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THE WORLD OF

P O C A H O N TA S By Preser vation V irginia


Childhood 1595 – 1606

Meeting the English 1607 – 1612

Marriage 1613 – 1615

Ambassador to England 1616 – 1617

T HE WORLD OF P O C O H O N TA S


Childhood

pocahontas was “the most deare and wel-beloved”

1595 – 1606

daughter of Powhatan, the powerful chief of the Algonquian Indians in the Tidewater region of Virginia. The man also known as Wahunsonacock was the supreme ruler of most of the tribes from north of the Mattaponi River, a tributary of the York River, to the lands south of the James River. Chief Powhatan was the highest authority the colonists faced when they landed in 1607. Pocahontas was born around 1595 to one of Powhatan’s many wives. They named her Matoaka, though she is better known as Pocahontas, which means “Little Wanton,” a playful, frolicsome little girl.

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Childhood

pocahontas was “the most deare and wel-beloved”

1595 – 1606

daughter of Powhatan, the powerful chief of the Algonquian Indians in the Tidewater region of Virginia. The man also known as Wahunsonacock was the supreme ruler of most of the tribes from north of the Mattaponi River, a tributary of the York River, to the lands south of the James River. Chief Powhatan was the highest authority the colonists faced when they landed in 1607. Pocahontas was born around 1595 to one of Powhatan’s many wives. They named her Matoaka, though she is better known as Pocahontas, which means “Little Wanton,” a playful, frolicsome little girl.

CHIEF P O W H ATA N

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Childhood

pocahontas was “the most deare and wel-beloved”

1595 – 1606

daughter of Powhatan, the powerful chief of the Algonquian Indians in the Tidewater region of Virginia. The man also known as Wahunsonacock was the supreme ruler of most of the tribes from north of the Mattaponi River, a tributary of the York River, to the lands south of the James River. Chief Powhatan was the highest authority the colonists faced when they landed in 1607. chief powhatan was the supreme ruler of most of the indigenous tribes in the Pocahontas was born around 1595 to one of Powhatan’s Chesapeake Bay area from north of the Mattaponi River, a tributary of the York many wives. They named her Matoaka, though she River, to the lands south of the James River. Chief Powhatan was the highest is better known as Pocahontas, which means authority the colonists faced when dealing with the tribe. He died in “Little April 1618. Wanton,” a playful, frolicsome little girl. Captain John Smith wrote of Chief Powhatan: He is of parsonage a tall well proportioned man . . . his head somwhat gray. . . . His age neare 60; of a very able and hardybody to endure any labour. What he commandeth they dare not disobey in the least thing. It is strange to see with what great feare and adoration all these people doe obay this Powhatan. For at his feet, they present whatsoever he commandeth, and at the least frowne of his browe, their greatest spirits will tremble with feare: and no marvell, for he is very terrible and tyrannous in punishing such as offend him.

CHIEF P O W H ATA N

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Childhood

pocahontas was “the most deare and wel-beloved”

1595 – 1606

daughter of Powhatan, the powerful chief of the Algonquian Indians in the Tidewater region of Virginia. The man also known as Wahunsonacock was

MEETING THE ENGLISH

the supreme ruler of most of the tribes from north of

MARRIAGE

the Mattaponi River, a tributary of the York River, to

AMBASSADOR TO ENGLAND

the lands south of the James River. Chief Powhatan was the highest authority the colonists faced when they landed in 1607. chief powhatan was the supreme ruler of most of the indigenous tribes in the Pocahontas was born around 1595 to one of Powhatan’s Chesapeake Bay area from north of the Mattaponi River, a tributary of the York many wives. They named her Matoaka, though she River, to the lands south of the James River. Chief Powhatan was the highest is better known as Pocahontas, which means authority the colonists faced when dealing with the tribe. He died in “Little April 1618. Wanton,” a playful, frolicsome little girl. Captain John Smith wrote of Chief Powhatan: He is of parsonage a tall well proportioned man . . . his head somwhat gray. . . . His age neare 60; of a very able and hardybody to endure any labour. What he commandeth they dare not disobey in the least thing. It is strange to see with what great feare and adoration all these people doe obay this Powhatan. For at his feet, they present whatsoever he commandeth, and at the least frowne of his browe, their greatest spirits will tremble with feare: and no marvell, for he is very terrible and tyrannous in punishing such as offend him.

CHIEF P O W H ATA N

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Meeting the English

the first meeting of Pocahontas and Captain

1607 – 1612

John Smith is a legendary story, romanticized by Smith in his later writings. He was leading an expedition of the new Virginia colonists in December 1607 when he was taken captive by some Indians. Over many days he was marched through woods and swamps to the official residence of Powhatan at Werowocomoco, which was only 12 miles from Jamestown as the crow flies. According to Smith, he was first welcomed by the great chief and offered a feast. Then he was grabbed and forced to stretch out on two large, flat stones. Indians stood over him with clubs as though ready to beat him to death if ordered. Suddenly a little Indian girl rushed in and took Smith’s “head in her arms and laid her owne upon his to save him from death.” The girl, Pocahontas, then pulled him to his feet. Powhatan said that they were now friends, and he adopted Smith as his son, or a subordinate chief. Actually, this mock “execution and salvation” ceremony was traditional with the Indians, and if Smith’s story is true, Pocahontas’s actions were probably one part of a ritual. Relations with the Indians continued to be generally

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Smith is a legendary story, romanticized by Smith in his later writings. He was leading an expedition of

Meeting the English

the new Virginia colonists in December 1607 when he was taken captive by some Indians. Over many

1607 – 1612

days he was marched through woods and swamps to the official residence of Powhatan at Werowocomoco, which was only 12 miles from Jamestown as the crow flies. According to Smith, he was first welcomed by the great chief and offered a feast. Then he was grabbed and forced to stretch out on two large, flat stones. Indians stood over him with clubs as though ready to beat him to death if ordered. Suddenly a little Indian girl rushed in and took Smith’s “head in her arms and laid her owne upon his to save him from death.” The girl, Pocahontas, then pulled him to his feet. Powhatan said that they were now friends, and he adopted Smith as his son, or a subordinate chief. Actually, this mock “execution and salvation” ceremony was traditional with the Indians, and if Smith’s story is true, Pocahontas’s actions were probably one part of a ritual. Relations with the Indians continued to be generally friendly for the next year, and Pocahontas was a frequent

JOHN SMITH

visitor to Jamestown. She delivered messages from her father and accompanied Indians bringing food and furs to trade for hatchets and trinkets. She was a lively young

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in and took Smith’s “head in her arms and laid her owne upon his to save him from death.” The girl, Pocahontas,

Meeting the English

then pulled him to his feet. Powhatan said that they were now friends, and he adopted Smith as his son, or

1607 – 1612

a subordinate chief. Actually, this mock “execution and salvation” ceremony was traditional with the Indians, and if Smith’s story is true, Pocahontas’s actions were probably one part of a ritual. Relations with the Indians continued to be generally friendly for the next year, and Pocahontas was a frequent visitor to Jamestown. She delivered messages from her this portrait of captain john smith appeared on a 1616 map of New England. The image was colorized by Jamestown Rediscovery senior staff archaeologist Jamie May from an original engraving by Simon de Passe. Virginians know that Captain John Smith was one of the first American heroes. But because he was a proud and boastful man, it is difficult to know which parts of his life, as recorded in the written record, are fact and which are fiction. What many people may not know is that Smith’s adventures started even before Jamestown. Born in 1580 in Willoughby, England, John Smith left home at age 16 after his father died. He began his travels by joining volunteers in France who were fighting for Dutch independence from Spain. Two years later, he set off for the Mediterranean Sea, working on a merchant ship. In 1600 he joined Austrian forces to fight the Turks in the “Long War.” A valiant soldier, he was promoted to Captain while fighting in Hungary. He was fighting in Transylvania two years later in 1602. There he was

JOHN SMITH

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in and took Smith’s “head in her arms and laid her owne upon his to save him from death.” The girl, Pocahontas,

Meeting the English

then pulled him to his feet. Powhatan said that they were now friends, and he adopted Smith as his son, or

1607 – 1612

a subordinate chief. Actually, this mock “execution and salvation” ceremony was traditional with the Indians, and if Smith’s story is true, Pocahontas’s actions were

CHILDHOOD

probably one part of a ritual.

MARRIAGE AMBASSADOR TO ENGLAND

Relations with the Indians continued to be generally friendly for the next year, and Pocahontas was a frequent Born in 1580 in Willoughby, England, John Smith left home at age 16 after his father died. He began his travels by joining volunteers in France who were fighting for Dutch independence from Spain. Two years later, he set off for the Mediterranean Sea, working on a merchant ship. In 1600 he joined Austrian forces to fight the Turks in the “Long War.” A valiant soldier, he was promoted to Captain while fighting in Hungary. He was fighting in Transylvania two years later in 1602. There he was wounded in battle, captured, and sold as a slave to a Turk. This Turk then sent Smith as a gift to his sweetheart in Istanbul. According to Smith, this girl fell in love with him and sent him to her brother to get training for Turkish imperial service. Smith reportedly escaped by murdering the brother and returned to Transylvania by fleeing through Russia and Poland. After being released from service and receiving a large reward, he traveled all through Europe and Northern Africa. He returned to England in the winter of 1604-05.

JOHN SMITH

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Here begins Captain John Smith’s American adventures. Apparently restless in England, Smith became actively involved with plans by the Virginia Company to colonize Virginia for profit, as had been granted by a charter from King James I. 1598

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Marriage

pocahontas may have married an Indian “pryvate

1613 – 1615

Captayne” named Kocoum in 1610. She lived in Potomac country among Indians, but her relationship with the English colonists was not over. When English Captain Samuel Argall learned she was in a village near his trading expedition, he devised a plan to kidnap her and hold her for ransom. Iopassus ( Japazaws), lesser chief of the Patowomeck Indians, was involved in helping Argall lure Pocahontas onto his ship in the spring of 1613. A copper kettle was given to the chief ’s wife, in recognition of the exchange. Pocahontas was told she would not be allowed to leave the ship, and she “began to be exceeding pensive and discontented.” Argall sent word to Powhatan that he would return his beloved daughter only when the chief had returned English prisoners he held, the arms and tools that the Indians had stolen, and some corn. After some time Powhatan sent part of the ransom and asked that they treat his daughter well. Argall returned to Jamestown in April 1613 with Pocahontas. She eventually moved to a new settlement, Henrico, where the Rev. Alexander Whitaker began

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When English Captain Samuel Argall learned she was

Marriage

in a village near his trading expedition, he devised a

1613 – 1615

( Japazaws), lesser chief of the Patowomeck Indians, was

plan to kidnap her and hold her for ransom. Iopassus involved in helping Argall lure Pocahontas onto his ship in the spring of 1613. A copper kettle was given to the chief ’s wife, in recognition of the exchange. Pocahontas was told she would not be allowed to leave the ship, and she “began to be exceeding pensive and discontented.” Argall sent word to Powhatan that he would return his beloved daughter only when the chief had returned English prisoners he held, the arms and tools that the Indians had stolen, and some corn. After some time Powhatan sent part of the ransom and asked that they treat his daughter well. Argall returned to Jamestown in April 1613 with Pocahontas. She eventually moved to a new settlement, Henrico, where the Rev. Alexander Whitaker began teaching her the Christian faith. She also met successful tobacco planter John Rolfe in July 1613. After almost a year of captivity, Sir Thomas Dale brought 150 armed men and Pocahontas into Powhatan’s territory to

JOHN ROLFE

obtain her entire ransom. Attacked by the Indians, the Englishmen responded by burning many houses and killing several Indian men. Pocahontas was finally sent

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When English Captain Samuel Argall learned she was

Marriage

in a village near his trading expedition, he devised a

1613 – 1615

( Japazaws), lesser chief of the Patowomeck Indians, was

plan to kidnap her and hold her for ransom. Iopassus involved in helping Argall lure Pocahontas onto his ship in the spring of 1613. A copper kettle was given to the chief ’s wife, in recognition of the exchange. Pocahontas was told she would not be allowed to leave the ship, and she “began to be exceeding pensive and discontented.” Argall sent word to Powhatan that he would return his beloved daughter only when the chief had returned English prisoners he held, the arms and tools that the Indians had stolen, and some corn. After some time Powhatan sent part of the ransom and asked that they treat his daughter well. Argall returned to Jamestown in April 1613 with Pocahontas. She eventually moved to a new settlement, Henrico, where the Rev. Alexander Whitaker began teaching her the Christian faith. She also met successful tobacco planter John Rolfe in July 1613. After almost a year of captivity, Sir Thomas Dale brought 150 armed men and Pocahontas into Powhatan’s territory to

JOHN ROLFE

obtain her entire ransom. Attacked by the Indians, the

John Rolfe tries a crop of tobacco to help save the Jamestown settlement.

Englishmen responded by burning many houses and Lord De La Warr and the Council issues the legal code “Lawes Divine, Morall and Martial” (1612) which governs colony until killing several Indian men. Pocahontas wasthefinally sent1619.

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This PDF ebook is designed by Maria Boehling & contains content from http://apva.org/rediscover y for Meredith Davis’s GD400 Studio.

T HE WORLD OF P O C O H O N TA S


Boehling pocahontas ebook