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Demystifying machismo in Mexico Changing behavior through design


Copyright 2016 Marcela GonĂĄlez Orozco Guadalajara, Jalisco, MĂŠxico marcelaglezo@gmail.com June 2016


Demystifying machismo in Mexico Changing behavior through design Master Thesis

Advisors M.A. Sandra Giegler Prof. Hermann Klรถckner

Marcela Gonzรกlez Orozco Matrikelnummer: 4061725 Master Of Arts In Integrated Design | MAID Anhalt University of Applied Sciences


Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Introduction

1.0

Research

1.3

Conception

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Context

What is machismo

Previous thoughts

p. 9

p. 21

p. 85

1.1

1.4

1.9

Motivation

Machismo in Mexico

Case of study

p.13

p.25

p.89

1.2

Benefits of gender equality p.17

1.5

Machismo culture p.47

1.6

Machismo and violence p.65

1.7

Failed government programs p.79


Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Design Concept

Conclusion

2.0

The Brief p. 101

2.1

Campaign planning p.105

2.2

Experts interviews and consultations

p.121

2.3

Pre-campaign

p.131

2.4

Logo design p.135

2.5

Day 1 Partner violence

p.141

2.6

Tinder experiment p.157

2.7

Day 2 Workplace violence

p.163

2.8

Day 3 Domestic violence p.175

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Day 4 Public space violence

p.191

3.0

Day 5 Femicide p.201

3.1

Conclusion

p. 219

3.2

References

p.223

3.3

Recognition

p.229


Chapter 1 Introduction


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Introduction 9

Context Violence against women has become a severe problem in Mexico; a problem that negatively affects economic growth and creates disharmonies within the social tissue, leading to a continuous violation of human rights that evidences the existing inequality between women and men. ing a culture in which a woman’s role basically is to stay at home and take care of the children, without being able to pursue her own personal and professional aspirations. However, it is important to point out that Mexico has recently been experiencing the development of a more open-minded society, where different kinds of views and expressions are tolerated. Women are now leaving their homes to work and study, and as a matter of fact, half of Mexican university students are nowadays female. Progressive women are making their way into politics and achieve high management positions in the private sector. At the same time, and strangely, the normalization of violence now has a bigger impact than in former years, since it is so intrinsic to Mexican culture that it has become almost invisible. Nowadays, and within this more liberal Mexican society that has been evolving, machismo is happening in a more subtle and modern way - but it remains as dangerous as it always has. The result of a still rigid distribution of gender roles and the general acceptance of a macho violence against women of all kinds, as well as femicides


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Since the beginning of the year 2016, female homicides have raised all over the country, a situation that highlights the need for adequate movements to stop these aggressions. At the same time, impunity for these cases is usually high, and most assaults against women have remained without legal consequences. The expression of physical violence can be described as only the ‘tip of the iceberg’, while much more complex systematic problems are hiding under the surface and only become clear when holistically taking into account the context of a society with a deeply rooted gender inequality, a corrupt and of providing adequate responses to these crimes.


Introduction 11

In Mexico, a violent sexual harassment happens every 4.6 minutes Six women are killed every day in Mexico: female bodies are often mutilated, with particular attention paid to sexual organs Between 2007 and 2012, the number of assassinated women increased by 155 percent In some states, the law forgives a rapist if he gets married to his victim 38.9 percent of Mexican women have reported to have been a victim of violent sexual harassment at least once in their life Âź of women suffer sexual abuse by their partner 70 percent of rapes are committed by a family member Just 1.6 percent of the aggressors are arrested and penalized

go out alone at night According to the Thomson Reuters Foundation’s global sura woman

Foundation, T. (2016)


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1.1


Introduction 13

Motivation As a result of my experience living abroad, I had the opportunity to observe the situation in Mexico as an outsider, and to witness other society’s realities. This gave me the opportunity to ponder more deeply over the patterns of behavior I encounter in my daily life, and people that surround me - especially in light of how different my life as a woman in Germany is as compared to how it is in Mexico. Living abroad, I have been able to realize that in my home country, women are not able to fully enjoy their freedom; a consequence of the institutionalized harassment that they confront and that already starts at a very young age. I could recognize that women in Mexico live oppressed by patriarchal structures, which leads to female insecurity and can even result in horrors such as femicides. One of the key problems is that Mexican society is used to this situation; Mexicans are blinded by the cult for them to realize that the reality in which they live should by no means be considered normal. With the project presented in this work, I aim at designing instruments capable of promoting the behavioral change that is necessary if Mexican women are to experience real freedom within their own cultural context. This can be achieved, on the one hand, through the dramatized depiction of the situation women live in, painting a panorama that shows the potential consequences of our current patterns of behavior, and -


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create awareness towards the problem on a broad public scale, triggering feelings of empathy and pointing out the nation-wide existence of a conduct that is considered normal, but as a matter of fact is extremely harmful to society. As a Mexican woman, I feel strongly committed to contributing to an improvement of the sad situation my fellow countrywomen are facing, while hopefully creating new approaches that can serve as blueprints for countries facing similar contexts.


Introduction 15


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1.2


Introduction 17

Benefits of gender equality The costs of machismo are not just socials and physiological, are economical as well. Countries that promote gender equality are more productive, have a high economic grow, have a lower criminality and corruption rates than macho countries. When the gap between men and women is reduced, regarding education, employment and rights, the rates of malnutrition and mortality in children are reduced. Furthermore, when women are in management positions in government and privet sector those tents to be more transparent and less corrupt. It has been proved that organizations and companies work better when women are included in the decision-making process. Moreover, the live hood of men is positive effect by gender equality; it improves men health by lowering rates of depression, divorce, suicide and violent deaths. (Holter, O., 2014)

against poverty, violence, social justice and human rights are part of the struggle of the eradication of machismo. Nowadays, the question it is not if gender equality will be reached, the question it is when it will be achieved? And how fast it will be. Machismo is condemned to disappear, not only because is

The men’s domination over women affects everybody and everything, not just women.


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Chapter 2 Research


1.3


Research 21

What is machismo

ners that follow two main ideas: the polarization of genders, in other words, states that feminine and masculine are not different but opposite. And the secondly, it says that men are superiors, and they stand out in the necessary activities (that are considered as male activities).

form of neurosis, and the effects of it are: problems with authority and following rules, anxiety, and concern about sexual effectiveness, dissociation and contradiction between sex and love, confusion between the love of a mother and the love of a partner, radical division between feminine and masculine roles. Nonetheless, the main and general characteristic of the machismo is the supremacy of the men at expenses of women; where femininity is shirked as an indicator of weakness and preciosity. The zeal of prestige leads men to a masculine’s vanity that roles that society dictates. As a consequence, men developed a fear of been embarrassed, especially in the presences women, and as a defensive method, they developed the desire of domination over women and the need to make women feel weak and inferior. On the other hand, women have founded their own inferiority thru everyday ac-

Machismo is implied in patriarchy societies, where experiences a paternalistic authority as well as a sense of pleasure for the domination of the feeble.


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The paternal authority has been characterized by been discriminative and uneven (Gonzalez. A, 2012). From this it is accepted that machismo is not exclusively a personal matter; it has a leading role in public life. It is present in the structure and foundation of Mexican institutions; it is also found in the central discourses of political and social life, it has an enormous impact on the social dynamics, as well reaches all kinds of relations: family, social, work, economic, etc. A macho society creates macho individuals. The machismo in Mexico started in the conquer era, it heritage some aspects from the Arabs and Spanish machismo; one example is the belief that men are superior. Once the conquerors were installed in their new territory, they took by force the indigenous women, who were raped and gave birth to the mestizos (children product of the mixed of a Spanish and an indigenous). The native women instead of getting rid of those babies, they gave the proper care that a loving provoked a boundless love towards the mother. This love transcended from generations and nowadays is an intrinsic characteristic of the Mexican men: for the Mexican there are no one, and nothing more valuable than the mother. (Juarez Becerra, 2012) In the other hand, the son keeps ill feelings towards the father abused and dishonored the mother; the second one is due to the fact, the father neglected


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the family. Never the less, the fathers were the conquerors themselves: rich, powerful and authoritarian; the children could not touch them, even worst, they had to respect and obey the Spanish men. From this condition was developed the image of the fami-


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1.4


Research 25

Machismo in Mexico Machismo in Mexico is not an explicit suppression of the women, there is a set of beliefs and attitudes implicated, hidden under the everyday live surface. Men have got their authority with the cooperation of women. It is observable, in the relation men-women, the existence of some attitudes and actions that women do (or do not), which allows and foments machismo in their environment.

Implications

Mexico is known as the country of the machos, where this social pathology is part of the community essence. This could be interpreted that machismo is not just a personal feature, but also a way to related with society. Machismo is a set of attitudes and values, which are characterized by the recurrent classify people as chauvinist, the macho way of life is not a personal attribution, is a way of retaliation. (Lugo. C, 1985) In the context of this relation, a polarization between males and females areas has been developed, and as a result, it creates incompetent individuals. In this division, the men do not know how to cook a meal, and the women are not capable of changing a light bulb. The machismo creates stereotypes without taking into account the real capacities of every person; it reduces men and females to parodies of themselves.


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“Do not cry; men don’t cry.” “Treat her badly, so she knows how to behave.” “Get out of the kitchen; this is a place for women only.” “Tell me what you want, but not with that little girl tone, you are becoming a man.” “Don’t let your sister alone on the streets, remember that you are a man and she is just a girl.” “If you don’t get laid with that girl, you will look like a homo. John, he is a real man, he has been with plenty.” “Man has to be served by his woman; nobody rules over the man of the house because he is the one that brings the money home.” “A man must be strong, and can’t do domestic work.” “Play with cars! You can’t play with dolls.” “Men are born for working.”


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Masculinity

Masculinity is the way in which men has been raised; is a mindset that dictates their way of thinking, feeling and behaving; as well as the way in which men interact with women and other men. -

of weakness. The Mexican macho can bend, grovel, and crouch, but not break. That will allow the world to penetrate into his intimacy. Women are inferiors, because when they surrender they open, their inferiority relays on their bodies, in their sex, in their

Another masculinity ideal is to shut down their feelings, what men have in their inside does not seem to be important in the macho lifestyle. Emotions is a forbidden topic for men if they talk about this, their masculinity is at risk by been contaminated by femininity. This necessity of demonstrating a lack of femininity drags men into misogynic.


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The roles of masculinity

According to Campos, A. (2007), in every macho society they’re the following duties for men imposed by society: Been the protector

The men have the responsibility of protecting the people who surround them, especially the women. Usually, they use this protection as a mechanism of controlling women; attempting dependency from women towards them. Procreate

This highlights the reproductive capacities of men. From this, the belief that a true man should have many children, especially male children. Self-sufficiency

A man doesn’t need help, and the most important could cover many areas.


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A true man: Denies fear Drinks alcohol Overcomes danger Speeds while driving Shows physical strength Has sexual relations without protection Exerts power over women, children, other men and also nature Holds sex with prostitutes Exhibits sexual vigor Has younger women Has many women Drives drunk Is tough

(Campos, A. 2007)


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Macho man statements

pos (2007): I don’t cry, crying is for women. Nobody rules me. I do what I want when I want; I don’t give reasons to anyone because a real man doesn’t need that kind of things. For me, the most important thing is family. But in my home, I am the one who rules. I don’t like when someone ask me for an explanation because men are their rulers, and people have to respect that. I like when my wife has the food ready; I don’t like when she uses pants, I like when she dresses as a woman. I don’t clean, I don’t iron, I don’t cook, my wife does all of that. I dislike when women command me or when they disobey me. I don’t like when my wife goes to the streets; she when she is at home. I am always trying to be polite with guesses, so the women in the house have to attend them. Is very important to be polite. I have six children: three boys and three girls. I love them very much, especially the girls, I am always showing them a lot of love. But I treat boys quite rough; they must learn how to be men. I believe that men should not show weakness. anyone to push you down. If someone bothers you,


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Macho’s characteristics

According to Castañeda (2007), a standard feature of machos is their lack of patient, they want things to make fast, and they believe that people should attend their whishes as a priority and without objections. They don’t have the ability to postpone gratiteenagers. This is a consequence of the macho society, in which boys are surrendered by women that are dedicated to serving them. Machos have a poor control of their impulses, and they tend to act without taking into account the consequences. This attitude leads to an arrogant way of thinking, in which they believe that they can do whatever they want and don’t take into consideration what others says. And as resolute, it leads to

These attitudes are translated into a lack of empathy; a macho man doesn’t tolerate to being contradicted, and in many occasions he refuses to listen to other opinions. This inability to assimilate different points of view has personal and social consequences. On one hand, macho men dismiss the possibility of negotiation, because their arguments are only a reiteration of their initial point of view; they are not capable of listening and frequently this generates misunderstandings. Additionally, macho men consider disagreement as an offense. Moreover, the lack of empathy inhibits cooperation; a macho man


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thinks that his wishes and needs are a priority, so he will just look after his commodity. As a partner, macho men are in control of the activities, time, and behaviors of their wives. Driving women to be monitored leads them to the lost of their identity. Macho men behave as the owner of their partner body and sexuality. They fear that other man could seduce their wives because they assume women are not able to take decisions by themselves.

Latin-American men archetypes

ety follow the following archetypes: The King

He pursuits power and control, he needs to be obeyed, and the recognition of his authority is essential to him. The King has two faces, either he is domineering and oppressive, or he is emphatic and willing to develop good relations with other people. Nevertheless, society encourages the harsh characteristics. The King demands respect; he is not keen to listen to others, and he asks for explanations and gives orders. He enjoys having power, and he uses it to control as well as to help others. He is very demanding.


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The Warrior

The Warrior has the perpetual necessity of protecting and guard his territory, consequentially, he has to be heroic and cold-minded, he most be strong and tough all the time. He enjoys taking care of others, but at the same time, he is very possessive and jealous. He has a lot of difals, neglecting his emotional health. At the same time, the Warrior is a brave and loyal person who fears no one, and on some occasions, he might be aggressive. The Magician

The Magician knows everything and is always right. He enjoys sharing his knowledge but is essential to him be acknowledged by others as a wise man. He is very persuasive and has a creative solution to every problem. Moreover, the Magician has a prevalent sensation of invulnerability, which leads to a reckless behavior having as consequences a rising number of work accidents and a physical neglecting. The Lover

The Lover overrates sexuality; he organizes his life around sexual affairs. He is often in troubles because of his sexual behavior, having more than one partner at the time, for example. He lets himself be driven by desire, without taking into account the consequences of his acts.


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He is frequently thinking about sex. He can be romantic; in that way, he can seduce a higher number of women. He doesn’t have a preference in a particular type of woman; he is open to every opportunity of having intercourse. If a man loses his archetypes, is very likely to experience a profound feeling of failure, sadness or even anger, driving him to a personal crisis. Exerts power over women, children, other men and also nature

Family and machismo

The familiar structure is the incubator of machismo in Mexico: the supremacy of the father and the en-

Moreover, for Otaùón de Lope (2011), the origin of the Mexican machismo is in the wrong education that the overprotective mother gives to her sons. The mother plants feelings of omnipotent into her child. At the same time, she allows the boy to has sexual behavior. Aggression towards women is approved, as is considered a characteristic of heterosexuality; homosexuality seems like the worst of the disgraces.


Research 35

Marriage

For many women, marriage is not a sweet prolongation of the dating phase, but a sour surprise. Machismo does not mean that the men have to go to work and women have to stay at home. What machismo does is to create a continuous pattern; machismo acts like if this matter is pre-established, like this is an ineludible destiny in which there is not escape. Machismo resides in the lost of women autonomy and self-esteem, pushing them to ask their partner enables the fact that men don’t lose anything when getting married, and women do. Men are more ben-

In agreement with Mariana Castaùeda in her book El Macho Invisible (2007), marriage men are happier than bachelors and married women. Women work in their homes, and in many cases, they also work outside their houses. While men just work out of their homes, and at home they receive the emotional and sexual satisfaction they need. While men keep their freedom, women are drafted to surrender it. Additionally, many men considered that the ultimate probe of love that they can give is simply to be at home; it is also common that couples’ stereotype change with married, from the man in love to the family guy, from the girl in love, to the mother of her husband.


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In several European countries, men and women keep been friends after getting married. One of the reasons is that they can establish and equal relationship. Conversely, in Mexico, there is an established authoritarian relation between husband and wife, as well as a sharp division of task. In general, women don’t have the same freedom of movement as men. A married man has the right to go out from his home and has a social life, while for a married woman is tough to have social interaction without her husband, and is almost impossible if she has children.

Friendship

For machismo, the division of girls and boys generates gender identity; it is thought that children can teract as friends, causing ignorance, isolation, and mistrust between them. Machismo inhibits trust between genders. Men and women can be friends but only if there is any sexual interaction between them. From the time they have a sexual relationship, they stop been friends. The friendship between women has an important social function. It is a network of support between them; it is a counterweight to machismo because it creates a space where women can be more authentic and spontaneous. It works as a community promoter. Nevertheless, the mistrust between genders


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also affects women relations; a notable example is the divorced women. They are seen as a treat to married women because they are now available. Following the belief that a woman alone is an easy target for been seduced by a man, making headway rivalry between her congeners, as an outcome a divorced woman not just loses her marriage, she also loses her friends. (CastaĂąeda, 2007) Machismo is also found in the friendship between men. Masculinity identity depends on what other front of other men than in the presence women. This means that a man has to be always alert and observant on the image that he displays. Moreover, between men friendship, there are genuine sentiments, but show those feelings is not virile; it is very rare for a man to express sentimentalities without having a strong reason. It is perhaps for this motive the necessity for men to drink alcohol when talking between them; it is a socially accepted way to uninhibited and open up without putting at risk their virility. Statements, like competition and power, have been ingrained to boys since their childhood having a distress in the relations among men. Furthermore, manly relationships; an authentic macho most be heterosexual. An intimate friendship with another man could be dangerous for they manhood, so lots with their friends so that they can protect their heterosexuality. (CastaĂąeda, 2007)


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Additionally, men have the compulsion of sharing jokes and the frequent use of expressions that refers to the penis or the sexuality. They need to show that they are sexually actives. According to Campos (2007), macho men follow certain behaviors when they are among other men: -The lonely, because he distrusts everybody -The competitor, he thinks to be the stronger, the better. He is trying to recall his hierarchy, in other

sogynist actions.

Sexuality

Men have been taught that the most important thing in a sexual relation is to have an erection, to penetrate and to ejaculate. Other manifestations of sexuality, such as cuddles, communication or the expression of feelings are unmanly. The previous evidence that masculinity spins around the erect penis. The masculinity identity relies on the cording to his sexual performance; which goes from the size of his penis to the number of sexual relations that he has held. A real macho is always horny and ready for the sexual act, which entails him to have a sexualized view towards women. (Campos, 2007)


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The idea that every woman is willing to have sexual relations just by shown them interest is a common thought in macho men. Moreover, the sexual factor is so present in society that if a man doesn’t show sexual interest in a woman, the woman could get offended. Many men believe that sex is a vital, imperative and urgent necessity; and they translate this need as clusively for men, women don’t have the right to sex. It is not required to rape for men to impose their right to sex, there are many ways of extortion and coercion to achieve it. A study shows that 22% of women report having been forced to have sexual relations, while just the 3% of the men population recognized to have forced a woman to have sex with him, this is because men think that they had her consent when that wasn’t the case. Men exercise inappropriate forms of showing attraction, and they take advantage of their power, and as a result, they perform sexual harassment. (Castañeda, 2007) From a macho point of view, the penis is enough when performing the sexual act, because that is sufficient for men. The previous is one of the reasons that 40% of women in urban areas and 80% in the countryside haven’t had experienced an orgasm. Furthermore, men are the only sex retailers; everything depends on them. In Mexico phrases puts men under tremendous pressure because to ratify their masculinity; men have to be ready for sex and to be able to preform it at any time. (Castañeda, 2007)


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he is a pathetic man who is not able to satisfy and guard his woman; he is decreasing his honor. There is a link between a manly man and the virtue of his women, permitting him the right to judge his women, but women are not allowed to judge men. At the same time, women lack real power, in general, women don’t hold any politic power, they don’t have nor enjoy from public prestige or have access to privileged information. Women posses very few things that men are interested in and women have functions in which they are very easy to be replaced. They are just indispensable for men in one thing, sex.

Childhood

It is easy to observe the tendency of prioritizing the bravery, aggression, and overall, competition. It has been observed that children around three years old claims to have equal quantities of females proportion is reduced just to have 20% friends from the opposite gender; at the age of seven the children barely have friends from the other gender. From that moment to the teen years the contact between girls and boys is almost null. If a boy dears to have a girl as a best friend, he would be mocked by the other kids. (CastaĂąeda, 2007)


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Partly, this division is because biologically, girls and boys have a different approach towards feelings. Girls are better verbalizing their emotions; boys tend more to act them. Girls’ games are performed in small groups and practice cooperation while boys’ games are held in larger groups and practice competition. (Campos 2007)

by the social pressure, which dictates that boys are not allowed to join in girls’ games and vice versa. The separation creates distrust between genders because turn each other into strangers. One of the reasons for this separation is the belief that if boys play with girls, they could be contaminated and become homosexuals; also, if girls play with boys, they will lose their femininity. (Castañeda, 2007) Girls’ games are created to prepare them for the housekeeping jobs that they are going to do when growing up. Contrary, boys’ games are not preparing them for the responsibilities that they will acquire as adults. Girls’ game evolve gradually into domestic work; boys’ games are just games. Moreover, boys get to pay for the small jobs that they have in their homes, for example, cut grass or wash the car, but girls are never paid, and they have to perform activities such as clean the table after dinner every day. This implies an early devaluation for women activities. It is imperative to understand the invisible barriers that are projected to children. These divisions promote disbelief, distance, and inequality. Evidence


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punishment and eradication of violence against that 50.1% of boys in primary school agree that the family man is the one on power, and he knows better what is good for the family, 31.7% of the girls think the same. Also, 79.2% of children coincide that the man is the one who should bring money to the house and girls should learn to take care of the little siblings and to do the house cleaning work. 60.3% of teenagers’ boys and 54.8% girls in high school agree that is women responsibility to don’t get pregnant.

Success

Boys are raised, from the very begging to pursuit and achieve success. Competency is impregnated into them from a very young age, as well as ambition. Success is a fundamental component for boys to feel more masculine, been a man means to be able to lead the opposing, this set of values are not promoted in women, these are restricted to them. Women values are the cooperation and conciliation. A successful woman is the one who gets married and has children; if for any reason she is not able to accomplish those goals, she is considered as a failure. Not wanting to do it is seeing as abnormal and ity is not affected by not wanting to have children or getting married. Additionally, been in a manage-


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ment position at work does not mean triumph for a woman. At the same time, failure is perceived differently among genders. Men tend to blame external factors; the identity of the macho. On contrast, women tend to blame themselves. Besides, the failure of a woman affects the image of all gender in that area; such things do not happen with men. (Castaùeda, 2007) Moreover, according to Castaùeda, a successful woman at work is usually perceived as less feminine. That means that a beautiful lady, who is considered as more feminine, is less worthy and less capable than her others non-attractive women colleges; in the same way, an attractive man is seen as more masculine. Therefore, he is more worthy and competent. On a professional context, the physical appeal benefits men and penalizes women. Women at their jobs need to make a bigger effort than their men peers for the same kind of recognition and equal salary. If a woman has is employ in a profession that is considered as manly, her social status and her salary drops considerably. The world average is that a female earns three-quarters of her men colleges’ salary doing the same job. -

the problem resides in men are not eager to do a


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generates a lower income. (CastaĂąeda, 2007) In the working life, women are expected to be doc-

them inside and outside their homes. If a woman the men under her management wont receive her orders submissively, this happens because for men to receive orders from a woman means to fold again into a maternal regime, and for them that suggest a loss of masculinity. Women are usually perceived as a woman, not as persons. When a woman fails in her career, the fault resides in her gender, without considering any other external factor. On the bride side, this schemes changes when more women join the profession: if there are less than 10% women in the labor force, women are evaluated as less competent than men. Their evaluation gets better when there are more than 20% women, and when there are more than 50% women, their assessment overtakes men’s. (Castaùeda, 2007)


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Appearance

Women have the continuous duty of keeping a feminine image. During several years of their life, women dress and behave in a particular way to earn men’s attention. Women have to have a small sizes, with little hands and tiny feet, a delicate face and can perform all her activities with smooth movements. Women most site down with her legs tied together and arms nearby their body. Their way of walking should be with a soft swinging and short steps. On the contrary, the freedom of movement seems to be part of male bodies. The place that a man occupies when sited down does not correspond to his sizes, but to his social status. (Castañeda, 2007) On the other hand, the way men dress or look do not determinate their sexual availability or marriage status; but everything women do or don’t do put them in a position in front of men, even though they don’t have any intention whatsoever towards men. The moral of physical appearance favors men, enables them the have autonomy on the decision over their look, while restrict women. Men do not need to prove their virility in front women; their judges are other men, with whom is important to demonstrate not how beauty or handsome they are, but how powerful and fruitful they have become.


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1.5


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Machismo culture Mexico is an irrefutably racist country, where the rural and indigenous population is abused in every aspect. The oppressor of indigenes, handicap, women and on heterosexual masculinity, which is consolidated ity of religion, the indifference of the State and the mass media power. From this, it is understandable why in a macho society everybody is a macho. Nowadays, the majority of Mexican men don’t consider themselves as machos; they are more open minded in gender equality matters. For example, Mexican men think that men should participate actively in the care of the children, but in contrast to this thought, only one-quarter of family men do it regularly and systematically. Even though men are helping more than before in house care activities, most of them just spend less than one hour a day in those tasks. Although, it is not anymore socially accepted when men hit women, is well known that domestic violence is affecting at least one on three Mexican women. This discrepancy shows that machismo has indeed changed, it is not on trend as it used to be, but machismo has not despaired, it just took a modern twist, but in Mexico, the manhood is still imposing over the female submission. Beyond the differentiation of female and male aptitudes, machismo established a clear hierarchy between them: masculine qualities have a privileged position in society; for example, men are seen rationale and women as sensitive, both genders will give


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predominance withing certain stereotypical values that are usually regarded as masculine, e.g. vitality, leadership, entrepreneurship, etc. Additionally, men tics, not because they are interested in the topic, but because they are men.

Machismo at home

The home is a privileged place for the invisible machismo, trough the distribution of roles and the sharing of work. According to a national survey from INEGI (Mexico Gobierno Federal, 2012), 21% of men recognized never to take care of the children; 52% alleged to take care of them sometimes. Meaning that three-quarter of Mexican homes are raising children with absent fathers. Housekeeping tasks division is presently drive by machismo. These jobs are considered, almost exclusively, women responsibility. According to the book dedicate on average 6.2 hours per week on housekeeping labors, while women spend 27.7 hours. Men cook on average 3.8 hours per week while women occupy 11.3 hours on this task. Even tough, there are men willing to help in the house, there are some feminine tasks that men refused to do, the less attractive home keeping activities are ironing, wash clothes, cleaning the house, cook and wash the dishes. Onethird of men have never cooked, and 60% of married men don’t do the ironing or wash the dishes. On the


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other hand, the most accepted tasks are taking care of the children and do the shopping; dull, routine, and dirty activities are women responsibility. Moreover, maternity is a women monopoly, which they defend fearlessly. The reason is that, in a macho society, motherhood brings status to women, giving them an element of power in front men; it is logic that women claim maternity as a feminine activity, not just biologically but exclusively. Hence, the contradictory attitude of many women, on one hand, they want men to take care of children, but at the same time, they need to maintain the control over their territory. Furthermore, men take rigorous care of their free time, but they demand their wives to be always available for them. Usually, they give themselves

behaviors.

Machismo in public spaces

(Granada, I., Urban, A., Monje, A. and Ortiz, P., 2015) reported that 40% of women modify their way they dress to avoid any harassment in the public transport. It also places Mexico City ‘s public transport as the most dangerous in Latin America. Where is part of women’s routine to sufferer from men’s actions such as: touching, obscene words, insinuations


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on the body or appearance, harassment, intimidation, threats with sexual purposes, display of genitals, lewd and uncomfortable to women body looks, persecution and take pictures or video without the consent of the person. As a consequence of the high rates of sexual harassment in public spaces, the government created actions to prevent, helps and gives justice to women who go around the city. These measures are the separation of male and female wagons at full hours, the accompaniment of the victim in the process of accusing the aggressor, and psychological support after the denouncement. According to the UN, one in two women have suffered gender violence in public spaces, but in most of the cases, a denounce hasn’t been made, because authorities promote the reception of an apology to the victim from the aggressor, to avoid the procedure of a formal condemns.

Machismo in Universities

A standard recommendation from Universities is could promote disrespect. Additionally, several Universities do not count with an ombudsman to protect human rights, which could provide assistance in gender violence cases. The last evidences the lack sue.


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Moreover, there are cases where University professors have been denounced for sexual harassment by numerous students. Nevertheless, they still working in the facilities because the university itself protects the teachers and disgraces the students. (Hernández, P. 2016)

Machismo and communication

The subtlest form of machismo is found in communication.

as effective (when a man doesn’t give an answer, or changes the topic or starts to look at the newspaper while his wife is talking to him) as the verbal ones. Silence, sometimes, seems like a scheme of power; for example, when a man obliges his wife to guess what is he thinking or feeling, transferring to her all the communication work, in this way what started as his problem becomes her issue as well. It has been observed that men interrupt women more than women interrupt men (Mansplaning); this could bee is seen as a subtle way of imposing men’s point of view. In general, men tend to control topics as well the context of communication, assuring that all forms of communication stay on them territory. A characteristic of men in the Mexican society is to be the main character of all his conversations. (Castañeda 2007)


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Where is machismo reflected?

social representation. It is capable of building beliefs ture and hence, transform reality; it is also a source of education, formal and informal, for society; besides family and school, mass media has the central fact in the search for solutions. Regarding with the matter of violence against woman, it is taking a conclusion by Dr. AimĂŠe Vega (2009), that gender violence is represented by the discourses of local television as an individual, isolated and privet problem that is occurring only in private spaces contributes to not take the problem seriously. The objective of the televise discourse seems to trivialize the problem, but not to identify it, and far less to criticize it.

Advertisement

in the process in which society interacts because it is a transmitter of values and attitudes; but it better know for sending a stereotypical view, which is far from the reality. It is the predominant discourse in the media community, and it is best characterized by the heterogeneity and fragmentation of public than by the mass equalization.


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Moreover, the advertisements have managed to homogenize the masculine stereotype, promising men success, wealth, and many women, in which the Mexicans machos spend most on their income, instead, the female counterpart promises women a

Advertisement in Mexico makes no distinction on its schedule when broadcasting violent and discriminative against women content. The most common are ones that represent women as sexual objects, e.g. Simi Power (pills that provide sexual force), where a woman is practically obliged to have sex with her partners after he took a pill for sexual power. And the commercials that discriminate women for gender reasons, some examples are a Sony (electro domestic brand) ads where an old lady is punched by a group of young men with a ball. Another example is from Aviacsa (airline), where they are offering discount on Also, it is usual to represent women as silly and frivolous, in situations that ridicule them and convert them into objects of abuse, as in the case of Rexona (deodorant for men) campaigns. At the same time, in Dr. Vega investigation were registered than 25% of institution’s broadcasted advertisement came from the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, in which gender equality and women rights were promoted.


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Soap operas

Soap opera is one of the most popular television genres among Mexicans. Unfortunately, it represents violence against women in a way that reproduces gender stereotypes, where women are the as discrimination and violence objects, or they are a threat to other women and endanger the life of the main male character. It is shown as well, a relationship stereotype between women, where they compete and disqualify each other, and showing recognition is never presented. In Mexican soap operas, aggression and abuse against women are represented as a common behavior. Jealousy and intimidation behavior from husbands, brothers and sons against women is the central theme of the plot; in some cases scenes of rape and extreme violence against women are shown. Furthermore, since violence is represented as a domestic issue, the house, and workspace are scenarios where women are enclosed, threatened and beaten. Additionally, soap operas depict disaffection as one of the principal reasons for the suffering of women. (Vega A., 2009)


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Entertainment shows

Entertainments shows consist of talk shows as well as contest shows, which are part of the most seen Mexican T.V. stations. These shows involve on jokes that ridicules, insults, and attacks against female T.V. hosts. A famous case was held by a male host from Televisa (biggest Mexican T.V. station) who sexually harassed his female colleague in front of the cameras by touching her breast. When Tania Reza, female host, went angrily and offended out of the recording ple, my colleague is a bit hormonal. She got very‌ to the Televisa board; sadly, she just got denials of ent a formal apology to her audience in front of the cameras, so she did.

News

The functions of the news programs are to inform and promote social conciseness. Even tough, most of the news programs analyze relevant cases of gender violence; the attention is given to it was minimum. There are a couple of examples of cases in where women presented complaints of been abuse by the


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police. However, this information was presented

interested in includes women’s human rights in their agenda. (Vega A., 2009)

Movies

The male main characters exemplify the accomplishment of values considers as masculine; they have to solve problems or defeat an enemy; they take all the decisions, make strategies and take the initiative, lead the others, etc. and in most of the cases, they accomplish their goals. Women are displayed as emotional, they take care of men and give their moral support. Sometimes a woman helps the main character following his instructions, but usually, the woman disobeys, because of her irrationality, and creates new problems, risking the project that the main character is perusing. While men’s job is to save the world, women’s worries are love, seduction, and family. (Castañeda, 2007)

Music

Gender violence is present in the cultural manifestation that might describe better society: its music.

-


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tion of violence against women ant its discourses are expressed in popular music. Nevertheless, it is not necessary to listen to harsh lyrics to denigrate thru music. These expressions are also found in the most traditional songs. (Camarena, R., 2016) Moreover, are not just men who denigrate women trough music, women are guilty as well; they in the name of love are willing to do everything. Love, as the music pictures it, is misinterpreted, since it expresses that homicide is the fair price to pay for deception and betrayal; as a consequence, it naturalizes violent actions. It is not the music genre neither the time, is a way of thinking and behaving that has transcended generations, is a cultural manifestation that is alive, rooted and widespread.


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Baila rica nena by Molotov. Rock music. 1999 (Chorus) Dance, yummy lady, deliciously. Dance, yummy lady, a little bit closer I like it chichi, I like it chacha, I want you to give me you to give me papaya You’re home so sad and so alone nothing to do and you’re touching yourself my advice for your horny-ness go to the store for a bucket of paint get a handle, an ax handle and then stick it inside you If it’s not enough and, you’re still horny go to get a handle, a hammer handle coat it with petrolatum and stick it inside you if you’re already out of petrolatum and you see a guy in blue standing in a corner What are you waiting for to paint him red? Don’t paint him brown or I won’t fuck with him (Chorus) Every time I see you it stops, Everytime I see you it stops (or I get a hard on) my heart, it stops, my heart, it stops I neither know nor care who you have been with (in bed) but that ass seems radioactive


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I don’t want to have AIDS that’s why I use two condoms and it’s because I like your blond hair that sometimes with you I get really hard and it’s because I like your hair so much Because every time I see you it grows Because every time I see you this embarrassment grows help me to send a message it puts me in a bad mood; fury carries me away (Chorus) I want you to give me, you to give me papaya I want to buy a ticket that will make her dance closer to me I want to buy the whole place so that I can have my way with her I want to buy with rasta, I want to dance with Rasta-mandita because she’s like a bottle, she’s a chaparrita bottle She’s beautiful, you look beautiful, rise your face so that I can see you She’s like a chaparrita bottle Every time I see you it stops, Every time I see you it stops (or I get a hard on)my heart, it stops, my heart, it stops (Chorus)


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Unas nalgadas, Alejadro Fernandez, Maricahi, 2009 Spank with cactus leaves is what you deserve for been false and treacherous I loved you, what a rough beast I was how I gave my love so easily? Spank with cactus leaves a lesson is what you deserve You hurt me you did me wrong you showed the copper and black interests (Chorus) You will suffer, you will mourn perhaps you won’t miss my kisses but you’ll miss my money Some scratch with maguey thorn today I want to play a cat in your cheeks you made me cajito and then you took me for a fool and I’ll see you pawning your earrings Gargle with studs and white spirit Today I will drink to erase your kisses I’m happy because I know today you will go I will also go after other bones (Chorus)


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Y ahora resulta by Voz de mando, Banda, Folklore, 2014 I bought you a dress and a designer bag Lens with embedded brightness I tucked in your breasts and buttocks And your waist where you had rims I bought you more shoes for one hundred feet And long, black and curly eyelashes A beautiful nose, a little snub And to whiten you, the mother of pearl was applied to you And now it turns out (Chorus) That you feel like the most beautiful monument You were a bad investment and I regret it Well your words of love were swept by the wind And now it turns out That I’m not at the level that you thought I am You tell me that and so much other bullshit Now it turns out, baby doll, now it turns out Damn bitch, you were nothing before you got with me! Shout it out! I bought you a car that you don’t even know how to drive And parts of those with an apple I gave you jewels Thongs of Victoria And a little dog in the size of a rat (Chorus)


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Sayings and jokes

Many sayings and jokes communicate stereotypes and prejudices that foment macho attitudes. Several of them are even classify as verbal violence. Those sayings don’t have the purpose of providing positive lessons. On the contrary, some of the sayings have a picture them as subjugated, silly and ignorant. Jokes are little stories that have the aim to be funny and bring a smile to the listener. In Mexico jokes are very popular and are part of the culture; Mexicans have the ability to make jocks out of every situation, but among this funny ingenuity is hidden a dark

These sexist jocks, which affect both genders, have been accepted by society. Jokes appear in daily situations, unfortunately, conceal the normalization of gender violence, due to the fact, that these jocks denigrate women trough puns and mockery. Usually, these jokes refer to the lack of women’s intelligence or emphasize women’s bodies, while reinforcing mawho celebrate misogynies jokes are more tolerant with gender violence, in other words, this kind of humor supports machismo.


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Macho sayings -The woman is the man lose. -Women and guns need men to work. -In limp dog and woman’s tears: do not believe. -Better mourn the dead and not in power of another. -Man proposes, God disposes, and women breaks it down. -When God made man, the devil had already made woman. -The woman is an animal with long hair and short thought. Sexist jocks -What is the difference between a wizard and a witch? Five years of marriage. -Why most of the hurricanes have female names? Because when they leave, they take the car, the house, and your money. -Why can a woman not be beautiful and intelligent? Because she would be a man. starts to draw conclusions and to make suggestions... -How to make a woman happy on Saturday? Telling her a joke on Wednesday. -How many workers does it take to clean a kitchen? None, that is women’s work. -When will the woman go to the moon? When it needs to be cleaning. as you turn off the light they open the legs.


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Machismo and violence What is violence against women?

Violence against women has been condemned all over the world for it disregard to women’s dignity and its violation of human rights. It has been recognized as a multifaceted problem with social, psychological, biological and environmental origins. It, therefore, constitutes an issue that deserves to be simultaneously approached from different perspectives, to develop necessary comprehensive solutions. Violence against women is mainly base in a relation with various levels of power between men and females. The declaration of the United Nations about the abolition of the violence against women (UN General Assem-

enjoyment by women and girls of all human rights and fundamental freedoms. Violence against women and girls is characterized by the use and abuse of power and control in public and private spheres and is intrinsically linked with gender stereotypes that underlie and perpetuate such violence, as well as other factors that can increase women’s and girls’ vulnerability to such violence.

results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women and girls, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary


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deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life. The Commission also notes the eco-

Gender violence is a set of macho and misogynist behaviors, which are based on the use of masculine force and violence in the relation between men and too against women of all ages. These practices include all kind of conducts that go from physical, emotional, sexual and economic violence to even the deprivation of life. The central approach of violence against women is the result of the denial of their rights as citizens, asseverating that violence directly endangers their dignity, their integrity, and their freedom. This form of aggression is not arisen as an individual problem, privet or familiar, that just relates to some women, but as a problem closed linked to the disadvantages that the female citizens are suffering. The State should have acted with preventive measures as well as actions to address and sanction, to eradicate any violence in the public and privet spaces. (Carlos Echarri, 2012)

Types of gender violence

Violence against women is more common in the family scene. Nevertheless, it is also found in schools, work, public spaces among other. The Article 6 of the General Law of Women’s Access to a Life Free of Violence in Mexico (Mexico Gobierno Federal, 2012) establishes the different types of violence against women:


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Psychological

Is any act or omission that damages the psychological stability. It can consist in negligence, abandonment, repeated carelessness, jealousy, insults, humiliation, devaluation, marginalization, indifference, disaffecstricted to self-determination and threats; which leads to depression, isolation, devaluation of their self-esteem and even suicide of the victim. Physical

ing physical force or some weapon or object, which could, or not, produces external or internal, or the two, injuries. Patrimonial

Is any act or omission that affects the survival of the victim. It is manifested as transformation, robbery, destruction, retention or alteration of objects, personal documents, property, and securities, property rights or economic resources destined to meet victim’s needs; it could also cover damages to mutual or private assets of the victim. Economical

Is any act or omission that affects the economic survival of the victim. It is manifested by economic limitations, aimed to control the victim’s economic apprehensions, as well as the apprehension of a less salary payment for the same work in a job scene. Sexual

Is any act or omission that damages the body or/and sexuality of the victim, therefore, it attempts against


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the freedom, dignity and physical integrity of the victim. It is an expression of abuse that implicates male supremacy over women, where she has been denigrated and considered as an object.

What causes violence?

Violence is a learned behavior, which has its roots in the culture and the conditions of the social structure. Violence against woman originates from the power disequilibrium in a certain context, the approach of interpersonal control, as well as from social disadvantages, and the standards that construct and orientates gender identity. From this, the causes of violence are found in the exaltation of stereotypes, identity roles and social identity associated with the polarization of genders. The expectations about what it means to be a woman or a man are decisive on the way they behave or relate gender violence is a version of structural violence, which divides people into favorable and unfavorable groups, giving different level of valorization to these groups activities. The outcome of this structure is the systematic discrimination of women. According to this, masculinity and feminine expectations and society tolerability towards discrimination incenday practices as well as in the regulatory provisions that justify and legitimize this kind of violence, both in public and privet areas, allowing impunity to this aggressions. (Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres, 2012)


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In the view of the previous, it is important to clarify that overcrowding, unemployment, lack of education, alcohol or drug abuse are factors that stimulate violence but doesn’t justify the origins of it. It is a proved fact that gender violence affects persons, families and communities from different social levels and cultures. Moreover, it is certain that structurally invisible violence affects the daily life of million of people who suffers poverty, thanks to the usual experience of criminal violence, this has what is permitted regarding abuse against other people. The normalization of violence is produced by the patriarchal culture, which authorizes men to apply violence against women when they need to equate for a wife, daughter, mother, etc. This type or control the lives of women, and to use different encounter the system. As a consequence, there is a develop of cultural patterns, in which domestic violence and sexual abused are considered as a privet issue, where even the authorities don’t have the right to interfere.


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Modalities of gender violence

The General Law of Women’s Access to a Life Free of Violence in (Mexico Gobierno Federal, 2012) clasreferring to publish and private spheres, which are where violence takes place. Domestic violence

Is the act of abusing power or an intentional omission aimed to dominate, control or attack women, inside or outside the family home, in which the agconsanguinity, by marriage, concubinage or hold or held a facto connection. (Article 7) Workplace violence

Is exerted by the people who hold an employment or educational relationship with the victim, independently of the hierarchical relation; it consist in an act or omission in which the abuse of power damages the self-esteem, health, integrity, freedom and security of the victim. This person inhibits the victim’s development and endeavors equality. It could consist if a single harmful incident or in a series of events which sum produces damage.

power in a relation of subordination, in employment or educational sphere. It is express with verbal and physical behaviors, related to sexuality, las-


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of violence in which an abusive exercise of power leads the victim to a helpless and risky state, independently if the aggression is held in one or multiples events. (Article 10) Institutional violence

discriminate or have the aim to obstruct, delay or block women’s rights or their right to enjoy public policies that are intended to prevent, attend, investigate, punish and eradicate the different types of violence. (Article 18) Femicide violence

Is the extreme form of gender violence against women, result of the human right violation, in a public or domestic ambit, it is held by a set of misogyny behaviors that leads to the social and politic impunity that could escalate into homicide and other forms of violent deaths. (Article 21)


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Where violence takes place?

In 2012 was developed a report in cooperation with United Nation Women and the Mexican National Mexico. Characteristics, trends and new expressions manifestations of gender violence. Some of the foundlings are the following (ONU Mujeres, INMujeres, 2012) Women who are not able to generate their income or not enjoy financial independence and the ones who don’t have access to information about the different care services or are not aware of the authorities that could help them in the case of any aggression are by any means the most vulnerable. The communiquÊ established that 37% of women who suffered violence have primary school studies, 43% studied in high school, and 38% have further education. The reason for the aggression could be any. For a woman who lives with a macho man, the breach of housework, jealousy, shortage of money, unemployment of the man, drunkenness of the partner etc. is usually detonators of violence. For single women, the journey home from work or from the school is generally a high risk, without regarding their age. Moreover, poorly lit and poorly planned public spaces are as well a great risk for women; public transport


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is not a safe site for females. Further, their homes are often the more dangerous place to be for them. One example has been taken from a video made by the newspaper El Pais (Roca, A. 2016), in which teenagers from Ecatepec, a municipality in EdoMex, which has rates of violence that they are facing in their community. In this video, the interviewees shared they concern about how this is affecting the way their dress, the time they are spending outside their homes, in general, the shortcut of their freedom. munity when a femicide was held. The teenagers pointed that the public opinion of the people (men and women) was to blamed and attacked the victim: she had bad habits, she used drugs, the boyfriend wasn’t good, she spend a lot of time on the streets, she liked that kind of treatment, she was lazy, she dressed inappropriately so she earned her own death. Girls are being raised under the statement that if someone hurts them, is because they incited him, it will be their fault. In the video, the teenagers observed that women have no real value in Ecatepec. Between relatives and partners, domestic violence

gender violence is not condemnable. The Femicide Violence in Mexico. Characteristics, trends and new expressions in the federal states


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(FV) report (ONU Mujeres, INMujeres, 2012) indicates that the most common form of violence was domestic, in which 43 from every 100 women, older than 15 years old, have been suffering from some type of abuse from their partners. This kind of violence is more usual in women that have been married before (divorce), where 62 from 100 experienced maltreatment from their companions. Moreover, the report reveals that 16 from 100 women, older than 15 years old, faced at least one episode of domestic violence; emphasizing psychological violence, such as insults (11.2%), humiliation (7.5%), disregard (7.3%) and threats (4.6%). Domestic violence does not take into account the age, the social status or schooling of the victim. Violence in public spaces follows the domestic one. As reported by FV, 40 of 100 women had suffered from violence in the civic spaces. The most usual form of violence is from intimidation (36.6%). Also, according to the Fifth National Report about Criminality in 2007, 98% of the sexual offenses were against women. Workplace violence has many forms: stalking, sexual harassment, segregation, wage and contractual discrimination among others, the FV points that 29.9% of women suffer from this. Discrimination in the workplace (23.7%) is the most prevalent, followed by sexual harassment (12.4%). Moreover, women who work in factories registered that 45% of them are experiencing violence in their workplace.


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Scholastic violence was reported 15.6% of women who assisted to school at the time of the poll. Emotional aggression, such as humiliation, was the most olence and 2.1% of women were sexually harassed by their classmates or/and professors. (ONU Mujeres, INMujeres, 2012) The governmental institutions are also a big part of the violence. The public institutions of health consider women as the only responsible for family planning programs, as a consequence, one of the main causes of women deceases in Mexico is illegal abortion. In Mexico the family man can be entirely irresponsible for his fatherhood; the abandonment of his wife and children is a crime that generally is not punished. Moreover, the medical institution in Mexico just provides psychological help to .98% of men victims of domestic violence, taking for granted that violence is part of men nature. (Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres, 2012). By law, the public and private institutions that provide medical assistance to patients who suffered from domestic or sexual violence are obliged to give third of the domestic violence cases where the victim was a woman and for in ten where the victim violence is considered as a privet issue and second, were held in higher amount when the victim was a man, is an outcome of women discrimination. (Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres, 2012).


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There is a misbelieve that femicides are in its majority held by the victim partner, but the evidence shows that 42.6% of murders of women was carried out in the thoroughfare, less than 30% of the femicides were in their homes, and 5.2% in public spaces. Moreover, it is noted by the FV that half of the casualties were housewives, and one in every three were from a gunshot, three in ten died from beating, and one in four died from stab wounds. In one of every seven femicides, the victim suffered from rape before been murdered; Nineteen in twenty homicides the aggressor was a man. With the exception of open violence, macho’s physical manifestation of violence has been giving way to psychological forms of control and coercion, which is still generating dominance over females. Women’s violence has its roots based on the gender hierarchy; nevertheless, it is important to take into account that is a component of social violence, since criminal organizations of any kind, military climate, police deployment, corruption and general insecurity is taking over Mexico. All of these have repercussions over the life, rights, integrity and security of women.


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Failed government programs There are several numbers of programs that aim to cessities that the country is facing; nevertheless, a high number of the plans never took place, stay just in the planning stage or are ineffective.

erage by the newspaper El Informador (El Informador, 2016) points that some groups that have been working the plan. The reason was the lack of initiative when the program was created, which lead to a weak implementation. Even though, the program has several objectives action weren’t generated, leaving just a document that wasn’t used in practice in the way it was planned. Most of the program’s proposed activities were not generated, and the few that took place were ineffective. Additionally, the state program is not aligned with the national plan to prevent, address and eradicate violence against women 2014-2018. In addition to this, the newspaper noticed that there is not an existing entity that only attends cases of different kinds of violence. Resulting in an inadequate attention to the victims, which leads to their manage the data collection. Moreover, the state of Jalisco does not count with a standardized system for the generation of statistics, and the information processed is not well organized. The National Commission to Prevent and Eradicate Violence Against Women (Conavim) This federal


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institution, which was created in 2009, is accounten’s Access to a Life Free of Violence and the design of integrated policies to prevent, address and eradication of the aggression against women. According to Susana Moraga (2013), this institution didn’t execute a national diagnostic about the form jective information leads to a miss planning of effective policies. The program to prevent, addresses, sanction and eradicate violence against women was formed, but never put into practice. Furthermore, it was not in coordination with other orders of state government to promote collaboration. Inmujeres is the National Institution for Women, is a national establishment responsible for coordinates the enforcement of the national policy in a matter of equality and contributes to the eradication of violence against women. Inmujeres was not coordinated with the Secretary of Public Security and the Mechanisms for Women’s Progress for coordinating and monitoring the different sectors and regions of the country with an aggressive performance. The actions and strategies victim protection units as well as mechanisms and procedures to promote and guard the attention given to victims weren’t carried out. (Moraga, 2013) Irregularities were found in the operations in charge of receive and canalized the incidents of violence. According to a report, from 2007 to 2011 Inmujeres


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registered 11, 271 solicitudes of assistance from which 94.9% were attended; nonetheless, the cases were assisted by a staff that didn’t have the adequate tools to determinate the type of service that the victim should receive. (Moraga, 2013) Many initiatives have been planned from the government, but once again the corruption and the lack of real interest, as well as the poor capacitation of the state holders, leads to an incompetent program that in some cases leave more troubles that the ones it was trying to resolve.


Chapter 3 Conception


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Previous thoughts There are many ways to approach women violence issue since the aggression takes many forms; and the stakeholders, in Mexican society, are broad. Because machismo is a social problem, rather than an isolated one. To create a behavior change, you need to work on a personal level as well as in a social and cultural level. And try to get as much audience as possible. Some other approaches that I considered for this project were to create an educational campaign, in which men could be taught that masculinity does have invited men to be in touch with their female side, and to be aware that their macho behavior is not constructive, but disruptive. The campaign would have workshops and a safe space for men to talk about their feelings and to be free from machismo. One case of study would have been Gendes, a Mexican organization that does workshops with a gender perspective, aiming to eradicate gender inequality. But Gendes’s audiences are men who had physically agreed on a woman and are either taken therapist or a relative. The organization recognized that a man rarely goes there by his own initiative. A similar approach was a campaign for parents, focused on the education that they give to their sons, so parents would have the tools to eradicate machismo from home. A third idea was to tackle machismo before it started, and have children as a target group. The idea was to break gender stereotypes with a mix gender toy.


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For example, a doll house that the kid would have to build, so he/she could play will doll and also build something. The message would have been that there are not female and male virtues because both genders can acquire the same kind of capacities, and also that all virtues and abilities have the same value. On the same path of the role changing idea, a different concept was developed: to combine typical male objects with female items. The idea was to have a campaign in which a hidden item will be introduced inside typical objects that are bought by each gender, along with a message. E.g a spatula hidden ing? This campaign was discarded because it would have needed the support of the brands involved, and I didn’t want my project to be company’s driven so that it could lose credibility. The dismission of previous projects occurred because making a further investigation I could realize that the people attending the workshops and buying the toys for the children needed to have already certain sensitivity for the topic. I realized that Mexican society is not ready yet for this kind of projects. So Furthermore, besides it is found a touching points map, where it is shown the scope of each concept.


Conception

|Ed uca tio n

Social Med Media| ia |E ass mp M | loy t en er m s| n r He e v al o th G |

Boys education

Awareness week

|W irls G | ers ag n e Te

Hidden message

| en m

Two roles toy

ct| Roles| Sexuality| Awaren e s s Respe | Disc rim i n ati on |P o lar iz a tio n|

s |Parents |Family |Friends | sband Teac u H | hers ives

Gentleman in pink

ce| eran Tol st | tra on |C ity al qu |E

|In sti tu tio ns

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ent |Safety| Men |Tee erm nag pow e r s |B Em y| oy th s |W pa o Em


1.9


Conception 89

Case of study Raising awareness Since the begging of 2016 the topic of women violence in Mexico have gained resonance, thanks to media cases, the issue of gender violence has become part of the mass media agenda, calling the dents of girls been raped by people with economic privilege or the violation of a famous woman’s integrity has opened a road in which gender violence

On April, the 5th,2016, a group of Mexican women orThe objective of this demonstration was to raise the topic of the harassment that women suffer in the public transport. Dressed with burkas and with or-

covered gown. (Lopez, C. 2016) The group met in one of the subway station, where peacefully walked thru the station and boarded on one of the wagons, making a circuit over the city center. The women were received en. But they also got accomplishment from other women, thanking them for their bravery, and the authorities took part in watching that any act of violence where made. (Lopez, C. 2016)


90

But the greatest attacks were held in social media. Where, according to Catalina Navarro, a feminist activist, the Muslim community in Mexico condemned the movement, it was a criticism also to their way ty community in Mexico as something negative, harming their image and contributes to raising Islamophobic feelings.


Conception 91

take into account other groups, dress as other cultures as a criticism of our own society was not the proper way of approaching the topic. Moreover, the message was clear and, even thought it was a small reached the local newspapers. A better-planed event, taking into account as many touching points and stakeholders as possible could have created a bigger buzz and more acceptance. Nevertheless, is imperative to have in mind that feminist movements in Mexico are always highly attacked in social media by men. An example of the aggressions in social media is the video made by AJ+ on the 27th (AJ+ Espaùol, 2016), titled Confetti, punk rock, and feminism en of sexual harassment in public spaces. They used toy guns that shoot confetti against the men who perpetrated harassment and used microphones and speakers to sang a punk song about the issue. The initiative was proposed to show the public that is important to raise the voice against harassment in public spaces. The video open up a conversation in social media, where men and women gave their opinion about the topic and discussed what is public harassment. But most of the AJ+ Facebook users didn’t welcome fensive comments.


92

“Just look at the eyes of the fat women, if she is sane I am the queen of England”. “Idiots women, if they don’t like to be watched then they can stay at home”. “They should be doing something out of their mediocre life, not been doing this bull shit, even male animals turn their heads and get excited when seen a female, is instinct. When will they learn that? Well, if they believe that those stupid things are going to change the world… then what to do?”. “If they don’t like to be harassed, they can stay at home” “My suggestion is to transport all these women to the slaves time, so they can know what it feels like to don’t have any rights, and If we want to rape them, we will do it without impediment. I am about to do it. I am tired of feminazis. I am going to murder all those hideous bags full of shit. I am going to kill them, put them into trash bags and rape them until their holds stay as big as a bowling ball. “

(AJ+ Español, 2016)


Conception 93

The unconformity of the comment made by women even though the activist explained that this is just walking on the streets, the female public repeatedly said that they won’t participate in something so aggressive. The attacks made by men were the most aggressive one, claiming that is a fake reality what the hijas de la violencia described. Also, the public focused their comments on irrelevant facts like the


94

As a response to show how real harassment is, on the 23 of April 2016, an organization, called Estereotipas, launched a hashtag #MiPrimerAcoso, to encourage cording to BBC News (Paullier, J., 2016).the hashtag was used around 100,000 times. As reported by Catalina Navarro, a member of the organization, women in Mexico and Latin America, who dare to talk about those harassments, are stigmatized. But the hashtag made them realized that this is a shared experience, that all women are suffering, and that they are not alone; those statements triggered the participation and made them want to share their experiences too. When 100,000 women make the same testimony, eventually the declaration is accepted. Navarro states that the hashtag helped to admit that women violence is real, and to recognized it. Mexican women are starting to be empowered, and once they understand that what they suffered is violence they can stand up and decide that they won’t tolerate it anymore. There is an increasing necessity to talk about the systematic violence that women suffer in their everyday life. And even though is something that normally happens, is not normal. The hashtag was an example of the reach that could have to create platforms of conversation, where women can be empowered by other women’s experiences, and by letting them know that they can change something when they are together. The hashtag was a previous action, to heat the water, for the march made on the 24th of March 2016,


Conception 95

Movilizacion nacional contra la violencia machista, was an initiative of several feminists organizations that planned nationwide to walk against the violence that women are facing. With the hashtag #VivasNosQueremos and #NiUnaMas, 50 cities in Mexico marched to demonstrate that women are united, that they deserve the same respect and the same freedom to be in public spaces than men, and that they don’t deserve to be afraid of been victims of aggression. The march was also made to show discontent and concern about the high rates of femicides and to demand the government the implementation of better measurement to ensure women’s safety. (De Anda, T., 2016)


96

Mexico City witnessed a mobilization of up to 6,000 people, and even some celebrities took part of the activity. The governor of the Mexican capital responded with the promises of special buses for women, the improvement of the streets, and the strengthening of the Specialized Prosecutor for Sex Crimes. The success of the march took the President attention, who said that is compromised into women’s rights and safety. (Roldán, N. 2016)). The downside of the march was the intolerance of men, which wanted to boycott the setup. There were some collectives meant just for women, and men knowing that tried to enter on those groups, causing the anger of the female participants. Another problem was the vandalizing of a monument, made for 43 male students that were abducted on 2014, which is a very sensitive topic in Mexico. The reason for that action was that the society doesn’t pay attention to women abduction, they don’t talk about that, and they don’t raise monuments to them. But the message was not clear and people didn’t understand it, causing a lot of indignation. (De Anda, T., 2016) Nonetheless, the march proved that women are organized and ready to stand up and participate in events related to gender equality.


Chapter 4 Design Concept


2.0


Design Concept 101

The Brief It is imperative that society acknowledges the common form of ‘machismo’ in order to break its patterns. The normalization of violence against women has submerged Mexican people into a status of conformity and ignorance about the topic. A campaign has been proposed to disrupt this Mexican lethargy.

behavior campaign’ as an organized effort led by a group (the target) to accept, modify or abandon certain ideas, attitudes, practices and obviously behaviors. This type of campaigns searches to persuade society to adopt a different posture and to change its actions regarding a topic trough different approaches and using various resources. The messages are not economically or politically driven, their principal goal is the common good, by improving the living conditions of the population.

sues. According to UN Women (2012), they have been a key factor to encourage change around the world, helping to transform policies, changing individual behavior and generating common support.


102

Gender violence awareness week

This campaign for behavioral change is aiming to have a nation-wide, broad scope; its emphasis is on changing the social norms and practices of maand judgments that are a factor in violence against women, as well as to encourage them to contribute to reducing it in their communities. The campaign tion to develop in a way that will enable it to take place yearly. The campaign will tackle a different form of gender approach to issues of macho behavior that have been rooted in Mexican culture for many years thanks to the patriarchal society habits. It intends to reach as many stakeholders as possible.


2.1


Design Concept 105

Campaign planning The message the campaign spreads is that violence against women is not normal, that it is a violation of human rights, irrespective of how, when and where it takes place; it invites the public to promote justice. This will be transmitted in an innovative and minds and explore new possibilities, as well as understating that women need help, and by helping them the community will improve adequately. The campaign will express criticism with regard to how Mexican culture functions nowadays, by painting an exaggerated view of the situation. Taking as a metaphor the experiment of the frog that swims in a pot with warm water in which the heat of the water is increased gradually, so the frog is not conscious of what is happening until it dies boiled. The campaign will gradually boil the water to break the pattern of violence and make visible what has

Therefore, the approach of the campaign is multi-level and multi-sector, which means that it targets a large and heterogeneous group of people, as it is necessary to reach all levels of society in order to change the ideology of machismo.


106

Campaign’s goal

The campaign has a human rights base approach, because it will apply awareness raising methods to reduce rates of gender violence in all its forms as well as to change the attitudes which tolerate it. Be-

ing the latter the primary goal of the campaign. To reach this particular campaign goal, it is necessary to take into account the behavior change approaches, as recommended in UN Women (2016): 1) Exposing that gender violence is a crime that needs to be eradicated by rational action, that this kind of aggression is intolerable, and inviting the audience to break the silence against violence; 2) Concentrating on potential offenders and proposing them to change; 4) Turning the idea that violence against women is attractive; 5) Providing information to the target group about how to stop violence against women.


Design Concept 107

Framing the problem

and to develop the correct image, since this campaign is driven by the interaction with the public and its reception of the message. Consequently, framing the problem is key to reach the campaign goal: What must change and why?

The normalization of violence against women, which is intrinsic to Mexican culture and its social structure. It currently allows the violation of half of Mexican population’s human rights. The inequality between genders, which gives place to the idea that men are superior to women, giving bodies and minds. As well as the insecurity that women face in their everyday life thanks to patriarchal stereotypes and because this is the only known way of relating to a woman in Mexico. Who need to be reached?

As stated earlier, since macho society creates macho individuals, the group to reach is the whole of Mexican society, having as a primary target group men and women aged between 15 and 39 years living in cities. Mass media, such as TV news programs, radio and newspaper, are the secondary target group.


108

The message

Goal

Apply awareness rising techniques to reduce rates of gender violence in all its forms as well as to change the attitudes which tolerate it. Key message

Violence against women is a violation of human rights, irrespective of how, when and where it takes place. For the campaign to reach its goal, it is necessary to develop different versions of the key message targeting different audiences: 1) Sub Message: Love is not violent / to be respectful

2)Sub Message: There are not such things like masculine qualities/ stop polarization of genders/ wom3)Sub Message: Domestic violence is not a private issue/ don’t be an accomplice/ with your action you can save a life/ stand up against domestic violence. 4)Sub Message: If you don’t learn how to behave, this is what could happen/ they(men) harass us (women) because they can/ division is not the solution, respect is. 5)Sub Message: No woman is immune to being abused


Design Concept 109

Desire response

1) Leave an impression that triggers a national debate about gender violence. Break the silence. 2 ) Generate a positive change of attitude concerning 3 ) Attract people to participate in the campaign by joining it or spreading the message

Audience

The audience is segmented into three groups: the ticipate as the general public in the planned urban intervention. The people who share the campaign on social media and express their opinion about the segment is composed by those who are informed about the campaign through news programs or newspapers.


110

Charactes profiles

are: Josue is a 31 year old, hardworking man. He has been married for two years and thinks that he is a very faithful husband, because he has never cheated on leagues at his job, but this has never escalated. Also, he would never tolerate if his wife did something like this, because he Is extremely jealous. He has a two year old daughter, his wife being the one taking care of the baby. He sometimes helps with housekeeping tasks, but he still believes that this is women’s work. Before Josue`s wife got married, she had a job, but now Josue is not sure if she should go back to work because she could be assaulted on the street. He considers himself a loving husband, but sometimes when he gets angry, he yells vulgarities at his wife, and he is not too eager to follow his wife’s advises. He likes to drink and listen to music with offensive content, but he knows that those are just songs and does not think that there is something wrong with that. He also likes to go out with his friends who like to tell misogynist jokes, Josue laughs about them and usually also tells one or two. Some days ago, while in public transport, he was watching how a man took pictures under the skirt of a young woman, but he did not say anything because he was not sure if he should act.


Design Concept 111

Laura is 25 years old and works in the sales department of a big company. She does not have a good her, and even though she felted attacked, she did not dare to say anything about it. Since that day, she is very careful at choosing what to wear in order not to promote these kind of disrespectful behavior. Additionally, she is aware of the fact that her male colleagues earn more than she does; this makes her very angry, but again, she does not dare to claim the same payment. She just got out of a bad relationship in which her ex-boyfriend made her feel inferior; he consider herself a feminist, but she would like these kind of things to change.


112

Stakeholders diagram

Neutral

Skeptical public Employers Allies

Opponents

W iv es W om Ga e y nO co b m se m rv un ato ity ry

ed

Fe su min pp is or m te rs

Misogynistic men

Female NGO’s

rs

te

Most

or

Moderately

Teachers

pp

Social Media Volunteers

Parents Families

su

Least

en

o sm

Actives Allies

M

hi

M

M

ac

a

ss

M

Government Institutions

ia

Active Opponents


Design Concept 113

Tactics and technics

In order to create a real change, it is necessary to address people at an individual and social level. Therefore, the tactic used here is to raise public awareness about the current reality of gender violence by involving the society through the implementation of tangible disruptive actions in their environment - in ban interventions; and to open up dialogs in social en in Mexicans’ everyday lives by posting videos which show people’s reaction to the interventions. Additionally, a hashtag will be created to get more engagement from people in favor of ending these abuses. #LetsEquallize is derived from the campaign’s name. Rather than using a negative or confronting message, the campaign aims to invite and encourage people to create change. All relevant information about the campaign, e.g, how to participate or join, will be presented on a Facebook page which will also contain information in form of infographics about the types of violence analyzed during the awareness week.

the campaign will mostly consist of members of these groups. Such alliances will create a synergy


114

of diverse activities in order to achieve better outcomes. They will give support to the ground interventions and the spreading of the message in social media; combining different actors’ resources and cooperation will increase the campaign’s credibility, as well as feasibility. The channels of communication that the campaign will apply are interpersonal channels, since the intervention intends to interact with the public, creating a one-on-one contact. Community-oriented channels are going to be used as well; social media is a fundamental component of the campaign, since platforms like Twitter and Facebook will be the primary supporters for spreading it.

Mapping the interventions To visualize where the second, third and fourth interventions will be held, a map of Mexico City’s city center is presented. This area of the city has been that zone, which means that the quantitative audience will be larger than in other areas of the city. Additionally, framing the area will be substantial, especially in a town as big as the Mexican capital, so the interventions can be concentrated in one zone and the last intervention are not pictured on the map, since they will be held online. .


Design Concept 115

Normal Station ri Ma aN an

Ribe r

a de

al i on ac

San C

San Rafael

Mexico City

os m e

El Angel de la Independecia

e ea d

rma

efo

la R

Pas

Colonia Centro

Cto . In

de p

en de nc

ia

Centro Historico

San Anton

io Abad

Castillo de Chapultepec

Cu Benito Juarez

Pabellon Cuauhtemoc

Av. In su

rgen

tes S ur

Parque Mexico Hipodromo

Eje Central

Condesa

Viad. Miguel Aleman

Calz. Obrero Mundial

Station Xola

1km

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4


116

Resource mapping

Human resource: The most valuable resource for the proper functioning of the campaign are the women organizations. A network in a Facebook group, of which the author is a member, connects several of them. The campaign will need the commitment of the organizations starting eight months before the realization of the event, and consequently every three months in order to monitor the development and to spread the campaign until the next event. Volunteers are also an important part, especially for day one and two, as during those days a minimum of twenty volunteers will be necessary. The help of an interactive and multimedia designer will be required as well that of an IT and programming expert. Financial resource: The campaign is a low budget hundred euros to be properly operating. In the case extra cost will be added, depending on the respective invoice. Institutional assets: The strength of the campaign’s alliances with the women organizations is that they are well organized, they dispose of a broad network, and they can easily gather a good number of people to participate in the campaign. The expertise represented in the alliance is broad; it goes from journalists and communication experts to lawyers, psy-


Design Concept 117

chologists, anthropologists, etc. Their credibility has raises since the march that occurred on the 24th of April.

Monitoring and evaluating

servations to make are going to be the reactions in social media. Which patterns and trends are visible? The comments and the reception, as well as already perceivable attitudes towards the campaign (do people change their opinion about the topic; are people trying to get more information about the issue?), and the spreading of the campaign. Outside of social media, the examination will be related to the question if mass media already took part of the campaign’s proliferation; as well as noting if reported levels of violence against women decrease during the awareness week, and if so then it will be important to specify in which modality, how and for how long it has been reduced. Since this is a social change campaign, the relationships between the activities and the effects are unknown until the performance have been carried out; only then results and outcomes will become visible. That is why it will be important to evaluate the reception of the events, and to know which ones were well received and which were not, as well as the strategies that contribute to the proper functioning of the campaign.


118

After measuring the impact of the campaign, the points to evaluate will be if the message has been well transmitted, and the comprehension of the public regarding the message. Every four months until the campaign of the following year, it will be necessary to check the movement the campaign has achieved in social media, how many times a video was shared, liked and viewed, and especially the use of the hashtag, using the Flocker platform to achieve this task. For the subsequent years’ campaigns, it will be important to evaluate positive, unexpected and undesirable outcomes that the campaign obtained, as outcomes.


2.2


Design Concept 121

Experts interviews and consultations Municipal Institute for Women Zapopan

The Municipal Institute for Women Zapopan is a governmental entity which supports women’s households in vulnerable situations. What are the points to attend on the subject of normalization of violence? Violence implies a series of factors, is therefore multifactorial. It is important to observe and analyze every particular case and modality. Speaking about the normalization of violence means to talk about a cultural formation and educational topic, which triggers diverse consequences. In that sense, the only possible way to make a change is to modify culture through education. In Mexico, there exists a widely common macho culture, and it needs to be targeted jointly. From one side at the level of the legislative structure, and from the other at the level of socio-cultural, political and economic aspects. What are the reasons of the recently occurred increase in violence against women? To be able to answer this question you will have to point out me this supposedly occurred increase in violence. Otherwise, your statement is an assumption. (My question was referencing to the Gender Alert shown on their website.)


122

What actions is the state taking regarding violence against women? Recently it decreed the Gender Alert, which is an answer to the femicides that have been occurring lately in the country. After ordering this alert, a series of actions that give response to its approach were implemented. For example, the Municipality of Zapopan established a council and a system in order to prevent, respond to, punish and eradicate violence; this implies that capacitation will be given ness of the population regarding the importance of the mentioned issues. It has targeted the public message by eliminating sexist language. A Metropolitan Substantive Equality The feedback received when the project was presented is the following: About the fourth day, which makes a criticism of the separation of female and male wagons: Positive actions like segregation of wagons in metro and busses arise from the harassments that women are suffering. And the separation of the streets seems like a very aggressive action. The municipally agreed that the other days could work. They made an emphasis on the Tinder day, stating that the platform, on which men and women can establish contact with each other, presents an excellent opportunity to send a message.


Design Concept 123

Catalina Navarro

Catalina Navarro is a Colombian feminist who resides in Mexico City. She is a columnist of the newspapers ‘El Espactador’ in Colombia, ‘Sin Embrago’ in Mexico and ‘Univision’ in the United States. She is also co-founder of ‘Estereotipas’ and the launcher in Mexico of the hashtag #MiPrimerAcoso. She holds a Bachelor in Visual Arts and Philosophy and a master degree in philosophy; she practices these disciplines as a journalist. What are your conclusions and the perceived outcome of the use of the hashtag? Women shared harassment experiences that they wanted to delete from their minds, but the inclusive narture of the hashtag encouraged them to participate and share their experiences. As a conclusion of the information gathered, we could see that harassments start already with around seven year old girls, and is mostly perpetrated by close relatives. They are not psychos or delinquents; they are the people the girls trust. As a general conclusion, we could notice that it is imperative for society to start believing in women’s testimonies. We have been taught to remain silent in harassment situations, but it is necessary to speaking out, so that we can understand that those episodes are violence, and once women have understood and recognized the situation, they are more capable of affronting and changing it. Additionally, to achieve a real im-


124

pact, people have to take the topic further than just the Internet; they have to dialog about harassment in their homes, with their friends, colleagues, etc. The consultation of the results of the project created by Catalina Navarro gave the subsequent results: Initially, the activity to address domestic violence will discretely deliver a folded piece of paper with an would disappear, leaving a confused individual. The reason this event was rethought was thanks to Navarro’s feedback. She observed that the actions could be understood as false testimonies, and that they could reduce the credibility of women, while really trying to accuse domestic violence. Another observation was related to the hashtag; Originally it was though that every day would have its own hashtag with the message of the day or the name of the activity, but Catalina Navarro pointed the campaign to the hashtags if those were too personalized. As a result, the author decided to homogenize the project and use only one hashtag with the name of the campaign


Design Concept 125

Eden Sanchez

Eden Sanchez studied Clinic Psychology and has been engaged with gender work since 2011 in a sisterhood (sororidad), which is called the contemporary feminism. She is the founder of ‘Mujeres con Nombre, a collective that works with women circles. Women circles are safe spaces where women can relate and create support to each other. When I presented the campaign to Eden Sanchez, she showed enthusiasm to the proposal and commented that she would be eager to carry out the campaign. She described it as ambitious and inter-

ment, and they could understand the message that suits them better. Also, they could use the hashtag in Sanchesz’ recommendation was to rather create a positive statement.


126

Laura Citlali

Laura Citlali is a member of the organizing group responsible of the ‘Movilizacion nacional contra la violencia machista’ march. She has been a women’s rights activist for eleven years and is the founder of ‘Calles sin Acoso’, a collective which addresses harassment in public spaces. Additionally, she is an industrial designer and holds a master in gender specialization. How do you see the feminist network in Mexico? Right now the female movement disposes of a very well consolidated and structured network because the current trend of gender alerts, women violence and femicides along the country. These extreme situations led us to talk between female organizations and to form a network. The national network consists of several non-governmental organizations, lead by twenty women who represent the leaders of the biggest organizations. Our method of operating is to act when a spesame structure and acts nation-wide; this is the easier way since it is very broad, and to organize that from the outside to the inside. Another modus operandi is to make an announcement addressing the leaders in the Facebook group, and then the organization starts from inside out. For your particular -


Design Concept 127

keen to collaborate with this kind of campaigns. I also mentioned the campaign to the National Institute for Women, and the coordinator, Mariana Garcia, said that they could provide the resources needed. Laura Citlali was very pleased with the concept of the campaign. She highlighted the accuracy of the target group chosen, which are young women who still can bring about a change, because they are not yet pigeonholed in macho circles. Deliver the message to men is something more complex, she explained, because their reaction at the beginning is to think that women are exaggerating. Secondly, men tend to reject the message, because it is uncomfortable for them, and then they block the conversation because they do not consider themselves as machos, just because they do not necessarily beat their wives or harm women on the streets. Culturally, Mexican men do not know how to handle frustration, and feminist messages frustrate them. Citlali explained that society gives men all needed facilities to blame women because women are known gitimacy to women when speaking about anything related to gender violence. The campaign, the activist noticed, has addressed those issues, it is based on the aim of generating a network of awareness, but also it denounced to the inside. It communicates what women are facing every day, and that is pretty cool. It is clear that the events break with stereotypes; it tackles from the perspective of actually living the situation and also


128

of being involved from an outsider’s view, allowing the stimulation of both men and women. cause it also triggers empathy; for Mexican men it is tough to be empathetic because they are not aware of the injustices that someone else could be facing. And with the event in the metro, you are allowing them to see those. It also shows the frustration that women have, and it has the impact, in particular for women, to realize that all females are living in the same situation. I also like the domestic violence intervention, you have considered this important part of not being a witness, which is rooted in the culture, it breaks the pattern of thinking that violence at home is a private issue. Moreover, the Tinder approach seems pretty cool; the tips idea to tackle men from another perspective is great. It is critical to be able to give that message to men, and with Tinder tips, you will detonate their own social circles, and with this make them conscious of how to react in certain situations. In general, the women violence issue is addressed very well; I don’t think that you left anything aside. The recommendation given by Laura was to talk more about the impact the video will have on social media; the impact on the streets is evident. It should have a balance between the streets and social media. It is also necessary to make the social media vidtools to carry out monitoring and tracking maps of the impact. The risk of getting death threats in social media because of the video is high, but several web pages offer professional help for these kind of cases.


2.3


Design Concept 131

Pre-campaign

Starting from the concept that this is also an emotional campaign, the feelings towards the issue have to increase before the campaign starts. Building a critical point of view and stimulus is important. One month before the actual campaign starts, an informative campaign will be launched in order to create the right mood for future events. The educational campaign will be initiated via the Facebook page of the event and shared by the network of women organizations. It will consist on infographics which explain the modalities of violence that shall be tackled during the awareness week. Additionally, the network and the event page will post articles, data and interviews, regarding the different forms of violence that the campaign will address. It would be ideal to also publish a set of articles in newspapers, referring to the existing normalization of violence and how men and women live machismo; but never giving clues about the upcoming events. The goal is that during this month more than 10,000 people will be reached by the information, of which empirically ten percent will actively participate. Once a good number of people have been reached, approximately one week before the campaign starts, the invitation for the events will be launched. Flocker, an open-source data volume manager, will be used to recognize to whom the invitations were sent, apart from the women on the network; it will also serve as broadcasting hub.


132

corresponds to the modality of violence that is going to be tackled on the next day will be reposted, and the same procedure will follow during the following days. This action will create a connection between the media campaign and the campaign on the streets, and it will give a clue of what to expect on the next day.


Design Concept 133

Mock-Up

February 17 at 6:47pm Like · Reply · June 3 at 7:42pm

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Alusivo a lo cuestionado sobre "la mujer ideal" Martha Pérez en el círculo ¿Encontrando a mr. Right? February 17 at 6:47pm 2 Likes Alusivo1 aComment lo cuestionado sobre "la mujer ideal" Likeel· círculo Comment en ¿Encontrando a mr. Right?

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2 Likes 1 Comment ANDRO Jóvenes por la sexualidad Like · Comment integral November 23, 2015 at 5:34am Nos vemos este próximo jueves 26 de ANDRO Jóvenes por la sexualidad noviembre en sala de usos múltip... See More integral November 23, 2015 at 5:34am 4 Likes 1 Comment 1 Share Nos vemos este próximo jueves 26 de Like · Comment noviembre en sala de usos múltip... See More 4 Likes

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Imago Revista de Psicolo… Scientist

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Common forms of violence Insults

The aggressors

11.2%

Humiliations

7.5%

Partner

Disregard

7.3%

Familiar

Threats

4.6%

Others

47% 35.4% 17.6%

Every 9 days 1 woman dies as victim of domestic violence

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Domestic violence and sexual abused are considered a privaet issue. It seems that even the authorities don’t have the right to interfere.

43% of Mexican women suffer from domestic violence

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In some states the law forgives a rapist ifShare he gets married with the victim

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70% of the rapes are committed by a family member Domestic violence does not take into account the age, the social status or schooling of the victim

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¿Qué pasa cuando 3 niños abusan de una compañera? Mujeres con Nombre shared Catolicas Mexico's photo. Mientras Tanto en México Privacy · Terms · Advertising · Ad Choices More Facebook © 2016

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May 31 at 1:33am · Facebook Twitter WhatsApp De acuerdo al Centro de Estudios para el Adelanto de las Mujeres y la Equidad de Género (Ceameg), México MIENTRASTANTOENMEXICO.MX

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2.4


Design Concept 135

Logo design The word ‘equallize’ has been chosen as the campaign’s name. According to the United Nations Commission (2013),

become the same but that women’s and men’s rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or female. (..) Equality between women and men is seen both as a human rights issue and as a precondition for, and indicator

This name makes it possible to leave the campaign’s approach open. So in following years, it could tackle not only violence against women, but also the LGBT meaning to the word; equ-all-ize a more inclusive message, implying that everybody has the right to be equality. The purple stands for feminism; there is not a clear reason why this color has been chosen for the movement, but several theories have been made around it. The campaign is based on a feminist philosophy, even though this is not openly expressed, and shall

The logo is based on coolvetica typeface, but the serif has been rounded to avoid sharp edges and to create a smoother logo.


136

Initial proposals

EQUALLIZE


Design Concept 137

Logo

c36m54y0k0

c60m90y0k0

Typeface

Coolvetica ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890


138

Negative/ positive

Structure


2.5


Design Concept 141

Day 1 Partner violence A guerrilla campaign will take place in the digital world. The aim is to change, in a friendly way, the mindset of men in an unexpected environment. This day is dedicated to psychological violence in relationships and the micro machismo that it generates. The primary targets are men who commit psychological abuse, but who are not aware that they are being cruel. According to the previous research, a good number of men are not aware of the fact that they themselves are acting as abusers. Through an men will receive an idea of some of the misbehaviors they carry out when in a relationship. This way, they can visualize that some techniques they use to attract women or to receive their attention, are not right and therefore do not work. Tinder is the platform chosen for day number four, because it is a place where men who are actively searching for a relation gather, and they is the target group for this intervention. The procedure for this intervention is to create a Facebook event, for which women who want to volunteer can sign up. They will have to download Tinder and to depict a set of six pictures used as

date in 5 steps: 1- interrupt her, 2-Do not stop looking at her neckline, 3-Make her feel like you are in charge, 4-Try to touch her thighs, 5-Steal her a kiss. It is going to be funny and approachable, even though facing a very serious issue, with the aim to engage ing them from the tangent. This way, they have the


142

chance to give up old ideas and to adopt new, more polite patterns of behavior. The pictures chosen for this campaign are taken from Instagram accounts. The reason behind this decision is to give the interventionists real faces, and thereby making it more inclusive. It will send the message that the tips work for every woman. A social media video will be posted after the intervention. The video will contain the explanation of the intervention and as well as the outcomes and conclusions. The objective of the video is to spread what has been done and to discuss the effectiveness of the tips. Along with this, the shall be room for opening up a discussion about the behavior of men towards women, and how women are used to this kind of treatments. The video aims to get the people in the audience to question themselves regarding how they cope with relationships and which would be the best way to improve their attitudes.


Design Concept 143

Day 1 Pre-campaign

40% of women in urban areas have never experienced an orgasm

Women reported having been forced to have sexual relations

22% 3%

Men that recognized to have forced a woman to have sex with them

Many times, men believe to have women’s consent to have sex , when that isn't the case

xxx Men are under tremendous pressure, because to prove their masculinity, they have to be ready for sex and to be able to perform it at any time

25% of women in Mexico suffer sexual abuse by partner

2 in 5 women still ask for their husband's permission to go out alone at night

#LetsEquallize Love

Men exercise inappropriate forms of showing that they feel attracted to a woman, as a result performing

Men have been taught that the most important thing in a sexual relation is only to have an erection, to penetrate and to ejaculate


144

Social media invitations

A good number of guys are not aware when they are been abusers.

Let’s change, in a friendly way, the main set of men, in an unexpected environment.

How to participate Sign up in our Facebook event 28 Nov

#LetsEqualize Day3 Going

Download Tinder

Download the profile tips pics for Tinder

Thru an educational campaign masked as “tips for dating” guys will have an approach of some misbehaviors that they do when are in a relationship.

Update your Tinder profile with the pics

5 Tips

Edit Profile

Delate the event pictures/ Tinder account 5 Tip s

#LetsEquallize Love

On the next day, post on the event how many possible matches you got

Important! During the event: Dont give any like to any male profile


Design Concept 145

Profile images Option 1


riugeS

29iccupal

146

Step 1

Step 2

Interrupt her/ don't listen to her

Don’t stop looking at her neckline She’ll always notice it

Buscar

anastasiakrapchatova

Step 3 Make her feel like you're in charge

Step 5 Steal her a kiss Spoiler alert, 90% chances you will get a slap

Buscar

Buscar personas Perfil

Seguir

lifreP sanosrep racsuB

riugeS

Step 4 Try to touch her thighs

Although, she's not wearing that mini skirt for you to touch her

racsuB

racsuB

uanra.htebazile


Design Concept 147

Profile images Option 2


148

Step 1

Step 2

Get angry and make her "scenes" everytime she goes out with friends lifreP sanosrep racsuB

racsuB

Do not show interest when she tells her things. Do not listen her point of view

racsuB

riugeS

esornilbmara

Step 3

Step 4

Control the way she dresss, makeup, speaks or behaves lifreP sanosrep racsuB

Try to know who calls or writes to her mobile, Facebook, etc... racsuB

racsuB

riugeS

snillocyttelra

Step 5

When she doesnt want to have sex, blackmail her. You can also threaten her

another girl that will satisfy your needs atsug eM 512

aíd 1 macocsv# nus# sirap# sihtekilpuekaw#

snillocyttelra

??? siraP à tolliaM flowehtayama flowehtayama@ senoicpo sáM

iuo esia'l à sérged 02 cevA snillocyttelra ...oiratnemoc nu eadtsauñgAeM


Design Concept 149

Day 1 Storyboard

Tinder

Tinder Nop

5 Tips

Tinder

Tinder

5 Tips

Tinder

1 Tip

e

5 Tips

Tinder

5 Tip

Tinder

5 Tip

Like


150

Day 1 Mock-Up


Design Concept 151


152


Design Concept 153

lifreP sanosrep racsuB

riugeS

Step 3 Control the way she dresss, makeup, speaks or behaves

Vero, 26

racsuB

racsuB

esornilbmara


154

Day 1 Action planning Task

Responsible party

Completion date

Resources needed

Expected outcome

Create the Facebook event

Designer

One week before the event

Campaign Facebook account

Design Invitations

Designer

One week before the event

Own skills

Have catchy invitations

Distribute the invitations

Women organization

One week before the event

Women organizations

The spread of the news and the gather of volunteers

Organizes volunteers

Distribute the Tinder pictures

Have beautiful and catchy pictures for the event

One week before the event

Design the pictures for tinder Women organization

Designer

Five days before the event

Two days before the event

Women organization. Volunteers are downloading Tinder.

With the spread of the previous event, more volunteers will be gathered. Informed about the

Pictures

Volunteers will have their pictures for the Tinder event, and they will have storage to have them ready for the intervention day

them instruction of how to act.


Design Concept 155

Task

Responsible party

Do the activity

Women organizations, volunteers

Completion date

Resources needed

Expected outcome

Event day

Volunteers, organization/ Tinder.

People will be surprised. No aggressive behavior from the spectators. Men will like the tips and will take it into account.

Record the Designer activity and editing for a video

Event day

Footage of the intervention

Have useful coverage. Have a good coverage to update in the social media, explaining what has been done and why

Share the video

Women organization

Next day of the event

Social media accounts

Spread the video and the message campaign. Create a conversation around it

Monitoring

Women organization

Every three months after the next year event

Social media accounts

See the effectiveness of the measurement taken.


2.6


Design Concept 157

Tinder experiment To analyze the viability of the Tinder intervention, the author made a pilot test using preliminary pictures and messages similar to the ones the campaign will be using. The actress Amber Heard was the protagonist of this experiment, since the photographs used were taking from her Instagram account. She was chosen for being an expressive woman, while not famous enough to be recognized, and as well because the intention was to give a good-looking face to the person giving those tips, creating a storytelling approach (this occurred before she got media attention due to the scandal with her husband, in which she suffered from partner violence). Every image was accompa-

followed gave some advice on what to do if you wanted to molest your Tinder match.


158


Design Concept 159

sure the acceptation of the messages and to get

The pilot was held for three days, in which it got up to two hundred likes and around three hundred possible likes, producing an average of 160 likes per day. Additionally, one 150 messages were sent to the Tinder account, of which 30 were to applaud the account for its originality and the tips given. But the actress, resulting in the conclusion that most men did not understand the activity or the messages. As a result, it can be assumed that the other 100


160


Design Concept 161

persons who did not send a message, in fact did understand what was happening and liked the Tinder wanted to have a date with the girl on the pictures. curacy of the exercise, it will be necessary to use different persons for every image, in order to avoid confusion on whether the girl on the pictures is the owner of the account or not. The experiment was well received whithin Tinder users. Regarded in the German cultural context, all obtained matches were polite; for the Mexican event, to make matches on the day of the event day will not be allowed, in oder to avoid that volunteers suffer possible aggressions and harassments.


2.7


Design Concept 163

Day 2 Workplace violence On the second day of the gender violence awareness week, the topic will be gender equality in the workmove are people who are not aware of the discontent of women and who think that polarization is a natural conduct of human behavior. It will also raise the issue that there are not such a things as female and male qualities or female and male jobs, and that any gender is as capable of performing well in a job as a man, and to stop the mansplaining. The aim is to promote the topic of an equalitarian society by disrupting the routing of the population. This day will show, sarcastically, that in order for women to have the same working privileges as men, will mean to become one. The plan for the intervention is to enter into Mexico City’s public transport at 9am, when most transit is happening because of people traveling to their workplaces, with more than twenty women dressed normal but wearing a paper mask with the printed face of a man. This medium and this time have been chosen because of the high number of people that can be reached, and because the added message of approaching them in the action of going to work. The women volunteering in the intervention will act normally as if nothing was happening. After a couple of minutes, a man will invite the other women in the metro to an wear extra mask, singing as reg-

more satire-like. On the reverse side of the mask,


164

there will be printed the hashtag of the campaign and precise information about gender inequality at the workplace. The objective is that people with the mask update pictures with the hashtag to create a spread. Ideally, these women would wear the mask also beyond the public transport scenery. To obtain a good number of volunteers, a Facebook event will be launched, asking women to join it. They will have to send a picture of their face, and this picturning their facial features into male ones. This face will be printed and used as a mask on the event. Additionally, invitations will be given via social media, presenting the instructions regarding the event. The invitations will be also addressed to men who the extra masks that will be delivered on the metro, and to be the ones who deliver them. There will be a documentation of people during the towards the women with masks, and a video will be created from this material and posted in social media. The video and the hashtag will open a discussion, critical component of this intervention, raising attention towards the existing inequality in Mexico by receiving testimonies of how people experiencee inequality in the country.


Design Concept 165

Day 2 Pre-campaign

$

$

While there is no such thing as gender occupation, "feminine jobs" generate lower incomes than "manly work" 45% of women who work in factories suffer from sexual harassment

On average, women earn 1/4 less than men for performing the same job

Common forms of violence Discrimination

24%

Sexual harassment

13%

30% of Mexican women suffer from workplace violence

79.2% of children coincide that the man is the one who should be bringing money home

Women’s work quality is evaluated according to the gender proportion at their specific workplace: Evaluation

<

10%

30%

> #LetsEquallize Abilities

Density

90%

70%

40% 60% Men Women Women’s Grade


166

Social media invitations

To day the only way to get the same working privileges as men have, is to be a man So become a dude: Wear customized masks and let’s rock it on the metro!

This is a peaceful event! - No aggressive behavior - MUST agree to gender equality principles - You MUST keep calm at all times

26 Nov

Send us a picture of your face. We’ll change your features to a guy. Then we will make a mask for you to use on the event.

We are standing for: - There are not female and male qualities: Just qualities -There are no male or female jobs -Gender doesn’t define abilities

#LetsEquallize Day2

Going

Your pic

Magic Filter

How to participate Sign up in our Facebook event

The Mask

Meeting point: Normal Station. We´ll travel to Xola and back to Normal. Estra masks will be given in the metro to women who want to participate.

Spread it! #LetsEquallize Abilities

Are you a guy? -Sign up in our Facebook event -Send us a pic of your face to “Donate it” to produce masks -Deliver your masks on the metro


Design Concept 167

Mask design

Picture

Front side

Filter

Mask

Back side

30% of Mexican women had suffered from Workplace violence

20 cm

45% of women who work in factories had suffered from sexual harassment

#LetsEquallize Abilities

14.5 cm


168

Day 2 Storyboard

25 Nov

#LetsEqualize Day1 25 November La Normal

Going

Normal Station

Normal

Xola


Design Concept 169

Day 2 Mock-Up


170


Design Concept 171


172

Day 2 Action planning Task

Responsible party

Completion date

Resources needed

Expected outcome

Create the Facebook event

Designer

Two weeks before the event

Campaignâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Facebook account

Design Invitations

Designer

Two weeks before the event

Own skills

Have catchy invitations

Distribute the invitations

Women organization

Two weeks before the event

Women organizations

The spread of the news and the gather of volunteers

Organizes volunteers

Women organization

Five days before the event

Women organization

Informed about the them instruction of how to act

Collect the pictures received

Designer

Three days before the event

Have as many picPictures send by the tures as possible volunteers

Transform the images with the

Designer

Two days before the event

Snapchat

Print and cut the masks

Designer

Two days before the event

Printer, cut- Have the masks ter, elastic ready

Have some accurate/ funny pictures


Design Concept 173

Task

Responsible party

Completion date

Resources needed

Expected outcome

Volunteers, organization, masks.

People will be surprised. External women will want to participate. No aggressive behavior from the spectators. Get mass media coverage.

Do the activity

Women or- Event day ganizations, volunteers

Record the activity

Women organization

Event day

Go pro, cell phone cameras

Have useful coverage

Editing video

Designer

Next day of the event

Own skills

Have a good coverage to update in the social media, explaining what has been done and why

Share the video

Women organization

Next day of the event

Social media accounts

Spread the video and the message campaign. Create a conversation around it

Monitoring

Women organization

Every three months after the next year event

Social media accounts

See the effectiveness of the measurement taken.


2.8


Design Concept 175

Day 3 Domestic violence The third day of the campaign will be a calling for action against domestic violence, with the primary

meaning of domestic violence, but are not sure if should take action against it when witnessing this type of aggression. The aim is to express that domestic violence is of everybodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s concern, and that is simply not acceptable; to invite the public to take action to save someoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s integrity and to be part of the solution; to will raise awareness by engaging the public and making them feel responsible for the witnessed attacks. The move follows the philosophy that if an individual does not feel responsibility for a cause, he/she will not take action. The video intends to motivate people to take action. The third day consists on the following guerilla: made with Kinect technology, an interactive animation will be projected in the subway parking lot entrance of the biggest mall in Mexico City. The place is chosen so that not only individuals, but also families can be targeted. It will also break the prevailing thought that domestic violence just happens in low-income families, by tackling an audience of the medium and higher classesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; sector. The animation will consist of two human-sized shadows, a female and a male one. At the begging of the video, the audience will only hear how a car stops the engine, and the car doors are opened and closed, Then, the shadows will walk into the scene and


176

the discussion will be understandable. They will be discussing family issues, he will insult and aggressively shake her, and she will start crying and will start beating her. The male shadow will get bigger and bigger until it covers everything, and then both of them will disappear. Subsequently, a message will be seen on the wall, asking people to intervene while not a private issue. You can stop it by changing your lence or know someone who is aggrieved by a family clear the necessity that the public has to interfere,

and a pair of footprints. The objective is that people step on those footprints before the male shadow grows over the female one. Once the user is standing on the footprints, the male shadow will vanish and in its place, the shadow of the user will appear. The female shadow will stand up and applaud the action. Then, the shadows will

you suffer from Domestic violence or know someone who is aggrieved by a family member or partner,

The intervention will use a projector, hidden in a scaffold, and a Kinect device on top of the projection. This device can recognize whenever an individual


Design Concept 177

steps on the footprints, allowing the video to understand when the male shadow has to disappear and the userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s shadow shall be projected. After the message is streamed and the prints are unoccupied, the video will start again. Additionally, the reaction of the people interacting with the movie will be recorded. The video with the intervention will be posted in social media and will start a debate about the responsibility everybody faces and how one interpreted the movie. Are the aggressors offended? It will be very interesting to witness the reaction of the audience, and to know if they agree with the actions of the people shown in the video.


178

Day 3 Pre-campaign

Common forms of violence 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

x9

10

11

12

13

14

16

17

x18

19

20

21

22

25

26

23

24

30

31

27 x

28

29

Every 9, days 1 woman dies as victim of domestic violence

Domestic violence and sexual abuse are considered a private issue. It seems that even the authorities donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have the right to interfere

11.2%

Humiliations

7.5%

Partner

Disregard

7.3%

Relative

Threats

4.6%

Others

43% of Mexican women suffer from domestic violence In some states the law forgives a rapist if he gets married to his victim

#LetsEquallize Homes

The aggressors

Insults

47% 35.4% 17.6%

70% of the rapes are committed by a family member

Domestic violence does not take into account the age, the social status or education of the victim


Design Concept 179

Installation


180

Script

The sound of a car stoping appears, we listen two car doors been open, one of them closes making a strong noice, the other one closes softly. MAN (V.O.) I’m tired of all this bullshit! WOMAN (V.O.) Don’t yell, please, people will stare at us INT. PARKING LOT - NIGHT The shadows of a couple enter walking to a parking lot, they stop in front of a wall. MAN I dont give a shit about people! Do you think I care? Of course not... You can’t think! WOMAN Dont be like that. Dont make this a big issue, is just a weekend in veracruz, i’ll be with my parents and... The Woman stands in one place without moving much, the Man is screaming and moving his arms wile he talks showing desperation. MAN I give you everything! I work for you everyday! And you want to leave me alone?! Who is going to take care of the kid? Do you expect me to spoil my weekend chainging diapers? Fuck no! I work all freeking week! And i wont waste my weekend cleaning the house! Thoughtless bitch WOMAN Please, is just one weekend, I havent seen them... The woman breaks down, the man raices his arm with an agressive gesture. MAN Shut your mouth The woman tries to conseal the tears.


Design Concept 181

MAN (CONT’D) Lets go home, I cant take anymore of your crap The man grabs the womans arm aggressively and pulls her towards him. WOMAN No, please no... Honey calm down, lets..lets... The woman releases her arm and tries to escape. The man goes after her and reaches her by her clothes and makes her fall to the ground, She starts crying. WOMAN I’m going withmy parents, and i’m taking my baby with me MAN You’re not going anywere inconsiderate crap. The man takes her by the hair. WOMAN No... please... The man starts beating the woman down, kicking and punching, her. MAN Its your fault that I hit you! Why you do this to me? Why do you get out the worst of me? He continues the beating while his shadow becomes bigger and bigger until the whole frame is covered by his shadow. The message (enter message) appears in white over the black shadow. FADE TO BLACK.


182

Interactive video Storyboard

Domestic violence is not a private issue! You can stop it by changing your performance If you suffer from domestic violence or know someone who is aggrieved by a family member or partner. Please call

52 32 25 05

#LetsEquallize Homes


Design Concept 183

Interactive video Making of


184

Day 3 Storyboard

You can end Domestic Violence by changing the performance

Thank you for standing up against domestic violence! If you suffer from domestic violence or know someone who is aggrieved by a family member or partner. Please call

52 32 25 05

#LetsEquallize Homes


Design Concept 185

Footprints design

#LetsEquallize Homes

You can end domestic violence by changing the performance


186

Day 3 Mock-Up


Design Concept 187


188

Day 3 Action planning Task

Responsible party

Completion date

Resources needed

Expected outcome

Create the storyboard

Designer

Two months before the event

Own skills

Have an engaging story

Create the interactive video

Interactive/ media designer

Three weeks before the event

Funds from Have an interactive video for the event women organizations

Design footprint and message

Designer

Three weeks before the event

Own skills

Print the footprints and the message

Designer

Three weeks before the event

Vinyl plotter

Have footprints and message ready to set it up

Organizes volunteers

Women organization

Five days before the event

Women organization

Informed about the interactive video and give them instruction on what to do


Design Concept 189

Task

Responsible party

Completion date

Resources needed

Expected outcome

Do the activity

Women or- Event day ganizations, volunteers

Projector/ kinetic sensor / Message and footprint set up

People will be surprised. People will want to participate. No aggressive behavior from the spectators. Get mass media coverage. Create a conversation around it.

Record the activity

Women organization

Event day

Go pro, cell phone cameras

Have useful coverage

Editing video

Designer

Next day of the event

Own skills

Have a good coverage to update in the social media, explaining what has been done and why

Share the video

Women organization

Next day of the event

Social media accounts

Spread the video and the message campaign. Create a conversation around it

Monitoring

Women organization

Every three months after the next year event

Social media accounts

See the effectiveness of the measurement taken.


2.9


Design Concept 191

Day 4 Public space violence Making reference to the safe travel program which separates male and female wagons at crowded hours to stop the harassment that women face in public transport, the fourth day will be an urban intervention that reflects, in an extreme way, this measure taken by the government. The message is

for people who perpetrate soft harassment in the public transport, the ones who witness it and decide to be quiet, and the skeptics who try to convince themselves that harassment is not a violation of womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s integrity but a compliment. It is also an invitation for females to break the stigma and realize that harassment is not normal and that it must be condemned. The actions to take are the following; it will be held on a busy pedestrian street in Mexico City, where two sign boards will be places on each side of

be placed. This disrupted intervention will force pedestrians to choose a side depending on their gender, therefore breaking with the participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; routine. The municipality which was contacted offered to support the intervention, providing police officers to ensure its well-functioning. Since the street is going to be intervened both ways, when the users face the signs they will find the first message they will be able to see the that the back of the sign


192

blocking the other end of the street has a message, offering an explanation of the intervention: in public areas lead to the need for extreme measures. Gender segregation is not a solution, respect

To create material for social media and to trigger the spreading of the urban intervention, a video recording the behavior of the people on the street will be posted online. For this intervention, the participants will be interviewed, asking them about their opinion on what they experienced. It will be important to know, and to post, the conclusions of the users, as well as to know if they experienced a reflection about the harassment against women and its consequences. Additionally, they ment? What is wrong with it? Which are the implijust to name some. Once more, there will be a debate in social media about harassment in public spaces. Social media users will have the opportunity to listen to the obtained answers, and to discuss about how informed people actually are about a topic that women confront in their everyday lives.


Design Concept 193

Day 4 Pre-campaign

Just 1.6% of the aggressors are arrested and penalized

Mexico City â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s public transport is the most dangerous for women in Latin America

40% of Mexican women have suffered from violence in public spaces

98% of the sexual offenses were against women.

#LetsEquallize Respect

Intimidation is the most common form of violence 36.6%

Every 4.6 minutes, a violent sexual harassment happens in Mexico

40% of women change the way they dress to avoid harassment in public transport


194

Signs design

120cm

200pt

Street Only for women 140cm

Street Only for men

25cm

and boys under 12

130pt

No dejemos que la inseguridad en las vias publicas lleve a tomar medidas extremas. La segregacion de generos no es una solucion. El respeto hacia los demas SĂ­ lo es.

Do Not let the insecurity on public transport and public areas leads to take extreme measures. Gender segregation is not a solution, respect for others is.

130pt

#LetsEquallize Respect

160pt

#LetsEquallize Respect


Design Concept 195

Uniforms design

#LetsEquallize Respect

#LetsGenerate Respect

7 cm


196

Day 4 Storyboard

Street Only for women

Street Only for men

and boys under 12

Street Only for women

Street Only for women

and boys under 12

and boys under 12

Do Not let the insecurity on public transport and public areas leads to take extreme measures. Gender segregation is not a solution, respect for others is.

Do Not let the insecurity on public transport and public areas leads to take extreme measures. Gender segregation is not a solution, respect for others is.

Do Not let the insecurity on public transport and public areas leads to take extreme measures. Gender segregation is not a solution, respect for others is.

#LetsEquallize Respect

Street Only for women and boys under 12

Street Only for men

Street Only for men


Design Concept 197

Day 4 MockUp


198

Day 4 Action planning

Task

Completion date

Resources needed

Expected outcome

Designer

Three weeks before the event

Own skills

Have three kinds of signs designed. 2 for separating the roads and 1 explaining the intervention.

Design vest Designer for the volunteers

Two weeks before the intervention

Own skills

Have accurate uniforms for the volunteers

Fabricate the signs

Designer

One week before the intervention

Vinyl plotter/ Metal workshop

Have two sings for women's road, two for men's road and four explanation signs.

Designer Fabric the uniform for the volunteers and police

One week before the intervention

Vest/ serigraphy workshop

Have vest for the volunteers who will take part in the intervention

Design the signs

Responsible party

Engaging Mexico Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s police roads

Women organization

One month before the event

A petition for security and support.

Have security to ensure all the pedestrians will cope with the intervention.

Organizes volunteers

Women organization

Five days before the event

Women organization

Informed about the urban intervention and give them instruction on what to do


Design Concept 199

Task

Responsible party

Completion date

Resources needed

Expected outcome

Do the activity

Women or- Event day ganizations, volunteers

Set up the signs/ Volunteers

People will be surprised. People will question themselves what is happening. No aggressive behavior from the spectators. Get mass media coverage. Create a conversation around it.

Record the activity

Women organization

Event day

Go pro, cell phone cameras

Have useful coverage

Editing video

Designer

Next day of the event

Own skills

Have a good coverage to update in the social media, explaining what has been done and why

Share the video

Women organization

Next day of the event

Social media accounts

Spread the video and the message campaign. Create a conversation around it

Monitoring

Women organization

Every three months after the next year event

Social media accounts

See the effectiveness of the measurement taken.


3.0


Design Concept 201

Day 5 Femicide The last day will literally break Facebook. The closing day is an acknowledgment to all the women that have been abducted and the femicides that have gone unpunished. The target group are Facebook users; this platform has been chosen because of the great popularity that Facebook has in Mexico, which is one of the ten countries with more users worldwide (Flores, 2010). There are two main options to implement this intervention.

Option 1 Engage Facebook

At the Berlin Conference Townhall Q&A, the CEO of Facebook openly expressed his commitment with gender equality issues. He also stipulated that Facebook has realized activities to promote empathy and to increase security among the users. Mexico Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s menâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Facebook accounts will be manipulated in a way that they cannot see what their females Facebook contacts post. Instead of the post, they will only see the name of the contact, the time ery activity a woman undertakes on Facebook will thumbnail pictures of the females contact will be available to men. For them, it will be as if all women have disappeared from Facebook. If they try to enter its place, along with the following message:


202

If you believe that machismo has disappeared, that it is not real: then we are the ones who need to disappear, all of us. The ones that you call feminazis, the activists, the ones who donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t care and even the ones who support machismo. Because no woman is exempt to being abused, because sooner or later she will become a victim, too. Thus, we better fade before someone makes us disappear, like the thousands of women that are missing. #LetsEquallize Safety #LetsEquallize Mexico Taking into consideration that this intervention will messages will be working as usual. It is not the intention of the campaign to disrupt anybodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work, and it will be tried to prevent any unwanted outcome.

Option 2 Malware design

Have created, by an expert, a Facebook virus appliusers. Eight months before the event, the malware will be spread, installing itself as a Facebook application, and it will be activated on the day of the event. This virus will post a message error in all content that female users post after having been hit by it, therefore affecting female and male users. The virus will redirect them to a web page depicting against women is by speaking out - share the following


Design Concept 203

with a share button, that will work both as a share button for Facebook and a switcher for the virus. The virus will work as the typical spam malware: a fake video with an interesting and catchy topic will be posted, and at the moment when the video is opened, the user will be redirected to a web page with the simulation of the video. The video will have a hidden button which enables the virusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; download to the Facebook platform. The malware option will send the same message as in Option 1. The difference lies in the fact that the functionality will not be as elaborate as if Facebook participated. The women who got hid by the malware will not be able to share anything or carry out any activity on Facebook. Instead, what will appear is that

will be encouraged to share the campaign message malware will post the following message on the inappeared, that is not real: then we are the ones who need to disappear, all of us. The ones that you call feminazis, the activists, the ones who donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t care and even the ones who support machismo. Because no woman is exempt to being abused, because sooner or later she will become a victim, too. Thus, we better fade before someone makes us disappear, like the thousands of women that are missing. #LetsEquallize Safety #LetsEquallize Mexico


204

In the end, an explanatory video of what happened will be delivered in social media. It will be a concluthe previous events and pointing out how all the subtle ways of violence lead to the existing violence towards women. lence against women is not normal, it is a violation of human rights, irrespective of how, when and where it takes place. Machismo in Mexico is not an explicit suppression of the woman; there is a set of beliefs and attitudes implicated, hidden under the everyday life surface, which lead to its normalization and to the permission of men to apply violence against women. To end violence against women, it is necessary to understand it and to denounce it - to bring it to light. To stop gender inequality and to end


Design Concept 205

Day 5 Pre-campaign

Crime scene Thoroughfare

42.6%

Home

30%

Public spaces

5.2%

In 1 of every 7 femicides, the victim suffered from rape before being murdered

The victims

50%

30%

Housewives

Employees

Mexico is among the worst countries to be a woman

Type of attack

6 Women are killed every day in Mexico

Gunshot

40%

Beating

30%

Stab wounds

18%

In 19 of 20 homocides, the aggressor was a man Female bodies are often mutilated, with particular attention paid to sexual organs

#LetsEquallize Safety


206

Day 5/ Option 1 Storyboard

Josue

Home

Josue

Josue Perez

Josue Perez

Edito Profile

Edito Profile

Marifer Fregoso missing

Home

Daniel Reyes update his cover photo 48. mins

30. mins News Feed

News Feed

Messages

Messages Laura Alamos missing

Events

Events

48. mins

Saved

Saved

Groups

Groups

Daniel Reyes update his cover photo 48. mins

Lupita Mora missing 15. mins

Javier Perez Cool cars man! 20. mins

Diana Gozalez missing 48. mins

Laura Alamos

Laura Alamos

Josue Perez Edito Profile

Josue Perez Edito Profile

Marifer Fregoso missing

News Feed

30. mins

Messages Events

News Feed

Saved

Messages

Groups

Laura Alamos missing

Events

Home

#LetsEquallize Safety #LetsEquallize Mexico

48. mins

Saved

Josue

If you believe that machismo has disappear, that is not real, then we are the ones who need to disappear, all of us: the ones that you call feminazis, the activists, the ones who donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t care and even the ones who support machismo. Because no woman is exempt to been abused, because sooner or later she will become a victim too. Thus, we better fade before someone disappear us, like the thousand of women that are missing.

Groups

Daniel Reyes update his cover photo 48. mins

Back to News Feed Marifer Fregoso Josue Perez Edito Profile

Josue Perez Edito Profile

Marifer Fregoso missing

News Feed

30. mins

Messages Events

News Feed

Saved

Messages Events Saved

Groups

Maca Alamos missing 48. mins

Josue

Home

If you believe that machismo has disappear, that is not real, then we are the ones who need to disappear, all of us: the ones that you call feminazis, the activists, the ones who donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t care and even the ones who support machismo. Because no woman is exempt to been abused, because sooner or later she will become a victim too. Thus, we better fade before someone disappear us, like the thousand of women that are missing. #LetsEquallize Safety #LetsEquallize Mexico

Groups

Daniel Reyes update his cover photo 48. mins

Back to News Feed

Josue

Home

Josue


Design Concept 207

Ruben Reyes

Marce

Home 1

Day 5/ Option 1 Mock-Up

Marce Josu

Search Facebook Marce Glez Orozco

Ruben Reyes

Search Facebook

Liana Lessa 7 new posts

Photo/Video Photo Album Maca Álamos por que en el mas la vida es más sabrosa Friends Following

Like · Reply · Yesterday at 2:10pm Passakorn Search Facebook FAVORITES What's on your mind? Sharon Brehme Chantanakorn Phing Natchayar About MarceFeed Glez Orozco Timeline Friends Photos facebook.com News Photo/Video Photo Like · Reply · Yesterday at Album 2:28pm 4 new posts

3 new posts

Marce Glez Orozco Messages

Intro

News Feed

Saved FAVORITES

Studied at

2 new posts

More

What's on your mind? Mafer M Fregosotoshared Señora Ruiz's video. missing Write something Ruben...

Write a comment... 42 mins ·

1 new post

EventsFriends Close Messages Saved

2

Events GROUPS Sale· Deutsch Groups English (US) · Español (España) Saved MAID 2015 · TürkçePhotos · Português (Brasil) CloseGroups Friends Sale MAID IT!

1 event invite Custom

Post

Custom

Post

Custom

Post

MaferÁlamos M Fregoso shared Señora video. Alejandra Riosshared missing Maca her photo — Ruiz's with Dali Terán and 2 others. Post

2 1

34 42 mins · at 12:45pm · Yesterday

Mafer M Fregoso shared Señora Ruiz's video.

POSTS YOU HAVEN'T SEEN

Ad Choices Friends · Cookies · Privacy · Terms · Advertising · Close MAID MENTORIN… GROUPS More MAID 2015 GRUPO Vivas nos … 20+1 GROUPS Facebook © 2016 MAID 2015 IT! Groups Discover 1 MAID

MAID IT! MENTORIN… Create Group MAID GRUPO Vivas nos … MAID MENTORIN… APPS

20+

Discover Groups GRUPO Vivas nos … Live Video

20+

Create Group Discover Groups Games

42 minseste · ha sido uno de los mejores viajes que he tenido!!! Tenemos Mis lindas que repetirlo!!! (aunque algunas ya no estén muy a favor del camping). Las Ruben Reyes updated his cover photo. quiero, las extraño y me hace muy feliz tener recuerdos como estos =* 1 hr ·

pd: Cuidado con la PDI!!! English (US) · Español (España) · Deutsch · Türkçe · Português (Brasil)

5

Create On ThisGroup Day APPS Live Video Causes APPS Games Photos Live Video

5

On This Day Suggest Edits Games

5

Maca Álamos por que en el mas la vida es más sabrosa

Causes Pokes On This Day

Liana Lessa

Photos Trivia Crack Causes Passakorn SuggestFeed Edits Chantanakorn Phing Natchayar Games 20+ Photos

7 new posts

4 new posts

Friends · 911

Pokes Edits Suggest FRIENDS

Mariana Mendes

Facebook © 2016

Like · Reply · Yesterday at 2:28pm Sharon Brehme Ese es Eusebio! Like Comment Share Like · Reply · Yesterday at 2:28pm

Games Feed Area Trivia Crack Accra, Ghana

3 new posts

º3º

Like · Reply · Yesterday at 2:10pm

Privacy · Terms · Advertising · Ad Choices · English (US) · Español (España) · Deutsch · Cookies · More Türkçe · Português (Brasil) Facebook © 2016 English (US) · Español (España) · Deutsch · Türkçe · Português (Brasil) Privacy · Terms · Advertising · Ad Choices · Cookies · More Privacy · Terms · Advertising · Ad Choices · Facebook © 2016 Cookies · More

Sharon Brehme

3 new posts

Trivia Crack Pokes Family

Natália Garcêz

birthday is today 1Ivonne event Ventura's invite Ivonne Ventura'smissing birthday is today

Andrea Lucero replied · 1 Reply

2

Messages Sale Groups Natália Garcêz Latika Nehra Pan Wenwen News Feed Works at YouTube 3 new posts

1 event Home invite Marce Ivonne Ventura's birthday is today Marce Home

Facebook

Sharon Brehme Ese es Eusebio! Photo/Video Photo Album Like · Reply · Yesterday at 2:28pm What's on Post Photo /your Videomind?

Events FAVORITES

º3º Message

Home

20+

Games Feed FRIENDS LatikaINTERESTS Nehra Pan Wenwen 20+ 2 new postsFamily 1 new post Pages and Public … FRIENDS Tinne Vanhoof Carmensita Naat Accra, Ghana Area Family EVENTS

Accra, English (US) · Español (España) · Area INTERESTS Tour· Deutsch of Ghana Sachsen A… Türkçe · Português (Brasil) Pages and Public … Create Event INTERESTS Don Domingo Diana Garcia and … Ad Choices EVENTS Santagata CorbyPAGES LuPublic Gutierrez Privacy · Terms · Advertising · Pages · Cookies · 2 new posts 1 new post 1 new post More Tour ofFeed Sachsen A… Pages 20+ EVENTS Facebook © 2016 Create Event Tour of Sachsen A… Like Pages

Andrea Lucero replied · 1 Reply 3 90,913 Views Write a comment... Señora Ruiz Like Page May 26 at 9:00pm · Like Comment Share RECENT STORIES 90,913 Views Un cuero hecho con piña. missingher photo — with Dali Terán and 2 others. Maca Álamos shared 2 por la vaquitas! ¡Bien Yesterday at 12:45pm · Señora Ruiz 90,913 Views Like Page Ruben Reyes May 26 at 9:00pm · #Ecologia 1 Ruiz hr · Lucero Andrea bicicletada Señora Mis lindas este haMisido uno demás losextrema.. mejores viajes que he tenido!!!Like Tenemos Page May 26 9:00pm · piña.algunas Unrepetirlo!!! cuero con Likeat·hecho Reply · Yesterday at 1:45pm que (aunque ya no estén muy a favor del camping). Las Like por la vaquitas! Comment Share ¡Bien quiero, las extraño ypiña. me hace muy· 3feliz tener recuerdos como estos =* Maca replied Replies Un cuero hecho con Álamos

por la vaquitas! #Ecologia pd:¡Bien con la PDI!!! 1Cuidado

Create Event Page PAGES Pages Feed

20+

Like Pages Pages Feed

20+

PAGES

Create Page Like Pages Create Page

Dali Terán Linda maca, cuando regreses lo repetimos y a la que no este a favor #Ecologia y que no diré su nombre pero comienza con sol xdd... la llevamos igual. .. Like Write a comment... Comment Share cariños!!

LikeLike · ReplyComment Share · Yesterday at 3:14pm 1 1

Write comment... The aDodo Write a comment... 4 hrs ·

Write a comment...

Proof pigs are scary smart. Agnes Pickett von Marttens The24 Dodo May at 4:44am · 4 hrs ·

Dodo Amigos The artistas, músicos e ilustradores! Valentina Paz San Juan Standen 4 hrs · Maca Proof Álamos pigs are scarySoto smart. Maca Bobenrieth Camila Fuentes Alcor Pickett Pablo Kameid Daniel Kameid Agata Pickett Andrea Acevedo Andrea Bravo Christel Proof pigs are scary smart. Von Marttens Miranda

Josu

CNCA | Bases del Concurso Bases del Concurso Te invitamos a descargar las bases Maca Álamos por que en el mas la vida es más sabrosa º3º

Search Facebook Liana Lessa

Passakorn Chantanakorn Phing Natchayar Marce Glez Orozco

7 new posts

4 new posts

FAVORITES

SvAnita Urracci

3 new posts

Like · Reply · Yesterday at 2:10pm Sharon Brehme Photo/Video Photo Like · Reply · Yesterday at Album 2:28pm Like Comment Share Sharon Brehme Ese es Eusebio!

2

Like · Replyon · Yesterday at 2:28pm What's your mind?

Marce

Home missing

1 event invite Ivonne Ventura's birthday is today


208

Maca Alamos facebook.com/MacaAlamos

Marce Josu

Maca Álamos

Home 1

If you believe that machismo has disappear, that is not real, then we are the ones who need to disappear, all of us: the ones that you call feminazis, the activists, the ones who don’t care and even the ones who support machismo. Because no woman is exempt to been abused, because sooner or later she will become a victim too. Thus, we better fade before someone disappear us, like the thousand of women that are missing. Friends Mexico Maca#LetsEquallize Álamos Safety #LetsEquallize

Timeline

About

Friends

Post

Intro Me llamo Macarena, soy diseñadora, editora y cocinera. Mis amigos me han bautizado como Maca Stewart.

34 Mutual

Photos

Following

Message

More

Photo / Video

Write something to Maca...

Post E[Ad] Pucv Studies Master of Arts in Integrated Design at Fachbereich Design Dessau Department of Design

Andrea Lucero shared a memory. Yesterday at 2:24pm ·

Ensayando nuestros cánticos!! Maca Álamos

Photos

6 Years Ago See Your Memories Sharon Brehme with Maca Álamos and Andrea Lucero. May 26, 2010 ·

Friends · 552 (34 Mutual)

Juan Ángel

Stf Eid

Andrés Quintero Like

Comment

Share


Design Concept 209


210

Day 5/ Option 2 Storyboard

Josue

Josue Perez

Home

Daniel Reyes update his cover photo

Edito Profile

48. mins

Josue Perez

News Feed

Edito Profile

Messages

Marifer Fregoso

Events

missing

30. mins

Saved Groups

News Feed Messages Laura Alamos

Events

Groups

Javier Perez Cool cars man! 20. mins

Diana Gozalez

missing

48. mins

Saved

missing

Lupita Mora 15. mins

missing

48. mins

Maria Marcedes 48. mins

If you believe that machismo has disappear, that is not real, then we are the ones who need to disappear, all of us: the ones that you call feminazis, the activists, the ones who donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t care and even the ones who support machismo. Because no woman is exempt to been abused, because sooner or later she will become a victim too. Thus, we better fade before someone disappear us, like the thousand of women that are missing. #LetsEquallize Safety #LetsEquallize Mexico Josue Perez Edito Profile

Status

Photo/Video

Life Event

Why everytime I post something it shown the message "missing" instead? Heeelp! Post

News Feed Messages Events

Laura Alamos

missing

2. mins

Saved Groups

Laura Alamos

missing

5. mins

Laura Alamos

missing

10. mins

Daniel Reyes update his cover photo 48. mins

malwarequallize.com

The best way to end up with women violence is by speaking out, share the following infographic to raise your voice on Facebook, and to erase the missing message

Laura

Laura Alamos

Laura Alamos share a photo

Edito Profile

2. mins

News Feed Messages

Crime scene Thoroughfare

42.6%

Home

Events

30%

Public spaces

5.2%

In 1 of every 7 femicides, the victim suffered from rape before been murdered

Saved

G20 have Mexico among the worst countries to be a woman

Groups

Crime scene Thoroughfare

The victims

Type of attack

42.6%

Home

30%

Public spaces

5.2%

In 1 of every 7 femicides, the victim suffered from rape before been murdered

G20 have Mexico among the

50%

30%

Housewives

Employees

6 Women are killed every day in Mexico

Gunshot

40%

Beating

30%

Stab wounds

18%

worst countries to be a woman 19 in 20 homicides the aggressor was a man

The victims

50%

30%

Housewives

Employees

Type of attack

6 Women are killed every day in Mexico

Female bodies are often

Gunshot

40%

Beating

30%

Stab wounds

mutilated, with particular attention paid to sexual organs

18%

#LetsEquallize Safety

19 in 20 homicides the aggressor was a man Female bodies are often mutilated, with particular attention paid to sexual organs

#LetsEquallize Safety

Share

Home


Maca Álamos por que en el mas la vida es más sabrosa

Search Facebook Liana Lessa 7 new posts

4 new posts

SvAnita Urracci

Natália Garcêz

News Feed Virginia Grillo Letizia Guerra MessagesPan Wenwen Latika Nehra

3 new posts

2 new posts

Events

3 new posts

2

APPS

Live Video Games

Like · Reply at 3:14pm Mis lindas este· Yesterday ha sido uno de los mejores viajes que he tenido!!! Tenemos que repetirlo!!! (aunque algunas ya no estén muy a favor del camping). Las Write a comment... quiero, las extraño y me hace muy feliz tener recuerdos como estos =*

pd: Cuidado con la PDI!!!

Agnes Pickett von Marttens May 24 at 4:44am ·

5

On This Day Causes

Liana Lessa

Photos Passakorn Suggest Edits Chantanakorn Phing Natchayar

7 new posts

4 new posts

Sharon Brehme You, Ändi Noventa and 41 others 43 Like · Reply · Yesterday at 2:28pm Sharon Huete Brehme Ese es Eusebio! Basilio Awwwww

Trivia Crack

Pan Wenwen 1 new post

20+

Yesterday Like · Reply · 37 mins at 2:28pm Like Comment Share Andrea Lucero replied · 1 Reply Write a comment... You, Ändi Noventa and 41 others 43 Write a comment...

Accra, Ghana Area English (US) · Español (España) · Deutsch · INTERESTS Türkçe · Português (Brasil) Pages and Public … EVENTS Privacy · Terms · Advertising · Ad Choices · Cookies · More Tour of Sachsen A… Facebook © 2016 Create Event

Basilio Huete Awwwww Héctor De La Hoya with Ruben Reyes. Like Comment Share May· Reply 24 at 10:41pm Like · 37 mins· Instagram · 90,913 Views missingher photo — with Dali Terán and 2 others. Maca Álamos shared 2 Write a comment... A Rigo le importa un carajo. Yesterday at 12:45pm · Señora Ruiz Facebook Like Page May 26 at 9:00pm · facebook.com Andrea Lucero bicicletada Mis lindas este haMisido uno demás losextrema.. mejores viajes que he tenido!!! Tenemos

Unrepetirlo!!! cuero piña.algunas Like ·hecho Reply con · Yesterday at 1:45pm que no estén muy a favor del camping). Las Héctor (aunque De La Hoya with ya Ruben Reyes. ¡Bien por la vaquitas! quiero, las yÁlamos me hace muy· 3·feliz tener recuerdos como estos =* Maca replied Replies Mayextraño 24 at 10:41pm · Instagram

pd:#Ecologia Cuidado con la PDI!!! A RigoDali le importa un carajo. Terán Linda maca, cuando regreses lo repetimos y a la que no este a favor

PAGES

Pages Feed

20+

y que no diré su nombre pero comienza con sol xdd... la llevamos igual. .. Like Comment Share cariños!!

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CNCA | Bases del Concurso

Bases del Concurso Te invitamos a descargar las bases Maca Álamos por que en el mas la vida es más sabrosa º3º LikeLike · ReplyComment Share · Yesterday at 2:10pm

3 new posts

2 new postsFamily

Post

Dali Terán maca, cuando repetimos y a la que a favor Mafer MLinda Fregoso shared Señora video. Maca Álamos shared her regreses photo —loRuiz's with Dali Terán andno 2 este others. y Yesterday que no diré nombre· pero comienza con sol xdd... la llevamos igual. .. 42 mins · atsu 12:45pm cariños!!

Day 5/ Option 2 Mock-Up

3 new posts

Custom

Maca Álamos replied · 3 Replies

Amigos artistas, músicos e ilustradores! Valentina Paz San Juan Standen Maca Álamos Maca Soto Bobenrieth Camila Fuentes Alcor Pickett Pablo Kameid Daniel Kameid Agata Pickett Andrea Acevedo Andrea Bravo Christel Von Marttens Miranda

Create Group

Natália Garcêz

211

Ivonne Ventura's birthday is today

Like · Replyon · Yesterday at 2:28pm What's your mind?

Like · Reply · Yesterday at 1:45pm Write a comment...

MAID MENTORIN… Privacy · Terms · Advertising · Ad Choices · Cookies · More GRUPO Vivas nos … 20+ Facebook © 2016 Discover Groups

Games Feed

Design Concept 1 event invite

Andrea Lucero replied · 1 Reply

1 new post

LatikaFRIENDS Nehra

Home

Andrea Lucero Mi bicicletada más extrema..

English (US) · Español (España) · Deutsch · Saved 2 Türkçe · Português (Brasil) Sale· Deutsch Groups · English Urracci (US) · Español (España) SvAnita Português (Brasil) Grillo 1Türkçe new post Virginia Letizia Guerra · Choices Privacy ·· Terms · Advertising · Ad · Cookies Close Friends More Facebook © 2016 Privacy · Terms · Advertising · Ad Choices · Cookies · GROUPS More 1 MAID 2015 · English (US) · Español (España) · Deutsch Facebook © 2016 Türkçe · Português (Brasil) MAID IT!

Pokes

Marce

Sharon Brehme Photo/Video Photo Like · Reply · Yesterday at Album 2:28pm Like Comment Share Sharon Brehme Ese es Eusebio!

FAVORITES 1 new post

º3º

Like · Reply · Yesterday at 2:10pm

Passakorn Chantanakorn Phing Natchayar Marce Glez Orozco

1

Like · Reply · Yesterday at 3:14pm Write a comment... Write a comment...

Agnes Pickett von Marttens The24 Dodo May at 4:44am · 4 hrs ·

Amigos artistas, músicos e ilustradores! Valentina Paz San Juan Standen Proof Álamos pigs areMaca scarySoto smart. Maca Bobenrieth Camila Fuentes Alcor Pickett Pablo Kameid Daniel Kameid Agata Pickett Andrea Acevedo Andrea Bravo Christel Von Marttens Miranda

CNCA | Bases del Concurso Bases del Concurso Te invitamos a descargar las bases

Like

Comment

Share

Like 2

Comment

Share

86 Andrea Lucero Mi bicicletada más extrema..

Like · Reply · Yesterday at 1:45pm View 4 more comments Maca Álamos replied · 3 Replies missing Van Guerra Rigolieber Like Comment Share Like ReplyLinda · Maymaca, 25 at 5:57am Dali ·Terán cuando regreses lo repetimos y a la que no este a favor y que no diré su nombre pero comienza con sol xdd... la llevamos igual. .. Soy Ceci De La Cueva missing 86 cariños!! Like · Reply · May 25 at 6:01am Like · Reply · Yesterday at 3:14pm View 4 more missing Lucíacomments Lopez Acosta Rigo es tan suaveee Write a comment... Like · Reply ·Rigolieber May 25 at 6:14am Van Guerra Like · Reply · May 25 bonito at 5:57am missing Himaret Reyes Que Like Ceci · Reply MayCueva 25 at 6:37pm Soy De· La

Agnes Pickett von Marttens

Like · Reply · May 25 at 6:01am May 24 at 4:44am · Write a comment... Lucía Lopez Acosta Rigo es tan suaveee

Amigos artistas, ilustradores! Valentina Paz San Juan Standen Like · Reply músicos · May 25 ate 6:14am See More Recent Stories Maca Álamos Maca Soto Bobenrieth Camila Fuentes Alcor Pickett Pablo Himaret Reyes Que bonito Kameid Daniel Kameid Agata Pickett Andrea Acevedo Andrea Bravo Christel Like · Reply · May 25 at 6:37pm Von Marttens Miranda Write a comment...

CNCA | Bases del Concurso Bases Concurso Te invitamos a descargar las bases See Moredel Recent Stories

English (US) · Español (España) · Deutsch · Türkçe · Português (Brasil) Privacy · Terms · Advertising · Ad Choices Cookies · More Facebook © 2016

·


212

Marce Glez Orozco

Marce

Marce Glez Orozco Timeline

About

Friends

Status

Home

View Activity Log 10+

483

Photos

Photo / Video

More

Life Event

Gonzalez What's on Marcela your mind?

20 Pending Items facebook.com

Intro

Custom

Post

Describe Who You Are

Marcela Gonzalez Di Dobreva

Add Info About You

Nov 29 Mexico · May 19 at 10:29pm · Dessau

missing Don't ask me how... but this picture somehow found me! Comment Share https://www.instagram.com/p/BFjhb4fGBmP/?tagged=dessau Marce Glez Orozco Jenny Li Vic Key Pan Wenwen Joob Kulrakumpusiri Maca You, 17 Maca Álamos, Pan Wenwen and 14 others Álamos

Add Featured Photos Marcela Gonzalez Nov 29 at 10 pm Mexico

missing Like

Comment

Share

Marcela Gonzalez Nov 29 at 8 pm Mexico

Feature up to 5 photos you love

Photos

If you believe that machismo has disappear, that is not real, then we are the ones who need to disappear, all of us: the ones that you call feminazis, the activists, the ones who don’t care and even the ones who support machismo. Because no woman is exempt to been abused, because sooner or later she will become a victim too. Thus, we better fade before someone disappear us, like the thousand of women that are missing. INSTAGRAM

#LetsEquallize Safety #LetsEquallize Mexico Like

Comment

Share

You, 17 Maca Álamos, Pan Wenwen and others You, Maca Álamos, Pan Wenwen and 1414 others 1 share


Design Concept 213

Closing video Storyboard

Violence against women is not normal

Machismo in Mexico is not an explicit suppression of the women

irrespective of how when and where

is a violation of human rights

there is a set of beliefs and attitudes implicated, hidden under the everyday live surface

Street Only for women and boys under 12

Street Only for men

to denounce it

it takes place which leads to its normalization and the permission of men to apply violence against women

Josue

Josue Perez Edito Profile

Daniel Reyes update his cover photo 48. mins

News Feed Messages Events Saved Groups

Lupita Mora

To end up with women violence is necessary to understand it

Home

missing

15. mins

Tinder

5 Tip

Like

Javier Perez Cool cars man! 20. mins

Diana Gozalez

missing

48. mins

and to bring it to light

To stop gender inequality

Street Only for women and boys under 12

Street Only for men

is necessary a change of attitude from everyone

#LetsEquallize and to end with machismo


214

Day 5 Action planning Task

Responsible party

Completion date

Resources needed

Option 1 Engage the participation of Facebook

Women organization

One year before the intervention

Approach to Facebook/ Display/ A good argument

Option 2 Develop the malware

Informatics expert/ Women organization

Four months before the intervention

Expert on A virus that will informatics preform the required tasks

Launch the malware

Informatics expert

Three months before the intervention

Expert on Have the virus runinformatics ning thru the web

Activate the virus

Informatics expert

Day of the event

Informatics The malware will be expert running

Record the Designer activity and editing for a video

Event day

Footage of the intervention

Deactivate the virus

Informatics expert

Next day of the event

Expert on Shutdown the malinformatics ware

Closing video

Designer

Next day of the event

Footage interventions

Expected outcome

Facebook will be coupe with the intervention.

Have useful coverage. Have a good coverage to update in the social media, explaining what has been done and why

Have a closing video to spread the campaigns message


Design Concept 215

Task

Responsible party

Completion date

Resources needed

Expected outcome

Share the video

Women organization

Next day of the event

Social media accounts

Spread the video and the message campaign. Create a conversation around it

Monitoring

Women organization

Every three months after the next year event

Social media accounts

See the effectiveness of the measurement taken.


Chapter 5 Conclusion


3.1


Conclusion 219

Conclusion Machismo is a form of interaction which is used in every relation, sometimes without acknowledging it. Nonetheless, if a person wants to subsist in Mexico, being a macho is the easy way of doing it. Machismo will remain as the dominant way of interaction between Mexican men and women, unless another option is developed. Likewise, in a macho society, everybody is a victim of machismo - men included, even if not realized by them. Therefore, machismo will keep existing only if all members of society decide to cope with it. This, to end with machismo, what is necessary is a change of attitude in the whole society. Violence against women and machismo in Mexico have so far been taboo topics; people are usually not comfortable dealing with them. It has become clear to the author that people are not always sure of what gender violence actually is; the issue is full of uncertainty about what can be considered, and what not, male aggression towards women. The importance of the project presented in this work is the development of a debate with a broad audience, creating awareness and familiarity towards the described problem and enabling women not to remain silent anymore, by setting up a channel of communication for them. It is imperative to talk about machismo and its consequences; otherwise, silence will create more sexism, leading to the normalization of the phenomenon. To draw a path of how to achieve all of this, it was necessary to use different formats, languages, and communication techniques â&#x20AC;&#x201C; since these formats


220

also contributed to the creation of the misguided idea that machismo is something normal. This idea has been reproduced and multiplied in countless ways, through social practices, institutions, symbols, even laws. In order to strengthen gender equality as the model that guides our society, it is necessary to take over those spaces, systems, practices, images and languages, step by step and one by one. The campaign developed in the course of this project is only one step on what appears to be a long way to go. Institutions, government, and women organizations have to work side by side to be able to achieve put an end to violence against women in Mexico. Further steps to take in the development of of the event, in order to ensure its viability; to create a council in charge of the organization of the week camping; and to institutionalize the week of gender violence.


3.2


Conclusion 223

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transporte.PDF?sequence=4 [Accessed 1 Jun. 2016 - Güezmes, A. (2016). Palabras de Ana Güezmes en el Evento Ciudades Seguras Libres de Violencia contra las Mujeres y Niñas del Gobierno del Distrito Federal. [online] México. Available at: http://mexico.unwomen.org/es/noticias-y-eventos/articulos/2015/10/ana-guezmes-ciudades-seguras-cdmx [Accessed 6 May 2016]. [online] Ntrguadalajara.com. Available at: http://www.ntrguadalajara.com/post. php?id_nota=20725 [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. culinities, 17(5), pp.515-548 [online] Available at: http://horizontal.mx/no-es-pais-para-mujeres-violencia-de-genero-en-mexico/ - Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres, (2012). Violencia contra las mujeres. 4th ed. Mexico Df. - Juárez Becerra, M. (2012). El Machismo en México. [online] Maya sin fronteras. Available at: http://www.mayasinfronteras.org/2014/03/el-machismo-en-mexico/ [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016 - Kotler, P. and Roberto, E. (1992). Mercadotecnia social. México, D.F.: Diana - Lopez, C. (2016). ‘El Metro es público, mi cuerpo NO’, denuncian mujeres. [online] Excélsior. Available at: http://www.excelsior.com.mx/comunidad/2016/04/05/1084701 [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Lugo, C. (1985). Machismo y violencia. 1st ed. [ebook] Nueva Sociedad, pp.40-47. Available at: http://nuso.org/media/articles/downloads/1288_1.pdf [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Moraga, S. (2013). Violencia contra las mujeres: fracasa estrategia de Calderón. [online] Unionyucatan.mx. Available at: http://www.unionyucatan.mx/articulo/2013/05/20/ciudadanos/programas-para-prevenir-y-erradicar-la-violencia-contra-mujeres-fraca [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. cas, tendencias y nuevas expresiones en las entidades federativas. Mexico: Editorial Sestante S.A. de C.V co: UNAM. Available at: http://www.revistadelauniversidad.unam.mx/ojs_rum/


Conclusion 225

2016]. - Paullier, J. (2016). #MiPrimerAcoso, la creadora del hashtag que sacudió internet y la importancia de que las mujeres no callen - BBC Mundo. [online] BBC Mundo. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias/2016/04/160425_ mexico_hashtag_mi_primer_acoso_violencia_mujeres_jp [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Roca, A. (2016). Violencia contra mujeres en Ecatepec: los jóvenes hablan. [online] EL PAÍS. Available at: http://elpais.com/elpais/2016/02/14/videos/1455466390_001851.html?id_externo_rsoc=FB_MX_CM [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Roldán, N. (2016). Mancera anuncia una app, autobuses especiales y mejora http://www.animalpolitico.com/2016/04/una-app-autobuses-especiales-y-mejora-de-las-calles-las-acciones-contra-el-acoso-en-la-cdmx/ [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - UN General Assembly, (1993). A/RES/48/104. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women. [online] Un.org. Available at: http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/48/a48r104.htm [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - UN Women, (2016). Virtual Knowledge Centre to End Violence against Women and Girls - Campaigns. [online] Endvawnow.org. Available at: http://www.endvawnow.org/en/modules/view/3-campaigns.html#280 [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - United Nations Commission, (2013). Elimination And Prevention Of All Forms Of Violence Against Women And Girls. pp.1, 2. - Vega Montiel, A. (2011). La responsabilidad de la televisión mexicana en la erradicación de la violencia de género contra las mujeres y las niñas: apuntes de una investigación diagnóstica. In: Nueva época, 1st ed. Guadalajara: Universidad de Guadalajara, pp.43-68.


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Images

- Aramblinrose, (2016). Pag. 149. [image] Available at: https://www.instagram. com/p/BGLxx8lK6Cu/?taken-by=aramblinrose [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Arnau, E. (2016). Pag. 145. [image] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BF2eLHEK1pa/?taken-by=elizabeth.arnau [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Collins, A. (2016). Pag. 150. [image] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BF0_HhHgGBO/?taken-by=arlettycollins [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - D-Four, (2016). Pag 209, 210, 212. [image] Available at: http://artisanoption. co.uk/d-four/ [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016 - Eid, E. (2016) Pag 170, 171 . [image] - Espinosa, A. (2016). Pag 93. [image] Available at: http://www.eluniversal.com. mx/articulo/metropoli/cdmx/2016/04/24/concluye-marcha-contra-violencia-de-genero [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016 -Glitterybabes, (2016). Pag 147. [image] Available at: https://www.instagram. com/p/BFuO_iMFYXk/?taken-by=glitterybabes [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Gonzalez. M (2016). Pag 163, 164, 187, 213. [image] - Heard, A. (2016). Pag. 147, 158. [image] Available at: https://www.instagram. com/p/BE0xVpXK-3R/ [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Heard, A. (2016). Pag. 146, 162 [image] Available at: https://www.instagram. com/p/BEJyDQPq--A/ [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Heard, A. (2016). Pag. 146. 158 [image] Available at: https://www.instagram. com/p/BDaQm-EK-9h/?taken-by=amberheardbr [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Heard, A. (2016). Pag. 146. 158[image] Available at: https://www.instagram. com/p/BDaQm-EK-9h/?taken-by=amberheardbr [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - heardbr, A. (2016). Pag. 148, 158[image] Available at: https://www.instagram. com/p/BERTJT8K-7S/ [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Hijas de la violencia, (2016). Pag 91. [image] Available at: https://www.facebook.com/lashijasdeviolencia/photos/ pb.323694367779252.-2207520000.1464874896./602700583211961/?type=3&theater [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016 - Jonรกs, (2014). Pag 199. [image] Available at: https://anexosgdl.wordpress. com/2014/04/18/que-no-le-digan-que-no-le-cuenten/ [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016].


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- Kulrakumpusiri, M. (2016) Pag. 169 [image] - Krapchatova, A. (2016). Pag. 146. [image] Available at: https://www.instagram. com/p/BFugQhtCw1I/ [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Lopez, C. (2016). Image pag 88. [image] Available at: http://www.excelsior.com. mx/comunidad/2016/04/05/1084701#imagen-1 [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016 - Mantri, J. (2016). Pag 186, 187. [image] Available at: http://jaymantri.com/ post/96676844728/download [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Noroc, M. (2016). Pag. 169, 170. [image] Available at: http://theatlasofbeauty.com [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - Place it, (2016). Pag 150, 151, 152, 153. [image] Available at: https://placeit.net/iphone-mockups [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016 - Pucci, B. (2016). Pag. 146. [image] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BFwwMk6Gicz/?taken-by=lapucci92 [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. - the.couplegoals.love, (2016). Pag. 147. [image] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/BF3-mvmEz91/ [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016].


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3.3


Conclusion 229

Recognition The hard work that his thesis represents would not have been possible without the support, help and guidance I receive along the way from many different people in my life, both professionally and personally. I would like to thank my advisors Sandra Giegler and Professor Hermann Klรถckner, for the patience, mentorship and inspiration, without them this thesis would not have been completed. It has been my pleasure working with them. I reserve an especial thanks to all the female organizations that helped with my project. I want to thank all my friends for their help and advice. Especial thanks to Macarena Alamos and Veronica Rivera, for the happy times we spend together during our studies, and the mutual encouragement. I would to express a profound gratitude to my parents and all my siblings. Their endless love, support and blind faith in me keep me going through the Demian Regehr, for the amazing editing work. And for teaching me to believe in myself; without your love and support I would not been here now.


230

Quiero expresar mi más profunda gratitud a mi fa-

Gracias a mis papás por apoyar todas mis locuras y han tenido que hacer por mi bienestar les estoy eternamente agradecida. Gracias a todos mis hermanos

edición. Gracias por haberme enseñado a creer en mi

que aprecio todo lo que has hecho por mi. De corazón, mil gracias por compartir este logro conmigo.


Conclusion 231


232


Declaration I hereby declare that this is my own work and effort, and have not used sources or means without declaration in the text. Any thoughts from others or literal quotations are clearly marked. This work was not used in the same or in a similar version to achieve an academic grading or is being published elsewhere.

__________________ Place, Date

__________________ Marcela Gonzรกlez Orozco


Demystifying machismo in Mexico  

This Master Thesis project proposes a behavioral change campaign that aims to change the social norma and practices of machismo by influenci...

Demystifying machismo in Mexico  

This Master Thesis project proposes a behavioral change campaign that aims to change the social norma and practices of machismo by influenci...

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