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An Introduction to Technology­based  Reading Comprehension Materials  Reading Comprehension Materials

Marcela V. Ramos (MA TEFL) marcelaramos71@hotmail.com www.marcelavivianaramos.com

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Marcela V. Ramos Š


Marcela V. Ramos Š


What do we mean by TECHNOLOGY ?

The application of scientific knowledge to the  practical aims of human life or to the change and  manipulation of the human environment.

Britannica, Encyclopaedia. (2004) CD Marcela V. Ramos ©


Some definitions

IT (Information Technology) deals with the use of  electronic computers and computer software to  convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and  retrieve information.

ICT

Information and Communication Technologies The application of digital equipment to          all  aspects of teaching and learning.

ICT in the language the classroom = CALL 

Computer Assisted Language Learning Marcela V. Ramos ©


What do we use CALL  CALL for?

To motivate

To explain To facilitate memory To avoid boredom

To Practice

To develop language abilities

To enhance learner autonomy

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Current research interests

20 years ago: Text only Text plus monochromeimages Colour graphics I con-based menu systems Sound Animation Video Networked communication: email and WWW Speech and handwriting recognition Virtual reality Future Marcela V. Ramos © ?


Points of view on technology in the  classroom

Warschauer´s approaches: 1.

The Determinist approach: “A computer is an all­powerful  machine”.

2.

The Instrumental approach: “Technologies are tools”.

3.

The Critical approach: “Technology is a scene of struggle  between different social forces”.

Warschauer, Mark (1998)

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Dimensions of Analysis for Lessons, Students  and Learning

LESSON

Institutional factors  Syllabus  Skill level Approach Strategy       Classroom  management Materials

LEARNING             Distance       Face to face

Students

                   Age                           Attitude                            Interests                              Skills Level                     Background knowledge Marcela V. Ramos ©


Our Focus RC LESSON Technology­  Delivered:

Institutional factors  Syllabus  Language level Approach Classroom management Materials

• Laboratories

LEARNING • The internet  The internet

            Distance 

READER

     Face to face

                   Age     Technology­Enhanced:                       Attitude  •through the internet and                           Interests                       RC Skills Level  •through computer software (converting,                     Background knowledge storing and processing), Marcela V. Ramos ©


Our Focus

1

The teacher’s skills

2

Technology­ enhanced materials

3

Technology­delivered  materials Marcela V. Ramos ©


The teacher’s skills •What skills?

Marcela V. Ramos ©


The teacher’s skills

Have you ever designed your own materials?  Have you ever adapted your materials? What resources did you use? We should… BUY: when adequate and convenient ADAPT: when convenient but not  completely adequate  CREATE: when not available or not  convenient * Haddad, W & Draxler, A (2002) Marcela V. Ramos ©


The teacher’s skills: Using ICT Information Literacy For general users:  Understand basic computing principles  Be familiarised with an operating system (e.g.:Windows)  Use one or more programmes to:  – – –

surf the internet (e.g.: Internet Explorer, Mozilla)  process text (e.g.:Word),  and send email (e.g.:Outlook or Hotmail),   Evaluate given information, understand it      and generate significant responses Armendáriz, Ana (2005)  Marcela V. Ramos ©


The teacher’s skills: Using ICT An Information Literacy  Curriculum model for higher education Seven dimensions 1. Tool literacy  2. Resource literacy  3. Social­structural literacy 4. Research literacy 5. Publishing literacy 6. Emerging technology literacy 7. Critical literacy

Marcela V. Ramos ©

Shapiro,J.J. and Hughes (1996)


The teacher’s skills: Using ICT Information Literacy for teachers of English Knowing about …  (?) – Multilingual text editors – Spell­checkers – CALL materials – Hypertext – Graphic design tools (Paint, Corel Draw, etc) – Copyright issues Marcela V. Ramos ©


Materials design skills for teachers of  English An information literacy   curriculum  1. 2. 3.

Tool literacy Publishing literacy Design activities so that students can  understand given information,  evaluate it, and generate significant  responses. Marcela V. Ramos ©


Materials design skills for teachers of  English

Tool literacy

  

size Change the font and         of a text Change the colour of a text Change the  size  of a picture

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Materials design skills for teachers of  English Tool literacy • Web search tools 

• using a search engine to locate resources • navigating  around  internet pages • saving a web page

• Text processing skills

• copying and pasting a web­based text and/or an  image • change the internet format  of a text into plain text  format

• Multimedia (PowerPoint) presentations  with hypertext Marcela V. Ramos ©


The teacher’s skills How? Knowledge of  approaches

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Approaches: A summary of designs

    Behaviourist           vs.     Constructivist Simplifies for  comprehensibility

Presents multiple  representations 

Offers prescriptive  sequences of instruction

Engages knowledge  construction

Abstracts instruction  experiences

Presents instruction in real  world contexts

Focuses on acquiring skills Marcela V. Ramos ©

Supports collaboration  Offers open learning  environments Beatty (2003)


Ideal conditions for acquisition

Input

comprehension

production Krashen  S. (1982) Principles and Practice in 2nd Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Marcela V. Ramos ©


Pedagogical implications 1. The linguistic characetristics of target  language input need to be made salient

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Pedagogical implications

2. Learners should  receive help in  comprehending  semantic and syntactic  aspects of linguistic  input

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Pedagogical implications 3. Learners need  opportunities  to produce   output

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Pedagogical implications

4. Learners need to notice errors in  their own output

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Pedagogical implications 5. Learners need to correct their linguistic   output

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Pedagogical implications 6. Learners need to engage in target language  interactions whose structure can be modified  for negotiation of meaning

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Pedagogical implications

7. Learners should engage in FL  tasks designed to maximise  opportunities for feedback.

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Pedagogical implications Conclusions    What maximises the use of  technology in a classroom?

   Interaction

What happens in an  interactive situation?         There is feedback Marcela V. Ramos ©


CALL-versus-classroom studies? “A number of early studies have found that  the CALL group slightly outperformed  the teacher­only group. Other studies (…) have not provided stong  empirical evidence for the superiority of  CALL over classroom instruction.”

Chapelle and Jamieson (1991) Marcela V. Ramos ©


Let’s recap …

In this section, we…    Defined Technology  Explored CALL in the Language  classroom Considered some  pedagogical  implications

Marcela V. Ramos ©


Our Focus

1

The teacher’s skills

2

Technology­ enhanced materials

3

Technology­delivered  materials Marcela V. Ramos ©


Technology and the teacher's skills