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WET-ROPOLIS

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RETHINKING ABU DHABI’S LEARNING/ LIVING MORPHOLOGIES AT THE EASTERN MANGROVES Human beings are naturally curious, seeking opportunities to explore and discover and interact with their surroundings. However, In 2017 we’ve reached a stage where we tend to interact through social media more than we do in real life, we let out devices control our interaction and limit our perceptions. This might have happened because of advances in the technologies. However, if we look around us we might notice that our surroundings have emerged to be regular and expected, due to the building codes that limits the building heights, shapes and materials creating a mutual expectation for the spaces around and as a result, we unconsciously become less engaged with our surroundings. This research looks few miles away from the city centre and specifically at the mangroves area in Abu Dhabi, as it represents a natural environment that moves away from the predictability of the city making us more engaged with the new unexpected patterns of interaction. The eastern mangroves area houses endangered plants and living species; this makes it a huge attraction for tourists and citizens seeking to experience the interaction between natural and artificial mangroves and the surrounding conditions, textures and activities that can be done in the area. However, the fact that is eastern mangrove cornice is located beside a highway street creates a set of non-physical boundaries that limits the human interaction with the natural elements at the mangroves area. This might be a result to the huge number of visitors interested in discovering the area that is defined as a natural preserved area, which can be an ecological danger on its own. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to break the non-physical boundaries between human beings, themselves and nature and to create physical controlled connections that would contribute to creating a community that satisfies the natural curiosity and natural demand for discovering the mangroves, enhancing the touristic, communal values and economic impacts of the city of Abu Dhabi, while minimizing the danger on the preserved area and species using the latest technological advances to allow for this ecological balance while answering the following question: Can we design buildings that can fuse with the landscape blurring the edge in between; creating a sensual living/ learning experience for a self-sustainable community where human and nature would co-exist? Can architecture be the solution to the successful human/ nature relationship? Could we design buildings that would enhance the social interaction between human beings, themselves and their surroundings? This chapter will discuss in detail the problem statement, the purpose and research highlights, the proposal, the goals and objectives and the methodology for the proposed Wet-ropolis.

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PROBLEM STATEMENT The non visual boundaries between human beings and nature at the eastern mangroves area. Can architecture be the answer to the Successful Human-Nature realtionship where Human and Nature could co-exist? UAE is one of the fastest growing cities, the very dense urban fabric Abu Dhabi and the repetition of the used building technologies, create mutual expectations for the spaces surrounding us, which limits our natural sensual abilities to observe our surroundings and develop our relation with our sensual reflection. The mangroves area in Abu Dhabi is a natural environment that moves away from the predictability of the city, houses endangered plants and living species; this makes it a huge attraction for tourists and citizens. The huge number of visitors interested in discovering the area that is defined as a natural preserved area is a danger on its own. This research investigates the effect of the non-visual boundaries between human and nature at the eastern mangroves cornice. As the fact that it is located next to one of the

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The fact that it is located next to one of the busiest highway roads in Abu Dhabi makes it almost abandoned as it limits the amount of visitors for the eastern cornice. This highlights on the importance of the context for this project, which creates the non-visual boundaries between human beings and the eastern mangroves area. Therefore, this research investigates further in the idea of connectivity and the architectural meanings for establishing physical connections between human beings, allowing them to fully explore their surroundings. Opening up opportunities for their natural curiosity to guide them in learning and exploring the mangroves in the UAE and specifically in Abu Dhabi.

Figure1: the non visual boundaries between the mangroves and the eastern qurm cornice


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PURPOSE & RESEARCH STATEMENT Project’s purpose and the Research Statement This research is based on understanding all the possible impacts that the Mangroves can have on the city of Abu Dhabi. This area which is known to be one of the hidden touristic treasures of the city, serves as a huge attraction for visitors interested in discovering the conditions, textures and activities. Thus, this research looks at how architecture can become the solution for the successful human-nature interactive relationship where human and nature could co-exist resulting in full cycle community with huge touristic, communal and economic impacts on the city.

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The research statement highlights on the boundaries of interaction happening at the mangroves, and the limits of interaction between human and nature, while looking at these ways of interaction as the starting points for the proposed building. And as the mangroves area is most known for the summer water sports like kayaking, paddle, banana and donut boats the research states the importance of maintaining these interactive sports, designing for expanding these facilities, and allowing them to be the main drivers for the designed proposal, allowing the people to extend their engagement with the mangroves in the UAE and specifically in Abu Dhabi.

Figure2: The project’s purpose and the reseach’s statement


PROPOSAL

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The proposed Wet-ropolis The proposal can be called a [Wet-ropolis]; a floating structure that functions as a mini floating city that houses floating clubs for water sports that the area is most known for, along with other fun facilities, floating theatres and galleries that contribute to the learning outcomes of the proposal, located at the Mangroves / Abu Dhabi. The project aims at creating a community that satisfies the natural curiosity and natural demand for discovering the mangroves, enhancing the touristic, communal values and economic impacts of the city of Abu Dhabi, while dismissing the danger on the preserved area and species using the latest technological advances to allow for this ecological balance. The project is supposed to fuse with the landscape blurring the edge in between; creating a sensual living/ learning experience for a self-sustainable community where human and nature would co-exist.

Figure2*: showing the proposed wetropolis

The research investigates further in the architectural meanings of connectivity, aiming to connect human beings with the natural conditions happening at the area of the mangroves, in order to allow them to get away from the predictability if the city codes that limits their natural perceptions and contributes to the lack of real life communications. The proposal is based on the main problem and it aims at answering the main research questions in order to develop a coherent and effective solution that would change the way we look at the mangroves, taking it from a coastal condition, that contributes to the environmental balance at the UAE to a full experience that would allow for the interaction between human and nature to fully exist using the latest building technologies and advances for the realization of the proposal.

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GOALS & OBJECTIVES The main objective of this project is to achieve a new way of looking at the mangroves, taking it from a coastal condition that occurs at the intersection between desert and gulf wet lands to an experience that can simulate the natural curiosity and awareness of human beings; which is based on the usage of our senses in order to understand, explore and cultivate basic perceptions of the spaces surrounding us. The mangroves however, are considered to be natural preserved areas due to its rich content of natural endangered species and living organisms.

Figure3: The project’s goal & objectives

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Therefore, the main goals of this project are: -Creating a community that satisfies the natural curiosity and natural demand for discovering the mangroves -Enhancing the touristic, communal values and economic impacts of the city of Abu Dhabi, while dismissing the danger on the preserved area and species -Using the latest technological advances to allow for this ecological balance -The project is supposed to fuse with the landscape blurring the edge in between; creating a sensual living/ learning experience for a self-sustainable community where human and nature would co-exist.


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METHODOLOGY Problem definition.....

study of international solutions.....

Phase I Site analysis: The site in this research is the project’s main driver for the design of the Wet-ropolis. As the site chosen for the study and the design is the eastern mangroves area in Abu Dhabi, which is set as one of the coastal conserved areas in the UAE, making the coastal guidelines and codes an essential part to be considered in the design process, Phase II Precedent studies: This phase provides the analysis of international precedents, clarifying the different strategies for dealing with the context, the sustainable considerations, and the different strategies to deal with the context and the social impact of these precedents as well as its impact on the area.

propose a solution.......

Phase III Generic Data: The design and spaces of the Wet-ropolis is based on the Generic data extracted from Nuefert 4th edition, as well as the guidelines taken from the 2030’s coastal conservation guidelines. Phase IV user feedback and systematic observations: This phase will discuss the systematic observation for the mangroves area in Abu Dhabi and specifically in the eastern cornice, observing the human attitude towards the area and the effect of placing the highway street on the social impact of the area.

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CHAPTER 2 SITE Analysis

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SITE Analysis

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SITE

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SELECTION

2.1 SITE SELECTION CRITERIA This Chapter of the research will explain all site related considerations. And as the site is the main driver behind the design intents, as it comes as a solution to activate this site/ location; which the eastern mangroves area in Abu Dhabi is. The main highlight was to gather full information about the mangroves history in the UA, its impacts, its relation to the city of Abu Dhabi along with the environmental analysis for the specific chosen site for this research. The mangroves area in Abu Dhabi exhibits a huge amount of diverse living species, its most known for the endangered mangrove trees that

makes it a huge supporter to the environmental benefits of the mangroves, the natural elements and species of the area graps the interest of many citizens and tourists to explore This area and be able to fully interact with natural environmental surroundings. Moreover, this chapter will highlight on the origins of the mangal communities, and the implementation of the mangal conservation systems as a part of the design of the development proposed, in order to maintain the ecological balance between human beings and the natural systems of the mangroves.

Figure4: The top view of the Eastern mangroves

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2. 2

MANGROVES AREA IN THE UAE

2.2.1 Mangrove history in the UAE (formation of the mangroves)

Mangroves are an important and conspicuous component of the habitats of the United Arab Emirates, of particular significance for their associated bird communities, examined here. In other regions their significance relies on the use of the term ‘mangal’, for the community as a whole, leaving ‘mangrove’ to be used to refer to constituent plant species. This usage has been widely adopted (Tomlinson 1986). There is only one site on the Gulf of Oman coast, at Khor Kalba, all other stands are in the Arabian Gulf, most being in the coastal lagoons between Umm al-Qaiwain and Ra’s al-Khaimah, and in Abu Dhabi Emirate. Isolated patches occur in sheltered areas on some islands further offshore. Judging by the size of the trees, the community at Khor Kalba is the oldest in the country, and is the home for breeding birds found nowhere else in the UAE.

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Unlike many countries, where mangal communities are declining, their area in the UAE has increased in recent years, largely due to a major plantation programme, primarily in Abu Dhabi, although another sizeable plantation is in Khor Dubai. Partly as a result of protection in Abu Dhabi there has also been some natural expansion of mangrove areas, the community at Abu Dhabi Island’s Eastern Lagoon being one such example. Archaeological and geological evidence suggests that mangal communities were once more widespread along the Arabian Gulf coastline. A combination of geomorphological reasons (such as the natural silting of lagoons) and of anthropogenic factors (such as harvesting the wood), may have been at least partly responsible for the decline


CH2 2.2.2 Possible role mangrove can play

Despite the huge environmental role, the mangroves can have an impressive role in the economic impact of the city; the following goods and services are conservatively estimated to be worth US$186 million each year. They include: -Fisheries: Mangrove forests are home to a large variety of fish, crab, shrimp, and mollusk species. These fisheries form an essential source of food for thousands of coastal communities around the world. The forests also serve as nurseries for many fish species, including coral reef fish. -Timber and plant products: Mangrove wood is resistant to rot and insects, making it extremely valuable. Many coastal and indigenous communities rely on this wood for construction material as well as for fuel. These communities also collect medicinal plants from mangrove ecosystems and use mangrove leaves as animal fodder. Recently, the forests have also been commercially harvested for pulp, wood chip, and charcoal production.

-Coastal protection: The dense root systems of mangrove forests trap sediments flowing down rivers and off the land. This helps stabilizes the coastline and prevents erosion from waves and storms. In areas where mangroves have been cleared, coastal damage from hurricanes and typhoons is much more severe. By filtering out sediments, the forests also protect coral reefs and sea grass meadows from being smothered in sediment. -Tourism: Given the diversity of life inhabiting mangrove systems, and their proximity in many cases to other tourist attractions such as coral reefs and sandy beaches, it is perhaps surprising that only a few countries have started to tap into the tourism potential of their mangrove forests. Places as diverse as Bonaire and offer snorkelling expeditions in and around mangroves to witness a marvellous variety of baby fish, jellyfish, and urchins against a magical background of interwoven roots delving deep into the sandy substrate. Great potential exists elsewhere for revenue generation in this manner, which values the mangroves intact and as they stand

Figure5 and 6: The activities around the area of the eastern mangroves

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MANGROVES ECO ROLE Role mangroves play in UAE ecosystem: macro to micro role 2.3.1 Macro role:

2.3.2 Micro role:

Mangroves are a plantation grows mostly along the coastal or saline water. Mangrove is doing a great job in many ways at the macro level to balance the natural environment in the city of Abu Dhabi as follows:

Moving to the micro level, Abu Dhabi hosts approximately 110 km2 of both natural and planted mangroves, the advantages of these mangroves to the surrounding environment from the Mangrove Forests in Abu Dhabi are as follows:

o Absorb and balance the Carbon and Nitrogen in the air and water in the city of Abu Dhabi. o Reduce the effects of CO2 emissions from the vehicles and industries o Mangrove forests prevent the coastline erosion caused by waves and ocean currents o Contributing to lessening the impacts of climate change. o In the past in the UAE, mangrove wood was a major source of food and fuel, and was also used for building houses and ships because of its durability and high resistance to rot and termites. Which serves as an evidence for historical Abu Dhabi city and source for survival, fuel, and wood

o Maintain the biodiversity with the ecosystems and provide shelter aquatic species such as fish, sponges, crabs, shrimps, snappers, shells, turtles, and sea snakes o A habitat for birds and wildlife. Especially it’s a nest for the migrant birds who comes seasonally o Fertile are for 60 indigenous species for breeding o provide a rich natural habitat and safe breeding ground for several fish species, sea snakes, turtles and commercially important shrimp, snapper, grunt fish and sea bream. Sea birds also find safe nesting and egg laying areas in the vast mangrove forests.

Relationship between mangrove and the city: How do people interact with it? The mangroves in the UAE occurs at many emirates , while this research focuses on the mangroves in Abu Dhabi, the capital of rich United Arab Emirates that impresses worldwide tourists through world class facilities for leisure and tourism. The first and most well-known mangroves

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forest in Abu Dhabi coastal greenery area is the “Eastern Mangrove� which is the largest mangrove forest in UAE. It is located at the heart of fragile areas between Qasr Al Bahr lagoon and Mushayrib Island lagoon, covering Al Reem Island and Al Matar area.


Figure7: the mangrove trees at the UAE

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MANGROVES & THE CITY 2.3.4 Activities in the area The mangroves area in abudhabi has a very limited human interaction, as the main interactions happen within the usage of water sports, that are done mostly during the summer (April to September) as both Abu Dhabi locals and foreigners loves to involve in actives near to water fronts and Beachside. Therefore, the main activities done at the mangroves area are limited to the following: - Jet skiing - Boat tours - Fishing - Swimming - Sun bathing

- Kayaking - Snorkelling - Canoeing - Stand-up paddling.

The ideal months for the mangroves activities start from end of March till September, as the hot sunny season as in this season the tides are not high and water is shallow. Therefore it’s easy and safe during the summer season for the boat tours, beach tours and outdoor water sports in Abu Dhabi. However, even though people do enjoy the summer sports at the mangroves, the human interaction is still quite limited to these few kayak, paddle and boat trips, and people are not given the full opportunity to explore the mangroves and satisfy the natural human curiosity for learning and discovering the area.

Figure8: showing the Natural features of the site and the activities in the area

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NATURAL FEATURES 2.3.5

Natural / planted mangroves

1. Natural mangroves

2. Planted mangroves

In the UAE, only one mangrove species occurs naturally, Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.. Three other species have been introduced or reintroduced in small numbers into the intertidal zone in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.

Three mangrove species have been introduced or reintroduced into the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. These are:

Mangroves in the UAE are naturally formed of: monospecific stands of a marina. In certain areas, the trees are associated with Salicornia europaea, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda vermiculata, all being saltmarsh species occupying an ecological zone slightly higher above chart-datum than mangrove.

-Conocarpus sp. (three specimens introduced, known as back-mangrove; Conocarpus is not a true mangrove, lacking aerial roots, and naturally occurring just above the high-tide line) -Laguncularia racemosa (three specimens introduced) -Rhizophora mucronata. Approximately 100 specimens of Rhizophora were introduced in 1984 to Mubarraz Island, and four specimens of Rhizophora sp.

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HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT The historical tracking for the Site shows that the site at 1963 had more land than wetland, and when compared with the timeline over the years till 2017 we can notice that the wet to dry land ration is increasing and the water levels are increasing and therefore, an expectation of the water levels increase percentage will support the research intents to build on water, based on another supporting factor which is the natural water conditions and the futuristic wet land visions that assures the water raising patterns.

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Figure9: the historical development of the Site


TOPOGRAPHY & CONTOURS

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This Diagram shows the topography of the area at the different sites, site 1 and site two shown in the figure, the topography of the area is stable at the land and it extends to form the base of the wetland, which is the base of the mangroves.

Site 1

Site 2

Figure10: the topography of two sites at the area; showing the transition in the level from land to the base of the wet land.

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SITE & PLOT BOUNADRIES 2.3.6 SITE AREA The overall site area of the wet land infront of the Qurm corniche = 234, 907 sqm

2.3.7 PLOT AREA The plot area which is the central area where the Wet-ropolis will be located = 140, 500 sqm

2.3.8 SITE ACESSIBILTY The site is accessible through one bus parking that allows for the car to enter the plot facing the wet-land that the Wet-ropolis will be located at.

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Figure11, 12, 13: showing the site & plot areas and the site acessibility


TRANSPORTATION ROOTS

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2.3.9 Transportation roots: The mangroves area in Abu Dhabi occurs at many sites around the area, the site that was selected is located at an edge, in order to assure the ease of accessibility, bring it closer to users of the highway street and create a soft transition between the street and the cornice to the proposed Wet-ropolis. The site of the project will be the wetland surrounded by the mangroves, forest from all sides. The transportation roots surrounding the area, are considered to be a main driver for the design of the proposed Wet-ropolis as the existence of the main road (high way road) next to the mangroves is a main creator for the Non-Visual boundaries that were mentioned in chapter 1 under the problem statement. Therefore a study for the transportation roots was essential for understanding the relation between the wetland, the mangroves and the limited social interaction in the area. In the figure below the main transportation roots are in orange and the secondary roots are in green showing the relation between the transportation roots in Abu Dhabi.

Figure14: showing the site transportation roots the primary and the secondary

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REGULATIONS & BUILDING REQUIREMNTS The regulation and building codes set for the The mangroves area in Abu Dhabi come as a result of the careful considerations from the governmental agencies. The building requirements are exhibited at the governmental plans for abudhabi 2030, as it shows that the mangroves area is divided into 4 main areas: -protected/ proposed protected area and national parks -Coastal parks and ecological hotspots

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Figure15: showing the coastal lagoons considered for the plans of Abu Dhabi 2030


ZONING

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The mangroves area is considered to be a natural conserved area, and it is gaining a huge amount of research from the environmental governments in Abu Dhabi. Therefore, the environmental governments at the UAE are conducting some massive plans for developing the Mangrove’s area in Abu Dhabi as one of the main coastal parks to be developed at the plans of Abu Dhabi 2030.

Figure16: Showing the zoning of the site at the plans for Abu Dhabi 2030

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SUN ANALYSIS The Diagrams show the sun/ temperature variations in the site located at the mangroves.

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Figure16: Showing the Sun and temperature analysis of the site during a month


WIND ANALYSIS

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The wind analysis for the site showing the wind speed of 2km/ hr- 14 km/ hr and the wind direction of a full circle in June. It also shows the wind variations for the site.

Figure17: Showing the wind analysis of the site during a month

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INTERACTION BOUNDARIES Interaction between human beings and the mangroves area in Abu Dhabi is limited and the boundaries are clear, the map shown in the figure xx exhibits the clear line/ boundaries that ends at the eastern mangroves cornice; known as the ‘qurm’ cornice, and as the interaction stops there the cornice is almost left behind with a very minimum amount of clear human interaction. Moreover, these boundaries that are created for ecological reasons are framed by the usage of the highway street, as the high speed limit for the street act as a non-physical yet effective boundary.

The figure below shows the last line if interaction between the cornice and the human beings in the area of the eastern mangroves.

And as this creates a non-visual barrier, and the resulting spaces at the cornice like; the walkways, the family pavilions and the urban seats are all almost abandoned and people are losing interest in this area as a result. While this area can have huge impacts on the economic, social and interactive values of the city Abu Dhabi if it was properly treated.

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Figure18: showing the interaction boundaries and the landmarks of the site


LANDMARKS As the interaction around the area is quite limited, the landmarks surrounding the site aren’t so many and they are considered distant from the location, the main landmarks are: -Anantara Eastern mangroves hotel: which is the closest to the mangroves area and is considered as one of the main landmarks in the area.

CH2 -Albahr towers: are office based towers that exhibit innovative enviromental Considerations in thier architectural langauge. -Dusit Thani hotel: is another hotel that surrounds the area. However al Bahr towers as well as the Dusit Thani hotel are considered to be distant from the site and research’s focused location.

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CHAPTER 3 PRECEDENT STUDIES

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PRECEDENT STUDIES This Chapter of the research, Investigates the international precedents that are related to the proposed wet-ropolis, the investigatory approach is based on three main areas of knowledge that were required in order to get a better understanding for the possibilities and relations possible and for the analysis of the project. The three areas are: the historical approaches to building on water, the present examples of projects built on water and that exhibit the soul of the successful human-nature relationship and the futuristic proposals that contribute to understanding the latest technologies that can be used at sensitive areas like the mangroves. The precedents were specifically chosen based on the brief of the project which is a collected program of: A Kayak club, Floating cinema, Galleries & exhibition halls, Temporary living units, Walkways and floating pathways, Retail, Food Farm & an Oxygenator.

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Figure19: showing the precedents studied

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PRECEDENTS OVERVIEW Floating Kayak Club Architects: FORCE4 Architects Location: Vejle Fjord, Denmark

Floating Houses in IJburg Architects : Architectenbureau Marlies Rohmer Location : Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Floating Pavilion Rotterdam Architects : Deltasync and PublicDomain Architects, Location : Rotterdam, The netherlands

Floating Pavilion Architects : MIT architect Carlo Ratt Location : Manatee Lagoon on North Flagler

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CH3 Floating City of Bangkok, Wetropolis Architects : Courtesy of S+PBA Location : Bangkock, Thailand

American Wind Symphony Architects : Louis Kahn Location : America’s waterways

Archipelago Cinema Architects: Buro Ole Scheeren + Film on the Rocks Yao Noi Foundation Location: Ko Kudu Noi, Tailandia

The mangrove Tower Evolo Architects : Jaakko Kallio-Koski, Toni Österlund, Joose Mykkänen Location: Finland

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PRECEDENTS OVERVIEW 3.2.1

Reasons of selection 1. Floating Kayak Club Architects: FORCE4 Architects Location: Vejle Fjord, Denmark Area: 500.0 sqm Project Year: 2015

Figure20: the entrance to the floating kayak club This project was chosen because of its high compatibility with the spirit of the proposed development. The project is a kayak club that exhibits innovative and inspiring ways of dealing with a variety of water sports. This makes it an important reference to dealing with the water sports, which the mangroves area in Abu Dhabi is most known for. It further exhibits how such activities can contribute to the design and shape the exterior and the interior spaces in order to achieve the required level of interaction where the human-nature relation is taken into a new level of interaction with a water sport like kayaking.

2. Floating Houses in IJburg Architects : Architectenbureau Location : Amsterdam, The Netherlands Area : 10652.0 sqm Project Year: 2011

Figure21: the Floating Houses in IJburg The floating houses in ijburg is a development that was chosen as a modern example of floating living communities, that is considered to be a successful example with high levels of human-nature interactive relationship. It shows the concept of creating a “hybrid� that is a combination between a boat and a home, with all architectural details from conception to construction and delivery, creating an important reference to the design of the temporary living units .

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CH3 3.2.1

Reasons of selection 3. Floating City of Bangkok, Wetropolis community Architects : Courtesy of S+PBA Location : Bangkock, Thailand Project Year: Proposal/2016

Figure22: the Floating City of Bangkok, Wetropolis community Floating City of Bangkok, Wetropolis community This project, even though the large difference in scale and purpose that is proposed in this research. However, it displays innovative ways of dealing with the endangered areas, creating a suitable reference for establishing the human-nature relation that is based on the co-existence between the living species. Therefore, this project was chosen based on the technologies, solutions and ways of addressing this relation. 4. Archipelago Cinema Architects: Buro Ole Scheeren + Film on the Rocks Yao Noi Foundation Location: Ko Kudu Noi, Tailandia

Figure23: Archiplago cinema This design highlighted the role the context can play in the human perception towards movies. The project was chosen as a reference for the communal cinema area proposed in the program of the Wet-ropolis. Furthermore, this precedent was studied with further analysis of technologies used for building on water, materiality considerations as well as functional challenges that a floating cinema might face.

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PRECEDENTS OVERVIEW 3.2.1

Reasons of selection 5. “American Wind Symphony” Architects : Louis Kahn Location : America’s waterways Project Year: 1976

Figure24: the american wind symphony This precedent is a historical reference to building floating structures with communal functions; it provides a historical platform to the beginning of using architecture to achieve the spirit of the human-nature relation, and it was chosen in order to understand the architectural elements that were used in order to bring music and art to the people using the most basic structural solutions that were available back at the time with very limited building technologies.

6. The mangrove Tower Evolo Architects : Jaakko Kallio-Koski, Toni Österlund, Joose Mykkänen Location: Finland Evolo competition Entry 2016

Figure25: the mangrove tower This precedent is a futuristic proposal for a mangrove tower, it was chosen as a precedent for the water oxygenator & water convertor.as it provides a reference to the technological advances that can be used in order to convert the negative impact of the humans into a positive one. A very similar technology will be used in the proposed Wet-ropolis. and therefore, this project is a very helpful example to be exhibited in this chapter.

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Figure19: showing the precedents studied

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Floating Kayak Club

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Figure26 : the entrance to the floating kayak club

3.3.1

Type of building (specific function)

This precedent is a floating Kayak club that functions as a hub for kayak lovers, allowing them to communicate, socialize and have fun playing their favourite sport, while creating a community and spreading the feeling of a club.

3.3.2

Reason for project choice

This project was chosen because of its high compatibility with the spirit of the proposed development. The project is a kayak club that exhibits innovative and inspiring ways of dealing with a variety of water sports. This makes it an important reference to dealing with the water sports, which the mangroves area in Abu Dhabi is most known for. It further exhibits how such activities can contribute to the design and shape the exterior and the interior spaces in order to achieve the required level of interaction where the human-nature relation is taken into a new level of interaction with a water sport like kayaking.

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GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS 3.3.3

Site & location

The project is located in the Denmark, The project is part of a large plan to transform Vejle harbor into a more interactive area. The Floating Kayak Club is one of the first buildings to mark the start of a large refurbishment plan and city development towards the fjord.

Figure27 :Site and location diagrams showing the site placement

3.3.4

Architectural repondance to the context

The Floating Kayak Club is located on the water pulled away from the shore, which highlights the building as a sculptural object and focuses on kayaking as an outdoor water sport.� As the building floats, the relationship between the building and the water is so close that the user gets the full experience of practicing the sport in its true environment�

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Figure28 : The floating kayak club in its context


CH3 3.3.5

Design concept:

The design concept is taken from the surrounding context; the textures, colours, materials and activities. The designer has translated his vision towards the interactive requirements at Vejle harbour through the use of spaces in manner that would encourage social interaction with kayaking as a water sport. Therefore, the architectural language is a very simple. The scheme consists of two volumes, one dedicated to the users, the other to the kayaks, which creates a courtyard surrounding a central water space angled to give the users full advantage of the direct sailing route into the fjord. The central water space strengthens the community and supports a ‘club-feeling’.

Figure29: the design concept diagram for the floating kayak club

Figure30: a render and an exploded diagram showing the layers of the project

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GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS The kayak club is a building that aims at creating a community and supports a ‘club-feeling’. Its main geometry is based on two volumes, one dedicated to the users, the other to the kayaks, creates a courtyard surrounding a central water space angled to give the users full advantage of the direct sailing route into the fjord. The central water space strengthens the community and supports a ‘club-feeling’.

Figure31: view from the roof to the inner kayak court The Floating Kayak Club is located on the water pulled away from the shore, which highlights the building as a sculptural object and focuses on kayaking as an outdoor water sport.” As the building floats, the relationship between the building and the water is so close that the user gets the full experience of practicing the sport in its true environment”

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Figure32: view from the roof to the inner kayak court


CH3 3.3.6

Plans &zoning:

Figure33: Ground Floor plan

Figure34: Roof plan

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PROGRAM LAYOUT 3.3.7

Program

The program is supposed to activate the vejle harbor by accommodating facilities that supports the idea of social interaction between the spaces, creating a club feeling and intimacy between the spaces, the water sport, the users and the surroundings. Therefore, the program consists of: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Outdoor kayakers prep area Entrance/ drop off Kayak’s Storage Cafe and Kitchen Lockers and Changing rooms Terrace (communal space) &Stairs & communal spaces Indoor kayak club

Figure35: the program layout table

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Figure36: the program layout chart


ZONING & STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 3.3.8

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Section, zoning & structural analysis

Section & zoning

Figure36: the program layout chart This project is an example of using the floating slab on grade in a small scale development; it further shows the use of the insulation materials at the floating supports. Therefore, the positioning that is based on the geometry of the plan,

Section & zoning

Figure37: Detail of the floating slab on grade

Figure38: Details of the I beams used at the design

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CIRCULATION 3.3.9

Zoning & Circulation

Elevation & zoning

Figure39: Elevation of the floating kayak club showing the social impacts of the architecture of the building. Circulation study The circulation systems in the project are integrated as part of the design; the vertical circulation is based on using sloped surfaces that allow for the social interaction between the users. While the horizontal circulation pathways are divided between the two main masses; one allowing for the passage of the kayaks, taking in consideration the kayak dimensions and measurements, the second one is based on the movements expected from the kayakers and users of the club.

Vertical circulation through sloped surfaces

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Horizontal circulation roots

Figure40: showing the circulation systems in the project

Horizontal circulation roots


CH3

Figure42: showing the exterior of the building

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Floating Houses in IJburg

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Figure43: The floating houses in IJburj

3.4.1

Type of building (specific function)

This project is a floating housing development that houses 18,000 residential units housing 45,0000 people. The units are of different scales based on the different special requirements for the different users. These floating dwellings form part of an urban design, Besides floating homes, they may include amphibious homes and homes that stand free of the water on mounds, dykes or other waterside situations, and it focuses on the social impacts that floating communities can have.

3.4.2

Reason for project choice

The floating houses in ijburg is a development that was chosen as a modern example of floating living communities, that is considered to be a successful example with high levels of human-nature interactive relationship. It shows the concept of creating a “hybrid� that is a combination between a boat and a home, with all architectural details from conception to construction and delivery, creating an important reference to the design of the temporary living unit

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GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS 3.4.3

Site & location

The Netherlands has a history of living close to water. That means living on land protected by dams, on mounts, on shore or floating. Recently floating homes been eligible as a significant solution to Holland’s modern housing needs. Waterbuurt is part of the IJburg neighbourhood and is located on ‘Steigereiland’ (Jetty Island) which forms IJburg’s main access route via the Enneus Heerma Bridge. The neighbourhood has 75 (93, according to Financial Times) individual floating houses moored around slender jetties like house boats.

Figure44: The site view of the floating houses in IJburj

3.4.4

Context

The context shows the surrounding buildings, nature, textures and topography. The buildings surrounding the development seems to still have a close relation to water, as most of them are either facing or overlooking water. This highlights on the importance of human-nature relation and the high interactive impacts that this relation can have.

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Figure45: the surrounding context


CH3 3.4.5

Design concept:

The Netherlands have an extensive history with floods, leaving people living “close to the edge” as the land is partially protected by dikes, on mounds, on shore or now, even floating. The concept was to challenge the flooding dangers surrounding the Netherlands by using the recent technology advancements for the design and construction of floating homes. The aesthetics are kept simple in order to highlight on the functional role of the dwellings, yet the design focuses on reflecting the beauty of the surrounding environment using glass facades that allow for maximum views and a complete interior floating experience.

Figure46: 3D model of the houses

3.4.6

Social impact:

TThe water-based development incorporates a number of forms of living and interacting with water. It focuses on the level of human joy and comfort within the natural boundaries, and allows the natural curiosity for the human beings to be explored in its best environment. The architects did focus on the social impact it can have and the different possibilities that can result from living on water. “Is it a boat or a house? Is it romantic or utilitarian? It’s a hybrid. It’s not what it appears to be”

`

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GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS 3.4.7

Plans , Sections & zoning

The site plan shows the main division of the units that are divided around 5 main aisles, ach accommodating single, double and triple units.

- Site plan

Figure48: The site plan - Plans, sections & zoning The plans shows an example for the 3 residential units encountered within the development: 1 unit (1 or 2 bedroom s vertical unit) 2 units (2 or 3 bedrooms vertical unit) 3 units (3 or 4 Bedrooms vertical unit)

Single unit

Double unit

Triple unit

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Figure49: the modules for single double and triple units


CIRCULATION

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3.4.8 Circulation Study The site plan shows the main division of the units that are divided around 5 main aisles, ach accommodating single, double and triple units.

Structural analysis The structure of the residential units is reflected on the design of the faced, as it consists of a concrete block resting on aluminium with half a story protruding from the water and a lightweight timber frame that embraces the structure. The houses are then attached in place on top of two steel mooring poles which enable the house to alter up and down corresponding with the depths of the water instead of the complete resistance that may lead to the rapid collapse.

Figure50: Exploded ISO of the houses

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PROGRAM LAYOUT 3.4.9

Program

The program consists of a diverse range of residential units designed as part of a larger floating housing development that houses 18,000 residential units housing 45,0000 people. The units are of different scales based on the different special requirements for the different users. The units for this development are divided into 3 main categories; single, double and triple units. The total number of units is 90 units divided as follows: 1. 2. 3.

14 units of the single unit module (1 or 2 bedroom s vertical unit) 15 units of the double unit module (2 or 3 bedrooms vertical unit) 7 units of the triple unit module (3 or 4 Bedrooms vertical unit)

Figure51: the program layout table

Program Layout

Pie Chart of the program layout

Figure52: the program layout chart

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Figure 53: Render of the roof terraces

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Archipelago Cinema

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figure 55: Archiplago cinema

3.5.1

Type of building (specific function)

The project is floating cinema that investigates the human-nature relation and the possible relations it can have with movies, on a platform where nature and film sceneries would merge resulting in a more engaging experience for movie lovers.

3.5.2

Reason for project choice

This design highlights on the role the context can play in the human perception towards movies. The project was chosen as a reference for the communal cinema area proposed in the program of the Wet-ropolis. Furthermore, this precedent was studied with further analysis of technologies used for building on water, materiality considerations as well as functional challenges that a floating cinema might face.

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GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS 3.5.3

Site & location

The project is located at a glowing raft in the middle of the waters of Nai Pi Lae lagoon on Kudu Island. Surrounded by a dramatic landscape of towering rocks emerging from the ocean, the audience experienced an atmospheric convergence of nature and cinematic narratives – primordial notions of light, sound and stories suspended in the darkness between sea and sky.

Figure 55: Archiplago cinema top perspective

3.5.4

Context

The context shows the surrounding buildings, nature, textures and topography. The buildings surrounding the development seem to still have a close relation to water, as most of them are either facing or overlooking water. This highlights on the importance of human-nature relation and the high interactive impacts that this relation can have.

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Figure 55: Archiplago cinema top perspective


CH3 3.5.5

Design concept:

The concept is based on the combination of the floating platforms of cinema setting, dj bar, food bar as well as VIP bar, where the architecture remains simple and complementing to the fun of the functions inside.

figure 58: Archiplago cinema diagrams

3.5.6

Social impact:

The floating cinema is supposed to have the element of surprise as described by the architect it is “A screen, nestled somewhere between the rocks. And the audience… floating… hovering above the sea, somewhere in the middle of this incredible space of the lagoon, focused on the moving images across the water: A sense of temporality, randomness, almost like driftwood. Or maybe something more architectural: Modular pieces, loosely assembled, like a group of little islands that congregate to form an auditorium”

Figure 59: Archiplago cinema at night

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GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS 3.5.7

Plan, section & zoning Plans & zoning

Figure 60: Ground floor plan Sections & zoning

Figure 61: Elevations

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CIRCULATION 3.5.8 Circulation Study Horizontal Circulation

figure 62: horizontal circulation

3.5.9 Structural analysis & construction phases The structure of the cinema is based on the use of floating Support elements under each platform (cinema base floor) in order to distribute the loads in a horizontal manner, the supports shown in this example shows the use of multiple local supports instead of a single main support for the structure. The construction of the cinema was done in the simplest way due to its simple architectural language. This made the construction duration itself an engaging phase for the workers constructing the cinema.

Figure 63: construction of the cinema

Figure 64: Detail of the supports

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PROGRAM LAYOUT 3.5.9

Program

The project is a floating cinema that aims delivering pleasurable experiences full of fun throughout the different functions involved in the program, therefore, the functions included in the program are: 1. 2. 3. 4.

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Cinema platforms with seats (bean bags) Music bar Food and beverages bar VIP Cinema seats


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Figure 57: Archiplago cinema top perspective

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Floating City of Bangkok

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figure 64: the floating city of bangkok

3.6.1

Type of building (specific function)

The project is an Urban Development ‘Water world-style city’ that can thrive with the ebb and flow of rising tides. The main function of this project to enable Bangkok to live with natural flooding, instead of resisting it while creating a homeostasis that detoxifies the region’s polluted waters. Therefore, the program encounters an urban structure that allows for a new way of living in the water, alternating the land living with water based city that has everything that is required for permanent living.

3.6.2

Reason for project choice

This project, even though the large difference in scale and purpose that is proposed in this research. However, it displays innovative ways of dealing with the endangered areas, creating a suitable reference for establishing the human-nature relation that is based on the co-existence between the living species. Therefore, this project was chosen based on the technologies, solutions and ways of addressing this relation.

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GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS 3.6.3

Site & location

City of Bangkok is quickly sinking as it is eroded each year by floods of seawater that invade the city. Universal studies declare that most of the city will become marshes by 2050. The rise steeply population along with the architectural development of the city has caused the underground foundations to become over exhausted, making them weaker and unable to safely stand the flood waters The city is surrounded by polluted water fields, left over from the once burgeoning shrimp farm industry. .

Figure 65: the floating city of Bangkok in its context

3.6.4

Design concept:

Figure 66: Conceptual diagrams

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CH3 3.5.5

Design concept:

The design concept of the project is inspired by the surrounding natural features of the mangroves at the city of Bangkok. The project is featured by its fluid architectural language that is designed to mimic the roots of the naturally growing plants at the mangroves giving the structure the required strength for maximum stability while maintain a high level of openness for the social integration between the users.

Figure 67: Conceptual render showing the design intent

3.5.6

Social impact:

“The community will live over the water fields in a system of interrelated homes, walkways, and roads, with curvy lines that follow the swelling water below�

Figure 68: showing the experience at the walkways

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GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS The project examines the entirely supra-marine stilt home community of Koh Pan Yii, a settlement that floats on the Andaman sea in Southern Thailand, successfully sustaining all of the typical functions of an urban community—schools, public spaces, hospitals, utilities, industry. The exploded diagram illustrates the different layers that each basic module consists of, these modules are then joined Through connections that are performing as supports to the urban bridge as well as a roof to the multi-functional masses underneath it. .

Figure 69: 3D section of the project

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CH3 3.5.7

Structural analysis

The structure of the urban bridge consists of three main divisions, which displays innovative ways of dealing with the endangered areas which contributes in establishing the human-nature relation that is based on the co-existence between the living species.

3.5.8 1. 2. 3.

Structural layers

Elementary structural elements Secondary structural elements Connections between the elements

The structure in this project plays a main role in the social communal visions that the project envisions, as it allows for the long span stability, while giving the masses underneath the stability that is required for accommodating a diverse range of facilities for the diverse users.

Figure 70: structural exploded ISO showing the structural layers

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PROGRAM LAYOUT 3.5.9

Program

The program is supposed to relocate the city of Bangkok, with all urban facilities, transportation links and connections required for the sustainable permanent living experience required for the occupants.

1. Permanent living units (housing units) 2. Transportation links 3. Hospital 4. Fun purposes (library, museum and cultural hubs) 5. Educational campus 6. Food farms 7. Biking roots and water taxis 8. Fishing facilities

Figure 71: Program Layout table

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Figure 72: Program Layout chart


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Figure 74: Top perspective render

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CHAPTER 4 GENERIC DATA

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GENERIC DATA

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DATA

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SELECTION

4.1 DATA SELECTION CRITERIA This Chapter of the research, will explain all the generic data used as a reference for the design of the proposed Wet-ropolis, taking the reference from the generic data books to develop a better understanding for the spaces inside the proposed wet-ropolis. This chapter is divided into five main categories that are based on the proposed program set for the project, and these categories are: the data base for the design of the kayak club, the floating cinema, the temporary living units, the natural museum, the temporary living units, and the supporting facilities like the offices, administrations, food farm and other supporting facilities. Each one of these categories is then re divided into sub-categories that are related to the main use and the main elements of the space. Creating a reference to the possibilities of the elements that can be included in the design as well as the variations and international dimensions for these spaces.

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KAYAK

CLUB

4.2.1 Kayak Club & water sports The kayak club is one of the most dominant parts of the brief, due to its high compatibility with the main social activities around the area. Its existence will enlarge the interaction within the mangroves and create an architectural medium between the water sports and the area. Therefore, a kayak club was included as a main element in the brief, with multi-functional facilities that will allow for this social interaction to be fun, safe and controlled. Kayak Club sub-elements: • Outdoor area and kayak drop off • kayak preparation area (sailing & marina) • Kayaks storage • Lockers & Changing rooms

figure 75: floating kayak club Outdoor area and kayak drop off

Kayak preparation area (Sailing & marina) guidelines: Harbour types: 1. Built into the sea 2. Built into artificial/ natural land 3. Harbour access by canal 4. Harbour with a canal to the sea

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Figure 76: layout example of sports club

Figure 77: types and dimensions of boats and marine examples


CH4 Kayaks storage

Lockers & Changing rooms

Rowing/ water sports and recreation guidelines: Water vehicles types and dimensions: 1. Racing shell 2. Racing skiff 3. Touring skiff 4. Seagoing gig 5. Bark 6. Kayak 7. Canoe

Number of changing rooms and lockers 1. 40 lockers 2. 40 changing rooms

Figure 78: examples of kayak storage Figure 80: types and dimensions of lockers & changing rooms

Figure 79: types and dimensions of kayaks

Figure 81: types and dimensions of lockers & changing rooms

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FLOATING CINEMA A floating cinema is incorporated within the brief, due to the high impacts it can have on the level of enjoyment of the place. Creating a more “Fun” atmosphere and bringing the nature to the cinema culture at the UAE, incorporating culture, art, traditions and history with the mangroves. Floating Cinema sub-elements: • • • •

Cinema seating VIP cinema seating Music and DJ bar Food & beverages bar

1.

Cinema seating

Figure 81: Floating cinema

Seating Dimensions:

figure 83: Seating layout

Figure 82: types and dimensions of indoor theatre/ cinema seating Seating Dimensions:

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Figure 84: Display dimensions


CH4 1.

Food & Beverages (Available in the Cinema & Kayak club)

Figure 85: Seating Dimensions:

Figure 87: Table arrangements • • • • •

Diagonal table arrangement Minimal table arrangement Minimal seating layout Alcoves arrangement Parallel table arrangement

Figure 86: Seating Dimensions:

Figure 87: Food & Beverages components, subcomponents layout;

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NATURAL MUSEUM The museum area was incorporated in order to emphasize on the learning outcomes expected from the program where learning by exploring Is the main highlight. It’s supposed to contribute to the concept of “fun” and social interaction while spreading awareness about the history of the mangroves, social and ecological impacts on the UAE, and to highlight on the diversity of the habitats around the area in an innovative way that would contribute to the total level of fun in the floating [Wet-ropolis] Natural museum sub-elements: • Galleries • Theatre • Exhibition area • Storage

Figure 85: The Louvre Abu Dhabi 1.

Galleries guidelines:

Number of Floating galleries: 1. Mangroves between past and present gallery 2. Preserved habitat pods/ walk in galley 3. Floating observation gallery

Figure 87: Natural/ artificial lighting guidelines:

Figure 86: The Louvre Abu Dhabi

Figure 88: Natural/ artificial lighting guidelines:

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Field of vision and human eye adaptation guidelines:


CH4 2.

Theatre guidelines:

In the project brief, a theatre is included as a part of the learning outcomes that the program is supposed to have; it would serve as a hall where education and fun come along. The program proposes that the theatre would be floating on the water of the mangroves with an overhead enclosure. These are some of the guidelines that must be satisfied for the design of a successful theatre:

Figure 89: Types of theatre seating

Figure 90: seating height and dimensions

Figure 91: Types of theatre seating

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TEMPORARY LIVING UNITS The integration of the temporary living units is based on the initial visions for the overall experience, where human being are welcomed to feel and experience the mangroves while discovering the conditions, textures, colours and smells of the place. Therefore, an amount of 30 diverse temporary living units will be opening for the visitors in order to have this opportunity and be able to enjoy the surrounding. Temporary living units sub-elements: • Single unit (day use) • Double unit (overnight accommodation) • Triple unit (overnight accommodation) • Services core Seating Dimensions:

Figure 93: data for residential units

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Figure 92: Floating houses of IJburj


CH4 Seating Dimensions:

• • • •

Single unit (day use) Double unit (overnight accommodation) Triple unit (overnight accommodation) Services core

Figure 94: modelling of the residential units

Figure 95: 3D model of the floating houses of Ijurj

Figure 95: room positioning guidelines Figure 96: room orientation guidelines

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SUPPORTING FACILITIES Administration & offices: Possible layout solutions: • One row layout • Double row layout • Three row layout • Layout with a corridor

Figure 97: Water view offices

Figure 98: Typical office distribution

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Figure 98: offices distribution open/ enclosed

Figure 99: section of the typical offices distribution


CH4 Building for their “Special needs� Designing an environment for disabled people needs to be designed to accommodate wheelchairs and allow sufficient space for moving around in safety. Therefore, these are the dimensions and area requirements for doors, openings, corridor widths, switches, handles and left controls.

Figure 102: Designing for handicapped

Figure 100: Handicapped dimensions and guidelines

Figure 101: wheel chair dimensions

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CHAPTER 5 Budget Estimation

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PROGRAM 5.1 COST ESTIMATION PROCESS This chapter will discuss the budget related analysis, based on the latest statistics and the average construction cost in Abu Dhabi at the area of the mangroves Abu Dhabi. 5.2 COST TARGET According to the last statistics by the statistics centre - Abu Dhabi the price evaluated for the average construction cost as per square meter in the emirate of Abu Dhabi is between 2,900 and 3,725 depending on the total built area, as well as the materials used and the building type. Taking all the above in consideration, the proposed Wet-ropolis that will occupy around 20,000 m2 of the wet area in the eastern mangroves, where one meter of building on land = a minimum of 2,900 the wetland estimation will be multiplied x 2 for the increased building costs for building on water. Therefore the estimated budget for the proposed Wet-ropolis is 180, 000, 000 AED not including the high technical parts like the oxygenator and the water converting systems. 5.3 FINANCING THE PROJECT The client for the proposed Wet-ropolis is assumed to be one of Abu Dhabi’s Enviromental Agencies, like the Environment Agency Abu Dhabi ‘EAD’ or Abu Dhabi Global Environmental Data Initiative (AGEDI)

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CH5

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CHAPTER 6 PROGRAM

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PROGRAM

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WET-ROPOLIS

CH6

RETHINKING ABU DHABI’S LEARNING/ LIVING MORPHOLOGIES AT THE EASTERN MANGROVES 5.1 Introduction & description for the program The proposal is a floating city with a multifunctional program that encounters learning related functions as well as communal interactive functions based on the population of the water activities around the eastern Mangroves area/ Abu Dhabi. Moreover, this research is based on understanding all the possible impacts that the Mangroves can have on the city of Abu Dhabi. This area which was described by an Emirati poet as one of the hidden touristic treasures of the city, serves as a huge attraction for visitors interested in discovering the conditions, textures, water activities and sports. Thus, this research looks at how architecture can become the solution for the successful human-nature interactive relationship breaking all the boundaries in between,

Where human and nature could co-exist resulting in full cycle community with huge touristic, communal and economic impacts on the city. Many precedents where analysed for the purpose of understanding the dimensionality of the possibilities and potentials related to the concept, the precedents where studied based on three main areas of knowledge in this research, the historical approaches towards building on water and its communal values on societies all around the world, recent approaches for building on water with all studies for the structural, material, communal, programmatic as well as special qualities, and on the futuristic approaches and visions that are based on the latest technological advances and their possible applications in close scale buildings.

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PROGRAM

Figure 102: program spaces and their type: open/ enclosed/ semi enclosed/

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PROGRAM

Figure 103: program spaces and their estimated area

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PROGRAM

Figure 104: program spaces, their estimated area and their privacy category (open, enclosed, semi enclosed)

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PROGRAM MATRIX

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Figure 105: General program Matrix


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Figure 106-: Detailed program Matrix

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Figure 107-: Detailed program spaces, privacy category, NSM, and Total NSM

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NETWORK DIAGRAM

WET-ROPOLIS Is a floating structure that functions as a city, it is located at the Mangroves / Abu Dhabi. The project aims at creating a community that satisfies the natural curiosity and natural demand for discovering the mangroves, enhancing the touristic, communal values and economic impacts, while dismissing the danger on the preserved area and species; it’s supposed to fuse with the landscape blurring the edge in between, creat

ing a sensual living experience for a self-sustainable community where human and nature co-exist. The program will house temporary living units, floating theater, observation galleries, a natural museum food farms, water convertor and an oxygenator. The project will accommodate walkways with visitor’s paths for bicycles, boats and other vehicles.

Figure 108: Network diagram showing the main components sub components

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Figure 109: Network diagrams showing the main components sub components

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BUBBLE DIAGRAM & MATRIX 5.6.1

General bubble diagram & matrix

Figure 110: General bubble diagram Main components: Lobby & reception Kayak club Changing rooms & lockers Kayak drop-off/ outdoor club Cinema seats Music and DJ bar Food & beverages bar/ cafeteria Retail 7 memorabilia store Permanent galleries Temporary exhibitions Workshops Storage Floating theatre Storage & backstage rooms Food farm Oxygenator and water convertor Living units (day use) Living units (overnight accommodation) Private retail Administration and offices

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Figure 111: General Matrix


CH6 5.6.2 Kayak club bubble diagram & matrix The kayak club is one of the most dominant parts of the brief, due to its high compatibility with the main social activities around the area. Its existence will enlarge the interaction within the mangroves and create an architectural medium between the water sports and the area. Therefore, a kayak club was included as a main element in the brief, with multi-functional facilities that will allow for this social interaction to be fun, safe and controlled

Figure 112: Kayak club bubble diagram

Main components: Outdoor kayak club and drop off area Kayak prep area Kayak storage Indoor kayak club Changing rooms & lockers Public retail

Figure 113:kayak club Matrix

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BUBBLE DIAGRAM & MATRIX 5.6.3

Floating cinema bubble diagram & matrix:

A floating cinema is incorporated within the brief, due to the high impacts it can have on the level of enjoyment of the place. Creating a more “Fun� atmosphere and bringing the nature to the cinema culture at the UAE, incorporating culture, art, traditions and history with the mangroves

Figure 114: bubble diagram for the floating cinema

Main components: Cinema seating Music & DJ bar Food & beverages VIP cinema seats Display area

Figure 111: floating cinema Matrix

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CH6 5.6.4 Natural museum bubble diagram & matrix: The museum area was incorporated in order to emphasize on the learning outcomes expected from the program where learning by exploring Is the main highlight. It’s supposed to contribute to the concept of “fun” and social interaction while spreading awareness about the history of the mangroves, social and ecological impacts on the UAE, and to highlight on the diversity of the habitats around the area in an innovative way that would contribute to the total level of fun in the floating [Wet-ropolis]

Figure 115: Bubble diagram for the natural museum

Main components: Permanent gallery Temporary exhibitions Storage Workshops Public retail Theatre Storage & backstage

Figure 113: Natural museum Matrix

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BUBBLE DIAGRAM & MATRIX 5.6.5

Temporary living units & facilities bubble diagram & matrix:

The integration of the temporary living units is based on the initial visions for the overall experience, where human being are welcomed to feel and experience the mangroves while discovering the conditions, textures, colours and smells of the place. Therefore, an amount of 30 diverse temporary living units will be opening for the visitors in order to allow the visitors of the Wet-ropolis to fully enjoy the surrounding.

Figure 116: Bubble diagram for the temporary floating units & supporting facilities

Main components: Temporary living units (day use) Temporary living units (overnight accommodation) Services Private retail Food farm Oxygenator and water convertor

Figure 115: Temporary living units Matrix

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PROGRAM

Figure 117: Diagram showing the program spaces, the area NSM, the privacy Category, and the Number of units

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CHAPTER 7 DESIGN CONCEPT

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DESIGN CONCEPT

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CONCEPT

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DESCRIPTION

7.1 CONCEPT STATEMENT 7.1.1 Bio-mimicry Biomimetic architecture is a contemporary philosophy of structure that seeks answers for sustainability in nature, now not by way of replicating the natural forms, but by way of understanding the rules governing the ones forms. It is a multi-disciplinary approach to sustainable layout that follows a fixed of principles as opposed to stylistic codes. it’s far part of a larger movement referred to as bio mimicry, that’s the examination of nature, its models, structures, and tactics for the purpose of gaining concept which will resolve man-made issues. Biomimetic architecture goes beyond using nature as inspiration for the aesthetic components of built form, but instead seeks to use nature to solve problems of the building’s functioning. Bio mimicry means to imitate life and originates from the Greek words bios (life) and mimesis (imitate).

7.1.2 Organic architecture Organic architecture uses nature-inspired geometrical forms in design and seeks to reconnect the human with his or her surroundings. Kendrick Bangs Kellogg, a practicing organic architect, believes that “above all, organic architecture should constantly remind us not to take Mother Nature for granted – work with her and allow her to guide your life. Inhibit her, and humanity will be the loser. “a truer understanding of how we see, with our mind and eye, is the foundation of everything organic. Man’s eye and brain evolved over aeons of time, most of which were within the vast untrammelled and unpaved landscape of our Edenic biosphere! We must go to Nature for our models now that is clear!” (Liebermann)

Figure 118: Pavilion by ICD ITKE

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LEVELS OF BIO-MIMCRY 7.2 The three levels of Bio mimicry Bio mimicry can work on three levels: 7.2.1 Organism At this level of bio mimicry in architecture, the architecture looks at the organism as a main driver to the concept, applying the form of a natural organism to the building design in a direct or an indirect way. 7.2.2 Behaviours At the behavioural level, the building mimics how the organism interacts with its environment, in order to design a building that can respond to the surroundings without resisting the natural forces of the building surroundings. 7.2.3 Ecosystem Building at the Ecosystem level is based on the concept of mimicking the environmental eco system that involves many components that work together at a higher scale involving multiple elements instead of one solitary structure.

Figure 119: organism behaviour simulation pavilion

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Figure 120: Organism mimicry


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Figure 121: Ecosystem mimicry

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7.3

NATURAL INSPIRATION FOR THE DESIGN

CH7

7.3.1 Flexibilty inspired from the roots of the mangroves Translating Natural systems into spaces...

The design concept starts with the natural inspirations taken from the site that highlights on the research’s statement, goals and objectives. The roots of the mangrove trees available at the area of the eastern mangroves in Abu Dhabi shows an inspiring system of elementary and secondary roots that are naturally interconnected in order to perform that natural functions that allows the t=mangrove trees to survive. Mangroves in the UAE are naturally formed of: monospecific stands of a marina. In certain areas, the trees are associated with Salicornia europaea, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda vermiculata, all being saltmarsh species occupying an eco

Figure 122 Mnagroves roots of the aviccenna marina

logical zone slightly higher above chart-datum than mangrove. Mangroves are the key floral element of Mangal communities. The roots for the Mangrove trees provide a source of stability, nutrition and strength, it shows an interesting pattern of interlacing that is based on it’s functional properties. These interlacing patterns shown at the roots of the avicennia Marina Mangrove trees show an overall coherence between the main and secondary root and can have an application in the scheme derivation due to the high flexibility it can provide the design with, especially while having a very diverse brief and a multifunctional program that consists of interlacing functions.

MANGROOTS 121


Micro Analysis 7.4 Micro analysis for the roots of the Mangroves

Figure 123: Mangrove tree structure

Figure124: zoom ins into the root system for the “Avicennia Marina� tree showing the flexibility of the growth of the secondary roots, which can be applied at the scheme formation for the proposed Wet-ropolis

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Figure 125: Mangrove tree structure for different trees in the UAE

Figure 126: Section cut into the main/ secondary roots for the 3 different mangrove trees available

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Concept approach 7.5 Spatial qualities for the Wet-ropolis Water sports, Floating Arts ,& Special moments..... The design concept looks further in the spatial qualities for the Wet-ropolis, as it aims at creating a social hub for the people interested in discovering the mangroves and experiencing the water sports at the area. Therefore, the project extends its research to develop a better understanding for the qualities of the spaces required to achieve the success of the proposed Wet-ropolis.

And as the scheme is inspired by the interlacing patterns shown at the roots of the avicennia Marina Mangrove trees, this allows the functions to be distributed freely using the flexibility that the concept provides the design with, especially when having a very diverse brief and a multifunctional program that consists of many diverse and interlacing set of functions.

7.6 Site considerations and juxtaposition

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Figure 127: The site considerations and juxtaposition diagram


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Figure 128: spatial inspirations

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Concept approach

Figure 129: The bubble diagram in context

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Figure 130: The privacy consideration integrated within the concept


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Figure 131: the implementation of the inspiration in order to translate the bubble diagram into masses

Figure 132: The privacy consideration as well as the areas integrated within the concept

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Concept approach

Figure 133: conceptual diagrams for the scheme derivation

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Figure 134: Conceptual site composition


CH7

Figure 135: Diagram showing relation of the program consideration to the final exploration

Figure 136: Conceptual site composition

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WET-ROPOLIS RETHINKING ABU DHABI’S LEARNING/ LIVING MORPHOLOGIES AT THE EASTERN MANGROVES Human beings are naturally curious, seeking opportunities to explore and discover and interact with their surroundings. However, In 2017 we’ve reached a stage where we tend to interact through social media more than we do in real life, we let out devices control our interaction and limit our perceptions. This might have happened because of advances in the technologies. However, if we look around us we might notice that our surroundings have emerged to be regular and expected, due to the building codes that limits the building heights, shapes and materials creating a mutual expectation for the spaces around and as a result, we unconsciously become less engaged with our surroundings. This research looked few miles away from the city centre and specifically at the mangroves area in Abu Dhabi, as it represents a natural environment that moves away from the predictability of the city making us more engaged with the new unexpected patterns of interaction. The eastern mangroves area houses endangered plants and living species; this makes it a huge attraction for tourists and citizens seeking to experience the interaction between natural and artificial mangroves and the surrounding conditions, textures and activities that can be done in the area. However, the fact that is eastern mangrove cornice is located beside a highway street creates a set of non-physical boundaries that limits the human interaction with the natural elements at the mangroves area. This might be a result to the huge number of visitors interested in discovering the area that is defined as a natural preserved area, which can be an ecological danger on its own. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to break the non-physical boundaries between human beings, themselves and nature and to create physical controlled connections that would contribute to creating a community that satisfies the natural curiosity and natural demand for discovering the mangroves, enhancing the touristic, communal values and economic impacts of the city of Abu Dhabi, while minimizing the danger on the preserved area and species using the latest technological advances to allow for this ecological balance.

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Graduation Thesis Wetropolis. Maram Kassab  
Graduation Thesis Wetropolis. Maram Kassab  
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