COLOR THEORY + APPLICATIONS IND 5325|SPRING 2017|PROF. DARCI PAPPANO MARIA PAGLIA
TABLE OF CONTENTS 04 08 10 18 24 26 28 30 38 40 42 48 52
COLOR + ME COLOR + THEORY COLOR + DESIGN COLOR + PSYCOLOGY + FILM COLOR + BALANCE - read COLOR + HEALTHCARE - reading COLOR + RHYTHM – reading COLOR + EMPHASIS + RETAIL - assignment COLOR + SCALE – reading COLOR + PHOTO COLOR + VARIETY + HOSPITALITY COLOR + VARIETY + WORKPLACE COLOR + CULTURE
COLOR + ME Where am I from?
Born in Massachusetts, raised in Central Florida
What is my cultural background? Italian and Polish
Who is my family â€Ś composition? Mom, Dad, Brother, and Grandmother
What are my circumstances?
Full-time student, working-part time as a graduate teaching assistant
What Languages do I speak? English, a little Italian and Spanish
Where have I lived?
Worchester MA, Crystal River FL, Ocala FL, Lake Mary FL, Miami FL, Genoa IT
When did I become focused on design?
In high school I took a drafting class and an art history class and completely fell in love with both!
ARCHITECTURE Architecture 5th year
“An Architect knows something about Everything. An Engineer knows everything about One Thing.” ~Mathew Frederick
â€œNot all those who wander are lost.â€?
~ J.R.R. Tolkien
Paris Rome Florence Genoa Basel Lyon Venice Berlin London Bahamas B.V.I Puerto Rico Portland York Beach Boston Providence RI Cleveland Dayton Cincinnati Chicago Philadelphia Baltimore Washington DC Williamsburg Nashville Memphis Huntsville Charleston Atlanta Savannah Pensacola Key West
COLOR + THEORY
Introduction Color theory is the study and practice of a set of principles used to understand the relationships among colors. Color, if used well, has the potential to enhance out physical environment, influence our personal experiences of space, and provide a greater sense of health and wellbeing. Key Concepts o Light is the essence of Color, without light there is not color. o Additive color involves mixing primary light colors (red, green, blue) o Subtractive color involves mixing primary pigment colors (red, yellow, blue) o Hue is pure color. It can be altered in three ways: o Tint = hue + white o Tone = hue + grey o Shade = hue + black o Complementary colors – two colors opposite one another on the color wheel o Analogous colors – two or more colors adjacent to each other on the color wheel. o Monochromatic – a scheme of colors based on variations of a particular hue. o Triad – three colors evenly space along the color wheel. o Cool colors: violets, blues, greens, blue-violets o Warm colors: reds, yellows, oranges, red-violets o Color systems: Munsell Color Tree, Natural Color System, pantone Thoughts Color theory has been study for centuries and is a complex process. Color resists any one schematic system which is why the use of color is such a difficult concept to grasp and execute well. Designers rely mostly on instinct and experience when working with color.
COLOR + DESIGN Introduction This is an investigation into the use of color by interior architects. In good design, color use goes beyond just decorative. It enhances the user experience of the space by involving psychology, environmental behavior, materiality, and programing. Casa Barragan Architect: Luis Barragan (1902 – 1988) Location: Tacubaya, Mexico Year: 1948 Barragan’s house and studio are built on two adjacent lots in the old Tacubaya neighborhood of Mexico City. The main façade of the house is aligned with the street and matches the appearance and ascetic of the neighboring constructions. The appearance of the exterior preserves the natural color and texture of the plastered concrete. Only the pedestrian and automobile entrances are painted. Luis Barragan is able to balance both the tradition and the modern with his use of color in this project. His bright color choices are remnants of traditional Mexican architecture but he uses them in a modernist way as planes and volumes. He pays special attention to how light effects color both on the interior and exterior. Inside his colors range from muted reflecting a spiritually quality, to bright and exciting drawing ones focus. Outside Barragan understands how the intense sunlight of Mexico effects and can change the appearance of a color, what might be garish and affronting anywhere else fits right into the landscape in Mexico. Barragan's deep love of nature is also reflected in his use of color. He constantly juxtaposes the warm paint colors to the cooler colors of nature.
Entrance The entrance hall is the first space you experience upon entering the house. It functions as a place of waiting, and also prepares ones senses. The Yellow color of the walls paired with the Orange colored wood paneling create a feeling of warmth and light in the space. When the door is opened the bright Pink can be seen from the next room. The pink adds depth to the space as well as fostering a sense of curiosity.
Uses Warm and Analogous colors that reflect traditional Mexican architecture.
The bright Pink color of the interior wall is Complementary to the natural Green exterior.
Library + Living Area The white walls and double height space make the room feel larger and lighter than it actually is.
This area is the most tame in the house. It forgoes the brighter colors for a more Monochromatic scheme. The Natural brown and tan colors of the wood, leather, and wool are emphasized.
Patio Again the tension between the built environment and nature is emphasized by the bright Pink paint and the Green vines
Terrace The roof terrace follows the same Warm color scheme as the interior of the house, using Pinks, Oranges, and Yellows. They are made even more vivid set against the background of blue sky. Barraganâ€™s use of color is so unique because anywhere else in the world the colors would appear garish. However, due to the angle of the sun relative to the equator, in Mexico they are more warm than shocking.
Pink and Yellow-Orange are the split complementary of Blue.
As an example, of an architect who uses color, Luis Barragan’s design aesthetic goes beyond simply decorative. His use of color is influenced by his culture and design philosophy of “emotional architecture” that strives for serenity.
COLOR+PSYCHOLOGY+FILM Introduction Our perception of color is effected by our individual associations with color. Colors do not change, only our acceptance of them over time. How we react to a color or group of colors has a lot to do with the emotions that we associate with that color and these emotions can stem from personal experience, outside influence, and cultural connotations.
Scott Pilgrim vs. The World Director: Edgar Wright Year: 2010 Base off the graphic novels by Bryan Lee O'Malley, the film tells the story of slacker and part-time musician Scott Pilgrim. Scott falls in love with a girl named Ramona Flowers, but he must defeat her seven evil exes in order to date her. The use of color as a story telling element is very prominent in this movie. From the comic book like graphic overlays, to Ramonaâ€™s frequently changing hair color holds a lot of symbolism for character identification and development.
Thoughts This is an example of how color can be used to support a narrative or story. In the same way that color helped to connect and distinguish important aspects of this film, color can be used in architecture and design to present a narrative for the user to experience or move through a space.
Each of Ramonaâ€™s exes can be associated and identified with a different color. Each scene featuring an ex is enhances with the use of that color in lighting, scenery, costuming, and overall tone.
Ex #1 Matthew Patel Ramonaâ€™s ex Matthew Patel is associated with the color purple. Purple is a symbol of royalty, mystery, and spirituality. This is reinforced by Matthews possession of mystical powers, like levitation, and his Bollywood style of fighting.
Ex #2 Lucas Lee Ramonaâ€™s Ex Lucas Lee is associated with the color blue. Blue is a symbol of great success and strength, reflected in Lucas' super human strength and success as a movie star. It is also a symbol of great sorrow which is how Scott Pilgrim is feeling in these scenes.
Ex #3 Todd Ingram Ramona’s ex Todd Ingram is associated with the color Green. Green is a symbol of nature but also a symbol of envy. This can be seen in the characters veganism powered telekinesis.
Ex #4 Roxy Richter Ramona’s ex Roxy Richter is associated with a monotonous color palate of black, white, and silver. While symbolizing elegance and glamor, this scheme also implies and emptiness, loneliness and confusion. Ramona’s relationship with Roxy was brief in a time when Ramona was unsure of herself.
Exes #5 + #6 Kyle + Ken Katayanagi Ramonaâ€™s twin exes Kyle and Ken Katayanagi are associated with the color yellow. yellow is a symbol self esteem and wealth but also cowardness. In the movie this is a moment of growth for Scott Pilgrim, where by battling the twins he gains the confidence and strength to defeat them and fight for Ramonaâ€™s heart.
Ex #7 Gideon Graves Romana's last and most powerful ex is Gideon Graves who is associated with the color red. Red is a symbol of love and hatred. Expressed in Scotts hatred for Gideon and his final fight to win the love of Ramona.
COLOR + BALANCE Introduction Color Balance is the relationship of different hues to one another when each is perceived to be equal in perceived visual weight. Balance in interior design is used to organize a space and make the environment aesthetically pleasing. Symmetry
Key Concepts o Symmetry or Formal Balance is the arrangement of elements on either side of an implied axis that are equally balanced. o Asymmetry or Informal Balance is when elements on either side of an implied axis are equal in color weight but vary in shape and size. o Radial Balance is the equal rotating of design elements around a central axis. o Types of color Balance: o Value Contrast (light/dark) o Hue Balance (complements) o Intensity Contrast (bright/dull) o Size of Area (large/small)
Thoughts Color is both beautiful and functional. It can illicit certain emotions and provide clues about your surroundings. Too little color or too much color can be bad though. To much use of only one color can become monotonous. Using too many colors can become chaotic and confusing.
COLOR + HEALTHCARE
Color for Wayfinding
Bright Colors in Pediatrics
Introduction While there is no quantifiable evidence that color helps with the healing process, it is true that color can effect a persons phycological well being. Persons in a calming or pleasing environment will feel more comfortable with their surroundings an be in a better state overall than someone who is uncomfortable or stressed by their surroundings. This is where the “hospitality-mentality” becomes important for healthcare designers. Key Concepts o Evidence based design uses credible data and research to influence design decisions o Biophelia is the inherent human attraction to nature. o Research shows that emotional responses triggered by the use of color and natural materials can effect psychological responses in patients. o Room by Room: o Public Spaces – use calming, cool colors with a variety of color accents and art for visual interest o Corridors – use color to aid with way o Pediatrics – the use of bright, fun colors can help children feel more comfortable and entertained o Surgical Areas – the use of cool colors like blues and greens provide surgeons a respite from focusing on red Thoughts There is huge potential to incorporate color and design into the healthcare environment. In a system that is often driven by generic, inexpensive building solutions, better space design can become another element of the healing process.
COLOR + RHYTHM
Introduction Rhythm is Movement. It is the repetition, recurrence or sequencing of similar design elements in the built environment to create a pattern. Inspiration is often taken from nature and the nature environment where patterns and rhythm are innate occurrences. Through the use of color and rhythm, visual continuity of space is achieved and helps guide users along a path or sequence. Key Concepts Types of Rhythm: o Repetition is the systematic, orderly succession of identical design elements along a defined path. o Alteration is when two distinctly different design elements are repeated in sequence o Progression is the repetition of similar elements with a continuous change. o Continuation is the placement of one or more colors to create a continuous movement of the eye through a space. o Radiation is a concentric color arrangement to create visual movement. Thoughts The goal of designing with rhythm is to create visual movement that connects all parts of the design. It is helpful with wayfinding. Patterns and rhythm can be used in all elements of design (textiles, wall coverings, carpets, etc.) but the key is to achieve balance. Be mindful of the scale and size. Patterns can be used to add an orderly calming feel to a space or can introduce excitement and energy to a space if the sequence is intentionally disrupter.
COLOR+EMPHASIS+RETAIL Introduction Emphasis is a tool for creating points of interest in a design both for aesthetic purposes and to orient users on a space. This is an investigation into how color and emphasis is used in a retail environment. Designers rely on contrast to create emphasis, draw attention, and add variety.
Nespresso Boutique and Café Designer: Francis Krempp Location: Miami Beach, Florida Year: 2008 The Nespresso Boutique and Café located within 1111 Lincoln Road, uses the contrast of color, texture, and hue to not only bring attention to its merchandize but, also, to the function of the space. The boutique and café uses various methods of contrast to give emphasis including contrast of hue, contrast of value, contrast of design feature, contrast of texture, and focal points.
Thoughts Living in Miami and being so close to this boutique, presents a great opportunity to experience this space in person. It includes several example of how color can be used to emphasize all manner of elements, from aiding in wayfinding, displaying a product, or adding interest to a space with a focal pint.
Contrast of Hue The contrast of creamy white and very dark brown call attention to the two functions of this store. The front of the space is a cafĂŠ and this function is emphasized by the dark paneling and bright furniture. The back portion of the space is the retail area and can be differentiated by the much lighter walls.
Contrast of Value Here the contrast of value, or the contrast of black and white, is used to showcase different product models. The white background allows the darker machines to be the focus of the display. Additionally the dark vertical strips are used to separate different model types.
CONTRAST OF A DESIGN FEATURE
Two different types of displays can be seen in the foreground of this image. One, which is round, is used to display only the espresso makers at nearly eyelevel. The lower, rectangular displays hold accessories. This gives hierarchy to what is on the taller, more slender displays.
Contrast of Texture There are two different floor finishes used on this store. The first is a smooth greyish stone the marks the path of travel throughout the cafe and store. The other is wood slats that indicate areas of rest such as seating or certain displays.
The focal point of this space is the back wall and storage unit behind the storeâ€™s checkout counter. It can be seen from the entrance to the back of the store. Further attention is brought to the display by the stark deference between its brightly colored, striped arrangement and the surrounding white walls.
COLOR + SCALE Introduction Proportion and scale are some of the most important elements designers use to rationalize and seek order in the world. The beauty we see in the natural world stems from inherent proportions in nature that help to make sense of everything. We often hold these natural relationships as the standard for beauty and perfection. Golden Ratio in Nature
Key Concepts o Color, shape, and form are inseparable design elements. o Proportion refers to the size of something in relation to something else or the whole o Scale refers to the size of something in relation to the body. o Methods for establishing proportional relationships: o Grid System o Golden Section or Golden Ratio o Fibonacci Sequence o Le Modular o Tatami Mats
Thoughts Scale and proportion are another example of how nature informs design. Whether seeking relationships between objects, or relationships between ourselves and the space we inhabit, the way we perceive these comparisons is rooted in the relationships of the nature that surrounds us. Scale and proportion are all around us even when we do not realize or perceive it to be.
COLOR + PHOTO Introduction Photography and color go hand in hand. They both focus and analyze how we perceive light and texture. We take and edit photographs to help us capture, preserve, and understand the world around us. Key Concepts When Taking Photographs: o Shoot early in the morning or late afternoon when the light is low for greater contrast. o Use the Rule of Thirds to take balanced and engaging photos o Do not be afraid to show people, they give life and scale to an image o Embrace negative space o Play with reflective surfaces Thoughts As architects we take a lot of photographs, especially on with the cameras on phones. The tips and guidelines covered can apply to all types of photography and are helpful to capture exciting, meaningful, and engaging images.
COLOR+VARIETY+HOSPITALITY Introduction This is an investigation into how color is used in the hospitality industry and how the concept of variety can be used to connect and give character to several spaces in sequence. Variety is the combination of one or more color elements with shape, form, pattern, and texture to create diversity and contrast in an interior space.
Fontainebleau Hotel Miami Architect: Morris Lapidus (1902 - 2001) Location: Miami Beach, Florida Year: 1954 The Fontainebleau Miami Beach is one of the most historically and architecturally significant buildings in Florida. Though renovated in the early 2000s, much of the current design still reflects Morris Lapidusâ€™ original vison. No part more so than the hotelâ€™s lobby. The use of black and white, metallics, and bright colors are a nod to the Miami Modern Style of the 1950s and 60s.
Thoughts To be able to return to this hotel after several years, not with a design eye, was an interesting experience. The appreciation for the space and deign was increased and the design details used to connect and relate the space was brought into sharper focus.
Chateau Lobby + Bleau Bar
Color + Line
Color + Shape
Color + Texture
Color + Pattern
Color + Line the columns are the most emphasized linear elements in the lobby. There are three different types and they all serve different functions. The most prominent are the black and white square ones. The black color stands out against the mostly white space and implies a division between the lobby and the bar. Overall the columns symbolize strength and stability, while accentuating height. They give scale to an otherwise long, wide, squat space. Color + Shape come together in the carpeted areas of the lobby. Their blue/violet color stands out against the mostly black and white room and the curving shapes of the carpets (and furniture within) contrast the rigid rectilinear lobby. Both of these elements bring emphasis to these areas as places of rest where people in a hurry can move fluidly around them without interruption. This concept is also tied into the bar. The bar is also contained within a sunken rounded space. Blueish lighting and carpet are used to tie that space into the rest of the lobby. Color + Texture is used to call attention to the most important uses of the lobby. The desk, elevator bank, and hall entrance to the restaurants, spa, and pool are all highlighted using a series of reflective panels and tiles that are a much darker color than the surrounding walls. Color + Pattern are most prominent in the arrangement of the black and white floor tiles. The pattern follows the curve of the lobby and inconspicuous leads visitors through the lobby from one end to the opposite.
Color + Line
Color + Shape
Color + Texture
Color + Pattern
Color + Line The dark marble lines on the floor contrasts with the light and designates where people are meant to rest or lounge. The dark baseboards complete the outline of the pathway. The lines also connect points in the space: the ballroom entrances. The horizontal is emphasized much more in this space than the vertical. The columns are the same light color as the walls and floor, making them blend in rather than stand out. Color + Shape This space utilizes rectilinear shapes much more. There are very few curved or circular shapes used and those that are not explicitly emphasized. For example the oval planters are the same light color as the columns and the walls so that the bright green vegetation is what is the main focus. Color + Texture Nearly everything in the space is a smooth or reflective monochrome material. The only exceptions are the blue carpet, which designates a place of rest, and the dark wood paneling of the baseboards and the doors. The dark wood creates contrasts and brings a strong emphasis to the ballroom entrances, which is main focus of this space. Color + Pattern The main design features of this space is the iconic â€œcheese wallâ€? with its various circular openings. The appearance of this wall changes from day to night, as, during the day the circles are filled with bright light, and at night they are dark navy/black against the white wall. This circular theme is continued in the circular graphics on the carpet and the selection of light fixtures. The wall is subtly related to other elements of the space to create continuity and fluidity in an otherwise rigid space.
COLOR+VARIETY+WORKPLACE Introduction This is an investigation into how color is used in the workplace and how the concept of variety can be used to connect and give character to several spaces in sequence. It can provide distinction without physically separating a space with walls. Variety is the combination of one or more color elements with shape, form, pattern, and texture to create diversity and contrast in an interior space. One Workplace Architect: Design Blitz Location: Santa Clara, California Year: 2013 One Workplace is one of Californiaâ€™s largest furniture dealers. They partnered with the firm Design Blitz to redesign One Workplace Headquarters and redefine the architectural standard of the showroom experience. In this project the boundaries between showroom and office space bleed together into one cohesive, collaborative experience.
Thoughts The use of color beyond the neutral tones is very limited on this project. Black, white, grey, and wood tones are used to reflect the industrious nature of the surrounding are. Color is used in a very deliberate way to celebrate the communal quality of the project. The sparing use of color and pattern in the project is intentional. These elements can be changed as trends change ensuring the flexibility and longevity of the space.
Color + Line
Color + Line The arrangement of the desks and other furniture create an implied line which directs the eye towards the rooms focal point, the “boomeranged” conference space.
Color + Shape
Color + Shape color is used in small areas around the showroom/workspace to differentiate different groups or functions. However, in the kitchen area all the colors come together in this hub creating a metaphorical “family table” where all the employees come together.
Color + Texture The perforations of the exterior metal skin are designed to look like tree branches. This feature gives a variety of light effects on both the interior and exterior. The metallic, bubbled surface provides visual contrast with the rest of the buildings smooth, matte exterior.
Color + Texture
Color + Pattern The elongated black, white, and grey stripes of the carpet are also oriented towards the rooms focal point. The carpet also gives hierarchy to certain areas meant for work or collaboration. Wooden floors are areas of meeting and polished concert floors are areas of relaxation.
Color + Pattern
COLOR + CULTURE Introduction This is an investigation into how color is used in different cultures â€“ my culture and another that I choose. My culture is Italians and the one I chose to research further was India. Both courtiers have cultures deeply rooted in faith and religious tradition. They take inspiration from the nature that surrounds them.
Italy How Italians view the use of color is greatly integrated in to the nations rich history, political past and religious views. Many of the colors seen in the lush pallets of Italy come from foods, the landscape, and the sea that surrounds the country. As a predominantly Catholic country and the seat of the pope, Italians use of color permeated with religious symbolism. India Over time color in India has become synonymous with religion and the expression of faith and beliefs. The symbolism of color stands out and influences every aspect of life in India including religion, politics, festivals, and celebrations. The expression of color is what unifies such a diverse country of people with multiple outlooks, lifestyles, and traditions.
Thoughts It was interesting too explore the similarities and differences of each of these cultures; to see how there beliefs and associations can be extremely similar in some cases and vastly different in other.
Tomato red: a symbol of charity to the Italian people. It also worn for luck. It is a symbol of the Catholic faith as well as life, sacrifice, and repentance.
Meadow green: Also signifying Catholicism in Italy. The color symbolizes the life, growth, and youthfulness.
Naples yellow: a natural pigment used in ceramics and paintings found near Mt. Vesuvius. Gold is a sign of the divine.
Sienna: from the city with the same name where the building facades are this hue.
Magenta: named after the battle of Magenta and the town where it was fought
Red: associated with the revered Hindu goddess Durga. Red also stands for purity and is the preferred color of brides. It symbolizes unity, commitment, purity, and fertility.
White: associated with death, funerals, and widow. Fundamentally white, as a color repels all other colors and is a symbol of disconnecting oneself from society and life. Turquoise: associated with the God Lord Krishna and strength.
Green: symbolizes new beginning, harvest, and happiness in India's agrarian culture. It is also a revered color of Islam. The color symbolizes nature and therefor is a manifestation of God. Turmeric: symbolize sanctity and is used in ceremonies offering prayers and marriage.
FINAL THOUGHTS I really enjoyed this class. It gave me a new perspective on the use of color in design. Often as architecture students we are told to use color sparingly, as apposed to Interior students. This class has made me want to incorporate color into my projects, especially in a meaningful way. I do not think I will be as hesitant to design with color.