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x EDUCATION  –  ESOL   MARIANA  RIVAS   DR.  MARIA  SEVILLANO  

EDUC 617  –  ESOL  SEMINAR  IN  SCHOOL  SETTING  


Running   Head:  CRITIQUE  OF  RESEARCH  ARTICLE                                   Critique  Analysis  of  Reciprocal  Teaching  Of  Reading  Comprehension  Strategies  for   Students  with  Learning  Disabilities  Who  Use  English  as  a  Second  Language     Maria  Mora,  Maria  Mejía,  Mariana  Rivas  and  Marco  Mazzocchi     Ana  G.  Mendez  University  System       December  01,  2011      


1 Introduction  

                       The  purpose  of  the  study  of  this  journal,  which  was  written  by  Janette   Kattmann  Klingner  and  Sharon  Vaughan,  and  was  published  in  The  Elementary   School  Journal  vol.96,  no.3  in  1966  by  the  University  of  Chicago,  is  to  discuss  and   review  the  critique  of  a  project  of  investigation;  the  effect  of  two  different   instructional  approaches,  to  provide  strategies  for  reading  comprehension   instruction  for  seventh  and  eighth  grade  ESL  students  with  learning  difficulties  in   the  comprehension  of  the  English  language.                        According  to  Baca  &  Cervantes,  1989,  “there  is  a  big  significant  amount  of   students  who  speak  English  as  a  second  language  that  also  shows  serious  learning   issues  that  may  qualify  them  for  placement  in  special  educational  programs”.  These   students  often  exhibit  more  problems  with  reading  comprehension  than  do  fluent   speakers  of  English  of  comparable  ability,  because  of  differences  in  background   knowledge  relevant  to  what  is  read  in  school  and  limited  English  language   proficiency  (Clarke,  1980;  Lee,  1986;  Pritchard,  1990).                      The  aspects  that  are  described  and  analyzed  here  are:  research  design,  the   taking  of  samples,  measure,  the  procedure  for  analysis  of  data,  findings  and  results.   The  summary  is  presented  in  a  correct  and  concrete  form  on  the  effectiveness  of  the   investigation,  including  the  problem,  subject,  of  the  sample,  methodology,  findings   and  recommendations.                      The  investigation  follows  a  specific  order  on  every  step  of  the  study,  review  of   the  literature  was  develop  and  well  organized  and  most  of  the  literature  was  up  to  


2

date. The  theoretical  framework  was  presented  in  a  very  interesting  way  and  it   should  be  provided.                        This  study  focused  on  two  main  activities;  the  first  activity  was  exploratory   data  collection  and  analysis,  in  the  school  setting.  The  second  activity  was  to  explore   the  hypothesis  and  variables.  Therefore,  the  study  used  appropriate  descriptive,   quantitative  and  qualitative  analysis,  using  the  analysis  of  the  data  to  questions   directly  to  the  students  of  the  population.    

The article  is  written  in  a  clear  and  concise  way  using  appropriate  

lexicon within  the  context  of  education.  It  is  organized  in  clear  general  sections   (abstract,  purpose  of  study,  method,  results,  discussion)  as  well  as  sub-­‐sections   allowing  the  readers  a  better  understanding  of  the  findings  and  outcomes  of  the   research  study  (reciprocal  teaching,  cross-­‐age  tutoring  and  cooperative  learning,   group  outcomes,  patterns  of  change  in  reading  comprehension,  characteristics  of   students  who  showed  more  and  less  growth,  etc.)   Abstract   Abstract  aims  to  give  a  clear  overview  of  the  study  including  the  research   problems,  sample,  methodology  and  the  findings.  However,  no  recommendations   are  included  in  the  abstract.     Research  problem  


The study  clearly  states  the  origins  for  the  research  problems  by  naming   previous  works,  that  although  similar  in  natural  different  from  the  one  proposed,  as   for  instance  Palinscar  and  Brown’s  (1984).   Reciprocal  Teaching   The  study  clearly  explains  the  meaning  of  the  method  of  Reciprocal  Teaching,   as  a  teaching  model  to  improve  comprehension  for  students  who  can  decode  but   have  difficulty  comprehending  text  through  the  use  of  four  strategies  prediction,   summarization,  question  generation,  and  clarification.    The  study  gives  examples  of   previous  research  using  this  model.   Cross-­‐Age  Tutoring  and  Cooperative  Learning   Although  the  study  introduces  the  concept  of  Cross-­‐Age  Tutoring  and   Cooperative  Learning,  it  doesn’t  explain  what  they  are  as  clearly  as  the  study  did  in   the  case  of  Reciprocal  Teaching.  The  study  only  exposes  their  advantages  in  terms  of   instructional  approaches  but  it  doesn’t  say  anything  about  how  a  teacher  or  tutor   uses  them  with  a  student.   Purpose  of  the  study   The  purpose  of  the  study  is  clearly  identified  as  per  two  instructional   approaches  for  providing  reading  comprehension  strategy  instruction  to  seventh   and  eighth  grade  ESL  students  with  Learning  disabilities  on  comprehension  of   English-­‐languages  text:  (a)  reciprocal  teaching  in  combination  with  cross-­‐age   tutoring,  and  (b)  reciprocal  teaching  in  combination  with  cooperative  grouping.    


The ultimate  aim  of  the  study  –  as  clearly  stated-­‐  is  to  understand  the   performances  of  individual  students  in  each  treatment  group  in  an  effort  to   determine  which  characteristics  were  most  likely  to  success.     Method   The  subjects  are  clearly  identified  N=  42  seventh  and  eighth  graders  from  a   middle  school,  73%  of  them  Hispanic.  Also,  there  is  a  good  record  of  how  is  the  data   collection  tool  administered.  Procedures  are  clearly  identified  and  include  Phase  2:   cross-­‐age  tutoring  group  (study  specifies  day  by  day  what  is  done  in  this  phase)  and   Phase  2:  cooperative  learning  group  (study  specifies  day  by  day  what  is  done  in  this   phase)     Measures   The  study  includes  two  types  of  measures,  descriptive  measures:   administered  individually  prior  to  the  intervention  such  as  Woodcock-­‐Johnson  test   of  achievement:  Letter  Word  Identification;  and  quantitative  measures:  that   included  one  test,  the  Gates-­‐MacGinite  Reading  Comprehension  Test  (MacGinite,   1989)   Results   A  two-­‐way  analysis  of  variance  with  one  between-­‐subjects  and  one  within-­‐ subjects  factor  was  applied  to  answer  the  questions  regarding  treatment  outcomes.   The  procedure  was  conducted  using  pre  and  posttest  from  MacGinite  Reading   Comprehension  Test  (MacGinite,  1989)  


Discussion As  per  the  beginning,  this  study  investigates  the  efficacy  of  two  related   interventions  on  the  reading  comprehension  of  seventh  and  eighth  graders  with   learning  disabilities  (LD)  who  used  English  as  a  Second  Language.     Overall,  the  interventions  administered  appeared  to  improved  the  reading   comprehension  of  ESL  students  with  LD.  The  study  clearly  aligns  the  outcomes  of   the  interventions  and  findings  with  the  research  questions     The  study  does  not  include  recommendations  or  lessons  learnt  for  future   research  made.  


References Clarke,  M.A  (1980).  The  short  circuit  hypothesis  of  ESL  reading-­‐or  when  language   competence  interferes  with  reading  performance.  Modern  Language  Journal,  64,   203-­‐209   Lee,  J.F  (1986).  Background  Knowledge  and  L2  reading.  Modern  Language  Journal,  70,  350-­‐ 354.   MacGinite,  W.H.    (1989)  Gates-­‐MacGinite  Reading  Tests  (Level  5/6  Forms  K  and  L).   Chicago:  Riverside      


The answer  might  be   The  answer  might  be   integrating   integrating   information  and   information  and   communication   communication   technologies  across   technologies  across   the  college  curriculum.     the  college  curriculum.    

HHowever, despite   owever,  despite  

educators recognize   educators  trechnology   ecognize   as   integration   integration  technology  as    a  valued  commodity  for      a  valued  commodity  for     professionals  and  a  vital   professionals   component     and  a  vital   component     in  the  teaching  process,   in  the  teaching  process,   there  are     there  are     external  (first  order)  and   external  (first  order)  and  

best

How can  schools  

prepare  students    to  become  

Overcoming

attractive

second-­‐order

and  

competent

barriers to  

professionals  who  are  

technology integration  

Designed by   Mariana   Rivas  


First-­‐order barriers  

Obstacles that  are  extrinsic  

Second-­‐order barriers  

to teachers,  namely,  

Obstacles intrinsic  to  teachers  

unreliability of  equipment,  

and by  nature  intangible   obstacles  more  difficult  to   identify  even  for  the  teachers   themselves.  (a)  Computer   anxiety  is  viewed  as  the  degree   of  fear  that  students  feel  while   learning  and  using  technology;   (b)  Pedagogical  beliefs  are  the   set  of  attitudes  teachers  have   about  teaching  and  learning   that  hinder  them  to   change  their  


Visit on  the  website:   http://www.2ndbarriers.com  

Overcoming  second-­order   barriers  to  technology   integration  

   

The purpose of the study is to examine the way professors use computer technology for

instructional purposes and the factors that

 

inhibit their use of technology,

⇒Internal factors coined by experts as second-order barriers such as attitudes, beliefs, computer anxiety or fear that inhibit technology integration across the curriculum.

How do professor’s attitudes toward technology relate to the practice of integrating technology?

The methodology employs a mixed research design. The survey instrument includes quantitative (forced choice) and qualitative (open-ended) questions that invite individual responses. The dependent variable is professors’ use of computers and the independent variables are attitudes, pedagogical beliefs and computer anxiety. The study also proposes sustainable strategies to

overcome such barriers.

In this study you will learn about… Second-order barriers that hinder technology integration into classrooms:

⇒ Computer anxiety: degree of fear that students feel while learning and using technology; ⇒ Pedagogical beliefs: set of attitudes teachers have about teaching and learning that hinder them to change their instructional practices; ⇒ Self-competence: student’s belief in his/her own ability to use a computer for teaching; and ⇒ Innovativeness: degree of willingness or unwillingness to change

------------------------------------ Designed  by  Mariana  Rivas  –  EDUC  617  –  SUAGM  –  November  2011  


19

PROFESSOR’S EVALUATION SURVEY Please take a few minutes to fill out the following evaluation survey. Your responses are very important and should reflect your experiences and opinions as much as possible: they are anonymous. The participation in this survey is voluntary Demographic information Date:_____________ Age: 18-25_____ 26-35_____ 36-45_______ 46-55______ 56-65_______ 65- or older_______ Gender: _____male _______female Subject that you teach: __________________

Please read very carefully each question and mark with an (x) the correspondence reply to your response Strongly disagree (SD) Disagree (D) Undecided (U) Agree (A) Strongly agree (SA) Following are possible attitudes for integrating technology in the curriculum STATEMENTS

SD

D

U

A

S A

1. To help others 2. To save time 3. People like it 4. It is a necessary skill 5. Professional development

6.

Is it your first time using technology? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

7.

Technology enhances teaching experience”. Describe where do you stand? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________


Running Head:  RESULTS      

1

Chapter 4: Results Mariana Rivas Ana G. Mendez University

2011


Chapter 4: Results The purpose of this study was to identify how do professor’s attitudes toward technology relate to the practice of integrating it into their curriculum. A survey was used to test this hypothesis. Survey contained three clearly differentiated parts: demographic information asking the participant about gender, age and subject they teach; questions responding a Likert questionnaire item, where respondents express their level of agreement or disagreement to specific 5 statements; and finally two open ended questions. The first question in the Likert scale related if technology was used to help other –in this case colleagues or students; second question related if technology was used to save time to professors –when delivering or preparing a lesson; third question related if technology was sort of a trend and people like to use it as a trendy gadget; four question related if technology was a necessary skill among professionals –in this case educators-; and number five related if technology was seen as a way to achieve professional development. The first open question asked the respondents about their familiarity with computers –if they are first time users or no-; and second question prompted to agree or disagree to one statement: technology enhances teaching experience. The study population consisted in 13 professors from Ana G. Mendez University. Survey was administered to these professors, 4 female (30.8 %) and 9 male (69.2%) during November 15 and 16, 2011. Professors were active educators when taking the survey. Among the study population there was, 1 professor that teaches accounting (7.7%), 2 business (15.4%), math (15,4%), education (23.1%), TESOL (7.7%), law (7.7%), English (7.7%), Spanish (7.7%), computers (7.7%). Descriptive statistics were employed in this study. After administer and complete the


surveys a master tally was created in order to tabulated the answers. Then, data was coded using SPSS statistical analysis software program. Frequencies and percentages for each survey question were computed and the data was analyzed. The survey response rate was 100%. When asked about their level of computer literacy (see Table 2) all of the participants (n=13) answered “No to be a first time user”. They report to be working with computers an average of 7 years. When asked to express their agreement or disagreement to the following statement ‘technology enhance teaching experience’. All of the respondents (n=13) answered agree (see Table 4). Evidence showed there is a close relationship between the level of literacy and the positive attitudes towards technology. Questions number 1,2,3 related to behavioral attitudes a professor can have in relation to the use of technology into the curriculum. As indicated in Table 3, overall participants optimistically think technology can: help others (n=10), save time (n=11), and technology is something that people like (n=10). Question 4 and 5 had to do with professional development. Professionals nowadays must know how to ‘market’ themselves in the labor market by becoming technology literate. Technology literate, defined by Beetham (2009) is the functional access, skills and practices necessary to become a confident, agile adopter of a range of technologies for personal, academic and professional use. As evidence in Table 4, overall participants optimistically think they can integrate technology into their curriculum: because it is a necessary skill (n=12), and because it promotes professional development (n=12) Finally, respondents were asked to express their agreement or disagreement to the following statement ‘technology enhance teaching experience’. All of the respondents (n=13) answered agree (see Table 4)


 Table 1 Frequencies and Percentages about The Subject Taught By Participant

Subjects taught by participants

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Accounting

1

7.7

7.7

7.7

Business

2

15.4

15.4

23.1

Math

2

15.4

15.4

38.5

Education

3

23.1

23.1

61.5

TESOL

1

7.7

7.7

69.2

Law

1

7.7

7.7

76.9

Spanish

1

7.7

7.7

84.6

English

1

7.7

7.7

92.3

Computers

1

7.7

7.7

100.0

13

100.0

100.0

Total


 Table 2 Frequencies and Percentages on Level of Computer Literacy By Participant

Are you a first time computer user? No Total

Frequency

Percent 13

100.0

13

100.0

Valid Percent 100.0 100.0

Cumulative Percent 100.0


 Table 3 Descriptive Data for Questions 1 – 3.

Statements

Strongly Agree / Agree

Neither Agree nor Disagree

Strongly Disagree / Disagree

1) Technology help others

10 (76.9%)

0 (0%)

3 (23.1%)

2) Technology save time

11 (84.6)

0 (0%)

2 (15.4%)

3) People [students] like technology

10 (76.9%)

2 (15.4%)

1 (7.7%)


 Table 4 Descriptive Data for Questions 4, 5 and 7

Â

Statements

Strongly Agree / Agree

Neither Agree nor Disagree

Strongly Disagree / Disagree

4) Technology is a necessary skill

12 (92.3%)

0 (0%)

1 (7.7%)

5) Technology promotes professional development

12 (92.3%)

1 (7.7%)

0 (0%)

7) Technology enhance teaching experience

13 (100%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)


Running Head:  DISCUSSION  AND  ANALYSIS      

Chapter 5: Discussion and Analysis Mariana Rivas Ana G. Mendez University

2011


Chapter 5: Discussion and Analysis The research yield to significant results in order to understand professor’s attitudes toward technology thus leading to identify second-order barriers to technology integration across the curriculum amongst professors at Ana G. Mendez University. We parted on the premise that negative or positive attitudes towards technology determine its use or misuse across the curriculum. The survey felt the pulse of the respondents as to what they think about technology. Professors’ agreed technology helps others [colleagues and students] and saves time, thus supporting Dickard’s (2009) theory about the advantages of technology use in the classrooms. The study also corroborated that technology integration into the curriculum is not exclusive to one type of curriculum, it applies to any type of subject, from math to Spanish, therefore inferring that technology is a universal tool that can be use by any sort of task. This research showed that computer technology could enhance the learning process of students in any type of class, turning a classic teacher-centered class into a dynamic, student/group-centered, interactive one. The research supported the conception that professors positively use and integrate technology not only for their own benefit (making power points of their lessons) but also as a tool to interact and educate [computer-wise] students. Finally, the study supported the notion about how technology can be seen as a commodity because it makes a professional more efficient and productive, and therefore more valuable to a company. The study revealed that professors consider technology as a necessary skill to achieve success in the labor market and also as a way to promote professional development.


Critical Analysis The author argued professors’ attitudes and beliefs towards computer technology is closely linked to the practice of integrating it [computer technology] across the curriculum. However two factors or obstacles could decrease the practice of integrating technology: firstorder barriers and second-orders barriers (Ertmer, 1999) As stated by Ertmer (1999) first order-barriers are obstacles extrinsic to educators such as lack of time, lack of resources and lack of training. On the contrary, second-order barriers are obstacles intrinsic to educators such as attitudes and beliefs. This study focused on second-order barriers and how exactly attitudes and beliefs towards computer technology relate to the practice of integrating it across the curriculum amongst ten professors of Ana G. Mendez University. The study based on the assumption that attitudes and beliefs are obstacles more difficult to overcome when it comes to integrate technology into the classroom. If a college doesn’t have enough computers, it can be fixed. If the college doesn’t have enough time for its professors to attend workshops, it can be fixed. However, what happened when a professor consider computer a waste of time to introduce a new topic and prefer to do it the traditional way? Attitudes and beliefs are intrinsic barriers and by nature more difficult to identify. Changing negative attitudes and beliefs towards computer technology will lead to the effective integration of technology into the classroom. The study also showed that attitudes and beliefs are closely linked to the level of computer literacy of each person. Participants in the study who agreed on the advantages of the technology showed a minimum level of computer literacy of five years. Overall, the study attested the thesis that attitudes and beliefs towards technology are relate to the practice of integrate it across the curriculum.


Running Head:  OVERCOMING  SECOND-­‐ORDER  BARRIERS  TO  TECHNOLOGY  INTEGRATION      

Overcoming second-order barriers to technology integration across the curriculum amongst university professors Mariana Rivas Ana G. Mendez University

2011

I


II TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract ..........................................................................................................III

Chapter 1: Introduction ..................................................................................1

Chapter 2: Literature Review.........................................................................2

Chapter 3: Methodology ................................................................................4

Chapter 4: Results ..........................................................................................4

Chapter 5: Analysis and Discussion .............................................................6

References......................................................................................................8

Appendix A....................................................................................................11

Appendix B ....................................................................................................13

Appendix C ....................................................................................................18


III Abstract

Descriptors: computer literacy, technology integration, first-order barriers, second-order barriers. Author: Mariana Rivas Institution: Ana G. Mendez University The purpose of this study was to examine the way professors use computer technology for instructional purposes and the factors that inhibit their use of it. Essentially, the study focused in the internal factors coined by experts as second-order barriers such as attitudes, beliefs, computer anxiety or fear that inhibit technology integration across the curriculum. Research questions: How do professor’s attitudes toward technology relate to the practice of integrating technology? The methodology employs a mixed research design. The survey instrument includes quantitative (forced choice) and qualitative (open-ended) questions that invite individual responses. The dependent variable is professors’ use of computers technology and the independent variables are attitudes, pedagogical beliefs and computer anxiety.


1 Chapter1: Introduction There are two reasons why professors should integrate technology into the curriculum.

(a) Technology is changing the society. Professors need to demonstrate the skills of digital-age professionals. Professors must be prepared to empower students with the advantages technology can bring so they can become competent professionals that can stand out in the labor market. (b) Technology enhances learning process by using four main skills: communication, research, graphics and presentations ( However, despite educators recognize integration technology as a vital tool for professional and academic development, there are barriers that inhibit its integration across the curriculum. Barriers can be mainly categorized in two groups: first order barriers (obstacles extrinsic to teachers) such as unreliability of equipment, lack of technical support, lack of adequate training, lack of time for lesson planning or lack of resources and second order barriers (obstacles intrinsic to teachers) such as computer anxiety or fear of using a computer, attitudes, and beliefs (Ertmer, 1999.) This study attempted to identify how do professors’ second-order barriers toward technology relate to the practice of integrating it into the curriculum. Chapter 2: Literature Review framed the study by explaining what is technology literacy, so the reader could understand why technology makes a professional a more valuable and competent worker in today’s labor market. Subsequently, the study gave a general overview of the works of Peg Elmer (2009) about first order and second order barriers and differences between them. Chapter 3:Methodology offered a synopsis about the tactic used to test the hypothesis of the study. Chapter 4: Results attempts to explain the findings, relationships, frequencies, means, and any other outstanding input stemmed from the object of study in relationship with the independent


2

and dependent variables. Chapter 5: Discussion and Analysis addressed research problems, research purpose, research questions, assumptions, overall findings of the study, general and a brief conclusion. Chapter 2: Literature review The advantages of being technology literate Professionals nowadays must know how to ‘market’ themselves in the labor market by becoming technology literate. Technology literate, defined by Beetham (2009) is the functional access, skills and practices necessary to become a confident, agile adopter of a range of technologies for personal, academic and professional use. As noted by U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009), people without basic computer skills have difficult time finding a job and stay connected with the local and global society. Employers prefer workers who are computer literate to those who are not. Computer literacy makes a worker more efficient and productive and therefore more valuable to a company. Educational institutions can best prepare students to become computer literate by integrating technology across their curricula not only to enhance their learning experience but also to prepare them for their professional development (Brantley-Dias, L. & Jabaley, J., 2009) Technology enhance the learning process Integrating computer technology in the curriculum, as stated by Dickard (2009), must enhance the learning process and must support four key components of learning: active engagement, participation in groups, frequent interaction and feedback, and connection to realworld experts. Using computer technology in the curriculum promotes four main skills: communication, research, graphics and presentations.


3 According to (Lim, C.P. & Khine, M., 2006) professors working in institutions equipped

with computers, access to Internet, computer labs and IT departments are underusing or not integrating at all technology across their curricula (Lim, C.P. & Khine, M., 2006). Therefore, how to properly integrate technology in a classroom? To identify the causes about why professors are not integrating computer technology across their curriculum it is important to distinguish two important factors than can contribute to this phenomenon. We had based on the work of Ertmer (1999) who has identified two different barriers that can be hinder technology integration. He has categorized the barriers in two. First-order barriers (external) are obstacles that are extrinsic to teachers, namely, unreliability of equipment, lack of technical support, lack of adequate training or time for lesson planning. Second-order barriers (internal) are obstacles that are intrinsic to teachers and by nature intangible obstacles more difficult to identify even for the teachers themselves, such as attitudes-beliefs and self-competence towards the used of technology. Beliefs are the set of attitudes teachers have about teaching and learning that hinder them to change their instructional practices; (c) Self-competence is the student’s belief in his/her own ability to use a computer for teaching; (d) Innovativeness, the degree of willingness or unwillingness to change; (e) Beliefs about the relevance of computers in improving instruction and learning, in this case, teachers cannot understand how technology could be utilized in their teaching practices, or have doubts about the usefulness of technology (Lam, 2000). Exploring educators’ points of view regarding the technology integration across the curriculum seemed to be the cleverest way to identify barriers behind the underuse of technology in the classrooms. Findings will allow the development of sustainable strategies to overcome such barriers such as mentoring programs where educational technology experts in schools and


4

classrooms work directly with teachers while the latter learn by doing (Swan, K., Holmes, A., Vargas, J. D., Jennings, S., Meier, E. & Rubenfeld, L., 2002). Chapter 3: Methodology The purpose of this study was to identify possible attitudes professors have towards integrating computer technology across the curriculum? Instrumentation The survey instrument includes quantitative (forced-choice) and qualitative (open-ended) questions that invite individual responses. The dependent variable is professors’ use of computers and the independent variable are attitudes and beliefs. For this purpose, the researcher used a 7-item questionnaire. The first part was related to demographic information –gender, age and subject the participant teach. Questions 1-5 is in the format of a Likert scale (from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree) and questions 6-7 were open-ended questions. Participants All subjects (N=10) were professors from Ana G. Mendez University. The researcher contacted the participants in person and following an explanation about the study she administered the surveys. Chapter 4: Results The purpose of this study was to identify how do professor’s attitudes toward technology relate to the practice of integrating it into their curriculum. A survey was used to test this hypothesis. Survey contained three clearly differentiated parts: demographic information asking the participant about gender, age and subject they teach; questions responding a Likert questionnaire item, where respondents express their level of agreement or disagreement to specific 5 statements; and finally two open ended questions.


5 The first question in the Likert scale related if technology was used to help other –in this

case colleagues or students; second question related if technology was used to save time to professors –when delivering or preparing a lesson; third question related if technology was sort of a trend and people like to use it as a trendy gadget; four question related if technology was a necessary skill among professionals –in this case educators-; and number five related if technology was seen as a way to achieve professional development. The first open question asked the respondents about their familiarity with computers –if they are first time users or no-; and second question prompted to agree or disagree to one statement: technology enhances teaching experience. The study population consisted in 13 professors from Ana G. Mendez University. Survey was administered to these professors, 4 female (30.8 %) and 9 male (69.2%) during November 15 and 16, 2011. Professors were active educators when taking the survey. Among the study population there was, 1 professor that teaches accounting (7.7%), 2 business (15.4%), math (15,4%), education (23.1%), TESOL (7.7%), law (7.7%), English (7.7%), Spanish (7.7%), computers (7.7%). Descriptive statistics were employed in this study. After administer and complete the surveys a master tally was created in order to tabulated the answers. Then, data was coded using SPSS statistical analysis software program. Frequencies and percentages for each survey question were computed and the data was analyzed. The survey response rate was 100%. When asked about their level of computer literacy (see Table 2) all of the participants (n=13) answered “No to be a first time user”. They report to be working with computers an average of 7 years. When asked to express their agreement or disagreement to the following statement ‘technology enhance teaching experience’. All of the


6

respondents (n=13) answered agree (see Table 4). Evidence showed there is a close relationship between the level of literacy and the positive attitudes towards technology. Questions number 1,2,3 related to behavioral attitudes a professor can have in relation to the use of technology into the curriculum. As indicated in Table 3, overall participants optimistically think technology can: help others (n=10), save time (n=11), and technology is something that people like (n=10). Question 4 and 5 had to do with professional development. Professionals nowadays must know how to ‘market’ themselves in the labor market by becoming technology literate. Technology literate, defined by Beetham (2009) is the functional access, skills and practices necessary to become a confident, agile adopter of a range of technologies for personal, academic and professional use. As evidence in Table 4, overall participants optimistically think they can integrate technology into their curriculum: because it is a necessary skill (n=12), and because it promotes professional development (n=12) Finally, respondents were asked to express their agreement or disagreement to the following statement ‘technology enhance teaching experience’. All of the respondents (n=13) answered agree (see Table 4) Chapter 5: Discussion and Analysis The research yield to significant results in order to understand professor’s attitudes toward technology thus leading to identify second-order barriers to technology integration across the curriculum amongst professors at Ana G. Mendez University. We parted on the premise that negative or positive attitudes towards technology determine its use or misuse across the curriculum. The survey felt the pulse of the respondents as to what they think about technology. Professors’ agreed technology helps others [colleagues and


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students] and saves time, thus supporting Dickard’s (2009) theory about the advantages of technology use in the classrooms. The study also corroborated that technology integration into the curriculum is not exclusive to one type of curriculum, it applies to any type of subject, from math to Spanish, therefore inferring that technology is a universal tool that can be use by any sort of task. This research showed that computer technology could enhance the learning process of students in any type of class, turning a classic teacher-centered class into a dynamic, student/group-centered, interactive one. The research supported the conception that professors positively use and integrate technology not only for their own benefit (making power points of their lessons) but also as a tool to interact and educate [computer-wise] students. Finally, the study supported the notion about how technology can be seen as a commodity because it makes a professional more efficient and productive, and therefore more valuable to a company. The study revealed that professors consider technology as a necessary skill to achieve success in the labor market and also as a way to promote professional development.


8 References

Bai, H., & Ertmer, P. A. (2008). Teacher educators’ beliefs and technology uses as predictors of preservice teachers’ beliefs and technology attitudes. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16(1), 93-112.

Beetham, H., McGill, L., and Littlejohn, A. (2009) ‘Thriving in the 21st Century: Learning Literacies for a Digital Age (LLiDA) project, accessed 09/20/11 from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/projects/llidaexecsumjune2009.pdf

Brantley-Dias, L. & Jabaley, J. (2009). Teaching and technology. In R. P. Colarusso and C. M. O’Rourke (Eds.), Special Education for All Teachers (5th ed.) (pp. 581-616). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

DonKasprzak. (September 15, 2010). How professors use technology. Retrieved September 20, 2011, from http://donkasprzak.com/2010/09/15/professors-use-oftechnology/

Ertmer, P. A. (1999). Addressing first- and second-order barriers to change: Strategies for technology integration. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47(4), 4761.

Holmes, A., Vargas, J.D., Swan, K., Jennings, S., Meier, E. & Rubenfeld, L. (2002). Situated Professional Development and Technology Integration: The Capital Area


9 Technology and Inquiry in Education (CATIE) Mentoring Program. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education. 10 (2), pp. 169-190. Norfolk, VA: AACE.

Lam, Y. (2000) Technophobia or technophilia? A preliminary look at why second language teachers do or do not use technology in their classrooms. Canadian Modern Language Review, 56(93), 389-420.

Marcinkiewicz, H. R. (2006). Computers and teachers: Factors influencing computer use in the classroom. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 26, 220–237.

Miller, S., Meier, E., Payne-Bourcy, L., Shablak, S., Newman, D. L., Wan, T. Y., et al. (2003). Technology as a catalyst for change: A leadership model for transforming urban t eacher preparation [Electronic Version]. The International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning, 7. Retrieved September 29, 2011 from http://www.ucalgary.ca/~iejll/volume7/miller.htm

Swan, K., Holmes, A., Vargas, J. D., Jennings, S., Meier, E. & Rubenfeld, L. (2002). Situated professional development and technology integration: the CATIE mentoring program. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 10 (2), 169-190

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Subject areas. Occupational Outlook Handbook 2008-2009 Edition. Retrieved Sept 29, 2011, from http://www.bls.gov/bls/proghome.htm.


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Dickard, N. & Schneider, D. (2009). The digital divide: Where we are. Retrieved from Edutopia website: http://www.edutopia.org/digital-divide-where-we-are-today

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11

Appendix A Study Conceptual Framework


12 STUDY CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

TOPIC Overcoming second-order barriers to technology integration into the curriculum amongst university professors

PROBLEMS (HYPOTHESES)     Although professors recognize the importance of

TRENDS

integrating technology into their curriculum, efforts are often limited by second-order barriers (attitudes, beliefs, fear)

Second-order barriers have been studied for associations to limited technology integration into the curriculum amongst university professors

RESEARCH QUESTIONS  

How do professor’s attitudes toward technology relate to the practice of integrating technology in the curriculum?


13

Appendix B Tables


14

Table 1 Frequencies and Percentages about The Subject Taught By Participant

Subjects taught by participants

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Accounting

1

7.7

7.7

7.7

Business

2

15.4

15.4

23.1

Math

2

15.4

15.4

38.5

Education

3

23.1

23.1

61.5

TESOL

1

7.7

7.7

69.2

Law

1

7.7

7.7

76.9

Spanish

1

7.7

7.7

84.6

English

1

7.7

7.7

92.3

Computers

1

7.7

7.7

100.0

13

100.0

100.0

Total


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 Table 2 Frequencies and Percentages on Level of Computer Literacy By Participant

Are you a first time computer user? No Total

Frequency

Percent 13

100.0

13

100.0

Valid Percent 100.0 100.0

Cumulative Percent 100.0


16

Table 3 Descriptive Data for Questions 1 – 3.

Statements

Strongly Agree / Agree

Neither Agree nor Disagree

Strongly Disagree / Disagree

1) Technology help others

10 (76.9%)

0 (0%)

3 (23.1%)

2) Technology save time

11 (84.6)

0 (0%)

2 (15.4%)

3) People [students] like technology

10 (76.9%)

2 (15.4%)

1 (7.7%)


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 Table 4 Descriptive Data for Questions 4, 5 and 7

Statements

Strongly Agree / Agree

Neither Agree nor Disagree

Strongly Disagree / Disagree

4) Technology is a necessary skill

12 (92.3%)

0 (0%)

1 (7.7%)

5) Technology promotes professional development

12 (92.3%)

1 (7.7%)

0 (0%)

7) Technology enhance teaching experience

13 (100%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)


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Appendix C Survey


PROFESSOR’S EVALUATION SURVEY Please take a few minutes to fill out the following evaluation survey. Your responses are very important and should reflect your experiences and opinions as much as possible: they are anonymous. The participation in this survey is voluntary Demographic information Date:_____________ Age: 18-25_____ 26-35_____ 36-45_______ 46-55______ 56-65_______ 65- or older_______ Gender: _____male _______female Subject that you teach: __________________

Please read very carefully each question and mark with an (x) the correspondence reply to your response Strongly disagree (SD) Disagree (D) Undecided (U) Agree (A) Strongly agree (SA) Following are possible attitudes for integrating technology in the curriculum STATEMENTS

SD

D

U

A

S A

1. To help others 7. To save time 8. People like it 9. It is a necessary skill 10. Professional development

11. Is it your first time using technology? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 7.

Technology enhances teaching experience”. Describe where do you stand? ___________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

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 EDUC 617 Conclusion and final thoughts

Course EDUC 617, ESOL Seminar in School Setting, wrapped up the final research we were doing in EDUC 600 emphasizing in data collection process, analysis of results, significant findings and discussion. In course EDUC 600 we identify the research question to answer and we worked on the theoretical framework and the conceptual framework of the work. To validate what researched in EDUC 600, in this course we tried to answer the research questions by gather valid data thru the use of a survey. EDUC 617 led us into the data collection groundwork as well, and more important for further professional development endeavors, into statistical analysis using SPSS program. SPSS constituted a truly challenge task that even hard to understand at the beginning yield to a marvelous word of numbers and variables. I really appreciated Dr. Sevillano’s devotion to the class because thanks to her we can understand that statistics are vital for understanding the intrinsic relationships that take place inside a social phenomenon. Write a research proposal is a defiant endeavor and EDUC 617 played like a logical framework to set every piece of the project in place and to delineate the plan to be accomplished as perfect as it could be.

Portfolio EDUC 617 MASTER  

Research, technology, education

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