DISCIPLINE: SOCIOLOGY Social Dynamics in Portuguese Youth FINALITY: To understand the new ways of life of the portuguese youth and the changes in society
School – The Youth Relations with School and the respective courses OBJECTIVE: To know the changes happened at formal School with the implementation of democracy in Portugal. Responsible Teacher: Rosário Ricou
The social dynamics of Portuguese youth
SCHOOL Young people's relationships with school and education
Work by: Barbara, Isaura, Raquel, Rebecca, SalomĂŠ
Introduction •School is an institution where children and teenagers spend the majority of their time in preparation for their adult life. •50 years ago in Portugal, a country with a largely illiterate population, schooling was only compulsary until the 4th grade. • Today the reality is very different. It is this reality that we are going to compare and study, by comparison with the
European situation of today, taking into account the situation that existed 50 years ago.
Specific objectives •Compare education between Portugal and the EU; •Understand the importance of school in the life of Portuguese young people; •Document the number of young people that study in each of the education levels; •Discover how many students completed their study; •Show the academic qualifications that young Portuguese people possess to offer to the labour market.
To inform the educational community and Comenius countries the evolution of the social agent: school.
Strategies → Number of students in education within the INE census.; → Inquiry to be used in our school to assertain from our colleagues information about school life; → Number of enrolled students according to gender - INE; → Number of enrolled students according to level of study - INE; → Numbers of students who leave school early, according to gender - INE; → Number of students to complete studies - INE; → Comparison between Portugal and other EU countries.
Students enrolled in state education: total by level
The number of enrolled students increased in all levels of education except the 1st cycle which decreased from 800,000 in 1960 to 400.000 in 2009, which
clearly demonstrates the decreasing birth rate. The increase in all other levels is due to the introduction of statutory education up to the 9th grade.
Enrolled students as a percentage of the resident population: total by educational level
The percentage of enrolled students in pre-school education has increased since 1961. 1st cycle in 1961 = 10% ------- in 2008 = 5% 2nd cycle in 1961 = 11% ------- in 1987 = 4% ------- in 2008 = 2% 3rd cycle in 1961 = 1% -------- in 1995 =5% ------- in 2008 = 4%.
Secondary in 1965 = almost zero ---- in 1995 = 5% in 1995 and has continued to diminish since. Superior education in 1978 = 1% ------ in 2003 = 4% and has decreased slightly since.
Population, according to Census, with higher education according to gender
Although the number of men and women with higher education has increased, it is worth noting that this increase has been much more significant in women due to
Populalation, according to Census, without education, by gender
In contrast, the number of young women over the age of 15 without education is higher than young men of the same age.
Global schooling levels
Global schooling levels increase in all levels due to higher standards of statutory education, the democratization of education, and the emancipation of women. The 1st cycle is the only level in which global schooling levels is stable but decreases after 1987 due to falling birth rates.
Rates of abandonment by gender The rate of school abandonment is the percentage of students that leave statutory education prematurely.
The rate of educational abandonment has decreased, but not without fluctuations, mainly by men, due to the need to find employment.
School abandonment (2004 figures) % of young people between 18 & 24 years that abandon statutory education.
In 2004 Portugal registered more than double (45,5%) the number of young European people (18.5%) who abandoned statutory education.
Completion of secundary education (2004 figures)
% of young people of 22 years that sucessfully complete secundary education.
Whilst in most European countries 76% of young people of 22 complete secundary education, in Portugal only about 45% obtain the same level of study. Note the results in Sweden (SE).
Percentage of young people under the age of 15 that fail to reach the minimum level of literacy ( 2004 figures)
In 2004, young people under the age of 15 that fail to reach the minimum level of literacy:
- In the EU 17,5% - In Portugal 26,3%.
Participation in life-long learning ( 2004 figures)
- 8.5% is the average number of people in the EU that participate in lifelong learning.
- In Portugal this average is 2.9%.
Educação Secundária Higher Education
•Dos11 aos 16 anos
Spain Literacy: 99,0 %
Entry to the EU: 1986
ď ś Basic Education Primary education is statutory and free Three cycles of two year each in a total of six years between the ages of six and eleven.
ď śSecundary Education Is made up of four levels and normally between the ages of 12 and 16. It is organised according to principles of common education and according to the diversity of students. Parents and students can decide after a pupil reaches the age of 16, to terminate statutory education.
Summary School is a place of formal learning that aims to allow young people to enter the adult community. •Also, through informal education, made possible through schooling, with pupil/teacher, pupil/staff and pupil/pupil relations, the integration of individuals in the community is made possible. Through the evolution of the Portuguese school we can notice significant improvements, not forgetting the inferior point of departure in comparison the European average noted in the beginning of this study. • Within the period under study, the drop in the birth rate has been registered principally in basic education. • There is a general growth in the standard of education of Portuguese youth who are increasingly prolonging their studies. • Noticable is the increase and the 'femininization' of education, above all in further education. • Inter-generational differences are also important. Many students leave education in order to enter the labour market whilst other continue their studies and go to university.
Conclusion Analising data from the last 50 years of schooling in Portugal, we can conclude that there are significant differences in Portuguese society and that these developments are likely to continue. •Schools have improved; •Parents are giving greater value to their childrens school education; •The country has developed a greater concern for universal education, providing increasing support and finance to those in need; •The country has developed in parallel to the increase in the levels of education and the standard of students attainments.
All of these advancements in Portuguese schools have allowed a higher competence of knowledge areas, allowing society to evolve, creating the conditions for greater social dignity and
equality. • In 50 years we have the 'Magalhães' generation, the 'Comenius' generation and the hope that within the next 50 years the Portuguese can affirm their position in the world through their
Carolina Micaëlis High School Porto – Portugal 2009/2010
Barbara Torres, Isaura Nova 12º H and
Raquel Branco, Rebecca Howard, Salomé Mendes 12ºJ
Responsible Teacher: Rosário Ricou