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1) Decision opportunities arise when problems or opportunities are recognized through critical thinking. Which of the following components may be a reason that managers ignore problems? A. The manager’s sense of urgency toward problems precludes action. B. The manager is exercising intellectual courage in the face of resistance to problem solving. C. A lack of intellectual empathy makes it difficult to recognize stakeholder considerations. D. Some businesses exist in a problem free environment. E. The manager prefers risk over certainty. 2) Critical thinking may be stored for use in future decision making. Examples of mechanisms used to “store� critical thinking for future programmed decisions include A. a Pareto Chart B. a SWOT Analysis C. a troubleshooting decision tree D. a Stakeholder Analysis E. a regression analysis 3) Decision tools and techniques influence the use of critical thinking in decision making. According to the decision steps model, what is a proper response when an unstructured problem is presented? A. Implement a decision B. Make the decision C. Frame the problem D. Frame alternatives E. Measure the impact of a decision 4) A critical thinker balances effectiveness and efficiency when deciding how to approach a problem. Depending upon the situation, a proper approach may be to do nothing, to use a ready-made solution, or to design a custom made solution. Choosing a ready-made solution, rather than designing a custom made solution, implies A. increased costs


B. gathering diverse perspectives C. time savings D. more time spent evaluating alternatives E. greater specificity to the circumstances of the current problem 5) Despite all the measures followed, successful decisions are not always guaranteed so it is important to A. develop appropriate measurements for the impacts of decisions B. use logical thinking to guarantee a correct outcome C. develop contingency plans D. only allow the most senior leaders to influence decisions E. accept that some decisions will not work and move on to other issues 6) Kathy is a manager deciding between two applicants for a position reporting to her. One applicant for the position is a close personal friend of Kathy’s. Because Kathy is concerned that self serving bias may influence her to incorrectly see her friend as the best candidate, she should A. eliminate her bias by not allowing her friend to apply B. seek input from others before making the decision. C. allow someone else to make the decision. D. any of the above would be an equally valid choice from a critical thinking perspective E. ignore her bias and be strictly objective 7) Critical thought involves the consideration of diverse perspectives. Disadvantages of group decision making include A. increased security of confidential information B. a more autocratic environment C. a decision that accounts for the interests of diverse stakeholders D. all of the above are disadvantages of group decision making E. a process that is more time consuming 8) One way for a leader to develop alternative perspectives for decision making is to A. consult with internal stakeholders in other departments B. apply past decision successes to current decision opportunities C. increase the use of the logical thinking style D. rely on the intellectual component of stereotyping E. increase the homogeneity of his or her team 9) The completeness of our thought is limited by selective perception of relevant inputs one example is A. using starbursting to ensure that we are considering all relevant questions B. evaluating which stakeholders are most directly affected by a decision C. considering the ways in which the current situation differs from substantially similar past experiences D. using brainstorming to gather a number of ideas


E. overreliance on past and current experience 10) Considerations when framing a problem include A. measuring the impacts of a decision B. identification of stakeholders affected by the problem C. framing alternative courses of action D. identifying causes of the problem E. developing contingency plans 11) During problem formulation, the decision maker must account for the interests of diverse stakeholders. An important step toward this outcome is the establishment of A. contingency plans B. decision Implementation Processes C. measurements for the decision D. criteria, goals, and objectives E. timelines and resource allocations 12) The characteristics of a problem may influence the thinking and tactics used in problem formulation and identification. A decision opportunity or problem that is important and not time-sensitive is A. non-urgent and non-critical B. complex and critical C. obvious and urgent D. urgent and non-critical E. critical and non-urgent 13) A deductive logical argument in proper form is said to be A. functional B. scientific C. true D. valid E. sound 14) What is the most comprehensive definition of a problem? A. An increase in the cost of doing business. B. A declining economy resulting in reduced revenues C. A positive situation that requires action in order to fully leverage an opportunity. D. A negative situation that requires action to mitigate damage E. Gap between current situation and some future desired state 15) Survey data, combined with this thinking style, can be used to identify a problem through statistical analysis. A. Inductive logical B. Deductive logical C. Scientific D. Creative


16) Problems may become apparent to stakeholders through the use of tools which compare actual results to expected results. An example of such a tool is a A. Fishbone diagram B. Financial report C. SWOT analysis D. Force Field Analysis E. Pareto chart

17) Of the decision styles listed below, this one should be used for a non-urgent, yet critical and unusual problem affecting multiple stakeholders. A. Programmed decision making B. Autocratic C. Collaborative/participative D. Leader decides 18) While this decision style offers an opportunity for stakeholder input, it most lessens accountability for decision making. A. Consensus B. Collaborative/participative C. Democratic D. Leader decides E. Autocratic 19) A manager may properly choose to ignore a problem A. when a SWOT analysis indicates an environmental opportunity B. when the costs of doing nothing are less than the cost of addressing the problem C. when the problem is surfaced through a positive trigger point D. when a Pareto chart has properly clarified the causes of a problem E. because of a bias against change 20) Jan is the owner of a retail store, and is evaluating the need for changes to the store’s commission structure for sales personnel. She has decided to exclude the sales personnel affected from the decision making process. Jan is probably seeking to minimize this force of influence on the decision making process. A. Lack of political support B. Resource availability C. Resistance from external stakeholders D. Ethical considerations E. Self serving bias 21) Urgent crisis conditions might call for a decision making style that is A. collaborative B. democratic


C. autocratic D. participative E. consensus 22) Upon review of the customer comment cards dropped in the box in his convenience store, Bob sees that 61% of the customers filling out a card have expressed dissatisfaction with waiting times. Bob decides to add an additional cashier during the day. Bob is using the ______ thinking style in order to make this decision. A. metaphorical B. deductive logical C. inductive logical D. creative 23) Managers would typically use this tool to develop an overall strategic approach to their business. A. Financial reports B. Gantt chart C. Surveys D. SWOT Analysis E. Fishbone diagram 24) Shakil works for a large contractor. Company policy requires that in hiring subcontractors, at least three bids must be received and that the lowest bid which meets specifications will be accepted. This programmed decision structure provides for ______ as a benefit, but does not account for ______. A. faster decision making, cost control B. quality control, reduced costs C. reduced costs, feed forward control D. creativity, special orders E. reduced costs, quality considerations 25) In the course of developing a SWOT analysis, Bob determines that a large competitor is moving into one of his company’s key service areas. Bob has uncovered A. an opportunity B. a positive trigger point C. a strength D. a weakness E. a threat 26) When deciding between decision alternatives, this tool helps the manager to focus scarce resources on the most common causes of a problem. A. Force Field Analysis B. Pareto chart C. Benchmarking D. Venn Diagram E. SWOT analysis


27) The initial step in framing the problem is to ______, and the first step in making the decision is to ______. A. identify the cause of the problem, implement the decision B. evaluate the decision, determine who is affected C. select an alternative, identify the problem D. identify the problem, frame alternatives E. identify the problem, identify causes of the problem 28) In response to declining profits, a company decides that it needs to become world class, but is having difficulty developing an implementation plan around the goal of “becoming world class.” Rather than implement this decision, the company would be well advised to return to the ______ step of decision making. A. determine measurements B. frame alternatives C. develop criteria, goals, and objectives D. evaluate the decision E. make the decision 29) One way to manage the risk of a far reaching decision is to A. ensure that ample financial resources are dedicated to implementation B. insist on compliance from key stakeholders C. implement the decision gradually, in phases D. reduce the number of contingency plans in order to avoid confusion E. implement the decision quickly, in order to prevent problems from affecting the decision that has been made 30) The best way to mitigate employee resistance to a decision is to A. write clear policies outlining permitted and forbidden actions B. establish clear penalties for non compliance with decisions C. clearly communicate the “who what when and why” during implementation D. ensure that all employee concerns are fully solved for in every decision E. limit influence over decisions to senior leadership 31) ______ plans might be referred to as what-if plans. A. Contingency B. Strategic C. Single-use D. Standing 32) Resistance to change during implementation could be a result of A. sensitivity to the needs of external stakeholders B. a decision that has been delayed by a lengthy collaborative/participative decision making style C. a problem statement that is not representative of relevant stakeholder interests D. The manager’s decision to allow discussion of both internal and external stakeholder concerns, which introduced conflicting objectives into the problem formulation and


identification process 33) When implementing a decision, a company must ensure that its actions remain consistent with its A. past practices and procedures B. organizational mission C. current resource allocations D. manager’s thinking styles E. employee’s preferences 34) A situation, problem, or opportunity in which an individual must choose among several actions that must be evaluated as morally right or wrong is called A. an ethical issue B. business ethics C. a personal issue D. morale issue 35) Susan has the opportunity to choose among several options, including going along with her coworkers and filling out inaccurate time records, telling her manager what is happening, attempting to persuade her coworkers to stop doing this, or, doing nothing. This is an example of A. an ethical issue B. a time when Susan should ignore the problem C. a situation that is not a problem D. a moral rights issue 36) Bill is an automotive mechanic, paid on the basis of the repair dollars that he generates for his employer. A customer has informed Bill that he believes he needs major repair work to his automobile. Upon examination of the car, Bill discovers that an inexpensive adjustment is all that is needed. He knows that if he informs the customer of this, he will miss out on the substantial commission he would earn by performing the work that the customer already expects. The compensation structure employed by Bill’s garage has created the ethical dilemma of A. a conflict of interest B. joint and several liability dilemma C. proper allocation of resources D. impartial third party mediator E. the good of the individual vs the good of society 37) A measurement that evaluates the amount of inputs used to achieve outputs is a measure of A. organizational precision B. organizational stability C. organizational efficiency D. organizational fluctuation E. organizational effectiveness


38) The objective to “reduce rework significantly within 6 months� is not sufficiently meaningful nor measurable because it is not sufficiently A. relevant B. specific C. time bound &

Mgt 350 final exam guide 7 (uop course)  

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