Design Recherche Europe Art MĂŠtiers (research on design, crafts & applied arts in europe)
Published by Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía C/ General Zabala 12 28002 Madrid Tel. +34 915 610 262 - Fax +34 915 633 788 firstname.lastname@example.org www.fundesarte.org
Editorial coordination and texts Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía Laura Miguel Institut National des Métiers d’Art Catherine Virassamy Osservatorio Mestieri d'Arte Benedetta Zini Western Finland Design Centre Tanja Oraviita
Publication design marcosGpunto
Legal deposit M-22500-2011 This work programme has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
Preface_ 08 Design Recherche Europe Art MĂŠtiers_ 10 Master Class on Textile Fibres - Florence (Italy)_ 14 Master Class on Glass - Barcelona (Spain)_ 26 Master Class on Wood - Vaasa (Finland)_ 40 Project partners_ 52 Contacts_ 58
Europe possesses a wealth of savoir-faire related to ancestral practices in which aesthetics and the quality of hand-crafted, limited edition or one-of-a-kind productions were in line with local needs and culture. While these traditional hand-crafted productions do meet certain demands of a specific public interested in heritage - the human and ecological dimensions, excellence and luxury - and represent a true “niche” market, they have not completely found their place in a globalised economy. Often perceived as the relics of bygone times, the public at large and the young in particular view this knowledge and skill as dated and hold it in low esteem.
Within this context, European crafts and applied arts need to gain recognition by portraying an image representative of today’s cultural identity and demonstrative of the potentials of artisanal crafts in terms of irrefutable resources in the economy, education and training and exploring current cultural trends. In order to come out from the shadows, the sector’s main challenge is to produce or display quality works that inspire confidence and win over the general public in the same way as industrial products do. The DREAM “Design Recherche Europe Art Métiers” project, part of the European Commission’s culture program, was implemented by the Institut National des Métiers d’Art (INMA), the Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía (Fundesarte) for Spain, the Western Finland Design Centre for Finland, the Agence de Création Industrielle (APCI) for France, the Osserva-
torio Mestieri d'Arte (OMA) for Italy and the Complexul National Muzeal Astra (Astra Museum) for Romania. The project aims to restore the meaning crafts once had and revive these professions by encouraging young people to equip themselves with a culture of knowledge and skill, while repositioning crafts and applied arts within the context of today’s society and economy. The partner countries in this task present the study carried out within the framework of three master classes that took place in Italy, Spain and Finland and focused on the emergence of a new generation of craftspeople & designers in Europe. Marie-Hélène Frémont General Director Institut National des Métiers d’Art
Mercedes Valcárcel General Coordinator Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía
Annika Hissa Western Finland Design Centre (Aalto University School of Art and Design - University of Vaasa)
Anne-Marie Boutin Présidente - Agence pour la Promotion de la Création Industrielle
Professor Giampiero Maracchi President - Osservatorio Mestieri d'Arte
Valeriu Ion Olaru, General Director Complexul National Muzeal Astra
(research on design, crafts & applied arts in europe)
“Design Recherche Europe Art Métiers”
As part of the European Commission’s Culture programme, the DREAM “Design Recherche Europe Art Métiers” project was coordinated by the Institut National des Métiers d’Art (INMA France) in association with the Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía (Fundesarte - Spain), the Western Finland Design Centre, the Osservatorio Mestieri d'Arte (OMA - Italy), the Complexul National Muzeal Astra (Astra Museum - Romania) and the Agence pour la Promotion de la Création Industrielle (APCI France), with a view to: • Defining and enhancing the image that crafts and applied arts have in today’s world. • Defining a training methodology that brings together heritage and creativity. • Defining the notion of innovation in relation to crafts and applied arts. Three actions have been implemented in an attempt to meet these objectives.
1 The creation of a European Gallery of craft and applied art productions www.dreamcraftgallery.eu in order to equip young members of the general public with a culture of the knowledge and skill of art professions by giving these professions a new image. The dreamcraft gallery www.dreamcraftgallery.eu is an online “text and image” database created to improve the visibility of craft and applied art productions in Europe. A European showcase of crafts and applied arts, it presents leading works representative of the cultural identity of each country taking part, (in the categories of traditional, rare, contemporary, and innovative objects) and reviews the history of this savoir-faire and the various techniques used in Europe. The first productions included in this database relate to three sectors - wood, natural fibres and glass - and five countries - Spain, Finland, France, Italy, and Romania. The productions include traditional Romanian textiles, decorative Italian painting, glass works by Iitala in Finland and Lalique in France and the linens and natural willow fibres used in outdoor structures in Spain and the “Carré Hermès” in France. The site’s architecture allows for its extension to other sectors and European countries can easily be added.
2 The organisation of the “Crafts and Applied Arts” Master Classes in three different countries. This experimental intercultural training was organised with a view to promoting the emergence of a new generation of craftspeople and designers. Training was carried out in the form of a “Crafts and Applied Arts” Master Class in order to allow young craft and design professionals to consider a new approach to their work, bringing together tradition and modernity, heritage and creativity, art and economics, and suggest productions adapted to the economic market. Three ten-day master classes were organized, each on a sector representative of the host country: glass in Spain, wood in Finland, and natural fibres in Italy. Each country hosted two students from each of the other countries, bringing the number of students per master class to ten. In order to encourage a multidisciplinary approach, these classes were composed of students of crafts, applied arts, and design, under the codirection of an accomplished craftsperson and a renowned designer in the given sector. The approaches varied from one country to another, allowing the questions of enhancing cultural identity, innovation in the transformation of materials and the place of crafts and applied arts in a sector such as fashion to be addressed.
3 The enhancement of the image of crafts and applied arts in today’s society and its promotion via a European-wide event. The research was carried out with a view to sharing results with those involved in the sector throughout Europe and providing these European professionals with better visibility. The first step was the distribution of the project’s results among those involved in crafts and applied arts in collaboration with the Euroart network, which brings together European institutional craft and applied art stakeholders. This is the objective of the “Crafts, Applied Arts and Design” Exchanges organised within the framework of the DREAM project’s closing seminar. The second step was to take advantage of this occasion to instigate the organisation of “European Craft and Applied Art Days” such as those organised in France, by asking European professionals to open up their workshops to the general public on a given day of the year. The study and concrete actions carried out among these five European countries in partnership on the DREAM project were born of a common goal: to promote crafts and applied arts in Europe. This work prefigures what we hope will be a renewed interest in crafts and applied arts in Europe and ensures developments in this sector.
MASTER CLASS ON TEXTILE FIBRES
Ten days, ten female students, five garments and five designs, an endless number of fittings, ideas, sketches and outlines. The DREAM project’s Master Class in natural fibres was held in Florence from January 17 to 26, 2011. The work group, composed of ten students, two from each participating European country, gathered in the sartorial atelier of master tailor Irma Schwegler, who specialises in natural fibre clothing projects. Daniele Davitti, a young designer from the Polimoda, and Marie Astier, an expert in vegetable dyes, as well as Irma’s assistant in the tailoring class, also participated. The work environment was set up in an open space in which two different work groups were organised: one for the dressmakers and one for the designers. The two groups worked at two different tables because of the need for different tools (pencils, sheets of papers, geometrical drawing supports for the designers, 14
and scissors, needles, threads, sewing machines and professional irons for the dressmakers). However, the open space was meant to encourage the two work groups to have a natural and continuous exchange of opinions. First, the teachers worked together arranging the various details and helping to solve problems and doubts. The to and fro from one place to another in the open space was the course’s main characteristic. The girls were subdivided into pairs from different countries, so that the two members’ cultural singularities could give each microgroup strength and support for its activity. The whole group used Casentino cloth, a typical textile from the Tuscan area of the same name, which on this occasion was made of local wools and dyed only with vegetable colours. Casentino cloth is a very thick woollen fabric that is
hard to work with, which often leads to unpredictable results. The students participating in the design group were asked to design a skirt that could later actually be tailored. This is why the pairs needed to work together right from the start. The girls were encouraged to find inspiration for their collections autonomously. They had a series of volumes on the history of fashion and notes on various types of modelling at their disposal. However, the most creative solutions sprang up during the last days when, after touring the city at the end of the work, visiting exhibitions and exchanging their opinions, they were able to fully express their creativity. Not all the girls who took part in the Natural Fibres Master Class had adequate technical preparation. Many of them had to be taught the basic elements of tailoring. The first two
days, they practised free-hand sewing and inserting zippers (one visible and one invisible) with the help of an electronic sewing machine. They also practiced pressing with a professional iron and a suction ironing board was useful for showing the girls the real results that can be achieved by using this extremely particular cloth. During the first days, the designers, who did not necessarily come from the fashion industry, toiled at their projects. In conclusion, however, the quality of the work achieved in those ten days was outstanding, for both the enormous progress made by the students in just a few days of study and the atmosphere of open collaboration and exchange that was created right from the very first hours, as well as for the potential and quality typical of their places of birth that all the students were able to bring to the micro group. 15
Work group: Verónica Villalón Gordón (Spain) and Luisa Maria Salvioli di Fossalunga (Italy). Material: Textile fibres. Natural white Casentino cloth/black tulle.
Project Starting point A geographical map. Black stitching and strips in black tulle on natural white Casentino cloth. The pattern chosen consists in a series of lines converging towards the same point, which symbolises a meeting point among different ideas and nationalities. The stitching is reinforced by tulle strips that represent the meridians and parallels of this ideal geographical map. Technique Classic tailoring technique (paper pattern, cutting, tacking, fitting on the dressmaker’s dummy and final sewing) and freehand drawing. Project development Designer (Verónica Villalón Gordón) development of a mini-collection project to create a skirt. Dressmaker (Luisa Maria Salvioli di Fossalunga). Practice of basic tailoring techniques. Stitching and freehand sewing, preparing a size-42 paper model, tacking technique and learning how to use an electronic sewing machine and a professional iron to better understand how the cloth reacts and thus, evaluate the feasibility of the design with one’s partner. Assembly of the skirt on the dressmaker’s dummy and final touches. 16
An Open Door
Work group: Anziza Mohamadi (France) and Aniela Hanciuc (Romania). Material: Textile fibres. Black Casentino cloth/ natural linen thread.
Project Starting point Creating a skirt that is a perfect mingling of the two cultures of this group’s members. The French structure is enriched by a series of weaves typical of Aniela Hanciuc’s Romanian tradition. Aniela worked hard to choose the most suitable weave pattern to be made using natural linen threads to create a decoration to be applied on the skirt. Technique Classic tailoring technique (paper pattern, cutting, tacking, fitting on the dressmaker’s dummy and final sewing) and freehand drawing and weaving. Project development Designer (Anziza Mohamadi): development of a mini-collection project to create a skirt. After numerous tests and fittings, the skirt has a transverse structure and is ankle length, unlike the models chosen by the other students. Dressmaker (Aniela Anciuc). Practice of basic tailoring techniques. Stitching and freehand sewing, preparing a size-42 paper model, tacking technique and learning how to use an electronic sewing machine and a professional iron to better understand how the cloth reacts and thus, evaluate the feasibility of the design with one’s partner. Aniela worked hard (also in the evenings at the hotel) to create her weave. After many trials, a weave pattern typical of the Rumanian tradition was chosen, which gave the girls’ final work a vivid personality due to its strongly ethnic character. 18
Never Ending Dream
Work group: Anamaria Silea Sut (Romania) and Emeline Raphanaud (France). Material: Textile fibres. Natural green Casentino cloth/green tulle.
Project Starting point The girls wanted to give a strongly original character to a basic mermaid-style skirt. They chose to apply the Casentino cloth to organza, which was extremely difficult but gave the skirt an elegant and very original look. A curious aspect was the name chosen for the project: The Never Ending Dream. It refers to the construction of a model that seemed impossible to complete on time. Technique Classic tailoring technique (paper pattern, cutting, tacking, fitting on the dressmakerâ€™s dummy and final sewing) and freehand drawing. Project development The Never Ending Dream, one of projects most appreciated by the public on presentation day, required very long, complex work that made extensive use of classic freehand sewing techniques and great skilfulness and precision in cutting. On an organza base, the girls applied a series of tone-on-tone discs of various sizes, which give the work a dreamy, romantic appearance. The use of a sewing machine was limited to the basic structural seams, while the external appliquĂŠs were sewn entirely by hand. The two participants, Anamaria Silea Sut and Emeline Raphanaud, worked together on the project and the sartorial assembling. 20
The dream in the drawer
Work group: Ester Cellucci (Italy) and María Arroyo Marín (Spain). Material: Textile fibres. Beige Casentino cloth dyed with natural madder.
Project Starting point Geometry. The project for this skirt was dominated right from the first day by the idea of creating an item of clothing that respected the rigid rules of geometry. Hence, imagination, but firmly linked to rationality. Technique Classic tailoring technique (paper pattern, cutting, tacking, fitting on the dressmaker’s dummy and final sewing) and geometric drawing. Project development Designer (Ester Cellucci): development of a mini-collection project to create a skirt. The initial idea was a series of vertical boxes along the length of the skirt with a herringbone pattern on the back that matched them. Precision was essential in transfering the drawing to both sides of the skirt, which is why this was the only project executed during the master class that was not created freehand, but used a square and ruler. The drawing of the skirt uses a 20 cm double square repeated four times on the front. The 20 cm are reproduced on the back to make up the herringbone. 22
The marble works of the Loggia
Work group: Sara Albertazzi (Italy) and Katja Virta (Finland). Material: Textile fibres. Beige Casentino cloth dyed with natural walnut and cotton blend fabric for the lining.
Project Starting point Overlays. The initial idea of this project was to create a double-faced, layered skirt, a complex project because this idea requires a strong, solid structure and great skill in joining the two fabrics. Technique Classic tailoring technique (paper pattern, cutting, tacking, fitting on the dressmakerâ€™s dummy and final sewing) and freehand drawing. Project development This is a very interesting project, especially because of the difference between the two group members. Katja, a designer from the world of architecture, drew inspiration from Renaissance Florentine buildings (as can be seen in the final drawing where the skirt is in the Brunelleschi arcade of the Spedale degli Innocenti in Piazza Santissima Annunziata). There were long discussions to decide which fabric to use for the skirt lining. Katja wanted a damask fabric to light up the monochromatic quality of the walnut-coloured Casentino cloth. The lining was made without cutting, placing the entire paper pattern on the lining itself. Despite its complexity, the work was made easier by the tailoring skills of Sara, who was the only participant in the master class with solid technical preparation. 24
MASTER CLASS ON GLASS
The course was organised in order to facilitate contact between students and the many different glass processing techniques. Due to the studentsâ€™ different backgrounds and the impossibility of their having a uniform level, the proposal for each student to develop a project and for course work to consist in completing these projects during the course was ruled out. The course was organised from the perspective of open research. The students had widely different levels of knowledge of the glass processing techniques proposed and their profiles did not fall clearly into either the designer or artisan category. This artisandesigner duality is typical of a field in which this difference is not well defined. A proposal was made to investigate the relationships between design and craftsmanship (and art). The plan was to analyse the ways in which artisans and designers can use their knowledge to tackle the crisis in the markets, crisis of thought and crisis of processes, while trying out artisan production systems for new designs. 26
The objective was to investigate freely the innovative possibilities and needs in the field of glass and combine knowledge and artisan skills with the processes and potential of design. Within this context, an experimental approach provides more everyone options, so that each can find his or her own level and learn on that basis to discover new technical aspects that enrich the work, the projects. This course enabled students to share knowledge and teach their own colleagues, some students teaching certain areas, while others taught other areas. The workshops encouraged the students to treat different techniques creative, especially those with which they were already familiar. We hope that this experience will enrich the students' work processes and provide them with new ideas for their future projects. 27
Stained glass is a technique that involves assembling different pieces of glass together. Normally, the pieces of glass are in different colours or textures and create a picture. The definition of the pictures can be topped off through enamels and vitifiable glass paint fired in a kiln, which transforms the glass piecesâ€™ colour and shape. Glass has been welded in many different ways throughout history. One of the best known techniques is leaded glass. The windows are held together by an h-shaped lead profile, which is then welded with tin. Profiles from other metals have also been used. Stained glass can also be made by joining pieces with cement. This stained glass uses thicker pieces of glass and a sort of wall with colour transparencies that generate the picture is created. 28
Techniques based on new adhesives without lead or cement have recently been developed. These new adhesives eliminate the need for the dark line. Silicone is one of the adhesives used, but other plastic adhesives catalysed with ultraviolet rays can also be used. The workshop, held at the Massana School, developed techniques for lead-free stained glass assembled with silicone. The workshops were taught by Pere ValldepĂŠrez, a glass craftsman, artist and teacher at the Escola Massana. Each student developed a composition based on one of his or her own ideas. They executed the project and pattern and learned about cutting glass with a diamond-bladed roulette to practice the technique. The results were flat, stained glass pieces on topics freely determined by each participant.
Fusing consists in firing different pieces of flat, coloured glass in the kiln until they take on a soft flat consistency and meld into a single sheet of coloured glass. Normally, the glass is not worked with moulds and fusing the different pieces of glass takes place on a flat, non-stick surface. Granulated glass, glass threads, etc., can also be added. The different pieces of glass and elements are often arranged on transparent glass that acts as the basis for the fusion. The final glass plate will be 6 mm thick, with free edges. The size of the piece will be larger or smaller according to the initial thickness of the glass. To obtain thicker pieces, the pieces’ edges must be delimited. If a piece is to have a certain final shape, it can be determined by delimiting the base with 30
nonstick material or by cutting it. A new piece of glass is born by the end of the process. In other words, it will not be like a mosaic in which the pieces are joined by a medium, but rather a new and unique glass plate is created. The picture is obtained from pieces of glass, granulated glass or glass threads that are prepared for fusion. Each student developed his or her own project and accordingly made a composition and fired it at 800-850° C in a glass kiln. The ten resulting glass compositions were the outcomes of each student’s experimentation. The workshop was taught by Daniel Orquin, glass artist and technician at the Fundació Centre del Vidre in Barcelona, where the workshop took place.
The thermoforming process involves creasing glass in a hot kiln in order to give it volume for folding or bending. The glass can be bent or folded into the desired shape on an open mould or a matrix in nonstick, refractory material. Softened by the heat, the glass adapts to fit the shape of the base in which it is fired. The glass can also be allowed to flow freely through a hole or from one end of the mould, controlling it as it falls to decide whether to let the mass of glass touch the floor of the kiln or other surface or stop it at some point in the air. The temperature, heat rate and time to stop the heat must be very carefully controlled to obtain the desired shapes. The glass also needs to be cooled to develop a certain rhythm to prevent internal tensions 32
and ruptures. The moulds for thermoforming glass are made of refractory blanket or refractory ceramic material. They can also be constructed of plaster and silica, giving them a shape modelled previously in any kind of plastic material. The students were able to experiment freely and try out the technique; afterwards each student made his or her own project. Based on this design, the corresponding mould was made and a piece of thermoformed glass fashioned by placing it in the kiln and controlling the temperature curve. The results were several pieces of voluminous glass. The workshop was taught by Daniel Orquin, glass artist and technician at the Fundaci贸 Centre del Vidre in Barcelona, where the workshop took place.
Blown glass technique consists in blowing a mass of molten glass in a crucible at 1200Â° C through a tube by blowing inside it, which generates volume. The mass of glass is plastic and expands according to the force of the air introduced. It forms a bubble of glass and different shapes can be achieved. When blowing air, the technician or artisan works the glass globe by spinning a rod and uses tongs to extract the glass paste onto wood or marble surfaces to shape the hot mass. When the piece is achieved, it is separated from the rod with a blade.
A kiln for casting glass was set up at the Escola Massana. The students experimented with glass blowing to build empty volumes of air without moulds. In this workshop, the project was intuitive and students worked sensitively, finding shapes and developing ideas creatively. Given the studentsâ€™ different levels, there was a good deal of collaboration among them to create a very active and dynamic working environment and sense of group. The workshopâ€™s output was very large; each student made many pieces, some of which were very interesting from an experimental and creative standpoint.
Glass can be blown in the air or inside a mould. Solid glass forms can also be made by removing them from the kiln with another rod or tube and modelling them with tongs. 34
The workshop was taught by Ferran Collado, an expert in many processing techniques, artist and artisan glassblower.
Engraving through sandblasting consists in eroding a glass surface with the help of blasted pressure. A compressor and tool in the shape of a thin tube can be used to sandblast the glass surface. By eliminating the transparency of the glass, its surface is modified, obtaining effects of opacity and transparency, such as matt tones or different tones or shades, so that drawings based on these transparent and translucent effects and textures can be created. With the help of a self-adhesive plastic sheet or elastic paints, reserves can be made and the 36
shapes uncovered, generating a specific pattern that is etched on the glass. After engraving, it is revealed by eliminating the adhesive or paint. The students experimented with this technique and made freehand designs, according to their designs on the flat, transparent glass. The results were prints. The workshop was supervised by Professor Jordi Vidal, engraver, stained glassmaker and expert in various technical glass processing processes, artisanglassblower, artist and owner of the Vidalglass company where the engraving workshop was held.
A series of lectures on the different applications of glass was also offered. • Architecture. Glass facades. The role of glass as a structural element. This lecture was given by Xavier Ferrer, architect, construction glass expert and professor at the Escola Massana. • Art, design and crafts. The lecturer was Jesús Ángel Prieto, bachelor of art history and specialist in the study of craft and its relationship to art and design. • Glass design. Sandra Moneny, bachelor of fine arts and an expert in glass. She works on her own creations and industrial processes. • Glass and jewellery. Nutopia is a company devoted to creating with glass. Nuria Torrente, David Hierro and Esther Hierro work in various fields of creative, artistic objects, especially jewellery. • Vidrioh! Presentation and communication. Alessandro Rancati, architect and founder of the Dirección creativa company in Barcelona, creator and director of the virtual magazine Vidrioh! explains the particular features of communication in art, design and glass crafts. • The creative process. Tom Carr holds a bachelor’s degree and doctorate in fine arts and is a sculptor and artist. He works on public spaces and explores the concept of time and space. His lecture delves into the creative process. He also analyses the use of light as a material in artistic creation.
MASTER CLASS ON WOOD
The Wood Master Class was organised in Finland, in the region of Ostrobothnia, which has historically been known for its wood sector, especially shipbuilding and furniture. The Wood Master Class was inspired by the Finnish woodworking and design tradition motivated by nature. The students visited museums and spent time outdoors observing nature (e.g., a winter walk from the workshop space to the museum). The students were also introduced to Finnish design and consumer behaviour and orientation in order to provide them with a more realistic viewpoint of market situations and thus, better preconditions for creating lucrative products. This created a unique space and starting point for the design and artisan studentsâ€™ work. After the in-depth introduction, each team of artisan/designers headed to work. 40
The work process revealed the two professionsâ€™ diverse natures, which made the experiment successful. The differences could be seen e.g., in the two groupsâ€™ work styles and thought patterns. The design students were more abstract, descriptive and comfortable with more time spent on discussions; the artisan students had a hands-on approach to practices: they wanted to dive into action. However, this difference did not seem to create any problems and the students learnt from each other. It was not the outcome of the final product, but the development and the learning process that was important. It also better prepared students for professional situations and challenges. Indeed, we found that these kinds of learning-by-doing experiments are of great interest in educating future professionals. Although the workshops can only take place on a yearly basis, they will be first time experiences for the students. This is just the start and it will be curious to see further adaptations and developments in Wood Master Classes. 41
is connected to the candle holder. This proves to be more sensitive by connecting different lighting methods. Process / concept
Work group: Alan Zinchi (Italy, craft) and Sujeong Han (Finland, design). Material: Wood. A reinterpretation of the beehive, a structure made of wooden, honeycombshaped battens. Hypothesis Beekeepers draw honey from honeycombs that are taken from hives. Likewise, people can draw inspiration from beekeepers and generate light using honeycomb products. The target is the international market that needs more sensitive lighting.
Project Beehive light provides two kinds of lighting methods: one is a more traditional way with the honeycomb as a candleholder as if wax were being extracted for candles, and the other is a more contemporary manner with bulbs. Each bulb generates a light spot from each honeycomb, projecting a honeycomb-shaped beam. Each way of lighting can have a remote control to switch the LED light on and off or dim it, that 42
Analysis of light development: candle, bulb and lead. Sketches and drawings. Carving, Cutting wood battens, fitting the lights, burning and painting wood, monitoring the small lights and candles. Skills / techniques Wooden honeycomb-shaped battens form a structure to reinterpret the hive. Moreover, carving, pyrography and painting are used for the wood finish and LED lamps are used as an effective light source. Results in products / Results in process Beehive products for lighting: a light from the beehive. Why would I buy it? - Simple design, matches any style of home - Functional on both sides, up and down the wooden honeycomb - Lightweight and shape - Sensitive light Conclusion The spirit of this project is very Finnish, so it came quite as a surprise to see that the author is from South Korea. This is definitive proof of the relevance of such professional, cross-cultural projects.
Process / concept The object was composed of 3 main elements: leaves, the central section and the supporting stem. We designed the most secure box for transport, since we care about our precious work.
Fruitful Experience in Design
Skills / techniques The leaves were made out of wenge wood that benefit from the strong effect of the pattern. We also came up with a multi-plan shape to get a more realistic shape. The central part was made out of teak and has notches that enable the stems to support the leaves properly.
Work group: Radu Nechifor (Romania, craft) and Paolo Rovere (Italy, design).
The stems were designed to balance the generally curved lines with straight ones, but also to be able to bear the weight of the whole object.
Material: Wood. Local wood and wenge.
Results in products / Results in process
Final concept: a fruit bowl. The handmaking process is time intensive.
Starting idea - â€œsedonarsâ€? - cutlery trays. After brainstorming kitchen utensils, the team decided to change the utility of the main object of inspiration (from cutlery, trays to fruit basket), but stick to the original design.
Exchanging experiences about different traditional objects from the participating countries learning from others about special craft techniques and use of materials.
The designing process was lengthy, but we eventually obtained the basic shape that would lead the team to the final object: the leaf.
Collecting opinions and suggestions about the way designers can manipulate the utility or visual elements of traditional objects.
cheese is prepared with an interesting system made of hot stones inserted inside the kaiku. The shepherd dips these stones into the milk to make it boil and lend it the occasional burnt flavour.
Project The project aim to publicise the kaiku bowl so as to make it known to a larger public for modern use. Work group: Julien Descherre (France, craft) and Maite Fuentes Liberal (Spain, design). Material: Wood. A local wood: birch. A local technique: steam-bent wood. Hypothesis Kaiku is the Basque name of the product selected, a recipient make of birch wood measuring 15.5 cm x 26.5 cm. It is part of the traditional culture of the Basque-Navarre zone in Northern Spain. This tradition displays find a clear vocation for livestock activities. These objects were used by shepherds for milking and at the same time for making cottage cheese and cheese. The shepherds used to handle dairy products with different recipients (kaikus) that have been handmade ever since the Bronze Age. The kaiku is by far the most complex, distinctive recipient in Europe because of its typology. Kaikus are made in one piece, with an inclinable axle that makes milking easier because of its flexibility. They can hold between 3 and 12 litres. That milk is used for making curd. This cottage 46
Culture worth/cultural value, simplicity, double function, made in one piece, ergonomic, resistant, region, north of Spain, Basque Navarre, work technique, birch wood. The outside is worked with an axe and the wood is bent to create the handle. The inside is emptied out with a special knife. The people who make kaikus, formerly shepherds and today artisans, addressed the main functional issue: no one milks by hand today, because the material is not hygienic. Market problems People only buy it as an ornamental object. You can buy it only in the rural zones of Basque Navarre. Size (very big). The object is carefully designed, which is why it is difficult to make variations. It is not stackable. Sketches / drawings Mock-up & cutting of veneer leafs (1.2 - 3 mm) with a band saw and plane. Bending birch veneer in a warm water bath,
finding rough solutions in order to settle problems (salvaged materials). Do-it-yourself process (material required: a shower, a kettle, and some clamps, etc...). Fixing forms with straps and waiting for them to dry. Skills / techniques Preparing the wood for work and using machines Carving... Difficulties in carving and turning: hardness of birch wood, lack of appropriate tools to speed up the carving process, designerâ€™s lack of carving skills. Results in products / Results in process Final concept: a set of stackable bowls. Why would I buy it? - Simple design, matches any house style - Functional on both sides - Lightweight and easy to clean Conclusion It would be better to know the materials and techniques that will be used before designing. Designers have a broader capacity to conceive small changes that can improve a product in many aspects: aesthetically, conceptually, practicality and functionally etc. Artisans have a better understanding of the piece. When a modification is suggested, they immediately know how to proceed, which tools to use and which design proposals are impossible to realise by hand.
(or clock from Franche Comté)
Work group: Reinhold Lutz (Finland, craft) and Julie Duverne (France, design). Material: Wood. 1 local wood (spruce). 2 local wood (birch). Hypothesis “La Comtoise”, date: 17 th century, region: Franche Comté - France. Description: clock with a solid wooden box (fir is the most traditional material). Pendulum and dial in metal. Use: it was the only clock in 17 th century farmhouses, so it needed to be loud, which is why they used to be made of solid, carved wood. It is not just a clock, but a large piece of furniture set in the dining room.
Project - To keep the shape of the clock, which is its key feature - To revive the Comtoise clock - To use local wood (spruce) 48
- To select the wood - To conceive the use - The French should be able to distinguish the original shape in the final product Process / concept Analysis: head = dial, body = pendulum, and sound box, feet = storage space Features: solid - stable - marked identity Shape: big size - colossal - loud noise - seems unshakable - local wood Wood working: graphism & wood. Use the end grain of pine to take advantage the pattern. Find a different way of setting out the wood. Skills / techniques Step 1: Draw the product scale 1:1. Step 2: Cut and get pieces ready for gluing. Step 3: Glue the pieces. Step 4: Glue with the hydraulic press. Step 5: Cut the pieces. Step 6: Clean the piece before assembling. Step 7: Assemble with glue and biscuits. Step 8: Round of the side. Step 9: Finish with wax. Results in products / Results in process Final concept: to create a portable clock. Main features: - Shape: universal and feminine - Thinness of the wall clock - Relief created by the grooves - A clock and a pendulum - The pendulum generates noise by rubbing
against the groove Why would I buy this piece of furniture? - Suited to modern interiors - Multi-purpose pieces of furniture - Cultural value due to the silhouette and use. Why would I buy it this piece of furniture? -
Suited to modern interiors Universal, timeless shape Cultural value due to the woods Noise generated by rubbing
Good points - Different points of views which make the project more interesting - Two different backgrounds - Craftsman meets design - The designer learns the craft process - Different cultures Issues encountered during this week Who decides what between the craftsman and designer? How can good and useful collaboration be achieved? Who is who? who - Too big of a project for a week - Several options were left out during the week Use of burned wood Use of a painting colour Use of veneer
Process / concept Features: two bowls with a double function. They can be used separately for tapas or any other type of food. The handle is inspired by Finnish sauna buckets. Birch wood for the bowls and teak wood for the handle.
Skills / techniques Prepare the wood to work and use the machines. Carving... Difficulties with carving and turning: hardness of birch wood, lack of appropriate tools to speed up the carving process and the designerâ€™s lack of carving experience. Results in products / Results in process Final concept: a set of stackable bowls. Why would I buy it?
Work group: Emil Roata (Romania, design) and Ana Schleicher (Spain, craft). Material: Wood. Birch and teak wood. Hypothesis Traditional tapas board. Strong social value: the time we spend with friends and family sharing food. Project Changes were introduced by agreement between the artisan and the designer: The pieces ranged from an uneven tray with food holders to a set of stacking bowls. 50
- Simple design, matches any house style - Functional on both sides - Lightweight and easy to clean Proposals It would be better to know the materials and techniques that will be used before designing begins. Designers have a broader capacity to conceive of small changes that can improve many aspects of a product: aesthetically, conceptually, commodity of use and function, etc. Artisans have a better understanding of the piece. When a modification is suggested, they immediately know how to proceed, which tools to use and which design proposals are impossible to realise by hand.
PARTNERS OF THE PROJECT
Institut National des Métiers d’Art The Institut National des Métiers d’Art (National Institute of Art Trades - INMA) is under the double guardianship of the Secretary of State in charge of commerce and the craft industry, SME, tourism, free professions and consumer affairs, and the Minister of Culture and Communication. This unique interdepartmental structure for referral for métiers of art has 4 principle missions: • to develop an expertise on craftsmen and their savoir-faire (know-how). • to lead the networks of craftsmen together
with all the institutional actors and professionals. • to develop the promotion of craftsmen nationally and internationally. • to explore new realms of cultural development and interactions in the domains of fine art, design and fashion. The INMA played the role of coordinator for the project DREAM and participated in the realization of the actions as the research on natural fibers, glass and wood, and in the creation of the online virtual gallery.
Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía The Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía (Spanish Foundation for Innovation in Crafts) - Fundesarte - is a national public foundation that was created in 1981. It is a nonprofit organisation attached to the Directorate General for SME Policy of the Spanish Ministry for Industry, Tourism and Trade. Fundesarte’s mission is to work together with administrations and artisans for the promotion, professionalization and success of small crafts enterprises within the framework of State public policies for SMEs. Its programmes are innovationoriented so as to help tackle the new situations the market now requires. Its values are: • To seek and promote QUALITY, personalisation and exclusivity in crafts products. • To focus the value of CRAFTS on their
DIFFERENCES: their origins lie in tradition and their future in innovation. Crafts are culture, knowledge, singularity, image and sustainability; they are communication; they are identity. • To demonstrate that crafts are synonymous with identity and SUSTAINABILITY. • To seek out CLOSE COLLABORATION with cultural identities and innovation. The foundations of tradition as roots for the future. In this project, Fundesarte plays a role in research and experimentation by organizing a Master Class on the glass sector (in collaboration with the Escola Massana) and the iconographic and historical research on the wood, natural fibre and glass sectors aimed at the online virtual gallery.
Osservatorio dei Mestieri d'Arte The Osservatorio dei Mestieri d'Arte (Observatory of Craftsmen - OMA) was born in 2006 upon the initiative of the Savings Bank of Florence. The Osservatorio Mestieri d'Arte is an ensemble made up of projects developed in the initiatives sector of the Savings Bank of Florence, oriented towards the safeguarding and tutelage of historic and artistic heritage and savoir-faire. A series of cultural and promotional activities is registered at the Observatory that aim at awareness, information, research, discussion of territorial identity and promoting the sector of
mĂŠtiers of art, the creation of a capable national and European network of institutions to encourage the comprehension of diverse cultural identities, as well as the in-depth examinations of themes such as the quality productions, the economy and training. In this project, the Fondazione per il clima e la sostenibilitĂ per OmA plays a research and experimentation role by organizing a Master Class on the natural fibre sector and historical, iconographic research on the wood, natural fibre and glass sectors in order to create the online virtual gallery.
Western Finland Design Centre - MUOVA Muova is a research and development centre of the University of Art and Design Helsinki and the University of Vaasa. MUOVA is a governmental, non-profit organization, funded in 1988. - Muova offers design, research and training services. - Muova specializes in increasing competitiveness including that of the companies. - Muova combines multidisciplinary applied research, innovative methods and a consumer oriented approach.
- Muova has developed expertise in brand and design management, creativity, usercenteredness and design. - Muova has executed more than 200 projects with different companies. In this project, MUOVA plays a research and experimentation role of by organising a Master Class in the wood sector and historical, iconographic research on the wood, natural fibre and glass sectors in order to create the online virtual gallery.
Complexul National Muzeal Astra ASTRA is a group of museums created in 2001, having as core one of the largest open air museums in Europe (about 96 ha and 335 monuments and preindustrial installations) that traces its origin back in 1963.
and visual anthropology.
The nowadays Complex of Museums from Sibiu is made up of 4 units, of different profiles: ASTRA Museum of Traditional Folk Civilization- the open-air museum, the Museum of Transylvanian Civilization, Franz Binder Museum of Universal Ethnography and Emil Sigerus Museum of Saxon Ethnography and Folk Art.
Besides its impressive collections that illustrate the tangible cultural heritage ASTRA Museum undertakes a broad Program- â€œLiving Human Treasuresâ€? whose main goal is to hand down to young generations the authentic cultural traditions.
Important supporting departments include: Conservation and Restoration Centre (Astra Centre for heritage), ASTRA Museum Publishing House, Marketing and Public Relation Office and ASTRA Film, an important centre for documentary film
ASTRA gathers about 185.825 cultural goods (heritage objects) divided in specific collections, according to region or ethnical groups.
As a partner in the DREAM project ASTRA Museum brings its expertise on traditional arts and crafts, having an important input in the research field as well as in the emergence of a new generation of artists that will blend tradition and innovation.
Agence pour la promotion de la création industrielle The Agence pour la promotion de la création industrielle (APCI) promotes design and a usercentred approach as key factors in the technical, economical and social innovation processes, oriented towards the quality of life and respect for sustainable development. It works with companies, groups and NGOs of all sizes to: • Increase their awareness of design and accompany them in their design strategy. • Promote their design items through the “Observeur du Design” award, exhibited in a science and industry museum in Paris. • Inform them through its website and the Panorama/Guide to design in Europe.
• Offer to help them participate in French pavilions and delegations abroad during targeted events. APCI develops projects to help craftspeople innovate through collaborating with designers in France and participates in the development and implementation of global design policies in several countries. APCI is a nonprofit organization that acts synergistically with the networks of design and innovation stakeholders. In this program, APCI plays a role by contributing its expertise and participating in reflection on design and industrial creation.
CONTACTS PROJECT LEADER Institut National des Métiers d’Art (INMA) 23, avenue Daumesnil - 75012 Paris (France) Phone: +331 55 78 85 89 Fax: +331 55 78 86 17 www.institut-metiersdart.org PARTNERS Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía (Fundesarte) C/ General Zabala 12 - 28002 Madrid (Spain) Phone: +34 91 561 02 62 Fax: +34 91 563 37 88 www.fundesarte.org Osservatorio Mestieri d'Arte (OMA) Ente Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze Via Bufalini, 6 - 50122 Firenze (Italia) Phone: + 39 055 5384966 Fax: +39 338 5317014 www.osservatoriomestieridarte.it Aalto University School of Art and Design University of Vaasa Western Finland Design Centre MUOVA Wolffintie 36 F 11 - 65200 Vaasa (Finland) Phone: +358 6†357 6330 Fax: +358 6†312 8664 www.muova.fi
Complexul National Muzeal Astra 11 Piata Mica - 550182 Sibiu (Romania) Phone: +40 269 218195 Fax: +40 269 218060 www.muzeulastra.ro Agence pour la promotion de la création industrielle (APCI) 24 rue du charolais - 75012 Paris (France) Phone : +33 (0)1 43 45 04 50 www.apci.asso.fr MASTER CLASS ON NATURAL FIBRES - FLORENCE Tutors Irma Schwegler Artisan /Dressmaker and Taylor www.oldfashionsartoria.com Daniele Davitti Designer / Performer www.danieledavitti.it Marie Astier Old Fashion Sartoria www.la-tana-artigiana.com Costanza Menchi Italian Fashion Research Consultant www.costanzamenchi.it
Laura Bacci Cnr Istituto Ibimet www.ibimet.cnr.it
email@example.com Verónica Villalón Gordón - Spain firstname.lastname@example.org
Participants MASTER CLASS ON GLASS - BARCELONA Katja Virta - Finland email@example.com Anziza Mohamadi - France Lazitou2@hotmail.fr Emeline Raphanaud - France firstname.lastname@example.org Sara Albertazzi - Italy email@example.com Ester Cellucci- Italy firstname.lastname@example.org Luisa Salvioli - Italy email@example.com Aniela Hanciuc - Romania firstname.lastname@example.org Anamaria Silea Sut Romania email@example.com
Tutors Xema Vidal Director of the Master Class Escola Massana www.escolamassana.es Xavier Ferrés Escola Massana www.escolamassana.es Jesús Angel Prieto Escola Massana www.escolamassana.es Daniel Orquin Fundació Centre del Vidre Barcelona www.fcv-bcn.org Sandra Moneny Artist / researcher www.sandramoneny.com
María Arroyo Marín - Spain
Pere Valldepérez Escola Massana www.escolamassana.es Jordi Vidal Vidalglass www.vidalglass.com
Sandrine Isambert - France firstname.lastname@example.org Simon Muller - France email@example.com Sofía Villamarín - Italy firstname.lastname@example.org
Nuria Torrente and David Hierro Nutopia www.nutopia.es
Ileana Simona Mircea - Romania email@example.com
Philippa Beveridge www.philippa-beveridge.com
Olivia Smadu - Romania firstname.lastname@example.org
Ferran Collado Vidres Collado www.vidrescollado.com
Tess Hill Orero - Spain email@example.com
Alessandro Rancati vidrioh! www.vidrioh.com
Andrea Pizarro Vilchez - Spain firstname.lastname@example.org María Castro Zuzuárregui - Spain email@example.com
Participants MASTER CLASS ON WOOD - VAASA
Tommi Moilanen - Finland firstname.lastname@example.org
Erno Takala - Finland email@example.com
Paola Cabrera Viancha Consultant: Strategic design
or the craft sector http://paolacabreraviancha.com
Radu Nechifor - Romania firstname.lastname@example.org
Teres Paronen - Craft Tutor www.yrkesakademin.fi
Emil Roata - Romania email@example.com
Sofia Dahl - Craft Tutor www.yrkesakademin.fi
Maite Fuentes Liberal - Spain firstname.lastname@example.org
Ana Schleicher PuiggrĂ˛s - Spain email@example.com
Reinhold Lutz - Finland firstname.lastname@example.org Sujeong Han - Finland email@example.com Julien Descherre - France firstname.lastname@example.org Julie Duverne - France email@example.com Alan Zinchi - Italy firstname.lastname@example.org Paolo Rovere - Italy email@example.com
Design Recherche Europe Art MĂŠtiers (research on design, crafts & applied arts in europe)