Scoping Study on the State of Education on Climate Change: A Country Case Report for Cambodia
This report was produced by the Culture and Environmental Preservation Association Authors: Mr. Tek Vannara, Ms. Im Sophanavy and Ms. Hun Dany
Executive Summary Recently, Cambodia has been facing various environmental changes such as higher temperatures, increased precipitation, and sea level rise. The Cambodian Ministry of Environment (MoE) has indicated that these changes are part of a longer, and worsening, trend, the adverse impacts of which have already begun to manifest: increasing magnitude, and damages, of floods and droughts; reductions in crop yields; diminishing water availability; and higher exposure of people to vector and water-borne diseases. Unfortunately, Cambodia has been deemed as having relatively low adaptive capacity compared to other Southeast Asian countries, and thus is highly vulnerable to climate extremes. This is compounded by the people's dependence on 'climate-sensitive' livelihoods and, for 30% of Cambodians, extreme poverty. While the government has put together a National Adaptation Programme of Action to Climate Change (NAPA), among other efforts, climate change response in Cambodia is seen as limited, and a national policy on climate change education is nonexistent. Among other gaps, according to the MoE, current national programmes do not integrate global policies on climate change; capacity-building initiatives for local communities receive scant attention; and long-term programmes for research and education on climate change have not been well-developed. This study, which seeks to look into the current state of climate change education in Cambodia, involved 15 non-government organizations (NGOs), two universities, and three local communities, all of which in some way contribute to climate change awareness and capacitybuilding in the country. The study comprised a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews with some key respondents. While government clearly plays the most important role in climate change response, NGOs in Cambodia are making headway in such areas as climate change research, public awareness, and disaster risk reduction and response, and have worked to integrate climate change adaptation into their project mainstream. Universities are likewise important, as they generate new knowledge which can shape public opinion and action. These stakeholders should work in cooperation with one another to address the vast and complex issues presented by climate change, and suit their efforts to the specific needs of grassroots communities. Education, and capacity building, among local communities in Cambodia seek to improve the dismal state of climate change awareness in the country, and develop each community's ability to respond and adapt to environmental changes on their own. Education motivates the communities seek out their local authorities and policymakers for greater attention and response to their problems. The target learners of the organizations involved are mostly smallscale farmers and poor communities, who are the most vulnerable to climate change impacts and are least capable to adapt.
Both formal and informal methods are used by the respondents for climate change education. Some of the difficulties encountered, however, include language barriers, gaps in coordination among community authorities and NGOs, and the mismatch of training materials and methods with learner capacities. Trainers try to get around these difficulties by using simpler and more engaging educational methods, such as the use of pictures and video, and emphasizing learning by practice. Nevertheless, most of the respondents recognize that climate change awareness in Cambodia remains very limited. The absence of a systematic, nationwide climate change education effort does not help. With the country's position as a particularly vulnerable nation, this situation must be immediately redressed. Government should make sure that local, and global, climate change policies are optimally formulated, implemented, and disseminated among all stakeholders. It should be able to facilitate the awareness and understanding of global education efforts among its staff, civil society, the academe, and the communities. Further, it should urgently embark on crafting a national climate change education policy, a process that should closely involve the aforementioned stakeholders. Cambodia should also markedly increase its capacity-building initiatives, which should include local authorities and NGO educators and trainers, who among themselves require yet more training and expertise to deal with what is still a relatively emergent issue in Cambodia. Finally, all stakeholders should seek to attune their efforts, be it training, campaigns, or mitigation and adaptation strategies, to the particular needs (and learning abilities) of grassroots communities, in order to elicit better local response.
I. COUNTRY BACKGROUND The Kingdom of Cambodia is located in mainland Southeast Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand and bounded by the countries of Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos, between latitudes 10° and 15° N and longitudes 102° and 108° E. Cambodia has a land area of 181,035 square kilometers in the southwestern part of the East Asian peninsula. The total population (2008) is about 13.4 million people, 19.5 percent (2.6 million) of which is urban and 80.5 percent rural, according to revised urban-rural definitions (MoP, 2008). Cambodia remains among the group of 'least developed countries'; however, the population living below the national poverty line has fallen from 34.7% in 2004 to 30.1% in 2007, and GDP per capita has risen from US$ 297 in 2002 (NIS, 2003) to US$ 792 in 2010 (NSDPU, 2009-2013). On average, agriculture has accounted for more than 40% of GDP. Cambodia’s geographical features are comprised by an undulating plateau in the east, flat plains along Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong River in the centre, the Dangrek Mountains along the Thai border in the west, and the Cardamom Mountains and Elephant Range in the southwest.
Figure 1: Provinces of the Kingdom of Cambodia
Cambodia experiences a wet monsoon season between May and October, with two rainfall peaks in June/July and September/October, as winds blowing from the southwest (Indian Ocean) bring heavy rains. In the November to May dry season, winds blow from the northeast. Cooler air is felt from November to March, which is gradually replaced by warmer air from April to May. Mean temperatures in Cambodia range from about 22°C to 28°C. March and April are the warmest months, and November and December are the coldest. Maximum temperatures exceeding 38°C are recorded annually at the height of the dry season, while minimum temperatures rarely drop below 10°C. Climate Change in Cambodia Effects and Impacts Recently, Cambodia has been facing various environmental changes such as higher temperatures, increased precipitation, and sea level rise. According to the National Committee for Disaster Management (NCDM), prolonged droughts were experienced in the country in 1997 and '98, and consecutive droughts occurred in the years of 2001, '02, '04, and '05. Droughts, floods, and windstorms are becoming more common in Cambodia, which may have been a result of global warming (TP, 2010). In 2002, the Cambodian Ministry of Environment (MoE) conducted a study on the country's climate change status, using two global warming scenarios (SRESA2 and SRESB1) and two general circulation models (CCSR and CSIRO). The study suggests that, by 2100, rainfall in Cambodia would increase by a value between 3 and 35% from present rates, while temperatures would rise by 1.3 to 2.5oC (MoE, 2002). Meanwhile, another study expects the mean annual temperature in Cambodia to have increased by 0.7° to 2.7°C in 2060, and 1.4 to 4.3°C in 2090 (McSweeney et al, 2008). These projected changes in climate may have major consequences on a variety of human and environmental factors, including the region's hydrology and water resources, agriculture and food security, terrestrial, coastal, and marine ecosystems, and human health. In particular, the MoE identifies several adverse impacts that have already begun to manifest: increasing magnitude, and damages, of floods and droughts across temperate and tropical Asia; reductions in crop yields; diminishing water availability; and higher exposure of people to vector and water-borne diseases (MoE, NAPA, 2006). Cambodia, unfortunately, has been categorized as having relatively low adaptive capacity compared to other Southeast Asian countries, and thus is highly vulnerable to climate extremes (Yusuf and Francisco 2009). While it has been shown that Cambodia is not particularly exposed to climate hazards, save for the Mekong Delta on the Vietnamese border, the country is nonetheless vulnerable to climate change impacts due to its people's limited adaptive capacity
and dependence on 'climate-sensitive' livelihoods. Climate change adaptation in Cambodia is largely limited to water and health concerns and the strengthening of institutional capacity. Floods, for instance, have accounted for 70% of losses in rice production from 1998 to 2002, while droughts are responsible for 20%. The proliferation of these extreme weather events "cause considerable economic losses and social and environmental impacts" (MoE, NAPA, 2006). moreover, as Oxfam Cambodia (2005) notes, extreme poverty among the people exacerbates climate vulnerability. In 2007, 30.1% of the population was living below the poverty line. Further climate change impacts will be most strongly felt in the Tonle Sap areas, as changing water flows in the Mekong slowly alter the unique 'flood pulses' system. Coastal zones will also be affected through sea level rise, increasing erosion, and salinization. Many parts of Cambodia are likely to become wetter, as water levels rise and floods cover larger areas; however, the effects of climate change on the monsoon system are not yet fully understood (CNMC & CamboWP, 2010). The provinces with the highest risk of floods are, in order, Prey Veng, Takeo, Battambang, Kampong Cham, Banteay Meanchey and Kampong Thom. On the other hand, Battambang, Prey Veng, and Banteay Meanchey, followed by Kampong Cham, and Kampong Speu, are most vulnerable to droughts. (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Map of provinces Surveyed for Climate Hazards Vulnerability and Adaptation (MoE, 2006)
Causes and Mitigation Cambodia has seen an increase of many activities that generate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially of late. Increasingly, forest, water, land, and mineral resources have been overused and degraded in the name of economic development. With only 0.29 tonnes of annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita, good for 109 in the world as ranked by the World Resources Institute, Cambodiaâ€™s contribution to global GHG emissions is negligible. However, the country will suffer just the same from the effects of global warming, resulting from excessive emissions in other parts of the world (CNMC & CamboWP, 2010). The emissions from energy use, industry and agriculture in Cambodia are equal to 12.764 Million tCO2e (tonnes CO2 equivalents). The emission of CO2 from energy consumption and industries is half of the emission of methane (CH4) and just one-third of nitrous oxide (N2O). The release of CH4 and N2O stems mainly from agriculture; such that agriculture contributes for 80 % of the total emissions (in CO2e); while the industry and fuel consumption account for about 10 % of the total emissions (in CO2e). The net sequestration of carbon in forests land use equals an estimated 19,636 Million tCO2e in 1994. As a result the net emission of GHGs from Cambodia in 1994 was a -5,142 Million tons CO2e (first national GHG inventory). A revision of the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) GHG inventory in 2003 reduced the
estimate for the net sequestration to 7,889 Million tCO2e in 1994 base year. The revised net emission from Cambodia could thus be revised to a net emission of 5,546 Million tCO 2e. Government Policy and Strategies In response to the urgent need of addressing climate change issues and impacts, Cambodia ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1995 and launched its first climate change project four years later. In 2002, Cambodia acceded to the Kyoto Protocol. The first formal communication with UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol also took place that same year, as the Ministry of Environment (MoE) was appointed to be the National Focal Point for Cambodia. On June 23, 2003, the MoE established a Cambodian Climate Change Office (CCCO), which was upgraded to department status in October 2009, to be responsible for a wide range of climate change-related activities such as planning and policy formulation, implementation of the UNFCCC, assessment of new technologies to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and capacity building and awareness raising. The Office also serves as the Secretariat of the UNFCCC, the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Focal Points for Cambodia. The National Climate Change Committee (NCCC), which was established by sub-decree in April 2006 with the representatives of 19 Government ministries and agencies, serves as a policymaking body and coordinates the development and implementation of policies, plans, and measures to address climate change issues within the country. Recently, the Ministry of Women Affairs has been included into this Committee. NCCC works closely with all relevant government agencies, non-governmental organizations, the private sector, local communities, donors, and international organizations to coordinate and implement national climate change policies, greenhouse gas mitigation and inventory, and climate change adaptation activities. To address Cambodia's high vulnerability to climate change impacts, the National Adaptation Programme of Action to Climate Change (NAPA) was prepared and approved by the Government in 2006. Even if the institutional framework is largely in place, it is considered that both the Government and the donor community could do more to address increasing risks posed by climate change. It should be recognized that both the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) have and are still providing support to strengthen the Ministry of Environment and the Climate Change Department. Nevertheless, donor support to help Cambodia address the challenge has been increasing, as exemplified by the efforts of European Commission Global Climate Change Initiative. In addition, Cambodia has been selected as one of 9 countries in the World Bankâ€™s Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience (PPCR) (CNMC & CamboWP, 2010).
Awareness and Capacity While such efforts as seminars, TV spots, publications, promotional activitues, and the like are carried out by various stakeholders (MoE, 2009), climate change awareness in Cambodia remains limited. Further, climate change adaptation -- the NAPA notwithstanding -- is not an explicit priority of government. Even as the potential impacts are known, the causes and contributing factors to climate vulnerability remain unaddressed. As such, there is more authoritative studies -- along with public awareness and action -- that may help push for appropriate policy and management responses. The Ministry of Environment (2009) summarizes the gaps in climate change policy, awareness, and adaptive capacity in Cambodia along the following lines:
Current national policies and programmes do not integrate global policies on climate change; Most programmes related to climate hazards focus only on emergency relief; Climate change programmes focus on capacity building at the national, not the local, level; Assistance coverage remains limited, even as a large number of districts had been identified as vulnerable to climate hazards; Programmes for developing climate forecast and dissemination systems are limited; Programmes to improve community capacity, and support community-based initiatives to cope with climate hazards and adapt to climate variability, receive little attention; and Long-term programmes for research and education on climate change have not been well-developed.
II. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS This research was conducted through questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews. Questionnaires were sent out to 40 non-government organizations (NGOs) and universities in Cambodia that were involved in climate change and environmental education; only 17, however, sent back their responses, comprising 15 NGOs and two universities. Of the 17, eight respondents were from within Phnom Penh and nine were from the provinces For the interviews, five NGOs, two universities, and three communities were selected as case studies. The full details on these organizations and their respective respondents are found in the appendix. Survey findings Organizational action and strategy
The 17 survey respondents showed a particular interest in climate change response, and sought to integrate this area into their project mainstream. Figure 3 depicts the organizational actions and strategies that the respondents are mostly involved with. As seen, capacity-building (14%) and climate change mitigation (14%) were the most commonly identified by the group as part of their efforts. Following these are adaptation, information dissemination, research, and policy advocacy.
Figure 3: Organizational Actions and Strategy
Target learners Figure 4 summarizes the profiles of the respondents' target learners, in terms of sector, gender, age, and locale, and these organizations' 'reach' within or outside national boundaries. As may be seen, peasants (14%) and development workers (14%) were most often named as target learners by the respondents, most of which, as mentioned, were NGOs. Peasants are an especially vulnerable group to climate change impacts, and are often ill-equipped to adapt. Development workers, on the other hand, play an important role in building and sharing knowledge, skills, and resources among grassroots communities. Almost all of the respondents (88%) equally cater to men and women, while adults (31%), outof-school youth (20%), and the elderly (20%) were most often named as the age groups that they seek to include in their efforts. Lowland (27%) and upland/mountainous areas (31%) represent the locales in which the respondents chiefly operate.
In terms of reach, 36% of the respondents were exclusively focused on local communities. A larger number, however, had regional or international linkages.
Figure 4: Target groups of NGOs in Cambodia
Background on Interview Respondents Interviewee educational background Of the interviewees from the selected NGOs, universities, and communities who serve as the educators or trainers among their group, all are holders of either graduate or postgraduate degrees (Figure 5). This shows, to an extent, that the educators and trainers involved with the environment and climate change are likely highly educated persons, with backgrounds in fishery science, biology, rural development, forestry, and environmental management. Also, the interviewees also count on a considerable repertoire of experience and skill in their field, and continue to improve their expertise via trainings or conferences.
Figure 5: Educational background of educator-interviewees
Perceptions on climate change Including all interviewees from the aforementioned groups (not just the educators), it was found that while 67% believe that climate change is happening in Cambodia, 8% are not convinced and 25% are unaware of what climate change is (Figure 6). The first group saw enough evidence in Cambodia's changing weather patterns, increasing temperatures and rain fall, and the rising occurrence of droughts, storms, and floods. The second, however, felt that the country has yet to produce conclusive findings on climate change. The frequency of floods and droughts, they say, may have been more a result of the mismanagement of water resources. On other hand, the last, most of which are community members, while aware that floods and droughts are occurring more than before, are oblivious as to the cause and had never heard of climate change before.
Figure 6: Respondents' perception on climate change
General findings On climate change response and the role of stakeholders According to the survey and interviews, the most pressing environment- and climate-related problems that require action in Cambodia are droughts and floods. Other issues identified include decreasing agricultural production, deforestation, overfishing, soil erosion, and the environmental changes presumed to reflect climate change, including rising temperatures and changing weather patterns. At any rate, the government plays the most important role in climate change response, which involves the interplay of functions between the Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery, Water Resource Management and Meteorology, and Education. Aside from the obvious tasks of national policy-making and strategic planning, government, in particular the Ministry of Environment, may act as facilitator for the broad range of climate change stakeholders, coordinating their efforts and initiating new areas for action. NGOs, meanwhile, are making headway in such areas as climate change research, public awareness, and disaster risk reduction and response, and have worked to integrate climate change adaptation into their project mainstream. NGOs communicate, both with the government and their networks, to discuss policy recommendations, advocate for their partner communities, share resources and information, and build up their own capacities. Crucially, they serve as a vital link to grassroots communities, providing new knowledge, practices, and technologies. Universities are likewise important, as they generate new knowledge which can shape public opinion and action. For instance, as earlier shown, a significant portion of the interviewees remain unaware or unconvinced of the reality of climate change; conclusive research will go a
long way to settle this. Universities, as well, are at the forefront of developing mitigation and adaptation techniques that will reflect upon community practices. Needless to say, these stakeholders should work in cooperation with one another to address the vast and complex issues presented by climate change, an outcome that rests heavily upon government efforts. Critics point out, for instance, that the National Adaptation Programme of Action to Climate Change (NAPA) lacked mention of the roles of NGOs and the private sector, and failed to provide clear-cut policies that cater to the needs of grassroots communities. Accordingly, stakeholders should strive to be more cognizant of the realities among these poor, often isolated, groups, in order for their efforts to suit the people's specific needs. On the objectives of education and capacity building Education, and capacity building, among local communities in Cambodia seek to improve the dismal state of climate change awareness in the country, and develop each community's ability to respond and adapt to environmental changes on their own. They are also intended to change day-to-day practices, especially as regards agricultural work, and improve the people's livelihoods as well. Finally, education motivates the communities seek out their local authorities and policymakers for greater attention and response to their problems. Target learners The target learners, as mentioned, of the organizations involved in this study are mostly smallscale farmers and poor communities, who are the most vulnerable to climate change impacts and are least capable to adapt. It must be mentioned, however, that because climate change is a relatively new area of study in Cambodia, government (especially local) officials and NGO staff are themselves considered target learners by the chief educators. NGO members would usually undergo training from donor or partner institutions before heading for their target communities. Methods Both formal and informal methods are used among the study respondents for climate change education in Cambodia. Training in the formal context often involve a preliminary 'conceptual training' course, where concepts such as climate change, vulnerability, and adaptation are clarified, and which is also used to ascertain learner competency before proceeding with the program. The duration and frequency of these training programs vary among NGOs; three to five-day 'adult learning' courses are common, which one group claims to have been providing for more than once each month (12 to 17 times) every year. In one instance, trainers from the Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture (CEDAC) gathered farmers to do a group discussion on the community's problems and potential solutions, in which the farmers themselves served as facilitators. After the discussion, the trainers provided new knowledge and techniques and worked with the farmers in carrying
these out on the field. In another case, trainers explained the advantages of using biogas in place of firewood, the burning of which release GHGs, and then taught the learners how to make biogas stoves. Training is normally given after the completion of a training needs assessment of the target community, which is a noted positive practice among respondent NGOs. Trainers also use various devices to make the learning material easy to understand, such as flip charts, PowerPoint, videos, and role-play. In some instances, they provide textbooks to farmers and run a 'field school' (emphasizing learning by practice), and afford them the opportunity to go on study tours in other places. Difficulties Some of the difficulties encountered by the respondents in climate change education include language barriers, gaps in coordination among community authorities and NGOs, and the mismatch of training materials and methods with learner capacities. Most of the experts that Cambodian NGOs turn to for training and support are foreigners, and the available resources on climate change in English. At times, the educators fail to seek out the most appropriate target learners, or to account for such factors as time and geographical constraints within the communities. Transporting training materials to far-flung rural communities, for instance, may be a problem. Furthermore, since climate change is still very much unheard-of in many parts of Cambodia, some communities would resist participation in education efforts. Likewise, with respect to training for better agricultural practices, farmers are sometimes apprehensive of accepting the new techniques, fearing that these will harm their productivity. Trainers try to get around these difficulties by using simpler and more engaging educational methods, such as the use of pictures and video, emphasizing practice, and appealing to learner sensibilities. For instance, working among rural communities, some trainers would replace the term 'climate change' with the words 'floods' and 'droughts', which the learners are easily familiar with and denote events that impact them distinctively. Capacity building for educators Among the respondents, proficiency in the field of climate change and the environment, capacity for field work, and facilitation skills are of utmost importance. As might be expected, educators enhance their skills through collaboration and information exchange with peers, participating in trainings, workshops, and the like. At times, experts from government, the academe, or from outside the country were solicited by Cambodian NGOs for their assistance. Forum Syd, for instance, employed a Canadian expert as an advisor, overseeing staff training and the production of teaching materials. Some organizations, however, spoke of the difficulty of finding partner institutions that had enough
expertise to conduct trainings. Further, some noted that while many NGO staff receive good instruction on basic climate change theory, their training for techniques and methods for climate change education lag far behind. Linkages and Networking Among the international institutions and NGOs involved in climate change work in Cambodia are the following: Oxfam Great Britain (GB), Oxfam America, UNDP, Asian Development Bank, World Bank, Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN, Forum Syd, Geres Cambodia, Cord, DanChurchAid/ChristianAid, Plan Cambodia, Save Cambodia Wildlife, PADIC, World Fish Center, DANIDA. Local NGOs include:
NGO Forum CEDAC CEPA Star Kampuchea My Village Khmer Youth Association Banteay Srei Norkor Phnom Community Empowerment Organization Non-Timber Forest Products Ponleu Ney Kdey Sankhum Fisheries Action Coalition Team Youth Resource Development Program Rachana
Khmer Ahimsa Village Support Group Partnership for Development in Kampuchea Gender and Development for Cambodia Organization to Develop Our Villages Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture DPA PACT Cambodian Civil Society Partnership Committee for Free and Fair Elections in Cambodia
While a sizable number of organizations deal with climate change in Cambodia, however, gaps in networking efforts remain. As mentioned, some NGOs that responded to this study mentioned the difficulty of finding qualified partners that can provide trainings and assistance for capacity-building. In addition, maintaining networks for the long term can be hard, as many of these NGOs do not have particularly strong relationships. Certain asymmetries in technical know-how, material resources, and access to financing across institutions in a network may also be seen. In all, communication and coordination, sharing of work, roles, and responsibilities among NGOs must improve. Common goals need to be formulated and reached, in order to address the substantial shortfalls in climate change education in Cambodia. Government Policy on CC Education
Among the respondents, the consensus was that Cambodia does not have a clear national policy on climate change education. While the government has drawn up the NAPA, under which some local and international climate change fora had been organized, the policy does not explicitly provide for a systematic, nationwide climate change education effort. Some interviewees noted that climate change and environmental education had been integrated in the formal high school and university curricula, such as a global warming lesson in the 12 th grade, and, in the case of the Royal University of Phnom Penh, an introductory environmental course mandated by each of its departments; however, as may be expected, rarely does this education leave the walls of the classroom into the community at large. Clearly, with the yawning gap in climate change awareness in Cambodia and its position as a particularly vulnerable nation, this situation must be immediately redressed. One respondent likewise underscored the dearth of climate change literature specific to Cambodia. Government, in partnership with relevant institutions and the private sector, needs to formulate a coherent strategy for national climate change education, of which the framework and mechanisms should be acceptable to all stakeholders. On awareness of the IPCC/Global Response The respondents are fairly aware of the global response to climate change. In particular, they understood the role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) with respect to climate change awareness and education in their own country â€“ serving as a valuable resource for scientific data, assessing existing and potential climate change impacts, and providing a platform for exchange of resources and expertise. An important point, however, is that the information normally produced by the IPCC and international sources are fairly inaccessible for the average Cambodian, due to the barriers of language (English) and expertise (for the more technical aspects of these documents). This speaks to the challenges faced by climate change educators in Cambodia to be able to translate, and simplify, mostly foreign and complex information to forms most easily understood by the communities.
III. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS As the primary institution tasked with climate change response in Cambodia, government should make sure that local, and global, climate change policies are optimally formulated, implemented, and disseminated among all stakeholders in order to achieve positive outcomes. With respect to global climate change education efforts, which, as mentioned, are inaccessible to the average citizen, the government should be able to facilitate the awareness and understanding of this information among its staff, civil society, the academe, and the
communities. Further, it should urgently embark on crafting a national climate change education policy, a process that should closely involve the aforementioned stakeholders. With the particular vulnerability to climate change impacts among many of its citizens, especially peasants and poor, rural communities, Cambodia should markedly increase its capacity-building initiatives across all stakeholders. This includes local authorities and NGO educators and trainers, who among themselves require yet more training and expertise to deal with what is still a relatively emergent issue in Cambodia. Finally, all stakeholders should seek to attune their efforts, be it training, campaigns, or mitigation and adaptation strategies, to the particular needs (and learning abilities) of grassroots communities, in order to elicit better local response.
References Anshory Yusuf, Arief, and Herminia A. Francisco. (2009). Climate Change Vulnerability Mapping for Southeast Asia. IDRC, Sida, Economic and Environment Program for Southeast Asia, and CIDA, January 2009. In: CNMC and CWP. (2010). The State of Climate Change Management in Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. CNMC and CWP. (2010). The State of Climate Change Management in Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007 – The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. McSweeney et al, (2008). In: CNMC and CWP. (2010). The State of Climate Change Management in Cambodia. Phnom Penh, Cambodia MoE. (2009). Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment to Climate Change in Agriculture Sector in Cambodia. Phnom Penh, Cambodia MoE. (2008). Climate change screening of Danish development cooperation with Cambodia. Phnom Penh, Cambodia. MoE. (2005). Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Hazards and Climate Change: A survey of rural Cambodia households, Final Draft, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. MoE, NAPA. (2006). National Adaptation Programme of Action to Climate Change (NAPA). Phnom Penh, Cambodia. NCDM. (2009). National Committee for Disaster Management, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Oxfam Cambodia. (n.d.). Retrieved 2010, from Oxfam Web site: http://www.oxfam.org.uk/resources/policy/climate_change/downloads/cambodia_climate_cha nge_report.pdf. In: CNMC and CWP. (2010). The State of Climate Change Management in Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Shukla, R.P., Sharma, K. and Ravindranath, N.H. (2003). Climate Change and India: Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation, Universities Press Private Limited, India. TP. (2010). Climate Change Briefing – Cambodia. In: CNMC and CWP. (2010). The State of Climate Change Management in Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
Appendix Table 1: Basic Information on Prominent Educators Organization/Institution Name of Organization : Save Cambodia’s Wildfife Address: P.O. Box: 2032, #150 Eo, Str.192, Teuk Laork 3, Toul Kork, Phnom Penh, CAMBODIA
Prominent Educator Name of Respondent: Mr Lay Vannara and Mr San Sras Mr Lay Vannara, 30, is a senior project officer of Save Cambodia’s Wildlife. He obtained his bachelor's degree majoring in Forestry Management at Cheasim Komchaymea University. Mr Vannara used to work on water sanitation, health care and agriculture at CEO, and then at Eco-zone
Tel: +855 (0)23 882 035 Fax: +855 (0)23 882 036 E-mail: email@example.com Website: www.cambodiaswildlife.org
where specialized in large scale family vegetation farming. Mr Lay Vannara also joined ECW training on natural resource management and small business. At the end of 2008, Mr Vannara moved to Save Cambodia’s Wildlife. He has five years of experience on education on sustainable development and climate change. Mr San Sras is a project officer of Save Cambodia’s Wildlife. He is 26 years old. He majored in agriculture, economic and rural development at the Royal University of Agriculture. Mr. Sras was a former volunteer for KEN organization in Kompong Trabak district. He taught family scale farming and disaster mitigation. Later on he worked with Mlup Bai Torng in Kompong Spea province and did forestry management in a community. He entered Save Cambodia’s Wildlife in 2009, where he conducts trainings for community development, eco-tourism, and climate change adaptation. Mr. Sras has over five years of experience in training, four of which specifically on sustainable development and climate change.
Name of Institution: Royal University of Phnom Penh Year Established: 1960 Address: Royal University of PP, Blvd. Russia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Tel: +855 (0)12 955 169 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.rupp.edu.kh
Name of Respondent: Mr. Chhinh Nyda Mr. Chhinh Nyda, 41, is deputy director of a graduate program in development study and a lecturer at Royal University of Phnom Penh. He obtained his master's degree on Environmental Management at Flinders University in 2006. He formerly worked as an environment and education officer. Mr. Nyda has four years of work experience.
Name of Institution: : Faculty of Forestry, Royal University of Agriculture Year Established: 1985 Address: Chomkar Dong, Dangkor District, Phnom Penh, CAMBODIA Tel: (+ 855) 12 868 827/ 11 313 611 Fax: 855 23364 138/ 219 753 E-mail: email@example.com
Name of Respondent: Von Monin Mr. Von Monin, dean of forestry faculty at the Royal University of Agriculture, has been working in RUA since 1991. He is 43 years old. He majored in agricultural engineering at Chamkardong Agriculture Technical Institution in 1991, and went on to earn two master's degrees: in GIS Remotesen at Sweden in 1998, and in Renewable Natural Resources at RUA in 2004. He had previously joined many capacity-building initiatives and trainings in Cambodia and other countries At present, he is pursuing his PhD degree in agricultural and rural development at CUP. He has taught many subjects at the undergraduate and graduate levels, including natural resource management, agri-agro forestry, and ecotourism management. In addition, he has taught some special classes such as community forestry management, forest preparation and management, land law, and soil conservation.
Table 2: Basic Information on Organizations NGOs/ Institution
Background of Key informant
Name of Organization: Oxfam America East Asia Regional Office Address: P.O.Box 4 th 4 Floor, #64, Street 108, Wat Phnom, Phnom Penh, CAMBODIA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.oxfamamerica.org Tel: 855-23 210 357 Fax: 855-23 223 119
Name of Respondent: Mr. Nop Polin Mr. Nop Polin, national climate change officer in Oxfam America, is 36 years old. He obtained his bachelor's degree in mathematics in 1995. He previously worked as a lecturer in Kompong Cham province and as climate change awareness raising officer for Geres Cambodia organization in 2006. Geres's work was focused mainly on university students, NGO staff, and public and private employees, concerning such topics as carbon finance and audit. He decided to work in Oxfam, he says, because of his interest in agriculture, a sector that encompasses 80% of Cambodians. He joined Oxfam in 2009.
Name of Organization: The Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture (CEDAC) Year Established: 1997 Address: Street 257, #119, Sangkat Teuk La ak I, Khan Toul Kok Phnom Penh, Cambodia Contact details: Email: email@example.com Website: www.cedac.org.kh Fax: 855-23 885 146 Tel: 855-23 880 916
Name of Respondent: Mrs Tong Chantheang Mrs. Tong Chantheang, 35, is a program officer at CEDAC. She graduated with a degree in forest science in 2000 at the Royal University of Agriculture (RUA). She has had eight years of experience teaching in general, on climate change for four. CEDAC's focus on agriculture led Mrs. Chantheang to do her undergraduate thesis on the organization, which offered her a job after she graduated.
Name of Organization: The WorldFish Center Address: Office: #35, Street 71 (Cnr of Mao Tse Tong Blvd.), Sangkat Beng Keng Kang 1, Phnom Penh, CAMBODIA Contact details: Tel: (+855) 23 223 208 Fax: (+855) 23 223 209 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.worldfishcenter.org
Name of Respondent: Mr Eam Dyna
Name of Organization: Oxfam GB Address: P.O.Box 883 No.13, Street 475, Chamkar Morn, Phnom Penh, CAMBODIA Contact details: Tel: 855-23 212 353 Fax: 855-23 211 873 Email: Dsaramany@oxfam.org.kh Website: www.oxfam.org.uk/eastasia
Name of Respondent: Mrs Duong Saramany Mrs Duong Saramany, 31, is a Humanitarian Capacity Building Officer at Oxfam GB. She holds two bachelor's degrees, in Agriculture and English Communication, from the Prek Leap College. She also has a master's degree in Development Management from Norton University. She previously worked as English teacher at the Atlanta Center for five years. She has been working in Oxfam since early 2009.
Mr. Eam Dyna, 30, has worked as research officer for the WorldFish Center since 2009. He graduated with a degree in Fishery Science at the Royal University of Agriculture (RUA), and obtained his master's degree in Sustainable Development at Chheang Mai University. He has some five years of experience in general education, and a year in education related to climate change. He chose to work with Worldfish because of its focus on fishery and aquaculture, which was his expertise.
Name of Organization: Forum Syd Address: P.O Box 430, visit address #91, street 95, Boeung Trabek, Phnom Penh, CAMBODIA Contact details: Tel: +855 (0)23 364727 Fax: +855 (0)23 210901 E-mail: email@example.com Website:www.southeastasia.forumsyd.org
Name of Respondent: Mrs Seng Sothera Mrs Seng Sothera, 31, is a climate change project officer and capacity development advisor at Forum Syd since 2010. She graduated with a degree in biology from the Royal University of Phnom Penh in and obtained her master's degree in General Management from the Build Bright University (BBU). She previously worked as a network facilitator and climate change educator at NGO forum in Cambodia for four years.
Name of Community: Water Resource Community Address: Kbar Rormeas village, Kbar Rormeas commune, Sesan district, Stung Treng province, Cambodia Te: +855(0)975 771 507
Name of Respondent: Mr Keo Mib Mr Keo Mib is 41 years old and a Water Resource Community leader. The community was established in 2006 and collaborates with CEPA, Oxfam America, My Village organization, and local authorities. The community works on water resources management, which comprises water height and quality monitoring, and water resource and environmental information sharing.
Name of Community : Indigenous People Community Address: Purapit village, Krong tes commune, Pichenda district, in Mondolkiri province, Cambodia Te: +855(0)9756 806 616
Name of Respondent: Mr Tang Din Mr Tang Din, 37, is a deputy leader of the Indigenous People Community at Purapit. His community was established in 2007 and has three main activities: savings group, wood oil gathering, and honey bee collection. The community works with Caritas, DPA, and WWF NGOs. Mr. Din has joined volunteer work on primary emergency rescue with Red Cross.
Name of Community: Samki Community Address: Onsorkdar village, Snar Ansar commune, Krokor district, in Porsat province, Cambodia
Name of Respondent: Mrs Ouk Samat Mrs Ouk Samat is 59 years old, and a Samki community leader. Her community was created in 2009 by facilitation of ACR, CEDAC, Watanak Pheap organization, and local authorities. Those partners supported government initiatives in the area such as vegetable planting, animal raising, health care, gender, savings group, making mats, and making souvenirs for sale.
Name of Community : Water Resource Community Address: Phabang village, Tmorkeo commune, Seam Pang district, Stung Treng province, Cambodia Tel: +855(0)766 608 023
Name of Respondent: Ms Pok Bun Em Ms Pok Bun Em, 22, is a member of Water Resource Community. WRC was created in 2007 in cooperation with CEPA, Vai Vam, and local authorities, and focuses on conservation, environmental information sharing, sanitation, and health care.
Table 3: Basic Information on Survey Respondents
Name of Organization: The NGO Forum on Cambodia Year Established: 1980 Name of Respondent : Mr. Ung Soeun, Environment Project Officer
Address: 119-11, St476, Toul Tompongl, Chamcamong, Phnom Penh, Cambodia E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: (855)-17 443 332 Fax: (855)-23994063
Name of Organization: CEDAC Year Established: 1997 Name of Respondent: Mrs Tong Chantheang, Program Officer
Address: Street 257, #119, Sangkat Teuk La-ak I, Khan Toul Kok Phnom Penh, Cambodia E-mail: email@example.com Website: www.cedac.org.kh Tel: 855-23 880 916 Fax: 855-23 885 146
Name of Organization: The WorldFish Center Name of Respondent: Mr Eam Dyna, Research Officer
Address: Office: #35, Street 71 (Cnr of Mao Tse Tong Blvd.), Sangkat Beng Keng Kang I, Phnom Penh, Cambodia E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.worldfishcenter.org Tel: (+855) 23 223 208 | Fax: (+855) 23 223 209
Name of Organization/Institution: Faculty of Forestry, RUA Year Established: 1985 Name of Respondent: Mr Von Monin
Address: Royal University of Agriculture, Chomkar Dong, Dangkor District, Phnom Penh, Cambodia E-mail: email@example.com Tel: (+ 855) 12 868 827/ 11 313 611 Fax: 855 23364 138/ 219 753
Name of Organization: Pact Inc. Name of Respondent: Mr Chhun Deluxe
Address: Phnom Penh Centre, 3 floor, Phnom Penh, Cambodia E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: (855) 12 586920 | Fax: 855 23 217 856
Name of Organization/Institution: Damneurkar Consulting Year Established: 2010 Name of Respondent: Mr SIM Kong
Address: #14B , Street 418 (c/o AV Printing & Advertising), S/K Toul Tum Poung II, Khan Chamkar Mon, Phnom Penh, Cambodia E-mail: email@example.com Telephone: 855-(0)23 307 094
Name of Organization/Institution: Save Cambodiaâ€™s Wildlife (SCW) Year Established: December 2010 Name of Respondent: Mr Tonnn Kunthel
Address: #150 Eo, Str.192, Teuk Laork 3, Toul Kork, Phnom Penh E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Name of Organization/Institution: Oxfam America Name of Respondent: Mr Nop Polin
Address: 4th floor, #64, St. 108, Phnom Penh E-mail: email@example.com Telephone: 023 210 357 | Fax: 023 223 119
Name of Organization/Institution: Royal University of Phnom Penh Year Established: 1960 Name of Respondent: Mr Chhinh Nyda
Address: Room 216A, RUPP Center Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: 855 12 955 169
Name of Respondent: Mr Sam Chanthy
Email Address: email@example.com
Name of Organization/Institution: Banteay Sre Year Established: 2000 Name of Respondent: Mr Chan Noeng
Address: # 19B, St. 145, Phsar Deum Thkov, Chamkamon, Phnom Penh, Cambodia E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +855 (0) 232 169 22 Fax: +855 (0) 232 169 22
Name of Organization/Institution: Plan International Cambodia Year Established: 2004 Name of Respondent: Mr Khun Bunna
Address: Plan International Cambodia, Room 411, 4th Floor, Block A, Phnom Penh Centre, Sangkat Tonle Basac, Khan Chamkarmon, Phnom Penh, Cambodia E-mail: email@example.com Tel: 012 980 795
Name of Organization/Institution: Dan Church Aid/Christian Aid Name of Respondent: Sam Pagna
Address: #37, street 592, Toul Kok, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: 023 883 254 | Fax: 023 881 616
Name of Organization/Institution: Life with Dignity Year Established: 1979 Name of Respondent: Ms Uk Leakhena
Address: Battambang Province E-mail: email@example.com Tel: +855 92 829 566
Name of Organization/Institution: GERES Year Established: 1976 Name of Respondent: Mr Chheng Ngov veng
Address: House No. 350, St. 350, Boeung Keng Kang 3, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: +855 23 986 891 | Fax: +855 23 221 314
Name of Organization/Institution: Youth Resource Development Program (YRDP) Year Established: 1992 Name of Respondent: Mr SEY Peou
Address: #93, Street 590, Sangkat Boeung Kak II, Phnom Penh, Cambodia E-mail: email@example.com Personal e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: (855-23)880 194 | Fax: (855-23)880 195
Name of Organization/Institution: BUILDING COMMUNITY VOICES (BCV) Year Established: 2008 Name of Respondent: Pry Phally Phuong
Address: # 77, St.390, Sangkat Boeung KangKang III, Phnom Pehn Email Address: email@example.com Telephone: (855-12) 307 027