Olim omnes Romani eramus / Once, we were all Romans
"Olim omnes Romani eramus / Once, we were all Romans" eTwinning project concerns the Romanisation of the Iberian Peninsula, and has been carried out by Secondary and Baccalaureate students of Latin (aged 14 to 16) from the following schools: IES Urbi (Basauri, Bizkaia, Spain), Colégio Minerva (Barreiro,
Spain), IES Unamuno (Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain) and IES Doctor Francisco Marín (Siles, Jaén, Spain). Latin and English have been used as vehicular languages.
Project information The project "Olim omnes Romani eramus/Once we were all Romans" on the Romanisation of the Iberian Peninsula has been carried out by Secondary and Baccalaureate students of Latin (aged 15-16) using English and Latin as vehicular languages. The participating schools are: IES Urbi (Basauri, Bizkaia, Spain), Colégio Minerva (Barreiro, Portugal), IES Politécnico (Soria, Spain), IES Unamuno (Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain) e IES Doctor Francisco Marín (Jaén, Spain). The worked issues are as follows: -Pre-Roman peoples in the Iberian Peninsula. -Phases of the Roman conquest in the Iberian Peninsula. -Law and citizenship: political-administrative divisions, colonies, cities, municipalities. -Communication routes. -Monuments and Roman remains. -Vernacular languages and Latin. -Methodology: active methodology, collaborative work through international teams, CLIL methodology, gamification, the use of ICT. Internal and external assessment.
Targets 1.- Each student will acquire and use properly through speech or writing English academic terminology related to Romanization to B1 level and in Spanish to B1 level for Portuguese students. 2.- Each student will improve English colloquial language to B1 level and Spanish to B1 level for Portuguese students. 3.-Each student will use the Latin language properly to orally make easy presentations. 4.-Each international working group will elaborate and present six infographics collaboratively on: I Pre-Roman peoples. II The phases of the Roman conquest.
3 III Administrative divisions of Hispania. IV The Roman roads. V Colonies, cities and municipalities. VI Romance and non-Romance languages in the Iberian Peninsula. 5.-Each international working group will elaborate a board collaboratively on the most significant Roman remains close to the students. 6.-The students of every school will record the same Latin song or poem in their vernacular languages. 7. - The students will elaborate an eBook with the final products. 8. - Every pupil and teacher of the participant schools will improve
multilingual and digital competences.
Work process - From 30 October to 22 December 2017: First phase of the project: Warming up Registering with twinspace and introducing the students to the platform. Creating the project`s facebook account, the twitter account and the YouTube channel. Organising the 12 international working groups. Students and teachers introduce themselves in English through their twinspace profile, and in Latin through a video. Internal assessment of the activities carried out during the first phase of the project through rubrics. - From 8 January to 22 June 2018: Second phase of the project: Implementation Producing through collaborative work and presenting the 6 infographics in front the classmates. Answering to the â€œqaestio disputataâ€?, the weekly question to energise and dynamize the collaborative work. Creating the board on roman remains through collaborative work. Recording a video of a Latin poem recited or sung in the vernacular languages of the students. Elaborating an eBook with the final products.
4 Internal assessment of the activities carried out during the Second phase of the project through rubrics and one final questionnaire. External assessment of the project `activities based on the indicators of the eTwinning national Quality Label.
Products -Self introduction of each project member in English via the twinspace profile. -Self introduction of each project member in Latin through a video. -6 infographics with Canva worked out by each international working team on: Pre-Roman peoples in the Iberian Peninsula; Phases of the Roman conquest in the Iberian Peninsula; Law and citizenship: political-administrative divisions, colonies, cities, municipalities; Communication routes; Monuments and Roman remains; Vernacular languages and Latin. -The video of a Latin poem recited or sung in the vernacular languages of the students. -One collaborative board carried out by each international working group on the most significant Roman remains close to the students. -An eBook with the final products
Methodology - Active methodology: Every single student will be the main protagonist of the project. So, he/she will investigate, analyse and collaboratively create some products on the Romanisation, under teacher`s supervision and guidance. - Collaborative work through international teams: The students won`t work in parallel, but in conjunction. They will be mixed with the students of the other schools. - CLIL methodology (Contents and Language Integrated language): Teams mainly will communicate and work in English. - Gamification: The international working groups will have to compete weekly in a contest about Romanisation called quaestio disputata. - The use of ICT.
Products Self introduction of each project member in Latin through a video.
I Pre-Roman peoples. -Map of the Iberian peninsula with the Celtic tribes, Iberians and Celtiberians.
-Map of the Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian colonies in the Iberian Peninsula.
-Map with the Pre-roman peoples in the region of each team member
-Brief commentary on the political and social organisation of the Pre-Roman tribes. Celts: this was a culture of seasonally transhumant cattle-raising pastoralists protected by a warrior elite, similar to those in other areas of Atlantic Europe, centered in the hill-forts, locally termed castros, that controlled small grazing territories. Settlements of circular huts survived until Roman times across the north of Iberia, from Northern Portugal, Asturias and Galicia through Cantabria and northern Leon to the Ebro River. Iberians: The Iberians lived in villages and oppida (fortified settlements) and their communities were based on a tribal organization. The Iberians in the Spanish Levant were more urbanized than their neighbours in the central and northwestern regions of the Iberian Peninsula. Iberian society was divided into different classes, including kings or chieftains (Latin: "regulus"), nobles, priests, artisans and slaves. Iberian aristocracy, often called a "senate" by the ancient sources, met in a council of nobles. Kings or chieftains would maintain their forces through a system of obligation or vassalage that the Romans termed "fides"
8 Celtiberians: Celtiberians were controlled by a military aristocracy that had become hereditary elite. From the 3rd century, the clan was superseded as the basic Celtiberian political unit by the oppidum, a fortified organized city with a defined territory that included the castra as subsidiary settlements.
-Brief commentary on the type of economy of the Pre-Roman peoples. The peoples in the central and northwest regions were mostly Celtic, semipastoral and lived in scattered villages, though they also had a few fortified towns
of writing, metalworking,
including bronze, and agricultural techniques. The Iberians adopted wine and olives from the Greeks. Horse breeding was particularly important to the Iberians and their nobility. Mining was also very important for their economy, especially the silver mines near Gades and Cartago Nova, the iron mines in the Ebro valley, as well as the exploitation of tin and copper deposits. They produced fine metalwork and high quality iron weapons such as the falcata. (Source: Wikipedia)
Horseman from Iberian pottery, Alicante
II The phases of the Roman conquest.
-Map of the 1st stage of the Roman conquest (218-197 BC) and a brief commentary on the 1st stage of the Roman conquest
1st stage (218-197 BC), when two armies disembarked in Emporion because they were asked for help, started fighting against the Carthaginians. As the commanders in charge died at war fighting against Hasdrubal Barca in 210 BC, the Roman Senate sent P.Cornelius Scipio Africanus, whose actions were decisive for the Carthaginian defeat: the Romans took Cartago Nova in 209 BC; their troops defeated the Carthaginians at the battles of Baecula in 208 BC and Ilipa in 206 BC. In year 197 BC the Romans divided the Peninsula into two provinces.
-Map of the 2nd stage of the Roman conquest (155-133 BC) and a brief commentary on the 2nd stage of the Roman conquest.
2nd stage (154-133 BC), the Romans fought against the Celtiberians and the Lusitanians. The Lusitanians revolted against the high taxes imposed by the Romans and found a leader, Viriatus, who obtained some victories over the Romans between 147 And 139 BC. Finally, peace was signed, but the Romans bribed three Lusitanian warriors, who killed Viriatus in139 BC. The war against the Lusitanians extended for almost 20 years. Numantia became the main center of the resistance. The arrival of general P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, who had destroyed Carthage, in 134 BC changed the situation. He sieged Numantia, building a nine kilometer fence around the city and cutting all its supplies. After 13 months the Numantians had no other choice than surrender. The few survivors were made prisoners and sold as slaves. The legend says that the Numantians burnt the city because they preferred to die free rather than live and be slaves, but this is not true. Roman historians used Numantian resistance to glorify Scipio Aemilianus triumph and the legend spread and was also used in other stages in the history of Spain to extol the sacrifice of the life of individuals in defense of the homeland. At the end of the Celtiberian and Lusitanian wars the Romans controlled the centre and West of the Iberian Peninsula.
-Map of the 3rd stage of the Roman conquest (29-19 BC) and a brief commentary on the 3rd stage of the Roman conquest.
3rd stage (29-19 BC), wars against the Astures, Cantabri and Gallaeci. Emperor Octavian Augustus arrived in the Peninsula to complete the conquest of Hispania and take the control of its rich mineral resources. He deployed 8 legions and several auxiliary troops (50,000 soldiers), opened a 400 km front, from the Pyrenees to Portugal and defeated the Cantabri, the Astures and the Gallaeci. After Augustus campaign, Hispania became another part of the Roman Empire. (Source: Blog History of Spain)
III Administrative divisions of Hispania. -Map of the first administrative division of Hispania in 197 BC.
By Alcides Pinto - Based on the map done by Portuguese Archeologist LuĂs Fraga, from the "Campo ArqueolĂłgico de Tavira". The reference map can be found at this location ., GFDL, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10362166
197 BC, 1st division of Roman HispaniaIn a first attempt of a Roman provincial administration in Hispania, Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus and M. Helvius divide the peninsula into Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior (the one actually controlled by Rome). These two provinces are to be ruled by Governors with a mandate of one year. (Source: Wikipedia)
-Map of the second administrative division of Hispania in 27 BC.
The emperor Augustus returns to Hispania and makes a new administrative division, leaving the provinces as follows: Provincia Hispania Ulterior Baetica (Hispania Baetica), whose capital is Corduba (presently CĂłrdoba); Provincia Hispania Ulterior Lusitania, whose capital is Emerita Augusta (now MĂŠrida); Provincia Hispania Citerior, whose capital is Tarraco (Tarragona), later known as Tarraconensis.(Source: Wikipedia)
-Map of the 3rd administrative division (Caracalla-212 AD) with 4 provinces: Lusitania, Tarraconensis, Baetica and Gallaecia.
Alcides Pinto (talk Âˇ contribs)
212 AD, the Emperor Caracalla makes a new administrative division which lasts only a short time. He splits Hispania Citerior again into two parts, creating the new provinces Hispania Nova Citerior and Asturiae-Calleciae. (Source: Wikipedia)
-Map of the 4th administrative division of Hispania at the end of the 3rd century AC (Diocletian 293).
293 â€“ With Diocletian, the new dioecesis Hispaniae become one of the four dioceses governed by a vicarius of the praetorian prefecture of Gaul (also comprising the provinces of Gaul, Upper and Lower Germania and Britannia). The diocese, with capital at Emerita Augusta (modern MĂŠrida), comprise the five peninsular Iberian provinces (Baetica, Gallaecia and Lusitania, each under a governor styled consularis; and Carthaginiensis, Tarraconensis, each under a praeses), the Insulae Baleares and the North African province of Mauretania Tingitana. (Source: Wikipedia)
In Ancient Rome territorial organization, a conventus iuridicus was the capital city
some provinces (Dalmatia, Hispania, Asia)
functions of seat of a district court of justice and maybe others. (Source: Wikipedia)
IV The Roman roads. -Road map of the Roman Empire.
-Map of the Roman roads in the Iberian Peninsula.
-Ancient and current roads in the Iberian Peninsula.
-The tree most important Roman roads in the Iberian Peninsula: Via Herculea (later Augusta), Via Toletum et Via de la Plata. Via de la Plata
The Vía de La Plata (Silver Way) or Ruta de la Plata (Silver Route) is an ancient Roman path that crosses the west of Spain from north to south, connecting Emerita Augusta (Mérida) to Asturica Augusta (Astorga). (Source: Wikipedia)
Via Augusta also known as Herculean
By © Sémhur / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA
19 Via Augusta (also known as Via Herculea or Via Exterior) was a Roman road crossing all of Hispania Province, from Cádiz in the southern tip of current Spain, to the Coll de Panissars, where it crossed the Pyrenees close to the Mediterranean Sea, and joined the Via Domitia. The road stretched around 1,500
of Gades (Cádiz), CarthagoNova (Cartagena), Valentia (Valencia), Saguntum (Sa gunto), Tarraco (Tarragona) Barcino (Barcelona),and Gerunda (Girona). It had branches
through Hispalis (Sevilla) (where
Lusitanorum), Corduba (Córdoba)and Emerita Augusta (Mérida).The road was named after Emperor Augustus, who ordered it renovated between 8 BC and 2 BC. It was mainly a commercial road. (Source: Wikipedia)
Via XXV also known as via Toletum
(Ricla/Almunia de Dña Godina), Bilbilis (Calatayud), Aquae Bilbilitanorum (Alhama de Aragon), Arcobriga (Monreal de Ariza), Occilis (Medinaceli), Segontia (Sigüenza), Caesada (Espinosa de Henares), Arriaca (Guadalajara), Cumplutum (Alcalá de Henares), Titulciam (¿Titulcia/Aranjuez?), Toletum (Toledo), Caesorbriga (Talavera de la Reina), Augustobriga (Bajo el embalse de Valdecañas), Lomundo ó Lomondo (desconocido), Turgalium (Trujillo), Rodacis (¿Sta. Cruz de la Sierra?), Lapicea (¿Santa Amalia?) and Emerita Augusta (Mérida). (Source: Wikipedia)
Via of the Atlantic also known as via Lusitanorum In the Algarve:
Baesuris, Balsa, Ossonoba ( Faro ), Milreu, Cerro da Vila,
Lacobriga ( Portugal ). (Source: Wikipedia)
VĂas romanas en Hispania
[http://c entros.edu.xunta.es/iesmanuelgarciabarros/latin_grego/imaxes/romanizacion/vias_roma nas_hispania.jpg]
-Types of Roman roads. viae publicae, consulares, praetoriae, militares The first type of road included public high or main roads, constructed and maintained at the public expense, and with their soil vested in the state. (Source: Wikipedia)
viae privatae, rusticae, glareae and agrariae. The second category included private or country roads, originally constructed by private individuals, in whom their soil was vested, and who had the power to dedicate them to the public use. Both main and secondary roads might either be paved, or left unpaved, with a gravel surface. (Source: Wikipedia)
viae vicinales The third category comprised roads leading through or towards a vicus or village. Such roads ran either into a high road, or into other viae vicinales, without any direct communication with a high road. They were considered public or private, according to the fact of their original construction out of public or private funds or materials. (Source: Wikipedia)
- Explanation about the construction of Roman roads: via terrena, via glareata, via munita. The viae terrenae were plain roads of levelled earth. These were mere tracks worn down by the feet of humans and animals, and possibly by wheeled carriages. (Source: Wikipedia)
via terrena The viae glareatae were earthed roads with a gravelled surface or a gravel subsurface and paving on top. (Source: Wikipedia)
via glareata Viae munitae were regular built roads, paved with rectangular blocks of local stone or with polygonal blocks of lava. Pavement (consisting mainly of marble or mosaic) and the viae munitae were near identical in construction, except as regards the top layer or surface. (Source: Wikipedia)
from granite, marble,
originally stone obelisks â€“
later concrete posts. They were widely used by Roman Empire road builders and were an important part of any network: the distance travelled per day was only a few miles in some cases. Many Roman milestones only record the name of the reigning emperor without giving any place names or distances. (Source: Wikipedia)
-Mansiones In the Roman Empire, a mansio (from the Latin word mansus the perfect passive participle of manere "to remain" or "to stay") was an official stopping place on a Roman road, or via, maintained by the central government for the use of officials and those on official business whilst travelling.
V Colonies, cities and municipalities. -Map of the colonies and municipalities in Hispania.
-Map of the Roman provincial capitals in Hispania.
-colonia civium Romanorum A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. A colonia was the highest rank of Roman city, it was a small Rome. Normally all citizens of a colonia were also Roman citizens and they had tax advantages. Each colonia was governed by an ordo (council),
magistrates). Colonies of citizens were typically coastal and known as coloniae maritimae. (Source: Wikipedia)
-colonia militaris Colonia militaris was made only of "veterans" (old soldiers settled in a conquered territory) and were responsible for the Romanization of many territories (mainly in the spread of Latin language and of Roman laws & customs). (Source: Wikipedia)
-municipium (munus+capere) A Roman municipium (plural municipia) was an indigenous town, the secondhighest rank of Roman city, following after colonia. Unlike colonia, inhabitants of municipia were not automatically Roman citizens and they had to pay taxes (munus capere). The structure of government was an elected council and magistrates. (Source: Wikipedia)
-municipium iuris Romani Municipium iuris Romani is an indigenous town with the same rights as the Roman colonies.
-municipium iuris Latini Municipium iuris Latini is an indigenous town with Roman rights except for the ius sufragii (the voting right) and the ius honorum (the right to be a candidate).
-municipium stipendiarium Municipium stipendiarium is the indigenous town with no rights and the obligation to pay taxes (stipendium: tax, impost, contribution)
-Give the present name of the following Roman locations: Barcino: Barcelona, Caesar Augusta: Zaragoza, Carthago Nova: Cartagena, Corduba: Córdoba, Olisipo: Lisboa, Ebora: Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Emerita Augusta: Mérida, Hispalis: Sevilla, Ilici: Elche, Italica: Santiponce,Tarraco: Tarragona, Valentia: Valencia, Conimbriga: Coimbra, Bracara Augusta: Braga, Pompaelon: Pamplona, Calagurris: Calahorra, Ebusus: Ibiza, Legio VII Gemina: León, Asturica Augusta: Astorga, Juliobriga: Retortillo-Cantabria.
VI Romance and non-Romance languages in the Iberian Peninsula. -Map of the Pre-Roman languages of Iberia.
- Definition of "vulgar Latin." A spoken language, which has from ancient times been called sermo vulgi by Cicero, the language of the vulgus or "commoners", existed alongside the literate Classical Latin. (Source: Wikipedia)
- Definition of "Romance language." The Romance
languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a
28 branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family. (Source: Wikipedia)
- Definition and examples of "popular words - palabras patrimoniales." Words deriving from Vulgar Latin are known as popular words (palabras patrimoniales, hondare hitzak). Popular words (palabras patrimoniales) are very different to the Latin word they derive from, because they have had many phonetic changes, e.g.: isla>insula, oro>aurum.
- Definition and examples of "learned words - cultismos." Learned words (cultismos) are very similar to the Latin word they derive from, e.g. insular>insula, áureo>aureus.
- Definition and examples of semi-learned words semicultismos." Semi-learned words (semicultismos) are in the middle of the evolution between learned words and popular words, e.g. reinar>regnare. The consonantic group –gn- evolved in Spanish to –ñ-. Consequently, it would be expected to have “reñar” and not “reinar.” So reinar is in the middle of the evolution between a learned word and a popular word.
- a map of the Romance languages in Europe.
-a list and a map of the Iberian Romance languages.
Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, Galicien, Asturian-Leonese - a list and a map of non-indo-European languages in Europe.
Basque, Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian
Boards on Roman remains
Latin song or poem in vernacular languages Members of the same team will record a video with a Latin song or poem in their vernacular languages. The Latin poem to be recorded is: Ad Lesbiam (Catulli carmen V)
Products of the eTwinning project called Olim Omnes Romani Eramus.