FASHION issue Fashion&sTYLE
FASHION HISTORY By Karl Laggerfeld
It is true that what inspires us to do things is mostly what sorround us, so we better make sure we sorround our lives with positive essentials to make it easier and fun to live, create a lifestyle for ourselves and take the best out of it.
About the 20´s
he history of fashion is a history of people. During this past century, it was the couturiers and designers that laid the foundations of the modern fashion industry we know today. The liberation of women from corseted confinement, the creation of ready-to-wear clothing, logos, licensing, window displays, lifestyle brands, fashion shows, marketing and even protection of intellectual property rights, are each a direct result of the ingenuity, bravery and creative genius of individuals who were in their lifetimes stylistic and societal visionaries.
n the fourth instalment of BoF’s fashion history series, we meet the creator of the “little black dress,” who took her cues from a country in mourning. Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel, the designer doyenne who founded fashion’s most famous house, used her lovers’ money to establish herself and rewrote the rulebook with her mannish collections. Her story has become legendary and at least its basic facts are now part of fashion mythology, even to those who have no special interest in the fashion world.
y the time World War I ended, women were used to their freedom and independence, and their clothing maintained its wartime masculinity with loose, shapeless fits and flattened busts. ”Coco” Chanel rose to prominence during this decade. The consummate image of the 1920s, the flapper, did not fully emerge until 1926. This style epitomized modernity and reckless rebellion. Flappers wore daringly short hair and short shift dresses that exposed their limbs, and they applied makeup, smoked with long cigarette holders, and drank in public. Since the straight shift dresses were simple to make at home, flapper style was more attainable for the masses.The Wall Street Crash of 1929 kicked off the Great Depression, from which the general public escaped through Hollywood. The movies became the new glamorous medium for fashion. As another war seemed imminent, clothing became more functional and military-inspired with square shoulders. Techniques for mass production of uniforms carried over into the creation of ready-to-wear fashion. Once World War II was underway, clothes became even more restrained. Cloth was severely rationed. Uniforms were commonly seen in public. Once World War II ended, newcomer Christian Dior rebelled against the austerity of the time and produced an extravagant design of a fitted jacket with a cinched waist and a full calf-length skirt using ten to eighty yards of fabric. This style, dubbed the “New Look,” would prove to be a turning point in the postwar. Dior’s designs became extremely popular, as women were longing to dress femininely and frivolously again.
hanel countered the voluminous look with boxy suits and slim skirts in tweed. Synthetic fabrics (nylon, polyester, and acrylic) became more widely used because they were affordable and easy to maintain. A consumer market was born, and for the first time, teenagers became a force in the fashion market as a result of influences such as music and film. While the 1950s introduced teenagers to fashion and society in general, the youth were the leaders of the sixties, which was a colorful decade in many ways. Two subcultures of young British people, the Mods and Rockers, were at odds. The Rockers tended to wear clothes like black leather jackets, whereas the Mods were more stylish and bohemian. By 1966, designer Mary Quant popularized the miniskirt, which appealed to bold young women. America’s answer was the hippie movement. This youth subculture spawned trends like bell-bottom jeans and tie-dyed shirts. Fashion icons included the understated Jackie Kennedy and the creation of the supermodel, the most famous one being Twiggy. Men wanted to dress like the Beatles. Increased ease of travel meant that fashion had more global, ethnic inspirations. The disco dance craze led to widespread use of polyester, which was ideal for creating tight, stretchy clothing that shone under disco lighting. These flashy styles reflected the social revolution and openness that defined the decade. The late seventies gave rise to punk, an anti-fashion anarchistic movement. Materialism defined this decade, as the western world experienced an economic boom. The power suit became a symbol of the eighties, especially after John Molloy argued in his book Women’s Dress for Success that women would need such a suit to climb the corporate ladder. People flaunted designer brands as symbols of wealth. Increased use of credit cards encouraged spending. The creation of MTV revolutionized the music industry by turning musicians into television stars who had the power to influence through fashion and visuals in addition to music. Princess Diana also became a fashon icon during this time.
As technology made working from home more feasible and offices instituted “Casual Fridays,” fashion became more laidback and comfortable. In contrast to the excessive consumerism and gaudy color palette of the eighties, 1990s style veered toward a more minimalist aesthetic with lots of black and neutral colors. The fashion industry blossomed the most in the United States, where Calvin Klein used overtly sexual advertisements to shock a supposedly “unshockable” nation. Grunge was an alternative rock subculture that began in Seattle and spawned a style of unkempt dressing. But at the 2000 decade we can say that This decade is strong evidence that fashion is cyclical. A major trait of new millennium fashion has been recycled trends with futuristic twists. The dreaded eighties shoulder pad has been reworked as the “architectural” shoulder. Current boot-cut and flared jeans are toned-down versions of bell-bottoms. Both real vintage and vintage-inspired clothes have become popular.
or centuries, clothing and body adornment have served as forms of nonverbal communication to indicate identity. Now that so much of our lives is documented online, appearance has become more important than ever before. Uniforms can provide a shortcut as to what a person’s profession is. Even if a particular job does not have a specific uniform, employees typically conform to a dress code in order to fit in with the company culture. On the other hand, preconceived notions about certain clothing styles can work against the wearer if those notions are negative.
20´S Fashion&sTYLE 3
Chanel F E M A L E
F I G U R E
Fashion designer Coco Chanel, born August 19, 1883, in Saumur, France, is famous for her timeless designs, trademark suits and little black dresses. Chanel was raised in an orphanage and taught to sew. She had a brief career as a singer before opening her first clothes shop in 1910. In the 1920s, she launched her first perfume and eventually introduced the Chanel suit and the little black dress, with an emphasis on making clothes that were more comfortable for women. She died on January 10, 1971. Famed fashion designer Coco Chanel was born Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel on August 19, 1883, in Saumur, France. With her trademark suits and little black dresses, Coco Chanel created timeless designs that are still popular today. She herself became a much revered style icon known for her simple yet sophisticated outfits paired with great accessories, such as several strands of pearls. As Chanel once said,“luxury must be comfortable, otherwise it is not luxury.” Her early years, however, were anything but glamorous. After her mother’s death, Chanel was put in an orphanage by her father, who worked as a peddler. She was raised by nuns who taught her how to sew a skill that would lead to her life’s work. Her nickname came from another occupation entirely. During her brief career as a singer, Chanel performed in clubs in Vichy and Moulins where she was called “Coco.” Some say that the name comes from one of the songs she used to sing, and Chanel herself said that it was a “shortened version of cocotte, the French word for ‘kept woman,” according to an article in The Atlantic.
Christian Dior Legendary fashion designer Christian Dior was born in northern France in 1905. In 1947, Dior exploded onto the Paris fashion scene with designs that flew in the face of wartime restrictions and reintroduced a femininity and focus on luxury to women's fashion. His resulting success, based on the innovation of both his designs and his business practices, made him the most successful fashion designer in the world. His designs have been worn by film stars and royalty alike, and his company continues to operate at the forefront of the fashion industry. Dior died in Montecatini, Italy, in 1957, at the age of 52. In 1957, several months after appearing on the cover of Time magazine, Christian Dior traveled to Italy to vacation in the town of Montecatini. While there, on October 23, 1957, he suffered what was his third heart attack and died, at the age of 52. Marcel Boussac sent his private plane to Montecatini to bring Dior’s body back to Paris, and Dior’s funeral was attended by an estimated 2,500 people, including all of his staff and many of his most famous clients. He was buried in Cimetière de Callian, in Var, France. At the time of his death, Dior’s house was earning more than $20 million annually.1946: The House of Dior is founded on December 16 at 30 Avenue Montaigne in Paris. The current house of Dior celebrates 1947 as the establishing year. 1947: The House of Dior launched its first spring/summer collection, The New Look, at their headquater salon. The New Look line collection would go on to become revolutionary, influencing other designers and the fashion industry or many years.
Dior began to make ends meet by selling his fashion sketches, and in 1935, landed a job illustrating the magazine Figaro Illustré. Several years later, Dior was hired as a design assistant by Paris couturier Robert Piguet. However, when World War II began the following year, Dior served in the south of France as an officer in the French army. Following France’s surrender to Germany in 1940, Dior returned to Paris, where he was soon hired by couturier Lucien Lelong. Throughout the remaining years of the war, Lelong’s design house would consistently dress the women of both Nazis and French collaborators. During this same time, Dior’s younger sister, Catherine, was working for the French Resistance.ç he house of Christian Dior is not only a modern fashion giant but posses an incredibly rich history and timeless designs. From the very beginning of its days in Paris to its gradual and steady expansion globally, this label has never stopped whisking people away with its innovative approach to fashion and magical collections. From Christian Dior himself, Yves Saint Laurent and now John Galliano, this label has never lacked genius.
“Individuality will always be one of the conditions of real elegance” - CD
Yves Saint Lauren, founder and design director for the Yves brand since 1954 He dedicated his entire life to fashion.
as a man of superlatives. He was the youngest couturier ever, the first to design a haute couture black leather jacket, the first to have a nude photograph of himself published and was the winner of the first prize in the French Wool Board competition in November 1954, with a black crepe cocktail dress he had made in Hubert de Givenchy’s workshop. A month after taking first prize, Saint Laurent showed 50 sketches to Michel de Brunhoff, director and editor-in-chief of Vogue Paris, who showed them to Christian Dior. Dior snapped up Saint Laurent immediately. Six months later Saint Laurent’s first dress for the House of Dior caused a sensation and was immortalised in photographer Richard Avedon’s Dovima and the Elephants. Two years after that, Dior died of a heart attack, and on November 15, 1957, the 21-year-old Saint Laurent replaced Dior, becoming the youngest couturier in the world. Saint Laurent’s first collection after taking charge, January 1958’s Trapeze, earned him recognition, a Neiman Marcus Award and his first meeting with Pierre Bergé. By 1960, Saint Laurent had designed theatre costumes for Roland Petit, of Repetto brand fame, presented the first haute couture black leather jacket, had been called up for military service and replaced at Dior by Marc Bohan. Saint Laurent was then confined in hospital for six weeks, and suffered a nervous breakdown. Yves Saint Laurent was a man of superlatives. He was the youngest couturier ever, the first to design a haute couture black leather jacket, the first to have a nude photograph of himself published and was the winner of the first prize in the French
Yves Saint Lauren Wool Board competition in November 1954, with a black crepe cocktail dress he had made in Hubert de Givenchy’s workshop. A month after taking first prize, Saint Laurent showed 50 sketches to Michel de Brunhoff, director and editor-in-chief of Vogue Paris, who showed them to Christian Dior. Dior snapped up Saint Laurent immediately. Six months later Saint Laurent’s first dress for the House of Dior caused a sensation and was immortalised in photographer Richard Avedon’s Dovima and the Elephants. Two years after that, Dior died of a heart attack, and on November 15, 1957, the 21-year-old Saint Laurent replaced Dior, becoming the youngest couturier in the world. Saint Laurent’s first collection after taking charge, January 1958’s Trapeze, earned him recognition, a Neiman Marcus Award and his first meeting with Pierre Bergé. By 1960, Saint Laurent had designed theatre costumes for Roland Petit, of Repetto brand fame, presented the first haute cou-
ture black leather jacket, had been called up for military service and replaced at Dior by Marc Bohan. A year later, Saint Laurent, who had impressed de Brunhoff with his drawings, moved to Paris and enrolled at the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture, where his designs quickly gained notice. De Brunhoff also introduced Saint Laurent to designer Christian Dior, a giant in the fashion world. “Dior fascinated me,” Saint Laurent later recalled. “I couldn’t speak in front of him. He taught me the basis of my art. Whatever was to happen next, I never forgot the years I spent at his side.” Under Dior’s tutelage, Saint Laurent’s style continued to mature and gain still more notice.
All Year e are always looking a season ahead to find the next It item or trend. It’s part of our DNA as fashion-lovers. If you’re like us, you’ve been paying close attention to what’s been popular on the streets and runways this past Fashion Month — that’s what gives us a good indication of what to expect in 2018. While we definitely know glittery boots are “in” right now and so is wearing red, we took things one step further and predicted the next big need-to-know trends. That way, you can adequately prepare your shopping list. Read on to see the 10 major styles we think every fashion girl should know for next year.
he media plays a significant role when it comes to fashion. For instance, an important part of fashion is fashion journalism. Editorial critique, guidelines, and commentary can be found on television and in magazines, newspapers, fashion websites, social networks, and fashion blogs. In recent years, fashion blogging and YouTube videos have become a major outlet for spreading trends and fashion tips, creating an online culture of sharing one's style on a website or Instagram account. Through these media outlets readers and viewers all over the world can learn about fashion, making it very accessible.
trends tend to change as years go by but this time is different this time old fashion styles are finding their way back . ew York City gals are known for wearing black on black, but one look at the street style crew during Fashion Week, and you'll notice the complete opposite. Guests showed up in the brightest outfits they could find and never failed to add a pop of color with a shoe or bag.Considering everyone was in town to check out Spring 2018's offerings, the colorful choices were appropriately vibrant. No color combination stood out to us more, however, than red and pink. Many attendees wore the two shades together, making for eye-catching ensembles we rounded up here. The palette was echoed on the Calvin Klein and Brandon Maxwell SS18 runways too, proving it's got staying power. While you're probably thinking red and pink will clash, the ladies ahead confirm you can work both hues seamlessly into your outfits. We've translated the little tips and tricks Like wearing a red shoe with a pink dress for you here. Learn how to master the combo before next Spring, because that's how you become a trendsetter.
dO YOU tHINK YOU have seen it all ?
legance isn’t solely defined by what you wear. It’s how you carry yourself, how you speak, what you read. We have got to change our ethics and our financial system and our whole way of understanding the world. It has to be a world in which people live rather than die a sustainable world.I didn’t want to be a fashion designer, and for a good half of my career I didn’t like it. I always wanted to do other things. It’s the attitude you bring to clothes that make the difference. Everything I do is a matter of heart, body and soul.Age and size are only numbers. Once reserved for the office, suits have become one of the biggest trends of the moment. Reminiscent of early ’90s power dressing, a matching head-to-toe ensemble is cool again thanks to modern tailoring and unexpected details that bring it fashion-forward. Both trouser and skirt duos are back, with minis giving us major Cher Horowitz vibes. Score a polished but refreshingly playful set for yourself from our edit ahead, and wear it to work, dinner, parties and beyond. The color red was a recurring theme on this year’s fashion runways. That hue is ideal for fall, offering a welcome spritz of color in a sea of earth tones and darker shades. This fit-and-flare dress from Black Halo is lightweight enough to wear throughout the year, but its long sleeves make it perfect for fall. The tie neck brings a 70s look to the dress and side pockets are perfect for holding a couple of belongings.It’s time to put your crop tops and short shorts away to prepare for crisper, cooler weather. But the arrival of colder months doesn’t mean you can’t show off your flair for fashion.
2018 These 11 wardrobe staples will take you through the fall months in style with continued wear throughout the frigid winter months. “Instead of being about itself, the 2000s has been about every other previous decade happening again all at once,” the British music journalist Simon Reynolds wrote in “Retromania: Pop Culture’s Addiction to Its Own Past.”Couldn’t have said it better. For example, check out Jennifer Lopez’s new video “Ain’t Your Mama,” which is a real eye candy for us fashion enthusiasts. In her feminist video, J.Lo perfectly captures the fashion of each decade – from the 1950s swing-style dress, to 1960s tight secretary dress, to 1970s all-denim outfit, to 1980s skirt suit. Fashions move in a direction
e.g. skirt lengths may move from calf length to knee from one season to the next or, short jackets may gradually be gaining more acceptance than hip length styles. The change from one season to another may be slight but it generally has a direction. The ability to recognize the direction or that trend is vital for fashion forecasters or predictors. These are often used to describe styles that are gaining acceptance. The definition of fashion uses the word ‘prevailing’ or a given period of time if it ignores this element of fashion; it’s like looking at a still photograph in place of motion picture. A famous put it, ‘It is a social phenomenon which reflects the same continuing changes that is rides to through any given age.’
dresses are on this season don´t forget to check up your favorite style.
T-shirts are back in style, graphic tees are essentials for your wardobe.
Skirts are made for brave woman who isn´t afraid to show a little skin, they´re so in style this season.
Latest trends for woman 2018 discover everything, you have to start risking more for your style, follow New york Fashion Show.
VIVID COLORS LOOK 20 Fashion&sTYLE
S Fashion&sTYLE 21
Mix& Match “Colors matter, they create the ambiance of personality”
he Fall 2016 runway shows may be bygones, but what has been left swirling in the air is the excitement for the season ahead. Designers want to have fun in the fall. One of the most obvious trends to come out of the catwalk shows were the vivid colors or color-blocking trend. Pairing vibrant block colors and making a bold statement is what’s first on the menu for the next season, as is wearing one piece with a multitude of shades mixed in. For some, the idea of wearing bubblegum pink with orange is a strict no and NO; however, there are subtle ways to sport the trend this season, no matter what your taste. If you know us by now, the one thing you would’ve picked up on is that we’re not patient! We want wear everything now! Which is why we have cherry picked the best, vivid colored items available to buy now, enabling you to channel the trend sooner.
A wintry color palette dominated the collections, with dark and neutral shades like gray, beige, white, brown and plenty of black. However, there's also an autumn/ winter 2016 trend for lighter, more spring-like colors, with pastel shades or bolder brights. Here too, the changes shaking up the fashion world seem to have influenced designers. Liselore Frowijn, Chanel, Fendi, Gucci and Francesco Scognamiglio cheered up winter looks with an explosion of colors and pastels. New York was the exception here, sticking with darker, muted shades, even if some designers, like Michael Kors, presented a few more colorful pieces. Paris brought touches of color to collections rather than going for head-to-toe looks.
“Enhance your beauty using colors accodring to your skin tone, the season etc” Fashion&sTYLE 23
Fashion guide with everything summed up and ready to use! this season old styles from the 90Â´s are coming back so take out your old shoes and that suit that matches and get ready to be in complete style, dont forget to keep checking on us for the latest fashion style news in the world and for each season of the year, we have got you covered.
SUIT up MAN main fashion guide
The NEWS Some musts in every´s mens wardrobe.
If the weather outside is not yet frightful, shaggy, knotty, attention-grabbing pullovers are ever so delightful. All you need to look pulled together are a good pair of trousers for work (leather for nights and weekends), a peacoat or parka and, later, when the chill descends for real, layers of button-up shirts and long underwear underneath.A wisp of a scarf has newfound sartorial appeal, if we are to judge by what we’re seeing on the street and in fashion magazines. At the recent fashion shows, stylish women like the blogger Irina Lakicevic (shown here) were chic in breezy scarves in lieu of statement necklaces. Tamu McPherson, of the street-style blog All the Pretty Birds, wore a bandanna style (shown here). Kendall Jenner, in her Vogue debut in September, was turned out in a print scarf and shirt mash-up. And in a fashion layout in the November issue of Glamour, a silk scarf is wrapped under a denim shirt with big necklaces on top. Find one that works for you (Pucci is introducing a collection with hand drawings of cities around the world, in stores in November), and style it in myriad ways. Twisted and tied as a neckerchief or folded like a choker either is a good start.
en’s shoe trends change at a pace that’s more baby steps than seismic shifts. Sure, weekly trainer drops can put spikes in the graph but, by and large, what you slide your feet into this season won’t be massively different to what you lace up the next. That’s not to say, of course, that they won’t change at all. For SS17, designers might’ve shown styles that won’t necessarily make the cut for production (stacked loafers, multi-coloured velcro-strapped sandals and shoe-sandals – ‘shandals’?), but that doesn’t mean they haven’t given shoe design a nudge along in a new direction.
ccesories are a must, they match almost every outfit you can have on your closet, they help complete your look, never wear too many, even if you-re a man, but never forget your watch, wearable technology can sometimes be a little... rough, shall we say. Sure, a computer on your wrist might sound cool, but the style element hasn't always landed. But some brands are finally starting to get it, implementing smart technologies into watches that look unassuming even when you pair them with a suit.
ing Fashion d n Fo ta s r Men´s r e
style has never been really hard to discove there are no enough clothes design to please their taste, some just go straight forward for what´s completely simply and easy to mix and match, regular jeans and the same old square shirts someone gave them like 5 christmas ago but they married that shirt, they use it almots every day, that´s why fashion designers condiser men´s taste hard.
For most guys, the autumn/winter months are prime time for retreating into a world of dark neutral tones. And we get it; who wants to wrestle with making a bright yellow jumper work as well as the central heating controls? But doing so doesn’t have to mean turning the saturation of your wardrobe up to max. Instead, try darker shades of typically summer tones, like moss green. It still counts as a colour, but is not offensively bright and is oh so easy to wear. If looking good is all about how you feel, then it makes sense that this is the season when designers get in touch with their feelings. (Disclaimer: we’re talking about materials, you can put away the tissues.) Alongside eternally appealing shearling and the party season staple of velvet, tactile winter fabrics such as herringbone and (more surprisingly) corduroy are here to make AW17 feel just as good to touch as it does to look at.
man of the HOUR
A manâ€™s clothes send a message to the world about him, and if they fit him well, he will always make a good impression. Most men today wear poorly-fitting clothes, and it is not hard to see why. The menswear sold in stores are cut to fit as many men as possible, and that means big. At the same time, the fashion-industrial complex creates new so-called styles by bending or breaking the time-honored traditions in menswear.
This project is for academic and personal use with non profit purposes. Thanking the following pages for providing material to create this project some of them are: forbes.com pexels.com imagesforstock/recreationalimages.com fashionadnstyle.com 30 Fashion&sTYLE
This project is made for educational purposes only.