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HOW TO ANALYSE AN ARTWORK?

Source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Homer_of_Seville

Bart and Lisa see Homer's painting, a parody of Michelangelo's The Creation of Adam. [7]


METHOD 1

Sourcehttp://forums.civfanatics.com/showthread.php? p=10237537


METHOD 2

Sourcehttp://forums.civfanatics.com/showthread.php? p=10237537


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# 1.Composi*on#

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3.#Context#

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ART VOCABULARY

Source www.saatchionline.com From the series "Loss of Innocence" - Lust

by Stephan Muis

[2]


Structure 1. Introduction: describe the work – pretend you are telling someone who cannot see it

Useful starters ! ……………….. was completed by……………. in ……………. ! The work portrays …. ! The artist has used…………………… ! In this picture I can see ……………… ! The techniques and materials I have used to create this piece of artwork ……… ! Areas for improvement would be ……………………………

2. Artist’s intention

!

I think the artist is trying to………..

!

The reason I think this is because ………….

!

I think the artist worked from …………. because …………….

!

The artist prepared for this work by ……………. The work makes me feel …………. because ……………….

3. Source of inspiration and influences

4. Your reaction

!

5. Use of form

!

The work has been composed to ……………………

6. Use of colour tone and texture

!

The artist’s use of ………………. suggests …………………… I think he/she has done this to suggest …………………………

! 7. Style

!

The artists style is …………………

Useful Vocabulary suggests, conveys, conjures up, recalls, recreates, when looked at closely, from a distance

exaggerate, distort, conjure up, recreate, observe, reflect, express mood or ideas, explore material, line, tone, texture, colour, shape, see, feel, think, imagine observation memory imagination supporting sketches photographs happy, sad, suggests, evokes, conveys, mood, feeling, atmosphere, recalls, reminds me of balanced, symmetrical, foreground, background, arrangement, composition, design, strong lines, lead the eye, shapes, small, large, angular, curved. hot, cold, bright, dull, vivid, sombre, pastel, clashing, matching, range, variety, rough, smooth, broken Technique, abstract, realistic, surrealistic


8. Context

9. Conclusion

I can tell this by …………………….. ! It deals with.....I think this is a political work because ........... When this work was made society was.......... !

I like/dislike this work because …It is unusual because……. PEE

Techniques Painting Drawing Sculpture Batik Collage Photography Photoshop Embroidery Textiles Printing Formal Elements Line Shape Colour Tone Pattern Texture Form Composition Implied line

Point Evidence Explain

Genres Still life Portrait Figurative Manmade Inter-cultural Artists Landscape Cityscape

Sculpture Materials Paint Clay Wax Oil pastel Pen Pencil Collage Glue Papiermache Wire Scissors

Role of women, theme, cultural, moral, personal, ethical, refers to, similarities with the artist who.....


KEYWORDS EXPLAINED


Composition 1 By Chris Monaghan

In this presentation we will look at some basic rules of composition.

1


In this presentation we are going to look at some of the most important rules or conventions of composition: Rule of Thirds Rule of Even & Odd Triangles Space Simplification Symmetry Pattern & Repetition Learning rules about art can seem stifling or constricting â&#x20AC;&#x201C; if all artists just follow a set of rules then their art would look very similar and become very boring. Many original artists manage to break or bend these rules or conventions, but to do so successfully they first had to fully understand the rules and conventions.

3


Rule of Thirds

Chris Monaghan

Divide the image into thirds as shown â&#x20AC;&#x201C; If the main visual components (things in the image) lie on or near the lines then the image often tends to look right . In this image the horizon line is on one of the bisectors. [Remember, rules are there to be broken - once you understand and can follow them!]

4


Chris Monaghan

Which image do you prefer? Which image more closely follows the rule of thirds?

5


6


Gary Winogrand

Sometimes an image does not follow the rule of thirds exactly, but the main visual components ( things ) in the image are close to the 1/3rd bisectors. 8


10


Fay Godwin Landscape photography often uses the rule of thirds â&#x20AC;&#x201C; how?

12


Fay Godwin Landscape photography often has the horizon line on or near one of the two horizontal lines

14


The Rule Of Even And Odd

An even number of things in an image can sometimes create a feeling of tension or a slightly un-natural look.

Norman Parkinson

â&#x20AC;Ś while an odd number of things can often create a feeling of harmony or balance Dianne Arbus

15


An odd number of subjects in an image often has a more natural , symmetrical or balanced feel than an even number. 16


Henri Cartier Bresson In many artworks 3 subjects or things in an image (an odd number) can draw attention to the central subject. 17


Rule of Triangles Triangles have 3 sides and tend to form stable, solid looking compositions.

Can you spot any triangles?

Arnold Newman 18


Rule of Triangles Triangles have 3 sides and tend to form stable, solid looking compositions.

19


Victorian Family Portraits

Can you spot any triangles? Why were triangular compositions often used for family portraits?

20


Victorian Family Portraits

Think about what the triangle connotes !. !!.stability & solidity

21


Rule of space

Nadar

Which composition is more dynamic? Which composition is more restful , allowing the subject to look dreamily into space ? 22


Rule of space

Nadar

The empty space in the right-hand image creates a more contemplative or thoughtful feel to it. 23


Space can also help create an impression of movement In this image there is not much unfilled space

Swimmers diving into the water (shot from beneath the water, looking upwards).

24


The swimmers now appear to be moving into the empty space ahead of them, helping to create an impression or feeling of movement. 25


Simplification How does Rembrandt draw our attention into the face?

Rembrandt, Self Portrait.

26


Simplification ANSWER: 1.  Lighting - the face has more light on it than other areas. 2.  The brush-strokes are finer and more detailed in the facial area but become broader and less detailed for other areas. 3.  Vignette – the painting becomes darker towards the edges. 4.  Use of colour – dark drab colours except for the face. 27


Chris Monaghan

What technique has the photographer used to simplify this image?

28


Is this picture simplified ? If not, why not â&#x20AC;Ś and so what might the photographer Joel Meyerowitz be saying about life in the modern city?

29


Symmetry

Chris Monaghan

In this photograph the building seems to be balanced by the white cloud. The line of symmetry runs from the bottom left to top right corner. 30


Symmetry & Repetition

Chris Monaghan

Line of symmetry

31


Where is the line of symmetry in this image?

Norman Parkinson 32


Note: unlike in mathematics where perfect symmetry can be found, in art symmetry is often an approximation.

Norman Parkinson 33


Does this image exhibit any symmetry?

When something has no symmetry we say that it is asymmetrical

Chris Monaghan

34


David Seymour (Chim)

How does being asymmetrical (not symmetrical) help or add to the viewing experience and meaning of this image? 35


Answer: War is chaotic & random â&#x20AC;&#x201C; death can come at any moment and does not follow beautiful aesthetic rules of composition. By being asymmetrical the image manages to convey this.

36


Repetition & Pattern

Jackson Pollock

37


Paul Strand

When something is repeated, it can create a visual pattern.

Edward Weston 38


Andreas Gursky

Paul Strand

Pattern can be used to suggest texture, or can produce an abstract visual experience. 39


Summary Rule of Thirds Rule of Even & Odd Triangles Space Simplification Symmetry Pattern & Repetition

40


List of Visual Elements the ‘things’ that make up an image Line – actual or implied lines within the composition Shape – areas defined by their edges within the piece. Form – the three dimensional quality of an object or shape – its length, width and depth. Tone – describes the darkness or lightness of a particular area in an image. Shading from light to dark tone is often used to emphasize the form (an object’s three dimensional quality). Colour - hues with their various values, intensity, and saturation Space - the space taken up by objects or the space in-between objects (sometimes called negative space). Texture - surface qualities of the artwork.

2


This abstract painting by the Russian artist Kandinsky is composed of lines, geometric shapes, and solid colours.

Kandinsky, In the Black Square, 1923 Kasimir Malevich, The Black Square, 1915

The Black Square is a painting which, as the name suggest is just a black painted square. The image is therefore composed of the visual elements tone, space and shape. However, when we study the painting more closely we discover that the surface of the painting has texture, we see that the brush marks have left lines, and even the black colour seems to reflect other colours from the room. 3


Line Line is a really useful visual element when constructing images. Lines are formed by the edges of things when there is an apparent contrast between light and dark areas or between different colours or textures. Lines can also be suggested or implied by patterns or repetition.

Henri Cartier Bresson

In this image where are the implied lines and where do these lines draw the viewerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eye?

5


Line Line is a really useful visual element when constructing images. Lines are formed by the edges of things when there is an apparent contrast between light and dark areas or between different colours or textures. Lines can also be suggested or implied by patterns or repetition.

Henri Cartier Bresson

In this image where are the implied lines and where do these lines draw the viewerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eye?

6


Lines can lead the viewers eye, directing her or him to the subject within an image. When used in this way, such lines are often referred to as leading lines

A word of caution: when you compose an image, leading lines can just as easily direct the viewers eye away from the subject!

The man on the bridge by Francesco Pappalardo 7


Horizontal And Vertical Lines

Chris Monaghan

Horizontal lines can suggest a feeling of stability, calmness or tranquillity.

Vertical lines can suggest power and strength.

8


Horizontal And Vertical Lines

Chris Monaghan

Horizontal lines can suggest a feeling of stability, calmness or tranquillity.

Vertical lines can suggest power and strength.

9


Paul Strand

Study this urban landscape by Paul Strand. Discuss what Strand might have been saying about the society â&#x20AC;Ś would you like to live there? How do the strong vertical lines and dark shadow areas affect your interpretation of the image? 10


Diagonal Lines

Chris Monaghan

www.hjk.co.uk

Diagonal lines tend to be visually dynamic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; suggesting movement, a visual tension and/or excitement. 11


The model was lying on a bed. How does the photographer make the image more visually dynamic ? Chris Monaghan

12


David Bailey

13


Curved Lines Curved lines often suggest organic (living, breathing) things. 14


Mario Testino

Spot the curves in this portrait of an actress. 15


Colour

White light is actually made up from just the right mixture of every other colour of light. 16


Primary Colours (for LIGHT): Red, Green, Blue. (RGB)

Complimentary colours (for LIGHT): Cyan, Yellow, Magenta. (CMY)

17


Colours on opposite sides of the colour wheel are called complimentary colours and can create a feeling of tension or drama.

Colours which are next to one another on the colour wheel are called analogous colours* and can create a sense of peace, restfulness or harmony.

* Analogous means to correspond or be similar in some way. 18


Van Gogh Constable

Which of these images uses complimentary, and which uses analogous colours? How does this colour choice help or affect the meaning of each image? Philip Lorca Do Corcia

19


Form (The three-dimensionality of the artwork)

Masolino, St. Peter Healing a Cripple and the Raising of Tabitha, 1425

This is one of the first paintings to realistically imitate the look of a three dimensional view (3d = length, width and depth).

20


Form (The three-dimensionality of the artwork)

Masolino, St. Peter Healing a Cripple and the Raising of Tabitha, 1425

The added black lines show the use of a vanishing point to create a realistic impression of three dimensional space â&#x20AC;&#x201C; commonly referred to as realistic perspective . 21


Film still from The Manchurian Candidate

How does the photographer suggest three-dimensional space (i.e. depth)? 22


1. Man s head is larger than woman s so our brains interpret this as suggesting that he is nearer to the camera than the woman. 2. Background is out of focus suggesting depth 3. The lighting creates shading suggesting three dimensional form 23


What visual element(s) help give this photograph depth and a threedimensional character?

Fay Godwin 24


What visual element(s) help give this photograph depth and a threedimensional character? Answer: the converging lines formed by the tracks and ceiling supports. Fay Godwin 25


Some artists completely rejected the idea that a work of art had always to imitate the threedimensional character of the world (form), as in this collage by Henri Matisse entitled The Snail. Matisse 26


Tone

Shadow

Mid-tone

Highlight

Tone describes the darkness or lightness of a particular area in an image. Very light areas are sometimes called highlights and very dark areas are called shadow areas. Shading (where the tone changes gradually from highlight to shadow) is often used to emphasize the form and three dimensionality of an object.

Angus McBean

27


Texture An image can create a visual experience which suggests a particular tactile sensation. For example, this photograph of dry rotting wood creates an impression or feeling of dry dustiness, while the porcupine conjures up the feeling of sharp points â&#x20AC;Ś Ouch! Whilst photographs normally only create an impression of texture, other artworks such as painting and sculpture can include actual textures. How could you make a photograph include actual texture? 28


Space Space can be filled or left empty (negative space).

Joel Meyerowitz Andre Kertesz

Study these two images of urban life by Joel Meyerowitz and Andre Kertesz. 29


Space Space can be filled or left empty (negative space).

The images use space to suggest very different meanings about life in the city; one image suggests vibrancy, action and the buzz of citylife while the other uses space to suggest a more melancholic, alienated and lonely or sad feel. 30


Balancing The Visual Elements The positioning of visual elements (lines, shapes, colours and so on) in an image can sometimes create a feeling of visual balance. Visual balane can create a feeling of the image just being right Images with a centrally located subject are sometimes called formal compositions. Having the subject in the middle might create a sense of visual balance but can also appear rather boring to the modern eye.

Note: Not all images are balanced .

Gainsborough

31


Visual Balance

Visual balance can be thought of as being a bit like a see-saw or weighing scales; if both sides have the same weight placed at the same position then it will balance. This is rather like an image with equal amount of subject on each side â&#x20AC;Ś.

A balanced image 32


Visual Balance

Now some shapes and colours tend to jump out at us when we view an image â&#x20AC;&#x201C; for example, the colour red can be a very powerful colour, drawing our eye to it. This means that sometimes a small thing in an image can balance a much larger thing

A balanced image â&#x20AC;Ś or you may feel it is not balanced! 33


Visual Balance An image can appear balanced or unbalanced when considering Vertical (up to down) or diagonal, as well as horizontal (across) balance.

The strong yellow colour helps to balance the 3 less vividly coloured shapes. You may feel that this image is still not balanced. If so, where would you put another shape and what colour would it be?

34


This is a painting by the Dutch painter Piet Mondrian. Study the image. Do you feel that the image is â&#x20AC;Ś Balanced Vertically? Balanced Horizontally? Balanced Diagonally?

Piet Mondrian: Composition with Gray and Light Brown, 1918

Note: there is no absolutely correct answer when it comes to visual balance Visual balance is to some extent a subjective judgement. Except in the case of what your lecturer/ teacher says because whatever they say is correct ! 35


Norman Parkinson

How does the photographer create a feeling of balance this image?

36


At first glance this image might not appear balanced, but look more closely â&#x20AC;Ś.

How does Shomei achieve balance in this unsymmetrical image?

Tomatsu Shomei 37


The dark toned areas at the top and left of the image help balance the dark tones of the body

Tomatsu Shomei 38


Is this image balanced?

Chris Monaghan

39


Juxtaposition

Juxtoposition is the placing of things close to one another in order to emphasise their difference. What is the major difference being emphasised here? 40


Juxtaposition

Did you notice how black the black man looks when placed next to a white child? Did you also notice the hierarchy?â&#x20AC;Ś white man, white woman, white boy, white girl, black man, black woman. This image is not just of people on a bus â&#x20AC;Ś it tells us something very profound about American life in the 1950s and 60s. 41


Framing & Cropping When you take (or make) a photograph you determine the composition by choosing the camera viewpoint and what to include (and what not to include) within the frame.

Togetherness

Chris Monaghan

42


Framing & Cropping

Loneliness This is the same photograph as the previous image but with a different crop, produced in post-production. 43


John Hilliard, cause of death, 1974.

Hilliard cleverly cropped a single photograph of the same scene, so that each image has a different meaning.

44


Aspect Ratio (the shape of an image)

The aspect ratio of an image is the ratio of image length to width. Example: 6:4 for 6 inch by 4 inch prints (which also equals 3:2) Chris Monaghan

45


Richard Billingham

Richard Billingham produced a series of photographs about his parents. He used the amateur 6:4 aspect ratio shape for his images (just like amateur 6 inch x 4 inch prints). Why might he have chosen this aspect ratio? 46


The Gaze

Titian, Venus D Urbino, 1538

When we look hard at someone else our gaze can sometimes be interpreted as if we are saying I am the powerful one here . Manet s Olympia caused a scandal because he painted a woman in a contemporary setting who seemed by her gaze to be the one with all the power - in 1863 women were meant to do as they were told by men!

Manet, Olympia, 1863 47


Looking at portraiture What is the relationship between viewer and subject?

Who is the subject of the portrait?

Do you think the artist is male or female? How have you made your decision?

Can you describe how the artist uses colour? E.g. descriptively or emotionally? what effect do they create?

What is it? Is it a painting? A photograph?

Does the image make you feel in a certain way? Can you describe why or how it makes you feel like that?

Do you like or dislike it? On what basis do you decide whether an artwork is of value to you ?

Julian Opie, Hirofumi, fashion designer (2005)

Is there anything else in the image other than the person? What is the background like?Are there any objects or props in the background? What kind of colour scheme does the artist use? e.g. Vibrant, grey, flat..

Describe the gaze of the subject...hard, soft, confrontational, thoughtful?

How has the image been made? What skills and processes do you think are involved?

What do you notice first? Do some parts of the image draw your attention more than others?


Richard Avedon

August Sander

Images in which the subject looks directly at the viewer can have a powerful or disconcerting effect. 48


Composition Summary Visual elements: Line, Shape, Form, Tone, Colour, Space, Texture

Some ‘Rules’ of composition Juxtaposition Symmetry Repetition Rule of thirds Rule of odd and even Rule of space Simplification Balance

49


Painting Techniques Only a sample â&#x20AC;&#x201C; there are principles but there are NO RULES


Alla prima

A painting done in just one layer


Alla Prima


Stippling using the tip of the brush to apply dots of color

Paul Klee


Pointillism

Seurat


Impasto

Applying very thick paint so that the brushstroke actually leaves a trail in the paint and these trails create texture and shadow.


Vincent Van Gogh


scraffito

Putting on a layer of paint and then scratching back through it to reveal the paint underneath


drybrush

Using an almost empty brush to apply the color


Francis Bacon


Claude Monet


scumbling

Putting layers of lighter color over layers of darker colors


J.M.W. Turner


Sfumato â&#x20AC;&#x201C; or smooth blending

Blending the paint in a naturalistic way


Titian


ONLINE SOURCES

Newspapers

Books

Museums

Blogs, programs, online magazines etc.

Sources www.thegentlemanscholar.com www.chinamuseums.com/shanghai.htm

[5]


http://www.osagegallery.com/ http://www.hongkongartfair.com/ http://www.gagosian.com/ http://www.aaa.org.hk/home.aspx Angela Li Gallery http://www.artnet.com/gallery/425761350/contemporary-byangela-li.html http://www.thecatstreetgallery.com/exhibition/current/ http://schoeniartgallery.com/web/ http://www.para-site.org.hk Asian Art Archive http://www.aaa.org.hk/home.aspx

!


Websites Inspiring pictures to help you with your research www.flickr.com www.guardian.co.uk/inpictures www.photobucket.com http://www.artistaday.com PhotoShop for free online! www.pixlr.com Museum Links: http://www.saatchionline.com/ http://www.artcyclopedia.com/ http://www.npg.org.uk/ National Portrait Gallery http://www.britishmuseum.org/ http://www.nzatvenice.com/ www.metmuseum.org http://www.nationalmuseum.sg http://www.tate.org.uk/


http://www.hauserwirth.com/

http://www.victoria-miro.com/ http://www.whitecube.com/ http://www.mariangoodman.com/ http://www.lissongallery.com/

Beijing: 798 Art District http://www.china.org.cn/english/798/236196.htm http://www.galerieparisbeijing.com/ http://www.chinesecontemporary.com/beijing.htm http://www.redgategallery.com/

Indonesian Art http://www.artslant.com/?gclid=CIz-yvDG86oCFYiCpAodkG83Pw

Some Hong Kong art galleries!

http://www.hiphongkong.com/content/best_art_galleries_hong_ko ng http://www.hongkonggalleries.org/galleries.html


PLK$ CKY$ ART

Section$1. Say$what$you$see

Section$2.$Break$it$down


PLK$ CKY$ ART

Section$3.

Section$4.The$final$word

Check$your$answers.$Have$you$copied$out$the$ questions?


Looking at portraiture What is the relationship between viewer and subject?

Who is the subject of the portrait?

Do you think the artist is male or female? How have you made your decision?

Can you describe how the artist uses colour? E.g. descriptively or emotionally? what effect do they create?

What is it? Is it a painting? A photograph?

Does the image make you feel in a certain way? Can you describe why or how it makes you feel like that?

Do you like or dislike it? On what basis do you decide whether an artwork is of value to you ?

Julian Opie, Hirofumi, fashion designer (2005)

Is there anything else in the image other than the person? What is the background like?Are there any objects or props in the background? What kind of colour scheme does the artist use? e.g. Vibrant, grey, flat..

Describe the gaze of the subject...hard, soft, confrontational, thoughtful?

How has the image been made? What skills and processes do you think are involved?

What do you notice first? Do some parts of the image draw your attention more than others?


ART MOVEMENTS

Source http://fc05.deviantart.net/fs44/f/2009/148/9/2/ Timeline_of_Art_Movements_by_papier_puppe.png

[7]


Jia Aili

J

ia Aili grew up in China’s Dongbei and his paintings resonate with the harshness of those provinces – the frontlines of industrial reform in recent decades and of wars in earlier ones. After only two years in Beijing, he is an established artist, showing a passion for painting that sets him apart. Since last winter he has worked on a still-unfinished 12-meter-long canvas, a panoramic dystopia of wrecked planes, fallen statues and innocent children.

“Everyone knows what’s happened in China and the whole world in the last 30 years since I was born in 1979. I am simply a northerner. I have experienced the four seasons, the germinating of my body and mind, and the loss of religion. Growth goes with disillusion. Gain brings loss. Life in Beijing is like walking by the river in my hometown – I see the reflection of the sky and my young face flowing away.”

28 the Beijinger / September 2009

www.thebeijinger.com


Pei Li

P

ei Li isn’t even sure she wants to be an artist – perhaps she’d rather be a punk. But with just one very personal work, a video called “Isn’t there something missing?”, she summed up the new back-to-basics spirit whistling through the art world, where artists are rediscovering why they wanted to be artists in the first place – creating work for themselves, not the market.

“I always work from deep feeling and I often feel angry. If you have strong emotions, it is better to create than to destroy. I think in everyone’s deepest heart there is a violent side and I want to use that violent side to create. I see my studio as a secret garden in which I can make things grow.” www.thebeijinger.com

September 2009 / the Beijinger

29


(continued from p21)

most successful artists, staged his infamous performance piece, 12m2, titled for the noisome toilet where he sat for an hour covered in honey, stoically giving himself over to the attentions of swarms of flies. It was at East Village too that Ma Liuming staged his gender-bending performances, one of which involved him cooking potatoes in the nude while photographer Xing Danwen recorded the moment. The police came calling, and the East Village too was soon history. By then, though, it was clear that China’s contemporary art scene was very much alive. Members of the ’80s diaspora started to look towards their abandoned home with longing. In the same year that Ai Weiwei came home, his fellow “Star” Huang Rui did too. As the 1990s drew to a close, Chinese contemporary art was booming with different schools of artists and thought. Beijing artist Song Dong (see p26) was discovering the power of conceptual art in works that expressed the beauty and tragedy of his hometown. At the 1999 Venice Biennale, twice as many Chinese artists were on show as in 1993, including East Village alumni Zhang Huan and Ma Liuming. The world was waking up to the fact that the best of China’s contemporary artists were no longer abroad, but were once again making their home in China (and in particular, Beijing). As the century turned, the scene did too. Firstly, a new generation of artists began to make themselves heard. These were people like Cao Fei (see p25), who had grown up in the age of Deng Xiaoping and had no direct experience of the Cultural Revolution. Her interests and those of her contemporaries turned more to globalization, the environment, and the new contours of relations between the sexes and

30 the Beijinger / September 2009

classes. The “New Media” of video, animation and the Internet were the chosen tools of many, like video artist Qiu Anxiong, who recreated an ancient Chinese world of mythical beasts, only to place them in a post-September 11 world. Others stretched the envelope of traditional genres to explore the economic landscape of the new China. Sculptor Liang Shuo opened new vistas by making migrant workers the subject of his debut at the 2000 Shanghai Biennale, and

THE MONEY SPAWNED CLICHÉ AND IMITATION ... WHAT HAD BEEN DISTINCTIVE WAS BEING LOST IN A DELUGE OF CASH young Dongbei painter Jia Aili (see p28) created a series of desperate self-portraits, where he wandered clad only in a gas mask through a dystopic rust-belt world. The second important factor was the creation of the 798 art district in Beijing (followed by a flood of other art zones throughout the country) and the influx of international and Chinese art galleries eager to tap the burgeoning interest in the Chinese arts scene. The impor tance of 798 in Chinese contemporary art in the early 2000s cannot be overstated. It provided a focus for attention and gave the contemporary art scene a recognized center. Despite threats at one stage to turn the

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soaring Bauhaus spaces into condominiums, government recognition ensured its survival and 798 thrived as an art district. Internationally, the market for Chinese contemporary art boomed, and painters like Fang Lijun, Zhang Xiaogang and Liu Xiaodong had multimilliondollar paydays at auction. Dealers flocked to the art schools offering thousands of dollars for student work, desperate not to miss the Next Big Thing. The money spawned cliché and imitation, and long-term observers of the scene began to feel an uneasy sense that what had been distinctive was being lost in a deluge of cash. At 798, rents soared and important spaces dedicated to art jostled for attention with boutiques, cafes and “galleries” hardly worthy of the name. In late 2008, the global financial crisis hit and a chill wind blew through the art world. It whistled through 798 and beyond, closing galleries and causing an exodus of young “artists” who had set up in places like Songzhuang with the hope of making it big. But not long into 2009 – the 30th anniversary of the Stars’ first exhibition – it became clear that the crisis was good for China’s contemporary art scene. The bloated, meaningless shows of the boom years were gone, artists were retiring to their studios to think, and galleries began to stage fewer but better exhibitions. A new bohemianism is now in the air. Shows are popping up in unusual places, and there is a renewed individualism as artists remember why they wanted to be artists in the first place. China continues to be one of the most extraordinary places on earth and it demands artists who can do that story justice. As Chinese contemporary art enters its fourth decade, we can be confident its best years are still ahead of it.


INTRODUCTION 1. THE INGREDIENTS OF ART Human beings have always had a need for art, and art has always been produced because an artist has wanted to say something and chose a particular way of saying it. In order to gain some appreciation for the many forms of art to which we have access today, one must understand the basics of art from which they have grown. Analyzing structure may seem a bit cold when applied to a creative field, but structure is necessary to all artistic areas, including music, dance, and literature.

This is still true today except that, in recent years, these parts are often more difficult to identify. Today we understand that in art we have motivation (subject), the substantiation (development of the work) and communication (content). Beyond artâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s three basic parts, there may be certain principles of organization (composition): harmony, variety, balance, movement, proportion, dominance, and economy. All artists deal with these principles either singularly or in combination. In any construction structural elements are needed. For Visual Arts they are: line, shape, value, volume, texture and color.

Cueva de los Manos, Negative hand-prints from Patagonia, Argentina, c. 12.000 B.C. Hand-prints were the oldest human art expression that survives to present day and touches as the example of human imagination and wish to leave something personal that will survive long after their death.

Vincent Van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889. Oil on canvas, 73,7 x 92,1 cm. Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), New York.

Subject, form and content have always been the three basic parts of a work of art. Traditionally subjects concerned persons, objects and themes, the form is understood as the use of elements in constructing an artwork, and we would define content as the total message of the work as developed by the artist and interpreted by the viewer.

By looking at the landscape as an inspiration van Gogh experienced it with rare sense of perception and intensity.

This is a logical and common order of events in the creation of an artwork â&#x20AC;&#x201C; but artists often alter the sequence.

Turkish illuminated page from Koran (15th Century) representing the name for God â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Allah in a form of geometrically ornamented decoration derived from Arabic letters.

These elements can be manipulated to produce either a two dimensional (circle, triangle, or square) or threedimensional effect (sphere, pyramid, or cube). When two-dimensional, the elements and whatever they produce seem to lie flat on the picture plane, but when the elements are three-dimensional, penetration of that plane is implied.


INTRODUCTION Decorative is a term that we usually associate with ornamentation, but it is also used to describe the effect of art cling rather closely to the artistic surface. We can say that the space created by them is relatively flat or decorative. On the other hand, if the elements make us feel that we could dive into the picture, the space is said to be plastic. Any mass, whether actual (as in a statue) or implied (as portrayed in drawing or painting), can be called plastic.

photography, etc.). While developing the artwork, the artist will be concerned with composition, or formal structure – the most interesting and communicative presentation of an idea. As the creative procedure unfolds, the artist hopes that its result will be organic unity – meaning that each part contributes to the overall content, or meaning.

Michelangelo Buanorotti, Sibyl, prior 1510, drawing sketch with red chalk on paper. Phoenix Hall, 1053, Kyoto, Japan

A distinction must be made between plastic and graphic art. The graphic arts include drawing, painting, printmaking, and photography. These are arts generally existing on a flat surface that rely on the illusion of the third dimension. By contrast, the plastic arts (sculpture, ceramics, architecture, and so on) are tangible, occupying their own space.

When artist reproduces things from nature faithfully the artist could be called “perceptual” because he or she is drawing inspiration from optical perception. However, artists who are more concerned with responses than with commonplace perceptions are called “conceptual” because they are idea-oriented and thus more creative – employing conceptual perception.

Minor White, White Barn, 1955. Gelatin silver print Michelangelo, Sibyl – detail from the Sistine Chapel ceiling fresco painting, 1508-12, Vatican.

Every artist begins with an idea, and to make idea tangible – as a finished artwork, it must be developed in a medium selected by the artist (clay, oil, paint, ink,

Photographers may have the advantage in recording objective reality, but photographer-artists are not satisfied with obvious appearances and use complex technical strategies to achieve their goals.

The artist employs the media to implement the art elements: line, shape, value, texture, and color. These elements are the fundamental constituents of any artwork.


THE INGREDIENTS OF ART 2. SHAPE AND FORM Everything has its shape. We can define shape in art as a line enclosing an area. Such shape defined with outline or contour is called actual shape, but there can also be shapes without a contour line.

Our minds adjust to read a visible effect of shape – called implied shape. This is a principle first put forward by the German Gestalt psychologists (German word for form). They stated that our minds tend to “see” organized wholes, or forms, as a totality, before they perceive the individual parts applied to human visual perception. Shapes that we can see vary from objective (derived from observable phenomena), subjective (imaginary shapes), geometric, and implied to amorphous (vague or delicate). They may differ in size, position, balance, color, value, and texture according to their function in the work of art. Natural objects are often called biomorphic since they resemble biological organisms. In contrast to them are rectilinear (straight-lined) shapes called geometric because they are based on shapes used in mathematics. Kinetic forms are a form of sculpture in motion, for example – Mobiles with their constantly changing relationships of shapes. Shapes in Visual Art can be lines, values, color, texture, space, and in three-dimensional art – mass. They can be used to achieve compositional order; to create the illusions of mass, volume and space in graphic art; or to extend observer attention or interest span with movement. We can even see things that we are not actually looking at. We can relay on our visual memory, imagination, and the state of mind (looking on the next picture, every person will see a different shape or multiple shapes). Rorscharh’s stain – a psychological test

Shaping is a process of making a shape. It can be done by nature (natural shapes), or it can be a human product

(technical or artistic shape). The sense of a technical shape, as of technical object – like a pen, is easy to read – it lies in its function, material and in need to fit to a human hand. But artistic shapes in a work of art are more difficult to read. That lies in their form.

Claude Monet, Water Lilies, 1920. Oil on canvas Monet was interested in the effect of shimmering light on color relationships – hence the misty, amorphous nature of shapes.

Form is a visual shape of content (Ben Shahn); meaning: the totality of the physical artwork. It involves all of the visual devices available to the artist in the material of his or her choice. Using these devices artist is trying to make the most effective arrangement for what is being expressed.

Edvard Munch, The Scream, 1893. Oil, pastel and casein on cardboard, 90.8 x 73.7 cm. National Gallery, Oslo.

The ability to express emotional or intellectual message, a statement, expression, or mood through the artwork is called artistic imagination. Artists can use several degrees of abstraction to achieve that. Abstraction is a process of stripping-down to expressive and communicative essentials. An artist can represent a subject through its naturalistic, realistic, stylistic, symbolic, and abstract form. In this process the artist attempts to make organic unity, containing nothing that is unnecessary or distracting, with relationships that seem inevitable. And the good artwork is the one that has such form that we can’t imagine better one to express its content.


COMPOSITION 3. PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION (COMPOSITION) Composition understands order of elements and their relations in one unity (lat. con = with, and ponere = together, meaning putting things together). This definition is not only worth in art, but in general, for example on Beethoven’s “Moonlight sonata” or a simple train composition. While in music and film, the composition has a time frame; in Visual Art composition is spatial. The principles of organization those elements are: 1. harmony, 2. variety, 3. balance, 4. proportion, 5. dominance, 6. movement, and 7. economy. But these principles are not laws, they are not ends in themselves, they only help in finding certain solutions for unity, so following them will not always guarantee the best results. The use of the principles in artwork is highly subjective and intuitive. Unity and organization in art are dependent on a dualism of similarity and contrast – a balance between harmony and variety.

Toreador Fresco, from Knossos, c. 1500 B.C., 81.3 cm high, Archeological Museum, Herakleion, Crete. The circular lines show unique sense of composition and unity of elements in circular relationships.

Harmony & Variety Harmony is cohesion of various picture parts creating pleasing interaction. This is achieved by repetition of characteristics that are the same or similar. When visual units are repeated, rhythm is established. Sometimes harmony may create the feeling of boredom or monotony when its use is carried to extremes. But, properly introduced, harmony is a necessary ingredient of unity. Repetition in art means repetition of elements of art, characteristics of those elements, or certain motifs produced by a combination of the elements. Pattern is a formation or set of characteristics that is created when the basic pattern (model) is repeated. Patterns (made of regular or irregular repetitions) can be used to create harmony and rhythm with pauses and beats that cause flow and connections between parts. Rhythm, in art as in music, results from repeated and measuring similar or equal parts. The rhythm may be smoothly flowing or less regular and even jerky in the

visual movements as dictated by the artist (much like by a musical compositor).

Katsushika Hokusai, Under the Wave off Kanagawa (from series "The Thirty-Six Views of Fuji"), 1829-33, colored woodblock print, 26,7 x 38,1 cm, Takahashi Collection Hokusai has given us a dramatic sense of the rhythmic surging of the sea in this print.

Harmony can be achieved not only through repetition, but also with closure (people tend to see incomplete pattern or information as complete or unified wholes) or visual grouping; or when shapes share space (overlapping) or common edge; or with transparency of shapes; or with extensions – implied and subjective edges/lines/or shapes. It’s easy to recognize harmony achieved by concepts where there are jointly shared edges, shared areas by overlapping shapes, similar transparency of surface; these often are used to relate items relatively close to each other. However, the concept of extensions – implied edges, lines, or shapes – provides the artist with a visual alignment system. It is used to integrate all areas within the composition, relate, bring together, or harmonize areas, images or shapes in different and distant locations. Extensions create hidden relationships. They harmonize by setting up related directional forces, creating movement, and providing a repetition of predictable spacing between units. Variety is counterweight of harmony. While an artist might bring a work together with harmony, it is with variety that the artist achieves individuality and interest. Overly harmonious composition can be static, lifeless, and unemotional. By adding variation to the visual forces, the artist introduces essential ingredients for enduring attention. This separation (variety) is achieved by different use of contrast. Contrast occurs when the elements are repeated in a way that makes them appear unrelated, opposite – even contradictory. As contrasts are heightened, the areas involved become less harmonious but increase proportionately in visual excitement.


COMPOSITION Balance Balance is a sense of equilibrium achieved through implied weight, attention, or attraction, by manipulating the visual elements within an artwork. We deal with balance daily as we know or expect it to function with gravitational forces. Similarly in art we deal with the expectation of counteracting gravitational forces. Most artworks are viewed in a vertical orientation – in terms of top, sides and bottom. Visual compositional balance is achieved by counteracting the downward thrust and gravitational weights of the components. For example, a ball placed high in the pictorial field produces a sense of tension (we expect it to drop); while a ball placed low provides a sense of peace or resolution. As the eye travels over the picture surface, it pauses momentarily at the significant picture parts. These points of interest represent moving and directional forces that counterbalance one another and may be termed movements of force. In seeking balance, the artist should recognize that the varied elements create the movements of force, and their placement will result in some kind of tension. There are three types of balancing scales, as seen on diagrams below:

The potentially boring qualities of symmetry can be reduced by deviations from its repetitive nature. Therefore, approximate symmetrical balance is achieved with different components that are still positioned in the same manner.

Le Corbusier & Harrison, UN Headquarters 1948-51, New York This is an example of approximate symmetrical balance achieved with balanced vertical and horizontal counterparts.

Radial balance can create true or approximate symmetry, while forces are distributed around a central point. This kind of balance has more movement; it is not as static as symmetrical. If we were to replace the objects with nonobjective entities their psychological weight would be created by their shape, value, and/or color and our view of their balance again would change. We can call it optical balance of “heavier objects” (sharper shapes, distinctive values, intensive or warm colors etc.) in contrast with “lighter objects” (rounded shapes, mile values, pale in color, or in cold colors etc.). But when we use different shapes, values or colors in the same picture, we call it asymmetrical balance.

Here are also illustrated: a) symmetry, b) approximate (near) symmetry and c) asymmetry. A symmetrical image displays a portion on one side of the format that is repeated on the other side. It is a “mirror” view and the simplest form of artistic balance. Because of the nature of symmetry, unity can be easily achieved, but the artist is challenged to keep us looking with various decorative details.

Pablo Picasso, Family of Saltimbanques, 1905, oil on canvas, 213 x 230 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington An intuitive balance is achieved through the juxtaposition of varying shapes and the continuous distribution of similar values and colors.

Double-headed serpent, 10th century, stone with enamel tiles This Aztec ornament from Mexico is an example of Symmetrical balance.

Asymmetrical (occult or dynamical) balance means visual control of contrasts through felt equilibrium between parts of a picture. There are no rules for achieving asymmetrical balance; there is no center point and no dividing axis. If, however, the artist can feel, judge, or estimate the opposing forces and their tensions so that they balance each other within a total concept, the result will be vital, dynamic, and expressive organization on the picture plane.


COMPOSITION Proportion

sectioned at point C, AC is the same ratio to AB as CB is to AC.

Proportion is comparative relationship between parts of a whole or units as to size. Proportional parts are considered in relation to the whole and, when related, the parts create harmony and balance. The term scale is used when proportion is related to size and when those sizes are constant standard (specific unit of measure relative to human dimensions). For example, the human figure is most often considered the “norm” by architects for scaling buildings and often by artist for representations in their works.

AC:CB = AB:AC This extreme and mean ratio has a numerical value of 1.6180 (Fibonacci Series of numbers, where every number combines two previous ones: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 56 ...; has the same ratio). Applying this concept to geometry, the Greeks found the most beautifully proportioned rectangle that could be created out of a square (The Golden Rectangle):

A Golden Rectangle with a diagonal line creating another rectangle with the same proportion ratio Today, scientists recognize the Golden Section in nature – in expanding curve of the nautilus shell, the curve of a cat’s claw, the spiral growth of a pinecone ... The spiraling curve may be demonstrated in the continuing projection of the Golden Rectangle into progressively larger and larger units.

Polyctus of Argos, Doryphoros (Carrier of a spear), Roman copy. C. 450. B.C. Marble, 2,12 m high Artists have been seeking the “ideal” standard for proportional relationships since ancient times. Holding the human figure in highest esteem, the ancient Greeks devised special proportional standards for their figurative works. These standards are found in their sculpture. The scale was based on certain canons of mathematical rules that established ideal relations of human parts (seven heads tall figure, from top of the head to the chest = one quarter of total height, etc.). The Greek sculptor Polyclitus was the first to issue such a canon in a form of a written treatise, and the idea of affording pleasing proportional relationships extended into all areas of daily Greek life. The Polyclitus style was characterized by harmonious and rhythmical composition, and influenced Roman culture. Classical Greek philosophy established the Golden Mean (Golden Section) to represent the ideal standard for proportion and balance in life and art. The Golden Section, as it applied to works of art, stated that a small part relates to a larger part as the larger part relates to the whole. It may be seen in a geometric relationship when a line is divided into what is called the mean and extreme ratio. When a line AB is

Leonardo da Vinci, Proportions of the Human Figure (after Vitruvius), c. 1485-90, pen and ink, 34,3 x 24,8 cm, Academia, Venice, Italy. Here Leonardo investigated the proportional relationships of the head, body, arms and legs. Note that the figure's height is equal to its stretched arms and that the square's center is located where the legs join while the circle's center is the bellybutton.

Most artists seek balance and logical proportions, but some artists choose to disregard the essentials of proportions, in order to emphasize the extremes of scale.


COMPOSITION Dominance

uninteresting parts, constantly drawing attention back into the work.

Dominance - the principle of visual organization where certain elements assume more importance than others in the same composition or design.

The spatial positioning of the elements causes another kind of movement.

In every work of art, the artist intends to call attention to the significant parts of the work, thereby making them dominant. These differences between various parts in a work of art can be achieved by: 1.

Isolation or separation of one part from others

2.

Placement – “center stage” is most often used

3.

Direction – a movement that contrasts with others draws attention

4.

Scale – larger sizes normally dominate

5.

Character – a significant difference in general appearance is striking

Some art even incorporates the element of time into its movement. For example, Greek sculptors tried to add movement to their static figures by organizing lines in the draperies of their figures to accent a continuous direction; or in medieval times, artists tried to tell a story by repeating a series of still pictures; and in more recent art, the Italian “Futurists” tried to suggest movement by superimposition of many stationary views of the figure or its parts in a single picture.

Giacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912. Oil on canvas, 89.9 x 109.9 cm. A.K. Gallery, Buffalo, NY

In sculpture, also, the most common type of movement is implied movement, but in some, like kinetic sculpture, we have actual movement. Those movements of sculptures, or a part of sculptures, are set into motion by air, water, or mechanical devices. Hugo van der Goes, The Portinary Altarpiece, c. 1476, tempera and oil on panel, 2,5 x 3,1 m, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

The principle of movement is inherently related to the art elements of time and space.

Madonna is such a dominant unit that little eye movement is required – effect achieved simultaneously by isolation (surrounding her with other characters), placement in the middle of painting and enlarged proportions.

Artist who neglect dominance in their work imply that everything is of equal importance; such art creates a confusing visual image where the viewer is given no direction.

Movement Movement - eye travel directed by visual pathways in a work of art. The artist makes the eye of observer travel comfortable and informative by providing roadways and rest stops. Those roadways are, in fact, transitions between optical units. The eye movements directed by these transitions are produced by the direction of lines, shapes, contours, and motifs that cause us to relate them to each other. Most sculpture and all picture surfaces are static and any animation in such works must come from an illusion of movement created by artist through configuration of their parts. The written word is read from side to side, but a visual image can be read in a variety of directions. The artist must ensure that all areas are exploited with no static or

Françoise Rude, La Marseillaise, 1833-36, stone, approx. 128 x 79 cm, Arc de Triomphe, Paris The position of figures and their orientation on this romantic relief implies a strong impression of movement from left to right.


COMPOSITION Space Space - the interval, or measurable distance, between points or images. Some authors have taken the position that space is not an element (that is, not one of the principles of organization) but a byproduct of the elements in an artwork. But the concept of space is unquestionably of crucial importance. For example, once an element (like a line) becomes visible, it automatically creates a spatial position in contrast with its background. In transferring nature's space to the drawing board or canvas, the artists have long been faced with problems that have been dealt with in various ways in different historical periods. Sometimes artists are satisfied with flat twodimensional representation since it is in nature with flat surface in drawing and painting. This type of space is called decorative space because the absence of real depth is confined to Pablo Picasso, Woman and a the flatness of the picture Mirror, c. 1947. Oil on canvas plane. But, quite often the effect sought is one that has the observer viewing the frame as a window in the space. Such space is called three-dimensional or plastic space because of the illusion of depth. There are several types of plastic space: shallow space can be compared to the feelings of one might experience if confined to a box or stage – in those paintings there is more control of the placement of decorative shapes as purely compositional elements; deep space is a landscape that rolls on and on - achieved with size, position, overlapping images, sharp and diminishing details, converging parallels, and perspective. Infinite spatial concepts, allied with atmospheric perspective, dominated Western art from the beginning of the Renaissance to the middle of the 19th century.

F. E. Church, Sierra Nevada, c. 1870. Oil on canvas, National gallery of Art, Washington. Romantic landscape painting aimed at maximum illusion of visual reality emphasized the concept of infinitive space.

There are many artistic methods of spatial representation and we can only try to number some of them:

Size – Space can be suggested by various size of similar objects. However, in many periods and styles of art (and in the works of children), large scale is assigned according to importance, power, and strength, regardless of spatial location. Position – The position of objects is judged in relation to the horizon line in which the bottom of the picture plane is seen as the closest visual point (vertical perspective). Overlapping plane or volume over the visible surface of another one suggests that the first one is nearer. Transparency is closer spatial relationship in which a distant image or element can be seen through a nearer one. Interpenetration is when planes, objects or shapes pass through each other, locking them together with specific area of space. Fractional representation is when the most representative aspects of the different parts of an object (or a body) are combined in the same image, thus creating effect of flattening space (Egyptian art, Cubism etc.). Converging parallels can make a shape appear to recede into the pictorial field. Perspective is any graphic system used in creating the illusion of 3D images and spatial relationships on a 2D surface. There are several types of perspective: Linear (geometric) perspective develops the optical phenomenon of diminishing size by treating edges as converging parallel lines, which extend to a vanishing point. Reverse perspective is when artists (east Asian artists, Medieval Raphael, The School of Athens painters, etc.) uses (detail), 1508. Fresco, Vatican, Rome. In this painting we can recognize oblique projection in obvious linear perspective with which a 3D object is vanishing point between Plato and presented with the front Aristotle. In addition the arches are and back sides parallel getting lighter with distance in strong atmospheric perspective. to the horizon base and the other planes drawn as parallels coming off the front at 45º degree angle. Isometric projection is an oblique projection in which the object is presented starting with the nearest vertical edges of the object drawn at a 30º angle and all verticals are projected perpendicularly from a horizon base. Atmospheric (aerial) perspective is when the illusion of deep space is produced by lightning values, softening details and textures, reducing value contrasts, and neutralizing colors in objects as they recede. Color perspective is a technique that uses the spatial characteristics of colors in which objects in warm colors appear closer than objects colored in cold colors. Modern artist, equipped with new scientific and industrial materials and technology, have extended the search into nature. Four-dimensional space is a highly imaginative treatment of forms that gives a sense of intervals of time or motion.


COMPOSITION Economy Economy - distilling the image to the basic essentials for clarity of presentation. Very often, as a work develops, artist found that the solutions to various visual problems result in unnecessary complexity. This lack of unity artists can override by returning to significant essential, eliminating elaborate details, and relating the particulars to the whole. Economy has no rules and it must be an outgrowth of the artist's instincts. If something works with respect to the whole, it is kept; if disruptive, it may be rejected. Economy is often associated with term “abstraction”.

Abstraction implies an active process of paring things down to the essentials necessary to the artist's style of expression. Economy is easily detected in many contemporary art styles. Abstraction is a relative term because it is present in varying degrees in all works of art. Developing toward Abstraction: Object from Nature is often the starting point for artists (especially for photographers); Naturalism is fully representational, impersonal depiction of the natural that tends to imitate specific effects of the camera;

Henry Peach Robinson, She vanishes, 1858. The emotional factor in the content of this photograph is evident, but artistphotographer has enhanced the content by handling of the situation.

Realism is representational appearance, which is subjectively modified by the artist to emphasize the emotional universal meanings;

Three versions of a cow by Theo van Doesburg: First – study I with pencil on paper; Second - study with tempera, oil and charcoal on paper from 1916; Third – final oil painting on canvas called "Composition (The Cow)" from 1917; today in MOMA, New York.

Ilya Jefimowich Repin, The Volga Boatmen, 1872. Oil on canvas, 131 x 281 cm. Russian State Museum, St Petersburg. Realistic hard toil of the men dragging the boat (emphasized by the diagonal composition) has universal meaning; it is a statement about the drudgery, and hardships faced by men of the period.

Semi-Abstract is partly representational, but simplified and rearranged ("distorted") with further loss of recognizability (Stylized); Objective Abstraction is a representation by altering or distilling natural object to their essence (Symbol);

Jackson Pollock, No. 2. Oil on canvas, 100 x 500 cm. These works show specific development toward Abstraction: 1. Object from nature; 2. Realism (representational but emphasizing the emotional – more subjective); 3. Semi-Abstract (Objective Abstraction - simplified and rearranged) and 4. Nonobjective Abstraction (nonrepresentational – without any reference to subject.

Nonobjective Abstraction is nonrepresentational, started without any reference to subjects and assuming artistic value resides in form (elements and principles) and content completely – pure design.


LINE Line is the path of a moving point that was made by a tool or medium as it moves across an area. A line is usually made visible because it contrasts in value with its surroundings. Three-dimensional lines can be made using string, wire, tubes, solid rods etc.

Line can possess color, value, texture and it can create shape. In creating shape, line serves as a continuous edge of a figure, object or mass. Contours are lines that describe an area, while cross-contours provide information about the nature of the surfaces contained within those edges (like a topographical map).

So called “Chinese horse”, cave painting from the cave Lascaux in France (c. 12000 B. C.) shows the use of contour line in representing the physical presence of the animal

Everywhere in nature we perceive as lines phenomena as cracks in a sidewalk, rings in a tree, or the linear masses such as spider webs and tree limbs. More easily seen lines are those that graphic artist makes with instruments such as pencils, pens and crayons. The artist uses lines as visual instruction of something observed; for example, line can describe an edge, or it can be a meeting of areas where value, textural, or color differences do not blend; or it may be a contour when defining the limits of a drawn shape. Artists use different type of lines to suggest spatial change, movement, or animation.

Henri Mattisse, Head of a Girl, 1915, print (etching) With the same thickness of fluid curves Mattisse achieved elegant slow motion of hair suggesting restful and peaceful gesture.

Lines differ in measure (short or long, thin or thick); type (straight, angular or curved); direction (zigzag or serpentine); and character (geometrical, calligraphic or expressive line), etc. The qualities of those lines are many, and can be described in terms of general states of feeling – tired, energetic, alive etc. For example - Calligraphic lines are flowing and rhythmical; intriguing to the eye as it enriches an artwork; one can see the qualities of grace and elegance.

Leonardo da Vinci, Study of a Girls head, 1475, pencil on paper

Groups of lines create areas that can differ in value (wide lines = dark surface, narrow lines = light). Hatching, repeated strokes producing clustered lines, is a way to produce value, and the strokes can even define the direction of a surface. Groups of lines can also combine to produce textures that suggest a visual feeling for the character of the surface. In combination with certain colors, lines can represent different emotional states. The spatial characteristics of line are subject to control by the artist – for example, individual line with varied values throughout its length may appear to writhe and twist in space.

M. C. Escher, Drawing Hands, 1948., lithograph, 28,5 x 34 cm

Line creates representation on both abstract and realistic levels. Artists are using all line properties to suggest almost everything – from merely utilitarian line in architectural drawings, or words on paper to convey feelings and emotions in drawings and paintings. Gestural drawing in any medium displays lines that are drawn freely and quickly, and used more conspicuously can present motion of the drawn subject.


VALUE Value (tone, brightness) can be understood as the relative degree of light and dark (achromatic value), or as characteristic of color determined by light or dark, or the quantity of light reflected by color.

Achromatic value comes in gradation of middle value to black (low key values) and middle value to white (high key values). Many printmakers and photographers prefer to work entirely with achromatic values to produce successful works with rich darks and sparkling lights. Value can be used in describing objects, shapes and space. Michelangelo Merisi, called Caravaggio, The incredulity of Saint Thomas, c. 1609. Oil on canvas.

F D C B

Some art styles ignore conventional light sources or neglect representation of light altogether, and stress decorative effects (decorative value). This is characteristic of the works of children and primitive and prehistoric tribes, traditional East Asians, and certain periods of Western art (Middle Ages, Byzantine art, Modern and Contemporary art).

E A Edward Weston, Succulent, 1930. Photograph. A solid object receives more light on one side than the other, while shadows occur where the light is blocked. Curved surfaces exhibit a gradual change of value, whereas angular surfaces give sharp changes: (A) Highlight; (B) Light; © Shadow edge; (D) Shadow core; (E) Cast shadow; and (F) Reflected light.

Descriptive qualities can be broadened to include psychological, emotional, and dramatic expression. The type of expression sought by the artist ordinarily determines the balance between light and dark in work: dark areas create an atmosphere of gloom, mystery, drama, or menace, while light areas produce quite the opposite effect. Chiaroscuro (Italian: light and shadow) is a technique of creating the illusion of 3-D objects in space or atmosphere by distribution of contrasting light and dark in modeling an object in a painting. Chiaroscuro reappeared in western art during the Renaissance, and Leonardo extended the range of values with his technique known as sfumato (extremely subtle transitions from light to dark or dark to light). A technique of painting that exaggerates the effects of chiaroscuro is called tenebrism. Tenebrists (Caravaggio, Rembrandt, etc.) used the strong contrast to highly dramatic, even theatrical work.

Henri Rouseau, The Snake Charmer, 1907. Oil on canvas, 169 x 189.5 cm. Musée d'Orsay, Paris.

Most creative artists think of value as a vital and lively participant in compositional structure. These artists use the arrangement or organization of values that control compositional movement and create a unifying effect throughout a work of art – value pattern. Value patterns may be thought of as the compositional skeleton that supports the image. There are two approaches for developing the value pattern – closed-value or open-value compositions. In closed-value compositions, values are limited by the edges or boundaries of shapes; while in open-value compositions, values can cross over shape boundaries into adjoining areas.


TEXTURE Texture is the surface character of a material that can be experienced through touch (actual texture) or the illusion of touch (simulated texture).

Everything has a texture, from the hard glossiness of glass through the partial roughness of lampshade to the soft fluffiness of a carpet. We don't have to touch the objects (tactile experience) to perceive its texture; we can see (visual experience) texture and predict its feel. Therefore, in a picture, we may recognize objects through the artist's use of characteristic shapes, colors, and value patterns. Texture is really surface, and the feel of that surface (tactile or visual) determines how we see it and feel it. Rough surfaces intercept light rays, producing contrasting (dynamic) lights and darks. Glossy surfaces reflect the light more evenly (smooth), giving a less broken appearance. Textures can provoke psychological or emotional responses in us that may either pleasant or unpleasant. Textures also have symbolic or associative meanings.

Juan Gris, Fantomas, 1915. Collage and oil on canvas, 59.8 x 73.3 cm. National Gallery of Art, Washington. In this painting we can see a collage in which artist used actual textures of glued wood and created simulated textures of wallpaper.

If items in a collage are displayed rather bulky so they keep their individuality and look more like 3D art than a painting; we call that an assemblage. Simulated texture is a surface character that looks real, but, in fact, is not. Simulation is a copying technique, a skill that can be quite impressive in its own right; but it is far from being the sum of total art. Simulated textures are useful for making things identifiable, and we experience a rich tactile enjoyment when viewing them. This texture is often associated with illusionist paintings (trompe l'oeil) which attempt to “fool the eye”.

Auguste Rodin, The Kiss, 1886-98. Marble, larger than lifesize. Rodin's museum, Paris. The sculptor has polished bodies of figures in order to bring out the natural textures of marble. In addition, he made rough texture of the stone pediment to make contrast of cold and hard shapes that make smooth lines and emotional gesture of figures livelier.

Actual texture has been a natural part of 3D art, but has rarely been present in graphic arts. Adding textures in 2D art began with Cubists (Picasso, Braque, Gris, etc.) in early 20th century when they pasted a piece of wall paper to a drawing. That was the first examples of papier collé (French: glued paper), soon known as collage – a pictorial technique where real materials that possess actual textures are added to the picture plane surface, often combined with painted or drawn passages.

Robert Cottingham, F. W., 1975. Oil on canvas, 200 x 200 cm. Artists collection.

Abstract texture is simplified, stylized or rearranged appearance of an actual surface to satisfy the demands of an artwork. These textures function in a decorative way to enrich the picture. A created texture whose only source is in the imagination of the artist is called invented texture. It generally produces a decorative pattern and should not be confused with an abstract texture.


ELEMENTS OF DESIGN Color Color - The visual response to the wavelengths of sunlight identified as red, green, blue etc.; Having the physical properties of hue, intensity and value. Color is derived from light; every ray of light coming from the sun is composed of waves that vibrate at different speeds. The sensation of color is aroused in the human mind by the way our senses of vision responds to the different wavelengths. If a beam of white light passes through a triangle-shaped piece of glass (a prism), the ray of light will bend and reflect as different colors. These colors in a narrow band we call spectrum. The same effect is created in nature in a rainbow.

The angle at which the rays are bent is greatest at the violet end and least at the red end.

The spectrum consists out of three primary (red, blue, yellow) and three secondary colors (orange, green, violet). These colors, however, blend gradually so that we can see several intermediate colors between them. Some pigments like black, white, or gray, do not look like any of the hues of the spectrum. They are achromatic – we recognize them merely in the quantity of light they reflect (black is absence of light, while white is the light). That’s why they are also called neutrals.

This color wheel includes primary, secondary and intermediate hues. Analogous colors are those that appear next to each other on the color wheel. Opposite colors are complementary colors. The smaller circles indicate the lessening of intensity due to the mixing of these complementaries. The inner circles are result from the mixture or neutralization of one primary by its complement. Complete neutralization occurs in the center. The blue line indicates distinction between warm and cool colors, and darts indicate complementary contrasted colors.

The Characteristics of Color Every color must be described in terms of three physical properties: hue, value and intensity. Hue is generic color name witch indicates its position in the spectrum or on the color wheel. Every color actually exists in many subtle variations, although they all continue to bear the simple color names on the twelve-step color wheel. Adding it to another hue can change color’s hue. Adding black or white to a hue can produce a wide range of color value variations. So value is quantity of light reflected by the color. Intensity (saturation or chroma) refers to the quality of light in a color, or purity of a hue. A vivid color is of high intensity while a dull color is of low intensity. Combinations and arrangements of color express content or meaning. The successful use of color depends upon an understanding of some basic color relationships. Some of the basic are color “temperature”, complementary and simultaneous contrast. All of the colors can be classified into one of two groups: “warm” colors or “cool” colors. Red, orange and yellow are associated with the sun or fire, and are considered warm, while any colors containing blue are associated with sky and water, and are considered cool. Greatest contrast will occur when we use two colors that are directly opposite each other in on the color wheel (complementaries). But if we mix them together we will get neutral gray. Whenever two different colors come into direct contact, their similarities seem to decrease and the dissimilarities seem to be increased. We call this simultaneous contrast. Colors may be organized according to their ability to create compositional depth. Artist can create the illusion of an object's volume using advancing and receding characteristics of certain colors – so called plastic colors. For example, a spot of red on gray surface seems to be in front of that surface; while a spot of blue on the same surface seems to sink back into the surface. In general, warm colors advance, and cool colors recede.

Paul Gauguin, The Vision After the Sermon (Jacob Wrestling with the Angel), 1888, oil on canvas, 73 x 92,7 cm, Edinburgh, Scotland Gauguin has used the nature of plastic color to reverse the spatial effect and make it shallow. He painted the foreground in cool colors while the background advances because of its warm reds.


ELEMENTS OF DESIGN The Psychological Characteristics of Color Every color has some psychological influence on humans – we cannot escape the emotional effects of color because it appeals directly to our senses and is a physiological function of sight itself. Color in artwork may be organized according to its ability to create mood, symbolize ideas, and express personal emotions. For example – blue can present a state of dignity, sadness or serenity – generally easy going or relaxed notions (this is a reason why hospitals interiors are often painted blue). Reds are thought of as being cheerful and exciting - generally they are disturbing our eyes (that’s why they have distinctive use in traffic sings, traffic lights, colors of dangerous machines, etc.).

The variety of color on this mosaic in San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy (6th century) represents the wealth of Queen Theodora with her maids. Her purple gown stands for royalty while gold background represents the heavens stressing her relationship with the Christian church.

Also, different values, intensities of hues in a color range may affect their emotional impact (strong contrast can give vitality, while closely related values and low intensities can create feeling of subtlety and calmness. Light, bright colors make us feel joyful; warm colors are generally stimulating, cool colors are calming, while dark or sober colors are depressing.

Symbolically, every culture understands the danger of fire (reds) and the great vastness, mystery and freedom of heavens and the seas (blues). For many western cultures black is sign of lost and death; white is something pure and honest; green is the sign of regeneration, hope and life; blue stands for reliability, loyalty and freedom; reds suggest danger, bravery, sin, passion and even death; purple stands for royalty and mysticism etc. However, not all color has the same application in each culture – in India white is the color of funeral processions (meaning lost of colors); in preColombian cultures red symbolized renewal and rebirth in blood; in China the color of emperors was deep copper red because it was hard to achieve in glazing ware.

“Festival of colors” in Holi, India, 30th of January 2007 For Indians the colors are similarities to life itself, so white as absence of color is representing sadness.

We are continually exposed to the application of color's emotive power in consumer marketing – sparkling white = cleanliness and purity; strong plastic colors = irresistible as jewelry; warm intensive letters = easily noticeable; light cool colors = larger packing etc.

Jasper Jones, The Flag, 1958, encaustic on canvas, 103,1 x 151,8 cm, JeanCristophe Castelli Collection The symbol on this painting is so blunt that artist wants us to ask ourselves – is this a painting or a flag? In the same time the artist is answering by using the complicated technique of encaustic.

Chaim Soutin, Beef carcass, c. 1924, oil on canvas, 118,1 x 82,5 cm, Institute of Fine Arts, Minneapolis In this Expressionist contrast of clashing complements, heavy neutralizing lines of black creating harsh and dramatic scene stabilizes pattern.

Even before that, artists have used the power of color to symbolize ideas, enriches their metaphors and to make their work stronger in content and meaning. Many artists have even evolved a personal color style that comes primarily from their feelings about the subject rather than being purely descriptive. For example, the color in the paintings of Leonardo da Vinci are unified in tone and light so they are quite close – representing stable and dignified emotions; while color in Van Gogh's paintings are usually vivid, hot, intense, and applied in snakelike ribbons of pigment that expresses his intense personality.


VISUAL ARTS Photography Photography means literally “drawing with light” (from the Greek photos = “light”, and graphe = “drawing” or “writing”).

Paul Strand, Abstraction, Porch Shadows, Twin Lakes, Conn. 1916, Satista print, 33,2 x 23 cm, Art Institute of Chicago In this high-angle close up, Paul Strand has created a handsome abstract shadow photograph with rich dark and brilliant whites. Lewis Hine, Little Weaver Girl in Textile Factory (Augusta, Georgia), 1903, Gelatin silver print. George Eastman House Collection, Rochester, New York Documentary photographs were supposed to capture social circumstances of poor and provoke emotional reaction in public.

The invention of photography in late 1830s (Louis Daguerre – daguerreotype) made possible for a large number of people who did not have any artistic knowledge to create images. Photographs were cheap, quick, and reliable and could multiply in countless copies. Photography achieved great popularity, and its potential use for both portraiture and journalism was widely recognized. That’s why the artistic aspect of photograph was disputed for a long time. Today, Photography and Film (which sprung from photography) have achieved the status of art forms in their own right.

If the photograph can transfer some message, express some meaning, invoke emotions, or show profound truth in some events, than we can call it art photography. Art photography catches not any moment but decisive moment in which composition of objects or some happening invokes deeper sense and truth, or human face expresses the character of a person. Power to express deepest thoughts and feelings belongs only to Arts, and only true artist can catch it with photo camera. Photography uses the same means of expression as Visual Arts. Beside composition (it’s most important mean of expression), the two basic are: value and shaping. The relationship between shadow and light (value) can be regarded in amount of light (light or dark photo) or in quality of light (soft lighting or contrast lighting). Shaping in photography means an ability to make objects appear more recognizable or to hide their shapes. If shadow & light are showing the shapes of an object we say that the light is building the object, and if the light only shows parts of an object, in contrast with its contours, than the light is demolishing the object.

Anselm Adams, Moonrise, 1941, Gelatin silver print, 38,1 x 47 cm, MOMA

Improvements and refinements of photography went from reverse print on copper plate, “negative film” and print on light-sensitive paper, shortening exposure time from 15 minutes to capturing motion, and from color photography (1907 by Lumière brothers) to contemporary digital photography. We often say that photography represents the world as it is, however, even though it is a product of a technical machine, it is made by human hand. We should be aware the fact that the photographer is showing only that part of reality (60º out of 360º) and the moment of his own interest. In fact, the composition in photography depends from which objects photographer chose to put in, and from certain angle he chose to represent them in.

Lucas Haas, The Pair. 1947, Gelatin-silver print, Chicago

At the end, we can say that the photograph can be “looked” but we cannot “see” it quickly. Since we are seeing with our brains (not only with our eyes), seeing is a kind of visual thinking. That process demands a certain amount of time, and durability of a visual art depends on how long we are looking on it. Time spend looking onto work of art is the best way of appreciating one. Masterpiece is a kind of work of art that offers to its viewers always something new every time they look upon it; while “superficial” work of art is drained very fast.


VISUAL ARTS VISUAL LANGUAGE OF MOVING PICTURES Introduction to Film Film or “seventh art” is one of the youngest forms of art, but amongst arts it has taken the first place in modern life. From the first “moving pictures” of brothers August and Louis Lumière and their invention of cinematograph in 1895, film has grown into a powerful mean of visual expression.

Cutting shots and putting them together is important part of making a movie. Composition and rhythm in a movie is achieved with a stream of shots that are coming one after the other. With longest shots the rhythm is slower, and with shortest shots the rhythm is quicker. In fact, the most important characteristic of a film is that it includes an aspect of time. The length of a movie also has some psychological and artistic purpose. Sequencing is a way to determine relationship between shots and the meaning of a scene. Rules of sequencing are special film language.

A scene from a short movie called “Arrival of a train” by Lumière brothers, 1895.

Today, Film has achieved the status of self-sufficient art form, and as such it is a synthesis of several means of expression from other arts like literature (scenario), theater (acting), music, and visual arts (light & shadow, color, makeup, scenes and costumes, etc.). However, the basic mean of expression in film is moving pictures. Moving pictures still have a lot in common with pictures in Visual Arts, but there are some basic differences. In a painting or in a photograph composition is composed of spatial order of elements, while composition in film is similar to composition in music and it is happening in some time stream.

A scene from a 1936 movie Modern Times by Charlie Chaplin

A shot is the shortest unit of a movie – unstopped sequence of camera filming. A scene is usually composed of a several shots taken in a same environment. But composition can alter in a single shot as camera moves, and movement becomes a part of composition. There are several types of shots like total, portrait, landscape, detail and American.

Basic film shots are shown here on this example from a film Exorcist by Alan Parker from 1975: Total (red), American or Middle Plan (yellow), Close Up (blue) and Detail (green).

Directors that have created the language of film were D. L. W. Griffith, S. M. Eisenstein, C. Chaplin, C. Th. Dreyer, E. von Stroheim, etc. With the invention of found movies the structure of film completely changed and authors that gave full genre wideness were: F. Lang, J. Ford, L. Bunuel, J. Renoir, H. Hawks, A. Hitchcock, R. Breson, L. Visconti, F. Felini, M. Antonioni, A. Kurosawa, J. L. Godard etc. Today we recognize various genres of movies (documentary, thriller, horror, comedy, etc.) but most linked to Visual Arts is certainly Animated movies. Animation appeared in the very beginning of film and it is based on putting in motion still images or drawings, 24 in a second. Animators from the USA as Winsdor McCay, and Fleischer Brothers created first animated characters, while the most rewarded and most famous one Is still - Walt Disney. At the end let’s say that film, out of all arts, is closest to a stream of human thought, or the way we see and think.

Dinosaur Gherty was the first animated movie from 1909, by Windsor McCay.


VISUAL ARTS SCULPTURE Sculpture is three-dimensional art of shaping volumes in actual space. Volume is the amount of space the mass, or bulk, occupies; negative to open spaces.

The sculptor who assembles materials may also enclose negative volumes (space enclosed by planes, linear edges or wire) to form unique relationships. The diversity of newfound materials and techniques has led to greater individual expression and artistic freedom with three-dimensional forms like wire constructions and moving sculptures - mobiles.

Alexander Calder, Mobile on two planes, 1954. Wire and metal plates.

Materials and techniques

Miron, Discobol (disc thrower), c. 450 B. C. 2 m high Roman marble copy of Greek bronze original.

Graphic arts have two dimensions (height and width), and exist on flat surface, while sculptures have third dimension of depth. Therefore a sculpture has multiple positions or views, and we can also observe a sculpture by touch. The term sculpture derives from the Latin verb sculpere, which refers to the process of carving, cutting, or engraving. Earlier Greeksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; definition included the modeling of materials as clay or wax. Modern sculpture is no longer limited to carving and modeling. It now refers to any means of giving intended form to all types of three-dimensional materials. These means include welding, bolting, riveting, gluing, sewing, machine hammering, and stamping of such materials as steel, plastic, wood, and fabric (etc.).

Materials and techniques play larger roles in sculpture than in graphic art. Through hundreds of years the range of materials has expanded from basic materials as stone, wood, and bronze to steel, plastic, glass, laser beams (holography), and so on. Such materials offer new relationships of subject, form and content, but also put limitations on the structures that can be created and the techniques that can be used. The four primary technical methods for creating sculptures are subtraction, manipulation, addition, and substitution. Subtraction means cutting away materials capable of being carved (glyptic materials), such as stone, wood, cement, plaster etc.

Terracotta soldiers, c. 215 B.C. More than 10.000 life-size figures from King Châ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ins tomb in Lintong, Shananxi province, China.

Manipulation (modeling) relates to the way pliable materials as clay, wax, and plaster are handled. Because most common manipulable materials are not durable, they usually undergo further technical change. For instance, clay may be fired or cast in a more permanent material like bronze.

Donatello, Chellini Madonna, c. 1424, bronze, 50 x 50 cm.

Substitution, or casting, is a technique for reproducing an original sculpture. Basically, a model in one material is exchanged for a duplicate form in another material, called the cast, and this is done by means of a mold.


SCULPTURE distinct figures or shapes. High-relief is a relief where the forms nearly break loose from the surface, and shadows are stronger and have more interesting value patterns.

Pablo Picasso, Head of a Bull, 1943, Seat and steering hands of a bicycle, 42 x 41 x 15 cm. Picasso Museum, Paris.

Addition is most recent technique and it includes assemble materials as metal, wood, and plastic with tools and fasteners. The additive methods, with great range, freedom, and diversity, offer many challenging sculptural form solutions.

The Elements of Three-dimensional Form Three-dimensional form is composed of the visual elements: shape, value, space, texture, line, color, and time (the fourth dimension). Shape implies the totality of the mass or volume lying between its contours including any projections and depressions, and even interior planes. In sculpture the visible shape depends on the viewer's position. A slight change of position results in a change in shape.

Niccolo Salvi, Pietro Bracci and Filippo Della Valle, Trevi Fountain in Rome (1732-63) is actually a high relief group sculpture.

Negative shape is a 3D open area that seems to penetrate through or be contained by solid material. Open shapes (voids) are areas that surround or extend between solids. In linear sculpture, enclosed void shapes become so important that they often dominate the width, thickness, and weight of the materials that define them. Textures enrich a surface, complement the medium, and enhance expression and content of sculptures. Artists use different textures, from gloss, polished ones to rough ones, to encapsulate the distinctive qualities of the subject.

Different textures on this renaissance portrait sculptures are trying to emphasize notions of rough and firm masculinity (left) and soft and delicate femininity (right). Queen Nefertiti, c. 1348-1336 B.C. Limestone, height 48.3 cm. National Museum in Berlin.

Value in sculpture is the quantity of light actually reflected by an object's surface. Surfaces that are high and facing a source of illumination are light, while surfaces that are low or facing away from the light source appear dark. Any angular change between them results in changed value contrasts. The sharper the angular change, the greater the contrast. Space in sculpture is boundless or unlimited extension of occupied areas. Concerning relationships between volume and space we can recognize two major types of sculptures: free-standing (full volume) sculptures and reliefs â&#x20AC;&#x201C; sculptures bounded to the surface. Shallow-relief is a type of sculpture that uses thin shallow spaces trying to indicate and

Line is a phenomenon that does not actually exist in nature or in the third dimension. Spatial line is recognized as thin shapes of linear sculpture compromising wires and rods. We can also recognize lines as meeting of planes or the outer edges of sculpture. Color is also an inherent feature of sculptural materials, and can be used or denied by an artist. Paint is added by artists when the material needs enrichment or when the surface requires color to bring out the form more effectively. In plastic work, as sculpture, the additional fourth dimension (time) means that the work must turn or that we must move around it to see it completely. In the case of kinetic sculpture, the artwork itself moves. Mobiles, for example, present a constantly changing, almost infinite series of views.


APPLIED VISUAL ARTS Origins of Design Objects have always been beautified in some way. Before the industrial production there was no difference between the process of creation of an applied object and piece of art, both were individual and original products. Therefore, the influence of figurative art in making of applied objects was spontaneous and logic.

Isamu Noguchi, Table, 1944, Glass & wood.

Benvenuto Cellini, Saltcellar of Francis I. 1539-43. Gold with enamel, 26 x 33,3 cm. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

Every object has its meaning and purpose that can be read from its shape and choice of materials. Functional object is one that is shaped in such way that its form follows its function. Most objects are shaped according to the shape or to fit the human body - Ergonomic shape. Good object is always made out of material that goes along with its function but does not loose the characteristics of the chosen material. Industrial production helps to make objects rapidly and mass production lowers their cost.

When the production of objects becomes industrial, it ceased to be creative and from then we distinguish two types of objects: unique (handmade) objects and designed (industrial) objects. First industrially made objects were shaped in such manner that they resembled the objects they replaced, or they were over decorated. Over decorated or bad designed objects we call Kitsch objects.

Three types of chairs: 1. Renaissance folded chair, 2. 19th century restaurant chair and 3. 20th century office chair

At the end of 19th century, in England derived the idea of connecting artist and industrial production in process of beautifying objects – the movement of William Morris was called “Arts and crafts”. However, largest role in creating modern design had German school for arts and crafts – Bauhaus in Dessau (1919-1931). In that school the artists (as W. Gropius, L. Feininger, G. Muncha, P. Klee, O. Schlemmer, W. Kandinski, L. Móholy-Nágy …) cooperated with engineers and artisans to create living spaces and suitable objects that would be unique, functional and simple. There they created principles of modern design: unity of function, process of industrial production and respect of the materials in simple but beautiful shaped objects. According to Bauhaus beautiful object is the one that achieved function through creative process.

Cover of Esquire Magazine is an example of graphic design

Today, word Design means much more than originally as sketch, or visual idea, today it represents an artistically shaping of objects for mass consumption. Modern design is divided into product design (industrial design – objects, appliances, machines, automobiles, etc.), interior design (shaping the living spaces), graphic design (commercial marketing, stickers, billboards, etc.), and fashion – textile design. In a world of mass capitalistic production and the constant technical development we are transformed into a consumer society. Good designer must be well informed of all modern opportunities to use the technical development for good of all.


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IWB Checklist 1. 2. 3. 4.

Working in my IWB every day? Dating all of my pages on the day that I work on them? Completing 3-4 quality pages per week? Writing in black/dark blue pen? Remember, this is going to be photocopied and you do not want to make it hard for the examiner to read. 5. Remembering to never ever cut or tear pages from my IWB? 6. Numbering the pages? 7. When drawing something from observation, am I writing down where I am and why I’m choosing to draw it? 8. If I have used a book or the internet to find an image or info, am I recording it? 9. Am I writing comments on every page of the IWB? Even if it is just the date? 10. Am I making connections to things that I am learning in my other classes? IE. TOK, 11. Am I reflecting on the qualities of the materials I’m using to make marks? Or writing about my reflections/observations with different media? 12. Am I attempting to expand my art vocabulary? 13. Do I remember that the IWB is a public document and that slang and informal language are taboo inclusions? It’s being read by the IB examiner, after all! 14. Does the work in my IWB connect with my studio work? 15. Am I making notes on why I’m looking at specific artists? 16. Am I finding 1-2 good artworks to copy and annotate? IE. To practice brush technique, composition, color mixing, etc.. 17. Am I including the artist’s name, title of the artwork, medium and where I found it (web address, book title and page, etc.) 18. Am I thinking about my research in a visual way? Using color, headings, and images to complement my notes…and composing pages so that they look interesting and varied? 19. Am I thinking about the validity of different sources? My own direct experience, primary sources, secondary, gallery visits, art textbooks, art magazines, sources from different languages, countries and institutions.


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How to analyze an artwork ?