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RISING TYPE

THE STUDY OF TYPOGRAPHY THROUGH SEA LEVELS

BY MALLORY ADAMS


Copyright Š 2013 By Mallory Adams All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission from the publisher.


CONTENTS

1

TYPE CHARACTERS

2

PUNCTUATION

3

TYPE SETTINGS

4

THE GRID


INTRODUCTION The objective of this project was to put together a book as a "guide to typography". Students were required to develop a concept to present the contents of the book based on the principles of typography. Subjects including the typographic grid, typographic terms, and settings were among a list of topics to be incorporated into the book. The concept of the book was to be portrayed conceptually through abstracted illustrations of vector graphics and/or patterns along with elements of type. A grid system was used to create organization of the content and graphic components on each page. The subject chosen for this book to portray the principles of typography was sea level rise. Sea level rise is a global issue concerned with the rising waters of the earth's oceans. The chapters seen throughout this book not only reveal a few elements of typography, but also the factors that contribute to sea level rise. Pollution is a factor that can be contributed to the rising sea levels with the accelerated degradation of shorelines. Massive amounts of waste and pollutants are dumped into the oceans every year causing build up and the releasing of chemicals that contribute to the increasing speed of eroding shorelines. Not only does pollution play a role in the destruction of the ocean environment, but also in global warming.

Global warming is the most significant factor for the rising levels of the ocean. Carbon dioxide emitted from human activities, cars, and power plants increases the release of pollutants into the air creating a dense blanket trapped in the earth's atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is when the gases released from Earth trap the heat of the sun in the atmosphere. Sunlight hits the Earth's surface and is absorbed, then is radiated back as heat into the Earth's atmosphere. The thick blanket of pollution in the atmosphere prevents heat from escaping, which causes the heat to be reflected back causes the Earth's temperatures to rise. The rising temperatures causes major ice caps to melt giving rise to sea levels. Large bodies of water are a target for absorbing the heat reflected back to Earth and causes warmer ocean temperatures. This is known as thermal expansion and it is the action of water expanding when it is heated. Higher temperatures cause longer melt periods in the summer, later winters, and earlier springs. It gives less time for the ocean to evaporate the expanding space of water into snow, which in turn causes an imbalance of sea levels.


1 TYPE CHARACTERS pollution


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RISING TYPE

CHAPTER ONE: TYPE CHARACTERS


POLLUTION

ALPHABETS

ALPHABETS The Phoenicians, a seafaring and trading nation, are accredited with inventing the first alphabet, around 1250 BC. The Phoenicians spread the alphabet to Greece and the rest of the Mediterranean world. After Phoenician and Aramaic, the Greeks took over the ‘baton’. Out word alphabet was formed from the Greek

letters ‘alpha’ and ‘beta’, meaning ox and house. Around 800 BC, they were using the Phoenician consonantal alphabet plus the Aramaic vowels A (alpha), E (epsilon), O (omicron), Y (upsilon). The I (iota) was a Greek invention. They also started writing from left to right. Slowly but surely, this alphabet became the alphabet of the western world.

3


4

RISING TYPE

GLYPHS A character could be a letter, but also a numeral or a punctuation mark. A ‘glyph’ is a amalgamated mark or an adjusted combination of types within a certain typeface.

CHAPTER ONE: TYPE CHARACTERS


POLLUTION

GLYPHS

5


2 PUNCTUATION global warming


8

RISING TYPE

CHAPTER TWO: PUNCTUATION

DASHES A hyphen is strictly for hyphenating words or line breaks. An en dash is called an en dash because it’s approximately the width of a capital letter N in that particular font and size. It is used between words that indicate a duration, such as time or months or years. Use it where you might otherwise use the word “to”.

The em dash is twice as long as the en dash—its about the size of a capital letter M in whatever size and typeface you’re using at the moment. This dash is often used in place of a colon or parentheses, or it might indicate an abrupt change in thought, or it’s used in a spot where a period is too strong and a comma is too weak.

– –– –– –– –– –– – –– –– –– –– –– –– – –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– – –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– – –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– – –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– – –– – –– –– –– –– – –– –– –– –– – –– –– – – – –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– – –– – – –– – – – – – – – – –– –

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —— —— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —


— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —— — — — — — — — — — — —

GLOBAL WARMING

DASHES

9

- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- -- -- --- -- -- ---- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- --- -- -- ---- -- --- --

--


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RISING TYPE

CHAPTER TWO: PUNCTUATION


GLOBAL WARMING

QUOTATION MARKS

QUOTATIONS MARKS Punctuation mark placed at the beginning and end of a word, quotation, piece of dialogue or phrase, used to indicate that the words do not originate with the narrator. The quotation mark before and after the words are called opening and closing quotation marks respectively. Their form varies according to the language being used.

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RISING TYPE

CHAPTER TWO: PUNCTUATION

HANGING PUNCTUATION Hanging the punctuation is particularly important in larger sizes of text, such as headlines, or in quoted material, no matter what its size. Hanging the period off of the right edge preserves the strength of the alignment. Squint at any text that has a strong flush alignment and notice where the alignment is broken with punctuation. Look at hyphens, periods, commas, single or double quotation

marks, bullets—anything that creates a slight break in the visual continuity. Then hang it. In some cases, like a quote that is set by itself, you can use an outdent to easily hang the punctuation. That is, set the left margin markers to the left of the left indent marker. Inserting nonbreaking spaces is another way to hang punctuation in a short block of text. A thin space takes up about one-fourth the amount of room as an em space.


GLOBAL WARMING

HANGING PUNCTUATION

13

“Melting on the ice’s surface can cause large sections of the ice sheet to break free of its moorings in hours, not millennia.”


3 TYPE SETTINGS thermal expansion


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RISING TYPE

CHAPTER THREE: TYPE SETTING

KERNING Kerning is the process of removing small units of space between letters, the more critical it is to adjust their spacing. Awkward letterspacing not only looks naive and unprofessional, it can disrupt the communication of the words. The secret of kerning is that it is totally dependent on your eye, not on the machine. Some spaces appear to be larger because

of the shapes of the letters—angled or rounded. Remember, the point is to keep the spacing visually consistent— there should visually appear to be the same amount of space between all the letters. It’s not critical how much, nor is it critical that its tight or loose— its critical that it be consistent.


THERMAL EXPANSION

KERNING

UNKERNED

THERMAL EXPANSION KERNED

THERMAL EXPANSION

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RISING TYPE

CHAPTER THREE: TYPE SETTING

8 PT/12 PT

8 PT/11 PT

When water heats up, it expands. About half of the past century’s rise in sea level is attributable to warmer oceans simply occupying more space.

8 PT/10 PT

8 PT/8 PT

When water heats up, it expands. About half of the past century’s rise in sea level is attributable to warmer oceans simply occupying more space.

When water heats up, it expands. About half of the past century’s rise in sea level is attributable to warmer oceans simply occupying more space.

When water heats up, it expands. About half of the past century’s rise in sea level is attributable to warmer oceans simply occupying more space.


THERMAL EXPANSION

LEADING

19

LEADING The distance from the baseline of one line of type to another is called line spacing. It Is also called leading, in reference to the strips of lead used to separate lines of metal type. The default setting in most layout and imaging software is 120 percent of the type size. Designers play with line spacing in order to create distinctive typographic

arrangements. Reducing the standard distance creates a denser typographic color, while risking collisions between ascenders and descenders. Expanding the line spacing creates a lighter, more open text block. As leading increases, lines of type become independent graphic elements rather than parts of an overall visual shape and texture.


4 THE GRID sea level rise


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RISING TYPE

CHAPTER FOUR: THE GRID

MANUSCRIPT GRID The block, or manuscript, grid is structurally the simplest kind of grid. As its name implies, its base structure is a large rectangular area that takes up most of the page. Its job is to accommodate extensive continuous text, like a book or long essay, and it developed from the tradition of written manuscript that eventually led to book printing. It has a primary structure—the text

block and the margins that define its position on a page—as well as a secondary structure that defines other essential details—the location and size relationships of the running header or footer, chapter title, and page numbers along with an area for footnotes, if appropriate.


SEA LEVEL RISE

MANUSCRIPT GRID

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RISING TYPE

CHAPTER FOUR: THE GRID

COLUMN GRID Information that is discontinuous benefits from being organized into an arrangement of vertical columns. Because the columns can be dependent on each other for running text, independent for small blocks of texts, or crossed over to make wider columns, the column grid is very flexible and can be used to separate different kinds of information. For example, some columns may be reserved for running text and large images, while captions may be placed in an adjacent

column: this arrangement clearly separates the captions from the primary material, but allows the designer to create a direct relationship between the captions and the primary material. The width of the columns depends on the size of the running text type. The goal is to find a width that accommodates a comfortable number of characters in one line of type at a given size. If the column is too narrow, excessive hyphenation is likely, and it will be difficult to achieve a uniform rag.


SEA LEVEL RISE

COLUMN GRID

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26

RISING TYPE

MODULAR GRID A modular grid is essentially a column grid with a large number of horizontal flowlines that subdivide the columns into rows, creating a matrix of cells called modules. Each module defines a small chunk of informational space. Grouped together, these modules define areas called spatial zones to which specific roles may be assigned. The degree of control within the grid depends on the size of the modules. Smaller modules provide more flexibility and greater precision, but too many subdivisions can become confusing or redundant.

CHAPTER FOUR: THE GRID


SEA LEVEL RISE

MODULAR GRID

27


Designer: Mallory Adams Class: Typography 2 Instructor: David Hake Title: Rising Type Fonts: Univers LT STD, Serifa STD Software: Adobe Indesign, Illustrator, and Photoshop Printer & Bindery: Chums Design & Print 582 Market St. Suite 100 San Francisco, CA 94107 (415) 399-3834 Academy of Art University School of Graphic Design San Francisco, California 94105 Spring 2010 Content for this book taken from: Letter Fountain The Mac Is Not A Typewriter: A Style Manual For Creating Professional-level Type on Your Macintosh Making and Breaking the Grid Rolling Stone Magazine National Geographic


Typography 2 Book