to set the tempo. She uses her left hand to direct changes in dynamics (loudness and softness), tell certain instruments when to join in, and signal everyone to stop at the same moment.

7

As she conducts, Andersson listens for problems with tempo, dynamics, balance, sound, and style. Is the orchestra playing together? Are any instruments drowning out notes played by other instruments? Does the sound evoke the style and mood intended by the composer?

Andersson talks to the audience about the music they are about to hear.

Changing Lives 8

Each instrument contributes unique sounds to a musical performance. Although it is not necessary for conductors to know how to play all of the instruments, they must be familiar with the range and sound of each instrument in the orchestra.

9

To help young musicians understand how to play the music, Andersson might tell them to imagine a calm, leisurely stroll or a ship being tossed by waves.

10

“It is music’s ability to reach people that I value the most,” says Andersson. She has seen audiences at her concerts applaud, clap together in rhythm, and shout “Bravo!” Frequently, listeners are moved to tears by the music. After one concert in Serbia, the audience gathered around the orchestra’s buses and cheered for the young musicians as they climbed aboard.

11

Andersson is happy knowing that she and the musicians have “changed lives for the better, uplifted spirits, and brought joy into ordinary days.”

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 92

Modeled Instruction Determine Figurative Meanings of Words Some words in the passage are used in a figurative way. You must use context clues in the passage to help you determine the figurative meaning of these words. Reread Paragraph 1 and look for clues that help you understand what the author means by “brings music to life.”

1

Music can make us feel happy or peaceful, energize us to dance, or move us to tears. As an orchestra conductor, Amy Andersson brings music to life, allowing people to experience the many feelings that music can evoke.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 93

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

Think It Through Living things, such as people, animals, and plants, can be brought to life. However, music is not a living thing. It cannot actually be brought to life. You must determine the figurative meaning of this phrase. There are clues in the paragraph that can help you understand what the author means by “brings music to life.” These clues are listed in the chart below.

Clues

What do the clues tell you?

Music can make us feel happy or peaceful, energize us to dance, or move us to tears.

Music can make people feel different emotions.

As an orchestra conductor, Amy Andersson brings music to life, allowing people to experience the many feelings that music can evoke.

A conductor can affect the way music is played. By bringing music to life, a conductor can help people experience different feelings.

The context clues in Paragraph 1 suggest that the phrase “brings music to life” refers to playing music in a way that causes people to experience emotions and strong feelings. When music is brought to life, it can energize people to dance or move people to tears.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 94

Guided Instruction Determine Figurative Meanings of Words Reread Paragraphs 6–7 and look for clues that help you understand what the author means by “drowning out notes.”

6

While conducting, Andersson uses her whole body to express how the music should sound and feel. Her movements are dramatic when the music is energetic and gentle when the music is peaceful. She uses a baton in her right hand to set the tempo. She uses her left hand to direct changes in dynamics (loudness and softness), tell certain instruments when to join in, and signal everyone to stop at the same moment.

7

As she conducts, Andersson listens for problems with tempo, dynamics, balance, sound, and style. Is the orchestra playing together? Are any instruments drowning out notes played by other instruments? Does the sound evoke the style and mood intended by the composer?

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 95

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

On Your Own Think about the words in the phrase “drowning out notes.” When a living thing is drowning, it is underwater and struggling to get to the surface to breathe air. However, the author is not telling the reader that musical notes are being played underwater or actually drowning. There are clues in the paragraphs that can help you understand what the author means by “drowning out notes.” Complete the chart below. On the left side of the chart, list clues from the passage that might help you understand what this phrase means. On the right side of the chart, explain what each clue tells you.

Clues

What do the clues tell you?

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

On the lines below, write what you think the author means by “drowning out notes.” Explain what clues in the passage helped you figure out the meaning of the phrase.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 97

Modeled Instruction Determine Connotative Meanings of Words Some words and phrases have connotative meanings. A connotative meaning of a word or phrase suggests an idea or feeling. For example, the actual meaning for the word home is “a person’s place of residence.” The connotative meaning of home is “a place where a person feels safe and secure.” Reread Paragraph 9 and try to determine the connotative meaning of the phrase “leisurely stroll.”

9

To help young musicians understand how to play the music, Andersson might tell them to imagine a calm, leisurely stroll or a ship being tossed by waves.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Think It Through In order to determine the connotative meaning of a word or phrase, think about the actual meaning of the word or phrase. Then, analyze how the phrase is used in the passage. You can make a graphic organizer to help determine the connotative meaning of the phrase “leisurely stroll” as it is used in this passage.

leisurely stroll

Actual Meaning a calm or peaceful walk

Analysis of Use in the Passage The phrase “leisurely stroll” is used in the passage to describe how a musician should play a piece of music.

Connotative Meaning In this passage, the phrase “leisurely stroll” is used to suggest the idea that a piece of music can have a calm and peaceful quality.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 99

Guided Instruction Determine Connotative Meanings of Words Reread Paragraph 9 and try to determine the connotative meaning of the phrase “a ship being tossed by waves.”

9

To help young musicians understand how to play the music, Andersson might tell them to imagine a calm, leisurely stroll or a ship being tossed by waves.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

On Your Own Think about how the phrase “a ship being tossed by waves” is used in this passage. Complete the graphic organizer below. The actual meaning is already provided. You must provide the analysis of how the phrase is used in this passage and explain its connotative meaning.

a ship being tossed by waves

Actual Meaning a boat that is bouncing around as the ocean water moves up and down

Analysis of Use in the Passage

Connotative Meaning

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 101

Modeled Instruction Analyze Development of an Idea Reread Paragraphs 4–7 and identify an idea that is developed in this part of the passage.

What You Don’t See 4

During a concert, the audience sees the back of a conductor and the arm movements she or he uses to lead the orchestra. What audiences do not see is all the work the conductor has done beforehand to prepare for the performance—first alone, and then in rehearsals with the orchestra.

5

Months before a concert, Andersson studies a piece of music by playing it on the piano. She decides how she wants each section to sound. Should it be fast or slow? Loud or soft? She listens to recordings, reads about the composer’s life, and reviews historical events that would have influenced the composer. Her goal is to recreate the music as the composer intended.

6

While conducting, Andersson uses her whole body to express how the music should sound and feel. Her movements are dramatic when the music is energetic and gentle when the music is peaceful. She uses a baton in her right hand to set the tempo. She uses her left hand to direct changes in dynamics (loudness and softness), tell certain instruments when to join in, and signal everyone to stop at the same moment.

7

As she conducts, Andersson listens for problems with tempo, dynamics, balance, sound, and style. Is the orchestra playing together? Are any instruments drowning out notes played by other instruments? Does the sound evoke the style and mood intended by the composer?

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 102

Reading for the TEKS

Think It Through Read each paragraph one at a time and analyze the information that is given. Ask yourself, “What is the main point the author is trying to make in this paragraph?” Then, think about how the main points being made in each paragraph fit together. By doing this, you should be able to determine the idea being developed in this part of the passage. The graphic organizer below shows how you can analyze each paragraph and determine the idea being developed by the author. Analysis has been provided for each paragraph. In the box at the bottom of the graphic organizer, write what idea you think the author is trying to present to the reader.

Paragraph 4 During a concert, the audience sees the back of a conductor and the arm movements she or he uses to lead the orchestra. What audiences do not see is all the work the conductor has done beforehand to prepare for the performance—first alone, and then in rehearsals with the orchestra. Analysis The conductor has a lot of work to do to prepare an orchestra for a performance.

Paragraph 5 Months before a concert, Andersson studies a piece of music by playing it on the piano. She decides how she wants each section to sound. Should it be fast or slow? Loud or soft? She listens to recordings, reads about the composer’s life, and reviews historical events that would have influenced the composer. Her goal is to re-create the music as the composer intended. Analysis The conductor studies a piece of music and makes decisions about how an orchestra should play the music.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 103

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Paragraph 6 While conducting, Andersson uses her whole body to express how the music should sound and feel. Her movements are dramatic when the music is energetic and gentle when the music is peaceful. She uses a baton in her right hand to set the tempo. She uses her left hand to direct changes in dynamics (loudness and softness), tell certain instruments when to join in, and signal everyone to stop at the same moment. Analysis During a performance, the conductor directs the musicians so they play their instruments at the right speed and volume. The conductor also tells the musicians when to start and stop playing. Paragraph 7 As she conducts, Andersson listens for problems with tempo, dynamics, balance, sound, and style. Is the orchestra playing together? Are any instruments drowning out notes played by other instruments? Does the sound evoke the style and mood intended by the composer? Analysis The composer needs to listen carefully to make sure the musicians are playing the music correctly.

What idea is developed in this part of the passage? Idea Developed in Paragraphs 4–7 Write your answer here.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 104

Reading for the TEKS

How did you complete the graphic organizer? You could have written that the idea being developed in this part of the passage is that a conductor is an important part of an orchestra.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 105

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Summarize How an Idea Contributes to the Overall Structure After you have analyzed the development of the idea presented in Paragraphs 4–7, you can explain how this idea is related to the rest of the passage. You can write a brief summary that describes how this idea contributes to the overall structure of the passage.

Think It Through Look again at the graphic organizer for Paragraphs 4–7. Think about the idea that was developed in this part of the passage. You can use details from the passage and the analysis of these details to help write a summary. Your summary should explain how the idea developed in Paragraphs 4–7 contributes to the overall structure of the whole passage. The paragraph below is an example of a summary that a person might write.

In this passage, the author tells the reader about a conductor named Amy Andersson. In Paragraphs 4–7, the author explains how important the job of conductor is and tells about some of the things Amy Andersson does when she conducts an orchestra. She studies the music that will be played and makes decisions about how it should be performed. She also directs the musicians to help them perform the piece of music correctly. This part of the passage contributes to the overall structure of the passage by providing important information about what a conductor does.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 106

Guided Instruction Analyze Development of an Idea Reread Paragraphs 8–11 and identify an idea that is developed in this part of the passage.

Changing Lives 8

Each instrument contributes unique sounds to a musical performance. Although it is not necessary for conductors to know how to play all of the instruments, they must be familiar with the range and sound of each instrument in the orchestra.

9

To help young musicians understand how to play the music, Andersson might tell them to imagine a calm, leisurely stroll or a ship being tossed by waves.

10

“It is music’s ability to reach people that I value the most,” says Andersson. She has seen audiences at her concerts applaud, clap together in rhythm, and shout “Bravo!” Frequently, listeners are moved to tears by the music. After one concert in Serbia, the audience gathered around the orchestra’s buses and cheered for the young musicians as they climbed aboard.

11

Andersson is happy knowing that she and the musicians have “changed lives for the better, uplifted spirits, and brought joy into ordinary days.”

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 107

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

On Your Own Analyze each paragraph in this part of the passage. Tell what you learned from reading each paragraph. Write your analysis in the space provided beneath each paragraph. In the last box, write what idea you think the author is trying to present to the reader in Paragraphs 8–11.

Paragraph 8 Each instrument contributes unique sounds to a musical performance. Although it is not necessary for conductors to know how to play all of the instruments, they must be familiar with the range and sound of each instrument in the orchestra. Analysis Write your analysis here.

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Reading for the TEKS

Paragraph 9 To help young musicians understand how to play the music, Andersson might tell them to imagine a calm, leisurely stroll or a ship being tossed by waves. Analysis Write your analysis here.

Paragraph 10 “It is music’s ability to reach people that I value the most,” says Andersson. She has seen audiences at her concerts applaud, clap together in rhythm, and shout “Bravo!” Frequently, listeners are moved to tears by the music. After one concert in Serbia, the audience gathered around the orchestra’s buses and cheered for the young musicians as they climbed aboard. Analysis Write your analysis here.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 109

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Paragraph 11 Andersson is happy knowing that she and the musicians have “changed lives for the better, uplifted spirits, and brought joy into ordinary days.” Analysis Write your analysis here.

What idea is developed in this part of the passage? Idea Developed in Paragraphs 8–11 Write your answer here.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 110

Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Summarize How an Idea Contributes to the Overall Structure Write a brief summary to describe how the idea being developed in Paragraphs 8–11 contributes to the overall structure of the passage.

On Your Own Look again at the graphic organizer for Paragraphs 8–11. Think about the idea that was developed in this part of the passage. You can use details from the passage and your analysis of these details to help write a summary. Your summary should explain how the idea developed in Paragraphs 8–11 contributes to the overall structure of the whole passage. Write your summary on the lines below.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 111

Independent Practice 1

Read the sentence below from Paragraph 5 in the passage. Months before a concert, Andersson studies a piece of music by playing it on the piano. a) What does the term “piece of music” refer to?

b) What words in the sentence help you understand what a “piece of music” is?

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 112

Reading for the TEKS

2

Look at how the phrase “uplifted spirits” is used in Paragraph 11.

11

Andersson is happy knowing that she and the musicians have “changed lives for the better, uplifted spirits, and brought joy into ordinary days.”

What does the phrase “uplifted spirits” suggest as it is used in this passage? Explain your answer.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 113

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Reread Paragraphs 1–3 and answer the questions that follow.

3

Identify the idea being developed by the author in Paragraphs 1–3. List three details that are used to help develop this idea.

1

Music can make us feel happy or peaceful, energize us to dance, or move us to tears. As an orchestra conductor, Amy Andersson brings music to life, allowing people to experience the many feelings that music can evoke.

2

Andersson fell in love with music as a child. She sang in school choirs and musicals starting in first grade, began studying piano at age seven, and started composing at age nine. Although her school district had no orchestra, she says, “I bought many recordings of the world’s great orchestras and conductors and listened to them for hours on end.”

3

When Andersson was in high school, she conducted her high school choir, performing music she had composed. After high school, she studied conducting in college and in graduate school. She then taught conducting in Berlin, Germany. As a conductor for both youth and professional orchestras, she has directed performances in the United States and in Europe.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 2_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 114

Reading for the TEKS

Idea Developed in Paragraphs 1–3:

Details Used to Develop the Idea: 1)

2)

3)

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

4

Explain how Paragraphs 1–3 contribute to the overall structure of the passage. Why is the information presented in this part of the passage important?

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 116

Unit 3: Paired Passages Unit 3 includes two passages about some amazing technological advances that have been made in recent years. You will learn what nanotechnology is, and you will also learn reading and writing skills that include integrating text, graphics, and quantitative information; analyzing arguments and claims; and using evidence to evaluate claims. Nanotechnology is a word that is used more and more often in our high-tech world. It refers to the science of changing and controlling materials at an atomic or molecular scale. Nanotechnology can be used to create very tiny microscopic objects and devices. The following two passages describe some of the possible benefits and dangers related to nanotechnology. The first passage is an example of a transcript of a speech on this topic. Graphics and illustrations used by the speaker during the presentation have been included in the transcript. The second passage is an example of an editorial, or opinion piece, about nanotechnology. An editorial such as this might appear in a magazine or newspaper. Directions: Read the passages titled “Be Part of the Nano Revolution” and “No to Nano.” Complete the Modeled and Guided Instruction activities that follow.

Paired Passage 1

Be Part of the Nano Revolution 1

I’m here today to talk to you about the future—a very bright and promising future. I run a successful science lab that does research in the relatively new and growing field of nanotechnology. I’m here to share with you the promise of this exciting field. More importantly, I’m here to persuade you to consider making nanotechnology a big part of your own future.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

2

Nanotechnology is the science of working with matter—the substance that makes up the universe—at the nanoscale. “Nano” comes from the Greek word for dwarf. So, how small are we talking about? What is the nanoscale? It’s a scale of measurement for things that are slightly larger than atoms. A nanometer—the basic unit of measurement at the nanoscale—is about 1/100,000 the width of a human hair. You can’t see something this size with your eyes. In fact, you can’t see matter this size with most microscopes.

× 1,000 × 1,000

DNA 2.5 nanometers diameter

Bacterium 2.5 micrometers long

Large Raindrop 2.5 millimeters diameter

× 100,000

× 100,000 Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Strand of Hair 1 nanometer diameter 100 micrometers diameter

House 10 meters wide

× 1,000,000

× 1,000,000 Nanoparticle 4 nanometers diameter

Ant 4 millimeters long

Indianapolis Motor Speedway 4 kilometers per lap

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Reading for the TEKS

3

Scientists working at the nanoscale have made fascinating discoveries. By manipulating matter at this level, scientists can actually change the very properties of matter. They can change the building blocks of the material world. This allows them to alter the very nature of things to create new and unique materials and products.

4

For a while now, nanotechnology has been used in a wide number of industries. Most significantly, nanotechnology has driven the steady advances in electronics and computer technology. Computer chips using nano-sized parts are regularly leading to smaller, more powerful products, such as tablets and smart phones. Many believe nanotechnology will help us realize the wildest dreams of science fiction. Imagine an elevator that stretches from Earth’s surface to a satellite in space, allowing visitors to come and go as easily as visiting the top of a skyscraper. Nanotechnology might be able to make that happen by helping us to create strong yet lightweight materials that can be stretched across very long distances. Nanotechnology is already having an impact on our lives and is likely to have a greater impact in the years ahead.

Electronics Construction Products

Biomedicine Industries That Create Nano Products or Use Nanotechnology to Make Products Textiles

Goods

Energy & Defense

Consumer Goods & Cosmetics Transportation

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

5

Within the next few decades, nanotechnology will be a part of almost every device we use. It will also be used to make foods we eat and medicines that we take. Nanotechnology will help in the fight against cancer. It will shape future technology innovations. Many see nanotech as the key to developing new sources of energy and eliminating some threats to our environment.

6

Nanotechnology will lead to the world’s next great economic boom. It will be a boom equal to, if not greater than, the Internet boom of the 1990s. Many people are already investing a great deal of money in nanotechnology.

7

So, nanotechnology is here to stay, and it’s growing fast. More significantly, it’s rapidly changing our country’s labor needs. In 2007, $60 billion worth of nano-based products were sold. By 2014, nanotechnology will be part of more than $2 trillion in manufactured goods. In the next decade, it’s estimated that nanotech will create more than 7 million jobs around the world.

8

Now, more than ever, the U.S. workforce must meet the labor demands of this rapidly growing field. Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field, where biologists, chemists, physicists, and engineers all work together. But the United States may not be prepared to compete in the global nanotech market because the U.S. is not turning out enough biologists, chemists, physicists, and engineers. That is where you all come in.

9

Many of you may have heard the term STEM. It stands for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. It represents the four target skill areas that will be most highly valued in workers in the coming century. Since nanotech industries make up some of the hottest job markets, it will be important that the labor force be loaded with persons with solid STEM skills.

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Reading for the TEKS

10

But the U.S. currently is experiencing what is called the STEM Gap. In a nutshell, it means that U.S. schools are not turning out nearly enough students with adequate STEM skills. This is especially significant when compared to job candidates coming from other areas of the world. Other countries are turning out more than twice the number of students with STEM skills as the United States is. This is unacceptable!

STEM College Graduates (2010)

Percentage of all college graduates

40 30 20 10

Fin l Ge and rm an Aus y tria Fra n Swe ce den Jap an U.K Ir . Swi eland tze rlan Be l d gi u Can m De ada nm Aus ark tra No lia rwa y Ne U. the S. rlan ds

0

11

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that over 8.5 million STEM jobs will exist by 2018. But only 42 percent of employers currently believe that new college graduates have adequate STEM skills to meet the employers’ needs.

12

Data show that 60 percent of U.S. fourth-graders and only 66 percent of eighth-graders have proficient math skills. Test scores in math for fourth- and eighth-graders are woefully low. This is particularly troubling because math is the cornerstone STEM skill.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

13

So, what can students do today to meet the needs of our nanotech tomorrow? • Do not shy away from math! Embrace it. Proficiency in math will be your entryway into all of the sciences. • Embrace technology. By this, I don’t just mean using your smart phones. Get excited about new technologies and consider how you might find a place for yourself in a technical field. You can contribute to the technologies of the future. • Science isn’t just for nerds. It’s for everyone. Jump into science headfirst. Not only will it greatly improve your chances for future employment, it’ll help you make sense of the world around you. • Learn about nanotechnology. Take classes and courses that relate to nanotechnology. Explore summer job opportunities and internships at nanotech labs and firms.

14

In closing, I’d like to borrow from a speech given long ago by President John F. Kennedy when he was persuading the U.S. public that America should be the world leader in space exploration. He used the following story to illustrate his point.

15

The Irish writer Frank O’Connor once wrote a story about a boy who roamed the Irish countryside with his friends. Whenever they came to a wall that seemed too high to climb and too vast to get around, they didn’t turn back. Instead, they took off their caps and tossed them over the wall. Then, they had no choice but to climb the wall to retrieve their caps and continue their journey.

16

Our country has no choice but to climb the wall of the STEM Gap and continue its journey into the nano future. You all have an opportunity to toss your caps over that wall, too. Starting today, you can join that journey. Starting today you can help us all bridge the gap. Starting today, you and your friends can join the march toward a bright, prosperous, hopeful future for yourselves and all of America.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 122

Paired Passage 2

No to Nano 1

Nanotechnology is a growing field of science that promises to change the world. Proponents of nanotechnology make amazing claims. Nanotechnology will get rid of all disease. It will reverse the causes of global warming. It will enable human exploration of outer space. The promise of the nano future seems so hopeful and positive. Who wouldn’t want to wipe out disease? Who wouldn’t want to reverse or control climate change? Who wouldn’t want to explore space?

2

But nanotechnology by its very nature involves great risk. Risk that, because the field is such a new and developing area of science, could far outweigh its benefits. In fact, when scientists first ventured into the nano world back in the 1950s, they opened a Pandora’s box that could pose great dangers to the entire world. Do the benefits of this promising technology outweigh the risks? For now, they do not.

3

The main concern with nanotechnology has to do with how this technology works. Nano scientists and technologists work at the nano scale. A single nano, or nanometer, is incredibly small—about one-billionth the length of a meter. To put that into perspective, a human hair is about 100,000 times thicker than a single nano. In the time it takes you to read this sentence, your hair will have grown by at least 10 nanos. So, when we talk about scientists working at the nanoscale, we’re talking about manipulating particles that are somewhere between 1 and 100 nanometers.

4

Scientists working in nanotech are breaking down substances to their smallest parts. Then, they study how these smaller parts behave. Scientists are discovering that substances at this scale actually have different properties. The parts behave differently from their wholes. A substance like carbon is hard in the form of a diamond, or soft in the form of graphite. But, at the nanoscale, it can be altered to create carbon nanotubes that are hundreds of times stronger than steel yet more than six times lighter.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

5

Once scientists have broken down a substance to nano size, they can put these parts together to create entirely new substances. They can, in effect, create new forms of matter. Then they use the properties of these new substances to create new products, new drugs, and, in the future, nano-sized factories that can actually create more nano-sized products.

6

Nanotechnology is already a part of our lives. Between 2006 and 2008 alone, the total number of consumer products containing or made from nanotech know-how went from roughly 200 to just over 800. Today, there are close to 1,000 nanotech consumer products on the market. In fact, revenues from nanotechnology applications in the global automotive industry are projected to soar in the coming decades. Nano-sized particles are used in sunscreens, eyeglasses, and many electronic products.

Consumer Products Made Using Nanotechnology (2006–2008) 900

Number of Products

803 675 450 225

580

606

Oct 2 2007

Feb 22 2008

475

212

230

Mar 8 2006

Apr 22 2006

321

356

Sep 29 2006

Nov 26 2006

0 May 16 2007

Aug 21 2008

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 124

Reading for the TEKS

7

And these advances represent only a nano-sized tip of a giant iceberg. Scientists are predicting scenarios for nanotechnology that seem like pure science fiction. Imagine nano-sized “machines” that could be injected into the human body to seek out and destroy deadly viruses. Imagine nano-sized factories that could replicate themselves a trillion times to create giant spacecraft that could travel to distant planets and galaxies. Imagine other nano-sized materials that could actually absorb or filter out harmful gases in our atmosphere.

8

The great promise of nanotechnology is that it gives scientists the ability to change the fabric of the material world. Suddenly, humans will have the ability to rearrange molecules to create new forms of matter. And while all the predictions for our wonderful nano future indicate humans will use the technology in helpful, positive ways, what happens when something goes wrong? What happens if scientists accidently—or even purposely—create new substances that actually cause harm?

9

We have already seen the terrible downside of a promising, worldchanging technology. Back in the 1960s when nuclear energy was an emerging technology, it held the promise to change the world, too. But many people were concerned about the dangers. The nuclear waste created by the “burning” of nuclear fuel contains some of the most dangerous, toxic substances on Earth.

10

While the nuclear industry imposed strict standards and followed very careful safety protocols, accidents did happen. In 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine brought the dangers of nuclear power into sharp focus. The radioactive materials released into the atmosphere by the explosion at the plant spread far beyond the Ukraine. It impacted millions, causing a spike in cancer rates in both nearby and distant locations. More recently, the 2011 earthquake disaster at the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant in Japan also led to tremendous loss of property and possible exposure of thousands of people to dangerous nuclear materials.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 125

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Chernobyl Global Radiation Patterns

1200 800 400 Chernobyl

Higher contamination 11

Radius (in kilometers)

Nanotechnology could lead to similar disasters, impacting millions of people. For now, we have not seen any serious health problems with the nanotech products currently for sale. But, we are still at the early stages of the nano revolution. Can we be sure this will continue as nanotechnology grows? Since elements at the nanoscale have different properties than their bulk form, we don’t really know everything about them. We do not completely understand all of the possible dangers. These particles are so small, they could be as impossible to contain as nuclear fuel in a broken reactor. The human body may not have natural defenses to fight new nano-sized particles. Some studies have suggested that large amounts of nanoparticles can lead to life-threatening diseases.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 126

Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Some researchers believe it is entirely possible that newly created nanoparticles could get past the blood-brain Nanoparticle inhalation barrier in the human body. Asthma This barrier is a natural Lungs Bronchitis wall in the human body Emphysema that protects the brain Cancer Artheriosclerosis from environmental Vasoconstriction chemicals that get into the Circulatory system Thrombus blood. It is how the body High blood pressure is able to fight the effects Heart Arrhythmia of polluted air and water. Heart disease It’s likely that nano-sized Death particles that are about Other organs one-billionth of a meter Diseases of unknown would be small enough etiology in kidneys, liver Lymphatic to pass through this wall. system Podoconiosis Such contamination could Kaposi’s sarcoma lead to new diseases and illnesses. And because Skin these particles are so small Auto-immune diseases and created in great Dermatitis quantity, they could spread rapidly.

Possible Effects of Exposure to Nanoparticles Neurological diseases: Nanoparticles Brain Parkinson’s disease Internalized in Cells Alzheimer’s disease Mitochondrion Nucleus Cytoplasm Membrane Lipid vesicle

Nanoparticle injestion

Gastro-intestinal system Crohn’s diseases Colon cancer

Orthopedic implant wear debris Auto-immune diseases Dermatitis Urticaria Vasculitis

13

12

The debate about the safety of nanotechnology is just starting, and regulation is underway. Around the world, countries are starting to monitor nanotech industries. Guidelines are being developed for appropriate safety standards. But, the very nature of nanotechnology is to create new elements—elements that will be unknown to regulators. Because we do not yet know what the dangers of these elements could be, we should be very cautious about allowing nanotech growth to take off unrestrained.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 127

Modeled Instruction Integrate Text and Information Presented Visually Most information in a passage can be found in the text itself. However, there may also be information that is presented visually. This information can be found by looking closely at graphics such as pictures, charts, and graphs. Information that is presented visually may help you to better understand what you read.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 128

Reading for the TEKS

Reread Paragraph 4 from “Be Part of the Nano Revolution.” Think about how the diagram helps you understand this part of the passage.

4

For a while now, nanotechnology has been used in a wide number of industries. Most significantly, nanotechnology has driven the steady advances in electronics and computer technology. Computer chips using nano-sized parts are regularly leading to smaller, more powerful products, such as tablets and smart phones. Many believe nanotechnology will help us realize the wildest dreams of science fiction. Imagine an elevator that stretches from Earth’s surface to a satellite in space, allowing visitors to come and go as easily as visiting the top of a skyscraper. Nanotechnology might be able to make that happen by helping us to create strong yet lightweight materials that can be stretched across very long distances. Nanotechnology is already having an impact on our lives and is likely to have a greater impact in the years ahead.

Electronics Construction Products

Biomedicine Industries That Create Nano Products or Use Nanotechnology to Make Products Textiles

Goods

Energy & Defense

Consumer Goods & Cosmetics Transportation

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 129

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Think It Through Look for information in both the text and in the diagram. Think about what you know from reading the text. Think about what you know from looking at the diagram. Use the information from the diagram to help you better understand what you read in Paragraph 4. The graphic organizer on the next page identifies information that is presented visually in the diagram and is related to key details found in the text. Complete the graphic organizer by explaining how the information presented visually helps you to better understand what you read.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 130

Reading for the TEKS

Key Details from Text

Information Presented Visually

(Things you know from reading the text.)

(Things you know from looking at the diagram.)

Nanotechnology has been used in a wide number of industries.

Nanotechnology has been used to make electronics, construction products, medicine, textiles, cosmetics, and consumer products.

Nanotechnology has driven the steady advances in electronics and computer technology. Computer chips using nano-sized parts are used in tablets and smart phones.

Nanotechnology is used to provide energy. Nanotechnology is used in developing methods of transportation and defense.

Nanotechnology could be used to create strong yet lightweight materials. Nanotechnology is having an impact on our lives.

Analysis

Explain how the information that is presented visually helps you better understand what you read.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 131

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

How did you complete the graphic organizer? You could have provided an analysis similar to the example shown below.

Analysis

Explain how the information that is presented visually helps you better understand what you read. The information presented in the text explains that nanotechnology is being used in a wide number of industries and is having an impact on our lives. Only a few examples are provided in the text. However, the diagram identifies additional examples of products made using nanotechnology and industries that use nanotechnology. The information presented in the diagram shows that electronics, medicine, textiles, and cosmetics can be made using nanotechnology. The diagram also shows that nanotechnology is used in developing methods of transportation, defense systems, and providing energy. Most of these specific details are not provided in the text.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 132

Guided Instruction Integrate Text and Information Presented Visually The passage titled “No to Nano” also contains information in the text and information that has been presented visually. Reread Paragraph 11 from the passage. Think about how the diagram helps you understand what you read.

11

Nanotechnology could lead to similar disasters, impacting millions of people. For now, we have not seen any serious health problems with the nanotech products currently for sale. But, we are still at the early stages of the nano revolution. Can we be sure this will continue as nanotechnology grows? Since elements at the nanoscale have different properties than their bulk form, we don’t really know everything about them. We do not completely understand all of the possible dangers. These particles are so small, they could be as impossible to contain as nuclear fuel in a broken reactor. The human body may not have natural defenses to fight new nano-sized particles. Some studies have suggested that large amounts of nanoparticles can lead to life-threatening diseases.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:54 PM Page 133

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

Possible Effects of Exposure to Nanoparticles Neurological diseases: Nanoparticles Brain Parkinson’s disease Internalized in Cells Alzheimer’s disease Mitochondrion Nucleus Cytoplasm Membrane Lipid vesicle

Nanoparticle injestion

Gastro-intestinal system Crohn’s diseases Colon cancer

Orthopedic implant wear debris Auto-immune diseases Dermatitis Urticaria Vasculitis

Nanoparticle inhalation Asthma Lungs Bronchitis Emphysema Cancer Artheriosclerosis Vasoconstriction

Circulatory system Thrombus High blood pressure Heart Arrhythmia Heart disease Death

Other organs Diseases of unknown Lymphatic etiology in kidneys, liver system Podoconiosis Kaposi’s sarcoma

Skin Auto-immune diseases Dermatitis

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 134

Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

On Your Own Complete the graphic organizer below. List key details presented in Paragraph 11 and identify information in the diagram that can help you to better understand what you have read. At the bottom of the graphic organizer, provide an analysis of this part of the passage. Explain how the information that is presented visually helps you understand what you have read.

Key Details from Text

(Things you know from reading the text.)

Information Presented Visually

(Things you know from looking at the diagram.)

Analysis

Explain how the information that is presented visually helps you better understand what you read.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 135

Modeled Instruction Integrate Quantitative Information from Text and Graphics Some passages may include text and graphics that provide quantitative information. Details that include numbers and statistics are examples of quantitative information. In order to understand quantitative information, you must read the text very carefully and may need to examine diagrams, charts, or graphs. Reread Paragraphs 9–12 from “Be Part of the Nano Revolution.” Look for quantitative information that can be found in this part of the passage.

9

Many of you may have heard the term STEM. It stands for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. It represents the four target skill areas that will be most highly valued in workers in the coming century. Since nanotech industries make up some of the hottest job markets, it will be important that the labor force be loaded with persons with solid STEM skills.

10

But the U.S. currently is experiencing what is called the STEM Gap. In a nutshell, it means that U.S. schools are not turning out nearly enough students with adequate STEM skills. This is especially significant when compared to job candidates coming from other areas of the world. Other countries are turning out more than twice the number of students with STEM skills as the United States is. This is unacceptable!

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 136

Reading for the TEKS

STEM College Graduates (2010)

Percentage of all college graduates

40 30 20 10

Fin l Ge and rm an Aus y t ri Fra a n Swe ce den Jap an U. Irel K. Swi and tze rla Be l n d gi u Can m De ada nm Aus ark tra No lia rwa y Ne U. the S. rlan ds

0

11

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that over 8.5 million STEM jobs will exist by 2018. But only 42 percent of employers currently believe that new college graduates have adequate STEM skills to meet the employers’ needs.

12

Data show that 60 percent of U.S. fourth-graders and only 66 percent of eighth-graders have proficient math skills. Test scores in math for fourth- and eighth-graders are woefully low. This is particularly troubling because math is the cornerstone STEM skill.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 137

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Think It Through There are a lot of numbers and statistics in the text. There is also a bar graph that includes additional quantitative information. You must carefully examine all of the facts and figures you see in this part of the passage. Put all of the information together to have a more complete understanding of the issue being discussed. The graphic organizer on the next page identifies quantitative information found in the text and additional quantitative information found in the graph. Complete the graphic organizer by explaining what the quantitative information in this part of the passage helps you understand.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 138

Reading for the TEKS

Quantitative Information from the Text Other countries are turning out more than twice the number of students with STEM skills as the United States. It is estimated that over 8.5 million STEM jobs will exist in the United States by 2018.

Quantitative Information from the Graph In 2010, about 15 percent of college graduates in the United States were STEM graduates. In Finland and Germany, about 30 percent of college graduates were STEM graduates.

Only 42 percent of employers believe that new college graduates have adequate STEM skills.

The graph shows 14 countries that had a higher percentage of STEM graduates than the United States had in 2010.

Only 60 percent of U.S. fourth-graders and only 66 percent of eighth-graders have proficient math skills.

The graph shows only one country that had a lower percentage of STEM graduates than the United States in 2010.

Analysis

Explain how the information that is presented visually helps you better understand what you read.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 139

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

How did you complete the graphic organizer? You could have provided an analysis similar to the example shown below.

Analysis

Explain how the information that is presented visually helps you better understand what you read. Most of the quantitative information in the text helps show that there is a great need in the United States for people with STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) skills. Only 42 percent of employers believe that new college graduates have adequate STEM skills, but over 8.5 million STEM jobs will exist in the United States by 2018. The graph shows that only about 15 percent of college graduates in the United States in 2010 were STEM graduates. The graph also shows 14 other countries that had a greater percentage of STEM graduates. All of this quantitative information helps show that the United States is falling behind other countries in meeting the demand for people with STEM skills.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 140

Guided Instruction Integrate Quantitative Information from Text and Graphics The passage titled “No to Nano” also contains quantitative information. Reread Paragraph 6 from the passage. Look for quantitative information that can be found in this part of the passage.

6

Nanotechnology is already a part of our lives. Between 2006 and 2008 alone, the total number of consumer products containing or made from nanotech know-how went from roughly 200 to just over 800. Today, there are close to 1,000 nanotech consumer products on the market. In fact, revenues from nanotechnology applications in the global automotive industry are projected to soar in the coming decades. Nano-sized particles are used in sunscreens, eyeglasses, and many electronic products.

Consumer Products Made Using Nanotechnology (2006–2008) 900

Number of Products

803 675 450 225

580

606

Oct 2 2007

Feb 22 2008

475

212

230

Mar 8 2006

Apr 22 2006

321

356

Sep 29 2006

Nov 26 2006

0

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May 16 2007

Aug 21 2008


Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 141

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

On Your Own Complete the graphic organizer below. Identify quantitative information that can be found in the text and the graph. At the bottom of the graphic organizer, provide an analysis of this part of the passage. Explain what the quantitative information in this part of the passage helps you understand.

Quantitative Information from the Text

Quantitative Information from the Graphic

Analysis

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 142

Modeled Instruction Identify Arguments and Claims A writer or speaker often presents an argument and specific claims when writing or speaking. When a person presents an argument, he or she is trying to get other people to agree with a certain opinion or point of view. A person can also make claims, or statements, in an effort to convince others to agree with the argument being made. Reread Paragraphs 5–7 from “Be Part of the Nano Revolution.” Look for claims made in this part of the passage. Think about what argument is being presented.

5

Within the next few decades, nanotechnology will be a part of almost every device we use. It will also be used to make foods we eat and medicines that we take. Nanotechnology will help in the fight against cancer. It will shape future technology innovations. Many see nanotech as the key to developing new sources of energy and eliminating some threats to our environment.

6

Nanotechnology will lead to the world’s next great economic boom. It will be a boom equal to, if not greater than, the Internet boom of the 1990s. Many people are already investing a great deal of money in nanotechnology.

7

So, nanotechnology is here to stay, and it’s growing fast. More significantly, it’s rapidly changing our country’s labor needs. In 2007, $60 billion worth of nano-based products were sold. By 2014, nanotechnology will be part of more than $2 trillion in manufactured goods. In the next decade, it’s estimated that nanotech will create more than 7 million jobs around the world.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 143

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

Think It Through Look closely at the statements made in this part of the passage. Think about what claims are being made. Ask yourself, “Why does the person giving these statements make these claims?” These claims will help you understand what argument is being presented. The graphic organizer below includes the claims made in Paragraphs 5–7. Complete the graphic organizer by identifying the argument that these claims help to make. Write the argument you identify in the empty box.

Claims Within the next few decades, nanotechnology will be a part of almost every device we use. Nanotechnology will help in the fight against cancer.

Argument Write your answer here.

It will shape future technology innovations. Nanotechnology may help develop new sources of energy and eliminate some threats to our environment. Nanotechnology will lead to the world's next great economic boom. By 2014, nanotechnology will be part of more than $2 trillion in manufactured goods. In the next decade, it's estimated that nanotech will create more than 7 million jobs around the world.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 144

Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

How did you complete the graphic organizer? The claims that the author makes support the argument below. Argument: There are many benefits of nanotechnology.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 145

Guided Instruction Identify Arguments and Claims In the previous Modeled Instruction activity, you identified an argument and claims made in the passage titled “Be Part of the Nano Revolution.” Now you will look at an argument and claims made in the passage titled “No to Nano.” Reread Paragraphs 11–13 from “No to Nano.” What argument is being made? What claims are presented to support the argument being made?

11

Nanotechnology could lead to similar disasters, impacting millions of people. For now, we have not seen any serious health problems with the nanotech products currently for sale. But, we are still at the early stages of the nano revolution. Can we be sure this will continue as nanotechnology grows? Since elements at the nanoscale have different properties than their bulk form, we don’t really know everything about them. We do not completely understand all of the possible dangers. These particles are so small, they could be as impossible to contain as nuclear fuel in a broken reactor. The human body may not have natural defenses to fight new nano-sized particles. Some studies have suggested that large amounts of nanoparticles can lead to life-threatening diseases.

12

Some researchers believe it is entirely possible that newly created nanoparticles could get past the blood-brain barrier in the human body. This barrier is a natural wall in the human body that protects the brain from environmental chemicals that get into the blood. It is how the body is able to fight the effects of polluted air and water. It’s likely that nano-sized particles that are about one-billionth of a meter would be small enough to pass through this wall. Such contamination could lead to new diseases and illnesses. And because these particles are so small and created in great quantity, they could spread rapidly.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 146

Reading for the TEKS

13

The debate about the safety of nanotechnology is just starting, and regulation is underway. Around the world, countries are starting to monitor nanotech industries. Guidelines are being developed for appropriate safety standards. But, the very nature of nanotechnology is to create new elements—elements that will be unknown to regulators. Because we do not yet know what the dangers of these elements could be, we should be very cautious about allowing nanotech growth to take off unrestrained.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 147

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

On Your Own Complete the graphic organizer below. In the box on the left side of the page, list some of the claims made in Paragraphs 11–13. In the box on the right side of the page, write the argument that you think is being made.

Claims

Argument

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 148

Modeled Instruction Use Evidence to Evaluate Claims Some claims presented in a passage are supported by evidence. Other claims may not be supported by evidence. Evidence is information that helps prove that something is true. A claim is more reliable if it is based on evidence. Evidence lets the reader know that a claim is more than just an opinion and is based on sound reasoning. Listed below are some claims made in “Be Part of the Nano Revolution.” Look through the entire passage and try to find evidence to support each of these claims. • Nanotechnology has driven steady advances in electronics and computer technology. • Nanotechnology will help in the fight against cancer. • Nanotechnology will lead to the world’s next great economic boom. • The United States is currently experiencing a STEM Gap. • Proficiency in math will be your entryway into all of the sciences.

Think It Through When looking for evidence, try to find known facts or information that has been gathered by conducting careful research. A claim that is not supported by evidence may still be true. However, evidence helps to persuade a reader to agree with the claim being made.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 149

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

The graphic organizer below shows what evidence is presented in the passage to support each of the claims listed. Notice that some of the claims are not supported by evidence. Which claims do you think are the strongest and most persuasive? Why?

Evidence

Claims Nanotechnology has driven steady advances in electronics and computer technology.

• Computer chips using nano-sized parts are regularly leading to smaller, more powerful products, such as tablets and smart phones.

Nanotechnology will help in the fight against cancer.

NONE

Nanotechnology will lead to the world's next great economic boom.

• Many people are already investing a great deal of money in nanotechnology. • In 2007, $60 billion worth of nano-based products were sold.

The United States is currently experiencing a STEM Gap.

• Other countries are turning out more than twice the number of students with STEM skills as the United States is. • Only 42 percent of employers currently believe that new college graduates have adequate STEM skills to meet the employers' needs. • Data show that 60 percent of U.S. fourth-graders and only 66 percent of eighth-graders have proficient math skills.

Proficiency in math will be your entryway into all of the sciences.

NONE

Although the claims that are not supported by evidence may still be true, the strongest claims are the ones supported by evidence. The more evidence that is provided, the more persuasive a claim is likely to be.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 150

Guided Instruction Use Evidence to Evaluate Claims Listed below are some claims made in “No to Nano.” Look through the entire passage and try to find evidence to support each of these claims. • Nanotechnology is already a part of our lives. • We have already seen the terrible downside of a promising, world-changing technology. • Nanotechnology could lead to disasters, impacting millions of people. • The human body may not have natural defenses to fight new nano-sized particles. • It is possible that nanoparticles could get past the blood-brain barrier in the human body.

On Your Own Complete the graphic organizer on the next page. List any evidence found in the passage that supports each claim. If no evidence can be found to support a claim, write “NONE.”

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 151

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

Claims

Evidence

Nanotechnology is already a part of our lives.

We have already seen the terrible downside of a promising, world-changing technology.

Nanotechnology could lead to disasters, impacting millions of people.

The human body may not have natural defenses to fight new nano-sized particles.

It is possible that nanoparticles could get past the blood-brain barrier in the human body.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 152

Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Which of the claims made by the author do you think is the strongest claim? Explain your answer.

Which of the claims made by the author do you think is the weakest claim? Explain your answer.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 153

Independent Practice Answer Questions 1–3 based on the passage titled “Be Part of the Nano Revolution.”

1

Reread Paragraph 2 and look closely at the diagram shown in this part of the passage. Answer the questions that follow.

2

Nanotechnology is the science of working with matter—the substance that makes up the universe—at the nanoscale. “Nano” comes from the Greek word for dwarf. So, how small are we talking about? What is the nanoscale? It’s a scale of measurement for things that are slightly larger than atoms. A nanometer—the basic unit of measurement at the nanoscale—is about 1/100,000 the width of a human hair. You can’t see something this size with your eyes. In fact, you can’t see matter this size with most microscopes.

× 1,000 × 1,000

DNA 2.5 nanometers diameter

Bacterium 2.5 micrometers long

Large Raindrop 2.5 millimeters diameter

× 100,000

× 100,000 Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Strand of Hair 1 nanometer diameter 100 micrometers diameter

House 10 meters wide

× 1,000,000

× 1,000,000 Nanoparticle 4 nanometers diameter

Ant 4 millimeters long

Indianapolis Motor Speedway 4 kilometers per lap

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 154

Reading for the TEKS

a) What is the purpose of the diagram that is shown?

b) How does the diagram help make it easier to understand the information presented in Paragraph 2?

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 155

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

2

Paragraph 8 states that “the United States may not be prepared to compete in the global nanotech market.” What evidence presented in the passage supports this claim? List two statements found anywhere in the passage that provide evidence to support this claim.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 156

Reading for the TEKS

3

Reread Paragraph 13 and answer the questions that follow.

13

So, what can students do today to meet the needs of our nanotech tomorrow? • Do not shy away from math! Embrace it. Proficiency in math will be your entryway into all of the sciences. • Embrace technology. By this, I don’t just mean using your smart phones. Get excited about new technologies and consider how you might find a place for yourself in a technical field. You can contribute to the technologies of the future. • Science isn’t just for nerds. It’s for everyone. Jump into science headfirst. Not only will it greatly improve your chances for future employment, it’ll help you make sense of the world around you. • Learn about nanotechnology. Take classes and courses that relate to nanotechnology. Explore summer job opportunities and internships at nanotech labs and firms.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 157

Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

a) List three claims that are presented in this part of the passage.

b) What argument do these claims help to make?

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 158

Reading for the TEKS

Answer Questions 4–6 based on the passage titled “No to Nano.”

4

Reread Paragraph 10 and look closely at the diagram shown in this part of the passage. Answer the questions that follow.

10

While the nuclear industry imposed strict standards and followed very careful safety protocols, accidents did happen. In 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine brought the dangers of nuclear power into sharp focus. The radioactive materials released into the atmosphere by the explosion at the plant spread far beyond the Ukraine. It impacted millions, causing a spike in cancer rates in both nearby and distant locations. More recently, the 2011 earthquake disaster at the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant in Japan also led to tremendous loss of property and possible exposure of thousands of people to dangerous nuclear materials.

Chernobyl Global Radiation Patterns

1200 800 400 Chernobyl

Higher contamination 158 © RALLY! Education. No part of this document may be reproduced without written permission of the publisher.

Radius (in kilometers)


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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

a) What is the purpose of the diagram that is shown?

b) How does the diagram help make it easier to understand the information presented in Paragraph 10?

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Reading for the TEKS

5

In Paragraph 2, the author states “nanotechnology by its very nature involves great risk.” What evidence presented in the passage supports this claim? List two statements found anywhere in the passage that provide evidence to support this claim.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

6

Reread Paragraph 13 and answer the questions that follow.

13

The debate about the safety of nanotechnology is just starting, and regulation is underway. Around the world, countries are starting to monitor nanotech industries. Guidelines are being developed for appropriate safety standards. But, the very nature of nanotechnology is to create new elements—elements that will be unknown to regulators. Because we do not yet know what the dangers of these elements could be, we should be very cautious about allowing nanotech growth to take off unrestrained.

a) List three claims that are presented in this part of the passage.

b) What argument do these claims help to make?

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Reading for the TEKS

Answer Question 7 based on both passages (“Be Part of the Nano Revolution” and “No to Nano”).

7

Both passages present quantitative information to illustrate how nanotechnology has impacted our lives. Use this information to complete Part A and Part B. a) In the chart below, list three quantitative details from each passage that help explain how nanotechnology has impacted our lives. This information can be found in the text or in the graphics that are included in each passage.

Be Part of the Nano Revolution

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No to Nano


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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

b) How does the quantitative information that is presented in both passages help you understand how nanotechnology has impacted our lives?

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 164

Unit 3 also includes two passages about an important event that occurred at the start of the Civil War. You will learn what happened at Fort Sumter, and you will also learn reading and writing skills that include identifying key events, comparing and contrasting presentation of events, identifying arguments and claims, and comparing and contrasting arguments and claims. The American Civil War began in South Carolina in 1861. Fighting between the anti-slavery North and pro-slavery South erupted early in the morning on April 12. At about 4:30 A.M., Confederate soldiers opened fire on Fort Sumter and Union forces under the command of Major Anderson. The events that occurred during this time were written about by many different people with different perspectives. Articles appeared in many newspapers, and journals were kept to document the events as they occurred. The following passages provide different perspectives on the events that took place at the outset of the Civil War. The first passage is an example of an article that is typical of what you might have read in a Union newspaper at the time of the war. The second passage is an example of what a citizen from a Confederate state might have written in a journal. Directions: Read the passages titled “War Is Upon Us!” and “Sumter Is Surrendered.” Complete the Modeled and Guided Instruction activities that follow.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

Paired Passage 1

WAR IS UPON US! Union Daily Reporter

1

2

By the act of a handful of traitors and ingrates, war has begun in our happy and peaceful Republic! The bombardment of Fort Sumter is now over. The blood of the few brave defenders of the glorious old flag, which flew over that gallant fortress, has been spilled for loyalty to our great Constitution, and the Union that our forefathers gave birth to!

Early last week, it became known that President Lincoln was sending supplies to the small band of brothers who maintain sole federal authority in Charleston. The resupplying of the garrison was merely an act of mercy—not an act of aggression. The troops at Fort Sumter under the command of Major Anderson were close to starvation. The traitors in Charleston were no longer sending food and water to the fort.

3

4

5

Mr. Lincoln has done what any compassionate leader would do. He ordered ships from New York to bring aid and comfort to those at Sumter. This was not a military mission. Although they would have fully been within the right to use military might to defend the federal property, the fleet was merely there to resupply. However, the ships’ crews could only watch in horror as southern cannon rained terror down on Sumter. Since the rebels control the telegraphs, it has been difficult to get reliable reports from Charleston. It has been up to us to make sense of rumors and accusations. This is what we believe has happened.

Sometime after April 4, President Lincoln informed South Carolina governor Pickens that he intended to

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Reading for the TEKS

Union Daily Reporter

resupply the poorly provisioned garrison at Fort Sumter. Confederate leaders responded by requiring General Beauregard, the commander of the rebellious forces in Charleston, to issue ultimatums to Anderson. 6

7

8

Beauregard initiated a series of threats sent under the guise of peace missions! On the afternoon of April 11, a rebel mission traveled across Charleston Harbor to the fort. Anderson met with the ambassadors. He peacefully entertained the southern request for surrender, but honorably declined to relinquish the fort to the southern command.

9

10

The southern command, upon hearing Anderson’s response, panicked. They did not wish to see the fort peacefully resupplied by the New York flotilla. So, envoys returned to Anderson. This time, Anderson assured them that he was prepared for a peaceful surrender, but not until noon on April 15.

This was met with a final ultimatum. The envoy informed Anderson that southern forces would open fire on the fort within the hour!

11

The brave fort commander alerted his men to the coming onslaught. Just before dawn on April 12—at about 4:30 o’clock—rebel cannon fire rained down on Sumter from positions on the islands surrounding the fort. This act of betrayal was made all the more treacherous because of the prior history between the two commanders. Major Anderson had been Beauregard’s trusted instructor at the military academy at West Point!

The brave men inside the fort withstood the onslaught for nearly three hours before returning fire. The volleys back and forth from both sides continued throughout the day and into the night of April 12. But for Anderson and his men, fighting was futile. Much of the fort was in flames. Telegraphic reports state that a vast hole had been made in the walls of the fortress, and that two of its great guns had been destroyed. The arrival of the relief ships from the North was all for naught. It is learned that Anderson and what remains of his garrison are now surrendered. In place of the stars and stripes of the Union, a rebel flag flies

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Union Daily Reporter

over Sumter’s parapets. Beauregard, in one small honorable act, is allowing the survivors to take safe passage home. They will be transported to the awaiting northern flotilla, which will carry them safely back to the bosom of the Union. 12

13

14

Meanwhile, all of Charleston has erupted in universal shouts of rebel bluster. The city itself is aflame with the fever of war. Those citizens of South Carolina, a state which chose to lead the way in southern secession, do not realize that their actions have lit a terrible fuse. It leads to Washington, Mr. Lincoln, and the full might of the federal military.

The people of the Union know the cause of this destructive conflict. The party of the slaveholder, which has governed our country for the last forty years, was beaten in the November election. The verdict of the people forbids the extension of that barbarous institution into national territory as yet uncursed by its blighting presence.

This and nothing else—this determination of a meager minority to rule a powerful majority—this

misguided belief that human slavery has a place in a nation of free people—is the dragon’s teeth which has led to brothers taking arms against one another.

15

The act of the rebels has led to the bloody strife. The voice of the country is now for war. Let the cannon missives fly. Let the full power of twenty millions of men united in a common cause be put forth. Let the money be poured out. Let the hammers resound in the armories. Let the men march forth. A quick, short, sharp but decisive contest, made by the Government with a force which nothing can resist, will re-establish its authority wherever the stars and stripes once waved!

Bombardment of Fort Sumter

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Paired Passage 2

Sumter Is Surrendered April 6 1

Sentiments for war are at a fever pitch. It has been widely rumored that Lincoln, newly in power in Washington, has cast the spark that will light the powder keg of conflict.

2

In December, South Carolina led the charge to split from the Union. And how could we have done otherwise? We must remember that the founders of the Republic and writers of the federal Constitution had created a union of slaveholding states. Our secession only follows the vision of our forefathers. Those new to Washington and others throughout the North are bent on denying us our birthright. They compel us to desperate action. And now we are afloat.

3

Lincoln has forced our hand. News comes that a fleet from New York is bound for Charleston. Their mission can have only one purpose—to reinforce Major Anderson and his garrison at Fort Sumter. Sumter is the last foothold of federal authority on southern soil. Our leaders and warcrazed citizenry are determined that Sumter be relinquished to southern command. I fear the worst, but hope for the best.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

April 9 4

Spirits in Charleston are at a boil! The streets swell with the arrival of militia from the countryside. Five thousand southern men, in addition to those at present in the fortifications around Charleston Harbor, are ready to take the field. The excitement is intense, and everybody is in fighting humor.

Fort Su

mter

April 10 5

Yesterday morning, a man came into town on horseback with startling news! The northern fleet is nearby with plans, it is said, to land an army there, and march up behind our batteries. Orders have been hurriedly sent for more country troops—more big guns hauled down town from the Citadel. Six thousand brave southern men all ready. If Anderson does not evacuate, the brave 6,000 will pitch into him.

April 11 6

Rumors are now flying about an imminent battle. It is said that Anderson has had every chance to quit Sumter peacefully and avoid conflict. Our commander, General Beauregard, has dispatched peace parties to persuade the Major and his men to relinquish their command. It is said that Anderson—a noble leader with just the smallest number of now starving troops— will remain true to the Republic. He will not stand down, but vouches he will not fire unless fired upon. 169 © RALLY! Education. No part of this document may be reproduced without written permission of the publisher.


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Reading for the TEKS

7

Cannon fire on Fort Sumter is expected at any moment. All business in the city is suspended. My own shop shut down. Hundreds of persons have waited for hours on the wharves and other points of observation to see the beginning of the conflict, among them a great number of ladies. The people are out on the housetops watching with feverish interest for the first signal of attack. The excitement in the city is intense.

April 12 8

Cannon thunder has shaken Charleston all day. The fool Anderson rejected General Beauregard’s final offer of a peaceful and honorable withdrawal. The bombardment of Fort Sumter began this morning at 4:30.

9

The city was shaken from its beds. With the very first boom of the guns, thousands rushed to the harbor front, and all day every available place has been thronged by ladies and gentlemen, viewing the solemn spectacle through their glasses. Most of these have relatives in our Confederate fortifications. Many a tearful eye showed the anxious concern of the mother, wife, and sister.

10

By early light, Anderson’s men began to respond with their own cannon. The Sumter garrison has given a good account of themselves, their volleys seeming to come from a number many times their size. It is said that less than a hundred men—most starving—defend the fort. Throughout the day, Beauregard’s cannons have dismantled Sumter, which is aflame, surrounded by a ring of fire. One can only imagine the horror felt by the men inside, enduring such misery.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

11

As for the ships from New York, our power prevents them from entering Charleston Harbor. They can only watch Sumter’s torment from afar. Our troops mock and jeer at their cowardice.

April 13 12

Major Anderson has surrendered at five minutes to one this afternoon. The American flag has given place to the palmetto of South Carolina and the flag of the Confederacy. Major Anderson surrendered his sword to General Beauregard, but our general would not receive it from so brave a man. He says Major Anderson made a staunch fight, and elevated himself in the estimation of every true Carolinian.

Major Anderson

13

The scene in the city after the raising of the flag of truce and the surrender is indescribable. The people were perfectly wild. Our soldiers on Morris Island gave three cheers for Major Anderson and groans for the northern fleet that would not come to his rescue. It is regarded as the greatest day in the history of South Carolina.

14

Despite the horrors, it is told that the only casualty of battle was a single mule! But I fear this is a fool’s promise. What have we embarked upon?

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

15

The general sentiment is that the ruffians and cutthroats, who expect to invade the South with impunity, to set our cities on fire, lay waste our fields, and bring blood upon our whole land, have awoken a fearsome beast.

16

But such a war will not come without a terrible price. The South is determined to strike hard at her assassins. Rabblerousers boast that the fire that has been kindled in Charleston will soon spread to every city the North has on its borders and beyond. But Anderson has shown an equal measure of defiance and courage in the heart of the Union man. Many will fall for both sides.

17

I pray that President Davis and his Council may yet find a peaceful resolution.

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Modeled Instruction Identify Key Events Many informational passages tell about important events that have occurred. The details that the author provides will help you understand what has happened. Reread Paragraphs 1–3 from “War Is Upon Us!” and look for details that help describe an important event.

1

By the act of a handful of traitors and ingrates, war has begun in our happy and peaceful Republic! The bombardment of Fort Sumter is now over. The blood of the few brave defenders of the glorious old flag, which flew over that gallant fortress, has been spilled for loyalty to our great Constitution, and the Union that our forefathers gave birth to!

2

Early last week, it became known that President Lincoln was sending supplies to the small band of brothers who maintain sole federal authority in Charleston. The resupplying of the garrison was merely an act of mercy—not an act of aggression. The troops at Fort Sumter under the command of Major Anderson were close to starvation. The traitors in Charleston were no longer sending food and water to the fort.

3

Mr. Lincoln has done what any compassionate leader would do. He ordered ships from New York to bring aid and comfort to those at Sumter. This was not a military mission. Although they would have fully been within the right to use military might to defend the federal property, the fleet was merely there to resupply. However, the ships’ crews could only watch in horror as southern cannon rained terror down on Sumter.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Think It Through Paragraphs 1–3 tell about an important event. The details that help describe this event can be listed in a graphic organizer as shown below. Complete the graphic organizer by identifying the key event that is being described.

Details That Describe the Event war has begun in our happy and peaceful Republic

Key Event Identify the key event that is described.

the bombardment of Fort Sumter is now over the blood of the few brave defenders has been spilled the ships' crews could only watch in horror as southern cannon rained terror down on Sumter

How did you complete the graphic organizer? What key event is described in Paragraphs 1–3? You could have written that Fort Sumter was attacked.

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Guided Instruction Identify Key Events Reread Paragraphs 8–11 from “Sumter Is Surrendered” and look for details that help describe an important event.

April 12 8

Cannon thunder has shaken Charleston all day. The fool Anderson rejected General Beauregard’s final offer of a peaceful and honorable withdrawal. The bombardment of Fort Sumter began this morning at 4:30.

9

The city was shaken from its beds. With the very first boom of the guns, thousands rushed to the harbor front, and all day every available place has been thronged by ladies and gentlemen, viewing the solemn spectacle through their glasses. Most of these have relatives in our Confederate fortifications. Many a tearful eye showed the anxious concern of the mother, wife, and sister.

10

By early light, Anderson’s men began to respond with their own cannon. The Sumter garrison has given a good account of themselves, their volleys seeming to come from a number many times their size. It is said that less than a hundred men—most starving—defend the fort. Throughout the day, Beauregard’s cannons have dismantled Sumter, which is aflame, surrounded by a ring of fire. One can only imagine the horror felt by the men inside, enduring such misery.

11

As for the ships from New York, our power prevents them from entering Charleston Harbor. They can only watch Sumter’s torment from afar. Our troops mock and jeer at their cowardice.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

On Your Own Complete the graphic organizer below. On the left side of the graphic organizer, list details from Paragraphs 8–11 that describe a key event. On the right side of the graphic organizer, identify the key event being described.

Details That Describe the Event List details that describe a key event.

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Key Event Identify the key event that is described.


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Modeled Instruction Compare and Contrast Presentation of Events Both passages describe an important event—the attack on Fort Sumter. However, each passage describes this event from a different perspective. The passage titled “War Is Upon Us!” describes this event from the point of view of a person from one of the northern states. The passage titled “Sumter Is Surrendered” tells about this event from the point of view of a person from a southern state. Reread the following sections of both passages. Compare and contrast how the event described in each passage is presented.

War Is Upon Us! 2

Early last week, it became known that President Lincoln was sending supplies to the small band of brothers who maintain sole federal authority in Charleston. The resupplying of the garrison was merely an act of mercy—not an act of aggression. The troops at Fort Sumter under the command of Major Anderson were close to starvation. The traitors in Charleston were no longer sending food and water to the fort.

3

Mr. Lincoln has done what any compassionate leader would do. He ordered ships from New York to bring aid and comfort to those at Sumter. This was not a military mission. Although they would have fully been within the right to use military might to defend the federal property, the fleet was merely there to resupply. However, the ships’ crews could only watch in horror as southern cannon rained terror down on Sumter.

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Reading for the TEKS

Sumter Is Surrendered April 6 1

Sentiments for war are at a fever pitch. It has been widely rumored that Lincoln, newly in power in Washington, has cast the spark that will light the powder keg of conflict.

2

In December, South Carolina led the charge to split from the Union. And how could we have done otherwise? We must remember that the founders of the Republic and writers of the federal Constitution had created a union of slaveholding states. Our secession only follows the vision of our forefathers. Those new to Washington and others throughout the North are bent on denying us our birthright. They compel us to desperate action. And now we are afloat.

3

Lincoln has forced our hand. News comes that a fleet from New York is bound for Charleston. Their mission can have only one purpose—to reinforce Major Anderson and his garrison at Fort Sumter. Sumter is the last foothold of federal authority on southern soil. Our leaders and war-crazed citizenry are determined that Sumter be relinquished to southern command. I fear the worst, but hope for the best.

Think It Through Both passages describe what happened leading up to the attack on Fort Sumter. However, the details that describe what happened are presented very differently. Details from each passage are listed in the graphic organizer on the next page. An analysis of these details is also provided. Complete the graphic organizer by comparing and contrasting how the events that are described are presented in each passage. Explain how the presentations are alike and how they are different.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Details from “War Is Upon Us!”

Details from “Sumter Is Surrendered”

(Paragraphs 2–3)

(Paragraphs 1–3)

President Lincoln was sending supplies to a small band of brothers at Fort Sumter it was merely an act of mercy—not an act of aggression the troops at Fort Sumter were close to starvation the traitors in Charleston were no longer sending food and water to the fort Lincoln did what any compassionate leader would do this was not a military mission

it has been widely rumored that Lincoln has cast the spark that will light the powder keg of conflict they compel us to desperate action Lincoln has forced our hand a fleet from New York is bound for Charleston their mission can have only one purpose—to reinforce Major Anderson and his garrison at Fort Sumter

Analysis of Details

Analysis of Details

These details explain that the troops at Fort Sumter were close to starvation. They describe President Lincoln’s decision to resupply the troops as an act of mercy. According to the author, Lincoln was not taking military action.

These details suggest that President Lincoln was taking military action by sending a fleet from New York to Charleston. The author suggests that the purpose of this mission was to reinforce the troops at Fort Sumter.

Compare and Contrast Presentation of Events Explain how the presentations of events described in the passages are alike and how they are different.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

How did you complete the graphic organizer? You could have provided an explanation that is similar to the following:

Both passages tell about President Lincoln’s plan to send a fleet of ships to Fort Sumter. However, the way this mission is described by each is very different. The author of “War Is Upon Us!” describes this as a mission of mercy. The author explains that the troops are close to starvation and describes the people of Charleston as traitors for not sending food and water to the fort. The author of “Sumter Is Surrendered” suggests that the mission will lead to a conflict. The author states that the purpose of the mission is to reinforce the troops at Fort Sumter and sees Lincoln’s actions as a military act—not an act of mercy.

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Guided Instruction Compare and Contrast Presentation of Events Reread the following sections of both passages. Compare and contrast how the event described in each passage is presented.

War Is Upon Us! 9

The brave fort commander alerted his men to the coming onslaught. Just before dawn on April 12—at about 4:30 o’clock— rebel cannon fire rained down on Sumter from positions on the islands surrounding the fort. This act of betrayal was made all the more treacherous because of the prior history between the two commanders. Major Anderson had been Beauregard’s trusted instructor at the military academy at West Point!

10

The brave men inside the fort withstood the onslaught for nearly three hours before returning fire. The volleys back and forth from both sides continued throughout the day and into the night of April 12. But for Anderson and his men, fighting was futile. Much of the fort was in flames. Telegraphic reports state that a vast hole had been made in the walls of the fortress, and that two of its great guns had been destroyed. The arrival of the relief ships from the North was all for naught.

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Reading for the TEKS

Sumter Is Surrendered April 12 8

Cannon thunder has shaken Charleston all day. The fool Anderson rejected General Beauregard’s final offer of a peaceful and honorable withdrawal. The bombardment of Fort Sumter began this morning at 4:30.

9

The city was shaken from its beds. With the very first boom of the guns, thousands rushed to the harbor front, and all day every available place has been thronged by ladies and gentlemen, viewing the solemn spectacle through their glasses. Most of these have relatives in our Confederate fortifications. Many a tearful eye showed the anxious concern of the mother, wife, and sister.

10

By early light, Anderson’s men began to respond with their own cannon. The Sumter garrison has given a good account of themselves, their volleys seeming to come from a number many times their size. It is said that less than a hundred men—most starving—defend the fort. Throughout the day, Beauregard’s cannons have dismantled Sumter, which is aflame, surrounded by a ring of fire. One can only imagine the horror felt by the men inside, enduring such misery.

11

As for the ships from New York, our power prevents them from entering Charleston Harbor. They can only watch Sumter’s torment from afar. Our troops mock and jeer at their cowardice.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

On Your Own Complete the graphic organizer on the next page. List details from each passage that describe the attack on Fort Sumter. Provide an analysis of these details and explain how the two presentations of the attack are alike and how they are different. A few details from each passage have already been provided. Complete the graphic organizer on your own.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Details from “War Is Upon Us!”

Details from “Sumter Is Surrendered”

(Paragraphs 9–10)

(Paragraphs 8–11)

the brave fort commander alerted his men to the coming onslaught

the fool Anderson rejected General Beauregard's final offer of a peaceful and honorable withdrawal

Add more details in the space below.

Add more details in the space below.

Analysis of Details Describe the author’s presentation.

Analysis of Details Describe the author’s presentation.

Compare and Contrast Presentation of Events Explain how the presentations of events described in the passages are alike and how they are different.

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Modeled Instruction Identify Arguments and Claims In both passages, the authors make claims to present different arguments. Each author sees the events that occurred from a different point of view. Reread Paragraphs 13–14 from “War Is Upon Us!” Look for claims made in this part of the passage. Think about what argument is being presented.

13

The people of the Union know the cause of this destructive conflict. The party of the slaveholder, which has governed our country for the last forty years, was beaten in the November election. The verdict of the people forbids the extension of that barbarous institution into national territory as yet uncursed by its blighting presence.

14

This and nothing else—this determination of a meager minority to rule a powerful majority—this misguided belief that human slavery has a place in a nation of free people—is the dragon’s teeth which has led to brothers taking arms against one another.

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Reading for the TEKS

Think It Through Look closely at the statements made in this part of the passage. Think about what claims are being made. Ask yourself, “Why does the person who is giving these statements make these claims?��� These claims will help you understand what argument is being presented. The graphic organizer below includes the claims made in Paragraphs 13–14. Complete the graphic organizer by identifying the argument that these claims help to make. Write the argument you identify in the empty box.

Claims The people of the Union know the cause of this destructive conflict. The party of the slaveholder was beaten in the November election. The verdict of the people forbids the extension of that barbarous institution into national territory as yet uncursed by its blighting presence. The misguided belief that human slavery has a place in a nation of free people has led to brothers taking arms against one another.

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Argument Write your answer here.


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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

How did you complete the graphic organizer? The claims that the author makes support the argument below. Argument: The practice of slavery must be ended even if it means going to war.

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Guided Instruction Identify Arguments and Claims Reread Paragraph 2 from “Sumter Is Surrendered.” What argument is being made? What claims are presented to support the argument being made?

2

In December, South Carolina led the charge to split from the Union. And how could we have done otherwise? We must remember that the founders of the Republic and writers of the federal Constitution had created a union of slaveholding states. Our secession only follows the vision of our forefathers. Those new to Washington and others throughout the North are bent on denying us our birthright. They compel us to desperate action. And now we are afloat.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

On Your Own Complete the graphic organizer below. In the box on the left side of the page, list some of the claims made in Paragraph 2. In the box on the right side of the page, write the argument that you think is being made.

Claims

Argument

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Modeled Instruction Compare and Contrast Arguments and Claims Different arguments and claims about the issue of slavery are presented in both passages. Keep in mind that these arguments and claims reflect how different people felt about this issue during the time of the Civil War. Based on what you read, you can compare and contrast what each author thinks. Reread the following sections of both passages. Compare and contrast the arguments and claims that are presented.

War Is Upon Us! 13

The people of the Union know the cause of this destructive conflict. The party of the slaveholder, which has governed our country for the last forty years, was beaten in the November election. The verdict of the people forbids the extension of that barbarous institution into national territory as yet uncursed by its blighting presence.

14

This and nothing else—this determination of a meager minority to rule a powerful majority—this misguided belief that human slavery has a place in a nation of free people—is the dragon’s teeth which has led to brothers taking arms against one another.

Sumter Is Surrendered 2

In December, South Carolina led the charge to split from the Union. And how could we have done otherwise? We must remember that the founders of the Republic and writers of the federal Constitution had created a union of slaveholding states. Our secession only follows the vision of our forefathers. Those new to Washington and others throughout the North are bent on denying us our birthright. They compel us to desperate action. And now we are afloat.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

Think It Through Identify arguments and claims from each passage that help you understand what each author thinks about the issue of slavery. Use this information to compare and contrast what the two authors think. The graphic organizer on the next page includes arguments and claims presented in each passage. Complete the graphic organizer by explaining the similarities and differences between these arguments and claims.

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Reading for the TEKS

War Is Upon Us! (Paragraphs 13–14) Claims The verdict of the people forbids the extension of that barbarous institution into national territory as yet uncursed by its blighting presence. The misguided belief that human slavery has a place in a nation of free people has led to brothers taking arms against one another.

Argument Slavery is wrong and should come to an end.

Sumter Is Surrendered (Paragraph 2) Claims The founders of the Republic and writers of the federal Constitution had created a union of slaveholding states. Those new to Washington and others throughout the North are bent on denying us our birthright.

Argument Slavery existed when the nation was founded and should be permitted to continue.

Compare and Contrast

Explain the similarities and differences between what the two authors think.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

How did you complete the graphic organizer? You could have provided an explanation that is similar to the following:

Both authors identify slavery as an important issue. However, each author feels differently about the issue. The author of “War Is Upon Us!” uses terms such as “barbarous institution,” “blighting presence,” and “misguided belief” to describe slavery. Clearly this author thinks that slavery is wrong and should come to an end. The author of “Sumter Is Surrendered” states that the nation was created as a “union of slaveholding states” and describes slavery as being a “birthright.” This author believes that states should not be required to end slavery.

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Guided Instruction Compare and Contrast Arguments and Claims Different arguments and claims about a war between the states are presented in both passages. Reread the following sections from each passage. Compare and contrast the arguments and claims that are presented.

War Is Upon Us! 15

The act of the rebels has led to the bloody strife. The voice of the country is now for war. Let the cannon missives fly. Let the full power of twenty millions of men united in a common cause be put forth. Let the money be poured out. Let the hammers resound in the armories. Let the men march forth. A quick, short, sharp but decisive contest, made by the Government with a force which nothing can resist, will re-establish its authority wherever the stars and stripes once waved!

Sumter Is Surrendered 15

The general sentiment is that the ruffians and cutthroats, who expect to invade the South with impunity, to set our cities on fire, lay waste our fields, and bring blood upon our whole land, have awoken a fearsome beast.

16

But such a war will not come without a terrible price. The South is determined to strike hard at her assassins. Rabble-rousers boast that the fire that has been kindled in Charleston will soon spread to every city the North has on its borders and beyond. But Anderson has shown an equal measure of defiance and courage in the heart of the Union man. Many will fall for both sides.

On Your Own Complete the graphic organizer on the next page. Identify the arguments and claims presented in each passage that help you understand what each author thinks about a war between the states. Explain these similarities and differences in the box at the bottom of the graphic organizer.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

War Is Upon Us! (Paragraph 15) Claims

Argument

Sumter Is Surrendered (Paragraphs 15–16) Claims

Argument

Compare and Contrast

Explain the similarities and differences between what the two authors think.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 3_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 3:55 PM Page 196

Independent Practice Answer Questions 1–2 based on the passage titled “War Is Upon Us!”

1

In Paragraph 3, the author makes a few claims about the decision that President Lincoln made to send supplies to the garrison at Fort Sumter. Reread this part of the passage and answer the questions that follow.

3

Mr. Lincoln has done what any compassionate leader would do. He ordered ships from New York to bring aid and comfort to those at Sumter. This was not a military mission. Although they would have fully been within the right to use military might to defend the federal property, the fleet was merely there to resupply. However, the ships’ crews could only watch in horror as southern cannon rained terror down on Sumter.

a) List two claims made by the author about the decision made by President Lincoln.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

b) What argument is the author trying to make? What argument is supported by the claims that are presented?

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Reading for the TEKS

2

Some of the events leading up to the attack on Fort Sumter are described in Paragraphs 5–6. Reread this part of the passage and answer the questions that follow.

5

Sometime after April 4, President Lincoln informed South Carolina governor Pickens that he intended to resupply the poorly provisioned garrison at Fort Sumter. Confederate leaders responded by requiring General Beauregard, the commander of the rebellious forces in Charleston, to issue ultimatums to Anderson.

6

Beauregard initiated a series of threats sent under the guise of peace missions! On the afternoon of April 11, a rebel mission traveled across Charleston Harbor to the fort. Anderson met with the ambassadors. He peacefully entertained the southern request for surrender, but honorably declined to relinquish the fort to the southern command.

a) What events are described in this part of the passage?

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

b) Based on how the events are described in this part of the passage, what does the author appear to think about what has happened? Explain your answer.

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Reading for the TEKS

Answer Questions 3–4 based on the passage titled “Sumter Is Surrendered.”

3

Reread Paragraph 4 and answer the question that follows.

April 9 4

Spirits in Charleston are at a boil! The streets swell with the arrival of militia from the countryside. Five thousand southern men, in addition to those at present in the fortifications around Charleston Harbor, are ready to take the field. The excitement is intense, and everybody is in fighting humor.

What happened in Charleston on April 9?

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

4

In Paragraph 6, the author makes some claims about the efforts made by Confederate leaders to avoid a conflict at Fort Sumter. Reread this part of the passage and answer the questions that follow.

April 11 6

Rumors are now flying about an imminent battle. It is said that Anderson has had every chance to quit Sumter peacefully and avoid conflict. Our commander, General Beauregard, has dispatched peace parties to persuade the Major and his men to relinquish their command. It is said that Anderson—a noble leader with just the smallest number of now starving troops—will remain true to the Republic. He will not stand down, but vouches he will not fire unless fired upon.

a) List two claims made by the author that relate to the efforts that were made to avoid a conflict.

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Reading for the TEKS

b) What argument is the author trying to make? What argument is supported by the claims that are presented?

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

Answer Question 5 based on both passages (“War Is Upon Us!” and “Sumter Is Surrendered”).

5

Both authors describe how the battle at Fort Sumter ended. Although they describe the same event, each presentation reflects a different mood or tone. Reread the sections of the passages presented below. Answer the questions that follow.

War Is Upon Us! 10

The brave men inside the fort withstood the onslaught for nearly three hours before returning fire. The volleys back and forth from both sides continued throughout the day and into the night of April 12. But for Anderson and his men, fighting was futile. Much of the fort was in flames. Telegraphic reports state that a vast hole had been made in the walls of the fortress, and that two of its great guns had been destroyed. The arrival of the relief ships from the North was all for naught.

11

It is learned that Anderson and what remains of his garrison are now surrendered. In place of the stars and stripes of the Union, a rebel flag flies over Sumter’s parapets. Beauregard, in one small honorable act, is allowing the survivors to take safe passage home. They will be transported to the awaiting northern flotilla, which will carry them safely back to the bosom of the Union.

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Reading for the TEKS

Sumter Is Surrendered April 13 12

Major Anderson has surrendered at five minutes to one this afternoon. The American flag has given place to the palmetto of South Carolina and the flag of the Confederacy. Major Anderson surrendered his sword to General Beauregard, but our general would not receive it from so brave a man. He says Major Anderson made a staunch fight, and elevated himself in the estimation of every true Carolinian.

13

The scene in the city after the raising of the flag of truce and the surrender is indescribable. The people were perfectly wild. Our soldiers on Morris Island gave three cheers for Major Anderson and groans for the northern fleet that would not come to his rescue. It is regarded as the greatest day in the history of South Carolina.

a) How does the author of “War Is Upon Us!” describe the outcome of the battle at Fort Sumter? List three things the author states when describing what happened.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

b) How does the author of “Sumter Is Surrendered” describe the outcome of the battle at Fort Sumter? List three things the author states when describing what happened.

c) Explain how the two presentations of events are different. How is the mood or tone of the presentations different?

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Unit 4 Dropping the Time Ball 1

Crowds of people shiver on the cold city streets. Some check their watches. Others look up at the ball on top of a tall mast on a nearby building. Finally the ball starts dropping and a chant begins: “Ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, one.” People cheer “Happy New Year!”

2

Every year since 1907 (except twice during World War II—in 1943 and 1944), a ball has dropped in Times Square in New York City to mark the beginning of the new year. It is the only time ball in the United States that still operates. But in the late 1800s most major cities had time balls. They were dropped at noon every day. People looked up from their work and checked their own watches. Everybody wanted to be “on time,” and the time ball was a signal that the whole town could see.

3

Before 1883, there was no standard time in the United States. A sundial or noon mark (a mark on a windowsill that the sun reached at noon) helped people tell time. Even public clocks in cities used their own local time, based on the sun. Because of the sun’s apparent motion, noon on one side of a large city could be at a different time than on the other side of the same city.

4

In Kansas City, Missouri, jewelers had clocks in their windows or outside their doors, each one claiming to have the correct time. Sometimes there was a twenty-minute difference in the times displayed, and people were confused about what time it really was. Finally the city decided to use a time ball like the ones other cities had. Everyone could see it drop, and all of Kansas City would operate by the same time.

5

The first time ball in the United States was established at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., around 1845. Earlier in the century, time balls had been set up in British port cities to let ship captains know the exact local time. People in the cities started checking the time balls for the correct time too.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

6

In the United States, the practice of using time balls spread quickly. Scientists began discussing the best sizes and locations. The balls were three to four feet in diameter. They were usually black, though Boston had a four-hundredpound copper ball and Chicago’s time ball was red. The ball would be set up on a tall mast, usually atop a prominent building. Just before noon the ball was hoisted to the top of the mast, and then exactly at noon it was dropped to the platform below.

7

The time ball solved problems like the one in Kansas City, but local time still varied from city A time ball drops from the State, War and Navy to city. When it took days to go Building in Washington, D.C. even a short distance of sixty miles, people didn’t worry about a difference of minutes. But when the railroads started transporting people and goods more rapidly across the country, it became important to know the exact time. Railroads had to follow rigid schedules. If a traveler’s watch didn’t show the correct railroad time, he just might see the train pull out of the station without him. In 1883, the railroads started using the four standard time zones we follow today (in the contiguous U.S.). The Naval Observatory was designated to provide a national time service based on these zones, and its transmission over the telegraph wires signaled the official noon in each zone to many time balls throughout the United States. Because the time balls now announced the new standard time for each zone instead of the sun time in each city, people in one part of a time zone used the same time as those in another part of that time zone.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

8

In the 1900s, when radio made it possible to communicate long distances without the use of telegraph wires, time balls became less important in announcing the correct time. People could just turn on the radio to check the accuracy of their clocks and watches. The last time ball that was dropped by a telegraph signal from the Naval Observatory was on top of the old Seaman’s Church Institute in New York City. It ceased operation in 1967, when the building was demolished. Most other time balls had stopped operating years before. Today, the ball that announces the new year in Times Square is the only reminder of those bygone days.

This time ball was dropped from the U.S. Naval Observatory on January 1, 2000, and 2001. It is made of aluminum.

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Reading for TEKS F Unit 4_ACCS Reading 10/24/13 4:03 PM Page 209

Short Response 1

The article begins in the present day. Why did the author start the article “Dropping the Time Ball” in the present and then switch to the past? Use specific details from the article in your response.

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Reading for the TEKS

2

How did the situation in Kansas City help illustrate one of the central ideas of this article? Identify the central idea and explain. Use specific details from the article in your response.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

3

What information in paragraph 6 helps the reader determine the meaning of the word “prominent”? Use specific details from the article in your response.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

4

Explain what happened as a result of the contiguous United States adopting standard time. Use specific details from the article in your response.

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Extended Response 5

Time balls played a significant role in history; however, they are no longer used to tell time throughout the world. Why did they lose popularity? What inventions played a major role in their demise? Why were these inventions noteworthy? Use specific details from the article in your response.

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Reading for the TEKS

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

6

Explain the reasons for the decline of time balls in the U.S. When did the United States discontinue the use of the time ball? What led up to the termination of their use? Do you think time balls will return in the United States in the future? What textual evidence supports your answer?

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

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What’s So Hot About Spices? 1

Sour pork curry from India. Spicy shrimp from Vietnam. Hot tamales from Mexico. Spicy foods seem to come from countries with a tropical climate. Two scientists, Jennifer Billing and Dr. Paul Sherman, wondered why. They thought that healthy eating habits probably helped people survive. But how could eating spicy foods in hot climates make diners healthier?

2

Spices come from plant parts: leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, or roots. (Salt isn’t a true spice since it doesn’t come from a plant.) Chemicals in spice plants have aromas and tastes that people like.

3

The desire for spices was so great that it affected the course of history. The Phoenicians, Arabs, and Europeans explored the world in search of shortcuts to tropical regions of Asia, where many of the popular spices grew. Christopher Columbus was looking for such a shortcut when he bumped into America.

4

Without refrigeration, foods spoil quickly and can cause illness. Since ancient times, people have used spices to keep food from spoiling—to preserve it. The Romans used red cumin and coriander. Pirates preserved wild game for sea travel by smoking it and rubbing it with allspice. The Egyptians also knew that spices could prevent decay. They even used them in mummification.

Jennifer Billing and Dr. Paul Sherman wondered why spicy foods seem to come from countries with a tropical climate.

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Reading for the TEKS

5

Hundreds of years ago people didn’t know how certain spices preserved foods. Since then, scientists have discovered that spices contain powerful chemicals. These chemicals protect the spice plants from bacteria, insects, fungi, and hungry animals. When we use spices, the same chemicals prevent the growth of bacteria that spoil our food and can sometimes make us sick.

6

Scientists have tested thirty spices on dozens of food-spoiling bacteria. Every spice affected at least one type of bacterium. The super bacteria killers were allspice, garlic, onion, and oregano. These spices killed or slowed the growth of all bacteria on which they were tested.

7

Some spices aren’t so appealing—at least until you get used to them. You probably wouldn’t cover yourself with the scent of garlic or onion if you were trying to impress your friends. Eating fresh hot peppers and chilies can blister your mouth. Then why did people start eating foods seasoned with these red-hot spices? Ms. Billing and Dr. Sherman had a clue. The two scientists guessed that people who added the spices to their food would have been healthier than those who didn’t. If that guess was right, recipes from tropical climates (where foods spoil faster and the risk of food poisoning is higher) should contain more bacteria-killing spices than those from cool climates.

8

To test their idea, the scientists studied recipes in nearly one hundred cookbooks from all over the world. First they picked traditional dishes that used meat, since meat spoils quickly. They chose older recipes that were first used before refrigeration. Collecting more than 4,500 recipes from thirty-six countries, they listed all the spices used. The bacteria killers were the big winners! Seven of the world’s ten most commonly used spices have strong antibacterial power: onion, garlic, hot peppers, bay leaf, cinnamon, cloves, and thyme.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

9

Another finding puzzled the scientists. Pepper and lemon/lime juice ranked second and fifth in the Top Ten. This was surprising because these two spices aren’t great at wiping out bacteria. But it turns out that they boost the bacteria-killing power of other spices used with them.

10

What about climate? Did warmer countries have spicier dishes? The scientists compared the average temperature of each country to the number of spices used. They found that dishes from cooler countries had few spices. (In Scandinavia many recipes have no spices at all.) Foods get spicier as the climate gets hotter. Dishes from tropical countries like Ethiopia, India, and Indonesia used the most spices in the world. They had an average of more than six spices per recipe. Recipes from hot climates also won the prize for including the most bacteria-killing spices. For example, key ingredients in curry dishes popular in India are cumin, cinnamon, and cloves, all good at killing bacteria or slowing their growth.

37°

37° 42° 48°

47°

49°

48°

46° 51°

48° 54°

56°

59°

58°

69°

57° 63°

65° 74°

56°

62° 66°

54°

67° 81° 76°

80°

70°

81°

81°

82°

Equator

79°

72°

75° Average number of spices in each meat dish. 0 to 2.0

63°

80°

65°

2.1–3.0 3.1–4.0 4.1–5.0

Each temperature is the average for a typical year.

5.1–6.0 more than 6

The scientists found cookbooks from thirty-six different countries. The colors show that the people in most warmer nations use more different kinds of spices than those farther north and south. Some warmer countries may use large amounts of just a few spices.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

11

In the United States, garlic, onion, and hot peppers are used more in the South than they are in the North. Spices in our food make it more tasty. But as scientists discovered, spices often do an even more important job. People living in hot climates had good reason to get used to strong-tasting spices. These bacteria killers helped preserve foods and kept people healthy. Today we have other ways to preserve our food, such as refrigerating it and freezing it. But that tasty chili powder might still make your taco a healthier lunch.

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Short Response 1

What is the central idea of the third and fourth paragraphs? How does the author convey that central idea? Use examples from the article in your answer.

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Reading for the TEKS

2

According to the article, why did the use of spices contribute to the health of certain populations? Use specific details from the article in your response.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

3

How does the author help the reader understand that recipes from cooler climates have fewer spices? Use specific details from the article in your response.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

4

Spices were historically used to preserve foods. Why are spices able to preserve food? What spices are the best for preserving food? Use specific details from the article in your response.

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Extended Response 5

Explain the connection between climate and spices in the diets of people throughout the world. Compare the use of spices in countries in the past and in current times. How does the map help the reader understand the article? Use specific details from the article in your response.

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Reading for the TEKS

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

6

Jennifer Billing and Dr. Paul Sherman noticed that spicy foods came from countries with tropical climates. What does this mean? How did these scientists determine the effect spices had on health? What were the results of their study? Use specific details from the article in your response.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

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He Made Trees Live Again 1

George Nakashima always insisted that he was a simple woodworker, not an artist. Even though major museums exhibited his work and the director of the American Craft Museum called him a national treasure, Mr. Nakashima rejected the label of artist. For almost fifty years, he simply went on shaping wood into beautiful chairs, tables, and cabinets.

George Nakashima

2

Nakashima hadn’t set out to become a furniture maker. Trained as an architect, he traveled as a young man to India to supervise the building of part of an ashram, or Hindu monastery. The spiritual influence of the ashram led him to rethink his life.

3

Nakashima had been fascinated by wood since he wandered as a boy among the huge trees of the Ho River Valley in Washington State. Now, unsatisfied by architecture, Nakashima decided to pursue woodworking as his vocation.

4

Soon after Nakashima returned to the United States, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. Like other Americans of Japanese descent, Nakashima, his wife, and their baby daughter, Mira, were forced into an internment camp. Allowed to take only what they could carry, the family was transported from their comfortable home to a camp in Hunt, Idaho. Once there, they were guarded day and night, isolated from contact with the outside world.

5

It was here, at the Minidoka Relocation Center, that Nakashima met an expert Japanese carpenter who taught him traditional woodworking skills and encouraged him to become a furniture

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maker. After their release, the family came to the small town of New Hope, Pennsylvania. Nakashima acquired a plot of wooded land outside town. With the help of family and friends, he cut down trees and moved rocks so he could put up a house and workshop. At first, life was difficult. The family lived in a tent while building the house. They had little money. But Nakashima was determined to create a life that would allow him to live close to the land, integrating work and family.

One of Nakashima’s earliest pieces, made around 1944.

6

Nakashima had a clear goal. He intended each piece of furniture he made to be as perfect as possible. Even making a box was an act of creation, Nakashima said, because it produced an object that had never existed before. But crafting furniture was far more difficult than making a box. First, proper wood had to be found. Initially Nakashima used local wood, sometimes from his own property. Later, he traveled to seek out English oak, Persian walnut, African zebra wood, and Indian teak. He especially liked to find giant roots that had been dug out of the ground after a tree was taken down. Nakashima felt that making this wood into furniture was a way of allowing the tree to live again.

7

Nakashima cut the wood into boards, then stacked the boards in his workshop. For months, even years, he studied the grain and contours of each board, writing notes on the wood in chalk. Nakashima believed each plank had an ideal use. When the woodworker found it, he could create an object that was both useful and beautiful.

8

Most furniture makers prefer perfect boards. Nakashima took pleasure in using wood with interesting knots and cracks. These irregularities gave the wood personality and showed that the tree had lived a happy life, he said. He used only solid boards, never veneers, and often designed tabletops with the edges left unfinished, showing the natural surface of the wood just beneath the bark. His furniture was finished with oil because Nakashima disliked hard finishes that hid the natural grain of the wood.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text Reading for the TEKS – Level F

9

One early piece Nakashima designed was a three legged chair for his small daughter, Mira, to use when she sat at the table for meals. The Mira chair became so popular that Nakashima later made both low and high versions. Another famous piece, the Conoid chair, has two legs supported by bladelike feet. Always, Nakashima’s designs were precise and graceful, marked by a simplicity that revealed his Low and high versions of the love for the wood. three-legged Mira chair.

10

As the years passed, Nakashima’s reputation grew, and his work received many awards. His children, Mira and Kevin, now adults, joined the team of craftspeople in their father’s studio. Nakashima’s dream of integrating work and family had come true. Nakashima believed that trees, rooted in earth and reaching skyward, remind us that we should live in harmony with each other and the natural world.

11

In 1984, he had another dream, of a peace altar made of wood. Determined to make the dream a reality, Nakashima bought a rare and expensive log from a 300-year-old black walnut tree. Cutting a log into boards is like cutting a diamond. If the log isn’t cut properly, the wood can be ruined. To cut this unusual log, Nakashima hired a specially trained woodcutter to come from California. On a snowy January day, Nakashima watched anxiously as the woodcutter started to work. Shortly after the first cut began, the saw screeched against metal. Something was buried inside the tree. Would it make the wood useless? Nakashima waited tensely until the cut was completed and the three-inch layer lifted off. Inside was a small piece of pipe, easily removed. Nakashima touched the richly marbled grain. “It is more beautiful than I ever imagined,” he said softly. After drying for two years, the wood had to be shaped and polished. On New Year’s Eve, 1986, Nakashima’s altar for peace was installed in the Episcopal Cathedral of St. John

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

the Divine in New York City. The famous music conductor Leonard Bernstein led a concert to celebrate. 12

The man who called himself a woodworker continued to win acclaim. Shortly before his death in 1990, the American Craft Museum in New York City celebrated Nakashima’s work in a major retrospective. But a writer for The New York Times may have summed up Nakashima’s accomplishments best when she said George Nakashima created “a song of joy in wood.”

This coffee table with unfinished edges illustrates Nakashima’s unique style.

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Short Response 1

The article states that Nakashima decided to pursue woodworking as his vocation. Which words from the beginning of the article help the reader understand the meaning of the word “vocation” as used in paragraph 3? Use specific details from the article in your response.

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Reading for the TEKS

2

George Nakashima’s family was sent to an internment camp during World War II. Why did this experience prove to be a turning point in his life? Use specific details from the article in your response.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

3

Some people believe that good things are worth waiting for. How does the way George Nakashima worked prove this claim to be true? What textual evidence supports your answer?

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4

How does the author help the reader understand what kind of person George Nakashima was? Use examples from the article in your analysis.

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Extended Response 5

Many people hope to fulfill their lifelong dreams. What were George Nakashima’s dreams? How did he pursue his dreams? Were his dreams achieved during his lifetime? What textual evidence supports your answer?

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Reading for the TEKS

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

6

George Nakashima saw beauty around him. How did Nakashima demonstrate his respect for nature? What potential did he see in the natural world? How did this translate into his work? Cite evidence in the text to support your answer.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

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Playing Pig 1

Aidan’s teacher asked each of the students to find out about a game played by five or more players. Aidan read this explanation about a card came to the class:

2

Pig is a simple yet hilarious game for as many as 13 players. It is action packed and moves fast; there’s no time to get bored when you play Pig. Eye-hand coordination and the ability to concentrate are great assets in playing this game. The object of Pig is to collect four cards of the same rank by passing cards one at a time to the player on the left and receiving them from the player on the right. Before play begins, someone must set up the deck by selecting four cards of one rank for each player. For example, for six players, you might use the aces, kings, queens, jacks, tens, and nines: 24 cards in all. For four players, you could use the aces, kings, queens, and jacks (16 cards). After the appropriate number and rank of cards have been selected, shuffle the cards and deal four to each player.

3

When the cards have been dealt and the dealer says, “Start!” players simultaneously pass one card they don’t want face down to the player on their left. Then they pick up the card that the player on their right has passed to them. Play continues this way until someone gets four of a kind. There are no turns in this game; everyone passes and collects cards as quickly as they possibly can. But players can never have more than four cards in their hand at one time, which means players cannot pick up the card on their right until they pass along a card to their left.

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

4

When a player gets four of a kind, he or she says nothing. Instead that player touches the end of the nose as unobtrusively as possible with an index finger and remains that way. As soon as a player makes this signal, the other players do the same even though they lack four of a kind. The last player to touch his or her nose loses that round and gets the letter P. It’s amazing how long it can take for some players who are concentrating on their hand to realize that everyone else in the group is touching their nose!

5

After a player gets a P, the next round begins with the player at the previous dealer’s left shuffling, dealing, and giving the start signal. When a player loses three times, he or she has received a P, an i, and a g. Thus he or she becomes a “Pig” and drops out of play. The next round continues with one player fewer after four cards of the same rank are taken out of the deck.

6

But the Pig can still participate in the game from the sidelines. Players cannot talk to someone who has become a Pig. If they do, they become a Pig themselves and must drop out. This gives Pigs something to do as they attempt to trick players into talking to them.

7

You can also play Pig with a stockpile. In that case, twelve or fewer players use the entire deck. Everyone gets four cards, and the rest of the cards are placed at the dealer’s right. The game is played the same way as described above except that the dealer draws from the stockpile and the player at the dealer’s right places cards face down in a discard pile. When the stockpile is used up, the discard pile becomes the new stockpile. Since the dealer has a slight advantage because he or she does not have to wait for the right-hand neighbor to discard, the winner of each hand deals the next hand.

8

When using a stockpile, it is unnecessary to take cards out of the deck as players leave the game. And play can continue until a single person wins, the first to collect four of a kind when only two players remain. With or without a stockpile, Pig is a fun card game—especially for a fairly large group.

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Short Response 1

What is the author's purpose in this passage?

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Reading for the TEKS

2

In the first paragraph, the author explains what the teacher asked the students to do. Did Aidan follow the teacher's instructions? Use information from the passage to support your answer.

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Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

3

Think about other card games that you play. How does Pig remind you of them? What is similar about them? What is different?

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Reading for the TEKS Comprehension Instruction for Informational Text – Level F

4

Imagine that you are introducing the game of Pig to a group of friends. In chronological order, describe the game instructions to your friends. Use information from the passage to support your response.

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Extended Response 5

Using the information in the passage, write a brief paragraph telling why you would or would not enjoy playing the game of Pig.

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Reading for the TEKS

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Reading for the TEKS (F)