COUP DE COEUR PAUL MAYMONT 2012 _ PRICE «ARCHITECTURE & THE PROBLEM OF WATER UP» FONDATION JACQUES ROUGERIE - INSTITUT DE FRANCE Margaux Leycuras / Anne-Hina Mallette / Marion Ottmann
IMPLEMENTATION AGREEMENT FLOOD CYCLE WITH THE RICE CYCLE BY A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OF DAMS, VALVES, LOCKS AND CANALS :
FONDATION JACQUES ROUGERIE
The competition of la Fondation Jacques Rougerie rewards innovative projects which are investing the world of sea and space, by exploring the architecture, the engineering and the design. The Hydropolis project answers to this competition, in the category rising waters, by a project located in the Nile Valley which aims to exploit the phenomenon of rising waters instead of suffering the consequences.
In oder to solve these problems and restore the ecosystem in the Nile valley, we develop an alternative project to the Aswan Dam which takes avantages from the contributions of the flood while controlling the river. Then, we create a modular system of cities along the river Nile. So, we turn a technical and agrarian problem is an ideal city.
PROBLEM In the past, the Nile Valley lived to the rhythm of the rise of the water level, taking the avantage offered by silt to fertilize its farmlands. However, these water variations are irregular, thus we witnessed periods of flooding followed by drought. Thus, the Egyptian government in 1902 began the construction of a dam seven kilometers upstream from Aswan to tame the river, creating a huge lake : the Lake Nasser, which floods part of the territory. This dam was consolidated many times and rebuilt completely in 1950. This dam has a negative impact on the ecosystem. Indeed, the absence of silt in the valley no longer compensates marine erosion along the coast, causes a decline in the fishing and no fertilizes anymore farmlands. We are also seeing saline intrusion in the Nile Delta causing a precipitous coastline erosion. In addition, the rapid filling of the reservoir by the deposition of silt will saturate the capacity of the dam in less than a century, hence its inefficiency in the long term.
The main idea of the project is to divide up the Lake Nasser into each city-modules in a reservoir lake of 200m deep. Thanks to this lake combined with a hydrological system, we succeeded to get a more natural flood level control. Each city is surrounded by the river Nile connecting all cities module together, by Egyptâ€™s first communication system. These cities are formed of an envelopping-sea wall adapting the topography of the mountain bordering the valley. From this dyke emerges a traffic flow (roads, bridges) linking the city with the outside (surrounding villages). At the urban scale, the module is structured by a complex hydrological system. Indeed, the main fluvial axis, controlled by locks, crosses the city to reach the internal port area situated on the reservoir lake. In addition, the irrigation of the fields is provided by the combination of dikes, canals and valves. The whole converging towards the central reservoir lake, on its circumference is located a ring forming the city. It sets up on the bank surrounding the lake and extends on the water. Thus the city straddles between the land (agriculture) and the lake (exchanges).
JULY : Beginning of the flood, opening of the gates to irrigate the fields
SEPTEMBER : End of the flood, closing the valves to retain the water
OCTOBER : Labor / semi, picking the young shoots of rice
DECEMBER : Grows rice in 50 cm of water
MAY : Beginning of the drought, harvest crops