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DECKING I-405 | Goose Hollow | Portland Connection | Encounter | Community

HAIKU p la nni ng stu d i o


Project Team + Vision Anthony Thompson Anthony grew up in Billings, Montana. He attended the University of Montana - Missoula, and earned a BA in Geography, with an emphasis in Environmental Planning, and a certificate in Geographic Information System Science. During his undergraduate career, he completed a research project on collaborative planning practices and the Columbia River Treaty renegotiation process. He has interned at the City of Billings Planning Division and Yellowstone County GIS Office. He currently lives in Portland, Oregon, and is pursuing a Master of Urban and Regional Planning degree from Portland State University. His other interests include making music and playing in bands, and long walks with his partner Shannon and their dog Badger. Anthony contributed historic research, zoning and regulatory analysis, program selection, and economic analysis to this report.

Mandia Gonzales Mandia is a native to the Bay Area, but a Tucsonian at heart. Mandia attended the University of Arizona in Tucson, where she earned her BS in Regional Development, minor in Architectural History and Theory, and successfully dropped out of the B. Architecture program after 3.5 years. Durring her undergraduate career, she focused much research around place making, tactical urbanism, multi-modal streets, and active transportation. Mandia currently interns at the Bicycle Transporatin Allience, and is currently enjoying the splendors of Portland while pursuing her Master of Urban and Regional Planning degree from Portland State University where she is focusing on Transportation Planning. Mandia contributed as project lead, page layout designer, content editor, program research and selection, and visuals.

This project aims to develop a site that is currently nothing more than airspace above interstate 405. Today, the site offers nothing more to the community than a persistent reminder of the tear in the urban fabric of the historic Goose Hollow neighborhood. The I-405 is a symbol of the disruption and the division that has taken place between Goose Hollow and the rest of Downtown Portland. Haiku Planning + Design envisions the mending of Goose Hollow and Downtown through the innovative reversal of the damage done to the city center by the construction of I-405. Our vision for site development is threefold. First, we envision the creation of much needed public green space in the central Stadium District. We hope that through the creation of community-focused public park space, we can rid the area’s reputation as the “Timbers Wasteland”. This civic space will act as social node for residents and visitors alike, and will serve to strengthen a linear connection between Pioneer Place and Providence Field. This space will act in as an outdoor living room for neighborhood celebrations and block parties. Our goal is to create an active pedestrian-oriented space that can be enjoyed by all Portlanders. Second, we’ve endeavored to plan for the provision of high quality mixed-use development that serves the the diverse needs of Goose Hollow. This site holds great potential to provide some of the much-needed residential space in the neighborhood. Increased residential density in the area is expected to spur the expansion of the localized tax base, thereby attracting business to the neighborhood. All proposed development is envisioned to align with the goals and future vision of Goose Hollow and the City of Portland. We hope to address these visions, missions, and city plans through innovative planning, urban design, and an eye towards future generations of Goose Hollow residents. As in many Portland communities, Goose Hollow is highly involved in the planning processes that takes place in their neighborhood. We strongly encourage the inclusion of Goose Hollow residents and neighborhood associations to engage in the various facets of potential development. Finally, we hope to bring opportunities for small businesses and entrepreneurs through the creation of lively storefronts and live/work spaces, thereby adding to the aggregate prosperity and economic well-being of the greater community. We’ve planned for the provision of venues for commercial activity on site and hope to encourage community-oriented local businesses to take root in Goose Hollow. Through our planning, Haiku endeavors to anchor a connection between Downtown and Goose Hollow, implement innovating planning practices in Portland, and to spur economic development in the neighborhood vicinity.

Eduardo Montejo Eduardo is a Los Angeles native who’s spent the majority of his life living in Las Vegas, NV. Eduardo attended the University of Nevada-Las Vegas, where he received a Bachelor of Environmental Studies from the Greenspun College of Urban Affairs and a Minor in Solar and Renewable Energy from the Howard R. Hughes College of Engineering. As an undergrad, Eduardo served as the President of the UNLV Sierra Student Coalition for two consecutive terms while focusing on environmental policy, sustainable urban design, and active transportation. Eduardo currently works as the Project Manager for the Port of Portland Waste Minimization Team and is Pursuing a Master of Urban and Regional Planning degree from Portland State University.

GOAL | “Bridge the Divide” Eduardo contributed graphic and conceptual design; mapping and visualization; 3D modeling; and environmental research.

Create a linear connection between Pioneer Square and Providence Park Reconnect Goose Hollow with the rest of Downtown Respond to community needs and Provide spaces for Encounter and Connection Create a civic Space to be enjoyed by all Portlanders


Table of Contents OVERVIEW

1

PROGRAM SELECTION

20

Location

1

Proposed Development

20

Site Character

2

Proposed ROW Changes

21

Site History

3

Improved Conditions

22

ans Precedent Plans

4

Planning for Opportunity

23

5

Envisioned Architecture

24

Transit Accessibilityy

5

Urban Profile + Environment

25

Walkability + Access to Downtown

6

Market Analysis

26

Food + Beverage Opportunities

7

Adjacent Land Usess

8

Zoning Code Analysis

9

Existing Plans + Overlays

10

RXd + District Overlay

11

Zoning Summaryy

12

Approval Process

13

Public Participationn

14

PROGRAM ALTERNATIVES

15

Building the Vision

15

Engineering the Vision

16

Program Alternatives

17

Preferred Alternative

19

SITE ANALYSIS

ENVISIONING 2030 Sustainable Solutions

28

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Location

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Historic Goose Hollow l This site stands at the concy

fluence of many of Goose Hollow’s historic elements. It is surrounded by several historic buildings featuring rich architectural details that reflect the character of Goose Hollow. Within a 5 minute walk from the site, one can spot various public art projects and installations, such as the iconic Facing the Crowd installation by Michael Stutz. However, all of this urban beauty is plagued by the noise and air pollution emanating from I-405. There is also a high rate of office vacancy in the area.

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Site Character


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Site History Parcel of proposed development 1889 - 2014

1889

According the Sanborn Fire Insurance maps, According to thetoSanborn Fire Insurance maps, the site was the site was occupied by a home as early as occupied a home as early as 1889, 1889,by accompanied by two smalleraccompanied structures. by two smaller structures.

1924

1901

By 1901, bowling alleys and a bandstand were added to By 1901, bowling alleys and a bandstand were the site, along withsite, a cage and outhouse. added to the along with a cage and outhouse.

1964

1909

These did not last long, however, as by 1909

Thesethedidbandstand not standwas for long, By 1909, the gone,however. and the bowling alleys had been converted to a boarding bandstand was gone, and the bowling alleys had house and stable. been converted to a boarding house and stable.

2014

The first home in Goose Hollow was built in 1857, making Goose Hollow one of Portland’s oldest neighborhoods. The first resident of Goose Hollow was Daniel Lownsdale, who opened a tannery where Providence Park now stands. The tannery played a significant role in boosting commerce for the young frontier town. Goose Hollow has a long history that encompasses a diversity of people and cultures. In the early days of the city, there were Native American encampments in which native women sold baskets, kindling, and berries to nearby households. From 1870 to 1909, Chinese farmers rented land in the hollow. Their farms covered twenty-one acres of Goose Hollow, including the slopes and the gulch where Lincoln High School, the Multnomah Amateur Athletic Club, and Multnomah Stadium were later built. It is clear that Goose Hollow housed many of Portland’s merchant and capitalist class—some German, some Jewish, some British—who built homes in the heights that are now part of Goose Hollow. The low-lying area around Tanner Creek and the hollow was populated by blue-collar laborers who were mostly German, Irish, and Jewish immigrants. This site has enormous history around commerce and entrepreneurial opportunities which we have considered in our proposed development program. Over time, Goose Hollow has been altered to a great extent, starting with the underground diversion of Tanner Creek and the construction of the Cable Car canyon. At the turn of the twentieth century, cable cars and streetcars transformed the neighborhood but were left behind a few decades later as the city changed to accommodate automobiles. The 1960s brought urban renewal, and the construction of Interstate 405 demolished large chunks of the neighborhood, separating Goose Hollow from many of its neighboring communities. Our site is unique in that in it provides enormous opportunities to mend that fabric and reconnect Goose Hollow with the rest of downtown.

By 1924, thebecame site became the Pacific Tele- & In 1924, the site homehome to thetoPacifi c Telephone phone & Telegraph Company offices. Telegraph Company offices.

Pacific Telephone & Telegraph office building TheThe Pacifi c Telephone & Telegraph building remained remained on the site until at least 1964, and was on the site untiltoatconstruct least 1964, and was demolished to demolished I-405. construct I-405.

is currently occupied I-405 TheThe sitesite is currently occupied byby thethe I-405 freeway. freeway.


4

Timeline of Proposals to Cap I-405

Oct. 1998 Mayor Vera Katz proposes “Bridge the Divide Cap I-405” Vera Katz pushed the idea to build caps over the sunken interstate of I-405 in an attempt to heal the wounds caused by the creation of I-405, to reconnect neighborhoods, and to add back 28 of the 36 blocks that were destroyed by the building of the freeway.

Sep. 2000 I-405 Strategy Team Final Report The Strategy Team recommends developing the 2 1/2 blocks between SW Taylor and SW Alder Streets as a demonstration project. This segment includes two crossings (SW Morrison and SW Yamhill) of the MAX Westside Light Rail alignment.

Jul.2005

N/A

Freeway Loop Study: Project Summary Report

Catalyst Development Areas Produced by City of Portland

Produced by the Freeway Loop Advisory Group (FLAG). FLAG reviewed near- and longterm transportation, land use, and urban design issues regarding the I-5/405 Freeway Loop. This group was appointed by Mayor Vera Katz and ODOT Director Bruce Warner. Of the many suggestions by FLAG, there was an initial decking project at Yamhill to 1/2 block N of Alder. The report briefly mentioned decking as a component of larger freeway redesign project.

The CDA suggests building a cap over I-405 between West Burnside and NW Couch as a way to provide an opportunity to develop a gateway project. It would help reconnect the Pearl, West End, Northwest Districts and Goose Hollow neighborhoods. Their goal is to stimulate redevelopment of nearby properties that have limited access due to the freeway gap.

Apr. 2013

Aug. 2013

Goose Hollow Urban Design Study University of Oregon - Architecture Student Study

Central City 2035: West Quadrant Plan (Draft) PEDESTRIANS TRANSPORTATION MODAL CONCEPTS

Freeway cap has been built over the I-405 between Salmon and Jefferson Streets, strengthening the connection of Goose Hollow to Portland State University. The idea for the freeway cap, first advanced by Mayor Vera Katz, creates an opportunity to provide a long-awaited community park. The new park provides a rich array of recreational and amenities.

Create a highly accessible, safe and convenient pedestrian environment. • Place making • Street network • Transit corridors • Major activity areas (e.g. retail, institutions, employment) • Open spaces (e.g. Park Blocks to River)

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Precedent Plans


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Transit Accessibility Transit + Pedestrian Oriented One of the motivations for selecting this particular site over other sites above the I-405 is due to the various transit opportunities it affords the public. Within a 1/4 mile of the site, there is abundant access to the MAX, the Portland Streetcar, TriMet bus routes, and bicycle infrastructure. This is a prime location for transit and pedestrian oriented development. This site also offers vast opportunities for creating a neighborhood center for Goose Hollow’s residents and strengthening the east/west corridor along Yamhill and Morrison.


6

Walkability + Access to Downtown Using the address of the Tiffany Center located directly west of the site, we were able to use WalkScore.com as a way to gauge walkability within the neighborhood. Although their data may not take into account many of the physical features in a neighborhood, such as the availability of sidewalks, it does calculate access to “urban amenities” that are valued by residents. Walk Score is becoming increasingly valuable to renters and home buyers, therefore we believe it is a relevant source in considering our development options.

20 m in. 15 . min 10

Walkability

The site received a walk score of 95, transit score of 90, and a bike score of 94. Virtually all of Downtown Portland is accessible within a 5 to 20 minute walk from the site.

min .

Goose Hollow’s Historic Character Walking through Goose Hollow you encounter an array of architectural and cultural history. This history is all around and can be experienced within a mile of the site. There are recognizable qualities that make this neighborhood unique and express the character of Goose Hollow and the inner city.

5 min.

There is a clear dedication to maintaining and celebrating historic architecture, to providing cultural outlets in secular and non-secular means, and the expression of the community through various street art project, illicit or not. Overall, this site is a pedestrian wonderland offering an array of experiences and visual stimulation.

0

1000’

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Transit MAX TransitStations Stations


7

Food + Beverage Opportunites Bars Cafe/Limited Service

5m in.

Coffee Shops

lk wa

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Legend

Markets/Groceries Restaurants

Spurring Commercial Development West of the I-405 One of the goals of Haiku Planning was to stimulate retail growth on the west of the I-405 through the creation of pedestrian-oriented frontage. The density of bars, cafes, markets, and restaurants on the eastern end of the I-405 is significantly greater than in Goose Hollow. Therefore, there stands a great opportunity to stimulate the growth of these food and beverage sectors through innovative planning and urban design.

SITE

Through the creation of outdoor seating, window cafes, and anchor neighborhood marketplaces, we stimulate economic development and open new avenues for propserty in Goose Hollow. These improvements will also help to bridge the sectoral gaps between Downtown Portland and the Goose Hollow neighborhood. Haiku Planning envisions Goose Hollow as the midpoint between Downtown dwellers and the Timbers Army. The space created by decking the I-405 shall serve as gathering spaces to enjoy Portland’s culinary creations and renowned northwestern brews.

0

400’


8

Legend Retail/Commercial Office/Commercial Civic/Education/Churches Multi-Family Industrial

SITE

Surrounding Uses The site is zoned RXd but borders CXd as well. This creates a variety of building uses around the site. Most adjacent are office buildings and civic related buildings, with a strong retail and commercial area to the northeast. As you will notice, current residential uses are limited around the site, which is surprising considering the connectivity to greater Portland provided by the MAX line, which runs on either side of the site.

Demographics Looking at Census tract 52 data from the ACS 2008-2012, we are able to provide a snapshot of the area surrounding the site.

0

200’

Total Population | 4,046 Population Density | 16,714 people/sq. mile Education | 59.2% of residents have a college degree Median household income| $29,528 Average household income | $42,053 Number of Housing Units | 3,488 Renter Occupied | 2,711 Unemployment Rate | 9.7%

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Adjacent Land Uses


9

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Zoning Code Analysis RXd | The site for the proposed I-405 Decking Project is currently zoned as RX. RX allows for high density multi-dwelling developments, and allows the highest density of dwelling units of the residential zones. Density is not regulated by a maximum number of units per acre. Rather, the maximum size of buildings and intensity of use are regulated by floor area ratio (FAR) limits and other site development standards. Generally the density will be 100 or more units per acre. Allowed housing developments are characterized by a very high percentage of building coverage (Title 33/Planning/Zoning). The major types of new housing development will be medium and high rise apartments and condominiums, often with allowed retail, institutional, or other service oriented uses. Generally, RX zones will be located near the center of the city where transit is readily available and where commercial and employment opportunities are nearby. RX zones will usually be applied in combination with the Central City plan district.

Requirements + Restrictions Design (d) Overlay Zone

Central City Plan District

The Design Overlay Zone promotes the conservation, enhancement, and continued vitality of areas of the City with special scenic, architectural, or cultural value. This is achieved through the creation of design districts and applying the Design Overlay Zone as part of community planning projects, development of design guidelines for each district, and by requiring design review or compliance with the Community Design Standards. In addition, design review or compliance with the Community Design Standards ensures that certain types of infill development will be compatible with the neighborhood and enhance the area. Selected restrictions that apply to the I-405 Decking project are:

The proposed site for the I-405 Deck is located within the Central City District’s West End Subarea, which defines modified zoning regulations for proposed RX developments. District level zoning overlays that supercede base zoning regulations for the proposed site for the I-405 deck modify uses, design, FAR, Maximum Height, Required Building Lines, and Parking Access.

A. Ensure that increased density in established neighborhoods makes a positive contribution to the area’s character; B. Ensure the historic integrity of conservation landmarks and the compatibility of new development in conservation districts;

Site

C. Enhance the character and environment for pedestrians in areas designated as design zones.

District and Design Overlays

A detailed summary of base and zoning overlays is included in the following pages of this site plan.


10

Central City Plan District (33.510) Downtown Subdistrict, West End Subarea (Map 510-1) Type A Site (Map 510-14) The site is located within the West End subarea of the Downtown subdistrict of the Central City plan district. The West End subarea is intended to promote high-density residential development through a mandate that 50% of created floorspace for a full block project will be in residential use, with the minimum RX residential density requirement met (one unit per 500 sq ft of site area). The remainder of the floorspace is regulated as a Type A site, allowing for use discretion, including use as open space. The residential use mandate does not apply to projects covering less than a full block (33.510.118). Transfer of floor area across rights-of-way are prohibited in the Downtown subdistrict, precluding the transfer of floorspace to adjoining halfblocks for the creation of a full-block plaza (33.510.199). These restrictions may force a Planned Unit Development in order to pursue a more creative site design. Site Although no longer an official document used by the City of Portland, we feel it is important to keep in mind the urban design vision and goals as described in the 1996 Goose Hollow District Design Guidelines. Such as the following:

A5-6 | Incorporate works of art or other special design features that increase the public enjoyment of the District A8 | Contribute to the cityscape, the stage and the action B1 | Reinforce and enhance the pedestrian system B5 | Make plazas, parks, and open spaces successful C1 | Respect architectural integrity

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Existing Plans + Overlays


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RXd + District Overlay OVERVIEW l SITE ANALYSIS l PROGRAM ALTERNATIVES l PROGRAM SELECTION l ENVISIONING 2030

Detailed Zoning Summary

A

Base Zoning: RXd - High Density Multi-Unit Residential (33.120) with Design Overlay (33.825). Design overlay Subdistrict 1, Downtown (Map 420-1). All base standards apply unless specified below.

District Plans: Central City Plan District (33.510)

Design Districts: SE half of site: Downtown design district, NW half, Goose Hollow design district (Same with Parking districts)

Central City Plan District (33.510) Downtown Subdistrict, West End Subarea (Map 510-1) Type A Site (Map 510-14) The site is located within the West End subarea of the Downtown subdistrict of the Central City plan district. The West End subarea is intended to promote high-density residential development through a mandate that 50% of created floorspace for a full block project will be in residential use, with the minimum RX residential density requirement met (one unit per 500 sq ft of site area). The remainder of the floorspace is regulated as a Type A site, allowing for use discretion, including use as open space. The residential use mandate does not apply to projects covering less than a full block (33.510.118). Transfer of floor area across rights-of-way are prohibited in the Downtown subdistrict, precluding the transfer of floorspace to adjoining half-blocks for the creation of a full-block plaza (33.510.199). These restrictions may force a Planned Unit Development in order to pursue a more creative site design.

Goose Hollow District Design Guidelines Although no longer an official document used by the City of Portland, we feel it is important to keep in mind the urban design vision and goals as described in the 1996 Goose Hollow District Design Guidelines. Such as the following: A5-6 | Incorporate works of art or other special design features that increase the public enjoyment of the District A8 | Contribute to the cityscape, the stage and the action B1 | Reinforce and enhance the pedestrian system B5 | Make plazas, parks, and open spaces successful C1 | Respect architectural integrity

B


12

(1) Story high-rise penthouse floor – 12ft. (1) Story high rise luxury residential -- 11ft.

Allowable by Code 1 Block : 40,000 sq. ft. Floor to Area (FAR): 9:1 Min Residential Floor Area: 200 sq.ft. Max Open Space: 200 sq. ft.

(32) Stories residential -- 10ft x 32 stories = 320ft mixed residential units

Max Allowable Height: 325 ft. No parking within 75 ft. feet of Yamhill or Morrison St. Max. Building Set-back: 10 ft.

(1) Story ground-level retail – 12ft.

Min. Building Set-back: 0 ft. Required building lines up to the lot line at least 15 ft. in elevation, or within 12 ft. of sidewalk. Pedestrian Enhancing - On all surrounding blocks Design + Historic Review Eco-Roof = FAR Bonus of an additional 3ft of floor area per sq. foot of eco-roof (120,000 sq. ft. - approximately 3 extra floors)

Note: Only one block is zoned, but at maximum build-out this would apply to all blocks (1, 2, & 3).

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Zoning Summary


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Approval Process Planned Development Type 1x Process

Decision subject to public notice requirements

If not, applicant has 180 days to complete

Optional Pre-application Conference

Submit Application for Planned Development

DAY 1

Review Application for Completeness

DAY 21

Notice of Decision Public Notice

Decision made administratively

Appeal to LUBA

DAY 66 State law requires a final decision within 120 days after the applications has been received

Regulatory Framework + Code Adjustments to be Requested Our site program responds to the intent of the West End Subarea minimum residential density requirements while also creating a pedestrian-oriented open space. The Central City required building lines are met with the exception of the plaza (see page 16 for the preferred alternative). However, certain features of the plaza could be implemented to address this as well (think the columns at Pioneer Square). No code adjustments will be requested, as the site plan is intended for a planned development process, which circumvents the need for adjustments. Given the scale and unique nature of this proposal, and the fact that every effort has been made to ensure that any deviations from the existing code are met in effect, planned development approval is expected given municipal and neighborhood support.

Final Decision


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Public Involvement Stakeholders

Interests + Demands

Focus on Needs

Next Steps

City of Portland

Invest to reduce disparities Promote inclusive public process Build a resilient economy Create healthy and complete neighborhoods Connect people and places Design with nature Respond to local context

Engage with all necessary City agencies early and often Engage with ODOT early and often Review the zoning code and comprehensive plan Build a project that reflects the values, goals, and characteristics of Portland

Continue to review zoning code Meet with officials Set -up meetings and site visits

Goose Hollow Neighborhood Association

Respect the character of the neighborhood Honor the history of the district Listen and respond to community needs and concerns Collaborative planning

Listen to needs and challenges they have identified Have them lead in the public engagement process Let them review initial plans and allow enough time for citizen feedback

Ask to be placed on their next meeting agenda Invite them to be part of site development process

Business Neighbors

Increase foot traffic Enhance retail experience Provide more retail space options

Engage them early and often as the project develops Listen to their needs Show them how the project is meeting regulations

Meet with them one-on-one Invite them into the public participation process

Resident Neighbors

Ask them what they would like to see in this space Listen to their concerns about development

Private fund, and potentially some public funds, will be spent to further enhance the neighborhood

Engage them early with surveys and focus group conversations Invite them to be involved in the process

Bureau of Development Services Bureau of Planning and Sustainability Oregon Department of Transportation

Public Response|

The project is centered in the Goose Hollow neighborhood, a neighborhood that prides itself on its

long history and unique character. Proposing development of the site would require outreach and support from the local community. After looking over multiple documents that have been produced by the Vision Realization Committee, we believe that they will be very supportive of a project that reconnects Goose Hollow and downtown, and boost economic vitality in the area. Perhaps the biggest challenges will be encountered around aesthetics and place making, as many of Goose Hollows Neighborhood Association members are composed architects and designers. Along with this, neighboring individuals might have objections to increased density, particularly if the development creates increased demand for limited on-street parking. However, providing a well-designed and thoughtful project should combat most of the communities fears.

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Public Participation


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Building the Vision Three Blocks are Better Than One Originally, our planning team set out to create a community-centered proposal for decking only one block of the airspace currently hovering above the I-405. Upon deeper analysis of the regulatory environment, the needs of Goose Hollow, and serious considerations regarding the urban form that would result from the proposed development, we opted to produce four distinct site plan alternatives covering three blocks -- the central block bordered to the north and south by Yamhill and Morrision, in addition to the adjacent northern and southern blocks. Our rational for our decision to expand the scope of our capping proposal is as follows: Cost l The cost of planning, architecture, engineering, and construction of only one block was deemed to be an inefficient development without the incorportation of additional blocks. The substantial capital and coordination required to excecute the capping of a single block facilitates coinciding opportunities to cap additional blocks. Furthermore, redevelopment efforts of these blocks in the future will likely not be as expensive as they would be if revdevelopment was starting from “ground zero”. Urban Form l One of the primary objectives of our planning studio was to eliminate the visual blight of the freeway for pedestrians walking throught the proposed development. By only capping one block, the I-405 would still be visible to pedestrains walking along Yamhill, Morrison, SW 13th, and SW 14th. By capping three blocks, we eliminate these views, and also create a distinctly urban space at the core of the Stadium District. Public / Private Partnerships l District The political approval process for this kind of development is likely to be controversial. Therefore, any public/ private support for this project ought to take full advantage of the opportunities provided by the site and its adjacent areas. By shifting the proposal to three blocks, we facilitate the mitigation of freeway noise, air pollution, and the fragmentation of Downtown Portland + Goose Hollow for future actors. Innovative Planning l This proposal is intended to reflect the forward-thinking, innovative planning practices that have positioned Portland as an international example of sustainable urbanism, strong civic culture, and a thriving arts community. Through a bold proposal for FAR transfer from the central block to the two adjacent blocks, we demonstrate that Goose Hollow is not afraid of being on the cutting edge of city planning. This kind of innovation -- while potentially more contentious -- is like to receive equally ethusiastic support from Portland’s forward-thinking political leaders. Former Mayor Vera Katz was the strongest proponet of the I-405 capping project in 1998.


16

Case Studies

Engineering + Cost Cap I-405 Strategy Report (Sep. 2000)

I-670 Columbus Highway Cap Columbus, Ohio Use: Commercial Amenities: pedestrian oriented design, retail, entertainment, restaurants Size: 1.12 acres Completion: 2004 Cost: $7.8 million

In concept, capping I-405 is straightforward. The structural system required to withstand the proposed cap is similar to the existing bridge structures at SW Taylor and SW Alder. A precast deck system will be used as the main structural component to span the freeway. The use of a precast system, or other premanufactured systems, will limit the construction time required to cap the freeway -- which must remain operational. Pile foundations will be constructed in the center median, along with a series of columns and center beams, which will support the precast girders and concrete deck. The proposed structural system will act as the foundation for future development.

I-91/I-84 Interchange |Riverfront Plaza

The current design concept allows for an approximate 1,000-psf superimposed load. This loading capacity will typically support the addition of a seven-story, steel-frame building with parking located on the lowest level of the cap. Given the site grades, the most likely solution will be to enter the parking level at the northeast (lowest) corner of each lot.

Hartford, Connecticut Use: Plaza Amenities: river front access, terraced plaza, pedestrian & bicycle pathways Size: 1.5 acres Completion: 2000 Cost: $140 million

I-5 Freeway Park Seattle, Washington Use: Park Amenities: waterfalls, fountains, pedestrian connection, municipal garage Size: 5 acres Completion: 1976 Cost: $23 million

Estimated Costs How much will it cost to build the cop? To answer this question, we must ask: “What are we building and what does the cost include?� The best analogy is that we are building foundations or creating land for future buildings and public amenities. The primary complication is that we are building over the I- 405 freeway, which must continue to operate during construction. In order to determine the cost of the project, Kiewit Construction Company provided a cost estimate based on the conceptual design. The cost for constructing the deck is estimated to be $16 million for the 21/2 blocks at the MAX site. This includes the structural cost for supporting the public portion of the project, which accounts for about 11,800 square feet or about $2 million. This estimate is based on 2000 costs. Given precendent studies of similar freeway capping projects, we feel confident stating that this is a relatively inexpensive project -- particularly considering the projected fiscal benefits the project will bring Goose Hollow and the greater Portland Community.

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Engineering the Vision


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Program Alternatives Alternative 2 4th A ve. SW 1

4th A ve. SW 1

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High-rise mixed-use | Commercial + Apartments

Civic Space | Park + Plaza

Construct conventional mixed-use structures on three caps of freeway

Construct public open space on all three caps

PROS | Permissible under current zoning. Creates required building lines and desired urban form. Meets neighborhood and district goals for housing density. Reduces noise and air pollution. Retail | Office | Residential

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Alternative 1

Public Plaza + Park

CONS | Adequate access to parking and utilities could be difficult. Occupants of structures abutting open freeway on the north and south side would experience significant noise impacts. Provides no public open space outside of sidewalk amenities adjacent to commercial uses. And lastly, there would be significant structural expenses to creat a cap that hold the load of a high-rise residential complex.

Civic Space | Plaza + Event Center

Retail + Residential Public Park + Garden

100’

PROS | Creation of ample public space in area with limited access. Limited parking, utility, and waste requirements. Provides noise/air pollution reduction benefits. CONS | Requires significant departure from current zoning requirements for full-block projects. Does not create building lines or desired urban form as envisioned by the City of Portland. Private funding could be difficult to secure given limited monetization options.


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100’

100’

Mixed-use | Commercial + Apartments + Public Garden

Mixed-use | Commercial +Live/Work + Plaza

Construct a mixed-use structure on cap 2, while constructing halfblock caps on caps 1 and 3 for public open space

Construct full block caps on all three blocks, and place mixed use structures on caps 1 and 3, with public open space on cap 2. Far south and far north half blocks to house live/work spaces with retail on ground floor.

Public Plaza + Park

PROS | Entirely permissible under current zoning, requiring no variances. Less induced parking load than alternatives 1 and 3b. Provides some of the required building lines.

Residential + Commercial

CONS | Half-block caps provide less noise and air pollution reduction benefits than fullblock caps. Any pedestrian-oriented space in front of the buildings would directly abut the MAX tracks. Parking access extremely limited by Central City plan district. Poses barriers to potential future build-out of the rest of the freeway airspace.

Public Green space + Community Garden

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Live/Work Space + Commercial

PROS | Creates urban form and building lines while also providing a full block of public open space, creating a meaningful, pedestrian-oriented connection between Pioneer Place and Providence Park. Meets district density requirements for all three blocks given successful transfer of FAR. Parking access more feasible than Alternative 3a. Live/work occupants may be more amenable to adjacency to open freeway. Commercial uses would not abut the MAX lines. Parking access would be easier to configure than Alternative 3a.

Residential + Commercial

CONS | Not permissible under current zoning. Requires Planned Development approval of transferred FAR. Would require taller structures than Alternatives 1 and 3a to meet minimum density requirements, possibly a problem for architectural/neighborhood cohesion and structural soundness of cap development. Public Plaza

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SW 1

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Alternative 3b (Preferred) 4th A ve.

Alternative 3a


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4th A ve. SW1

Live/Work Space with Commercial at Street Level

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Civic Plaza with Garden Space

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Preferred Alternative

Residential with Commercial at Street Level


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Site Features Creating Community Eco-Roof Eyes on the Street Loading Dock/Trash/ Utilities 15 ft. Set-backs Fountain/Detention Basin Edible Commons

Retail/Storefront Cafe/ Outdoor Space Live/Work Space

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Proposed Development


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14 ft

16 ft

12 ft

11 ft

53 ft

STREET PLOTS S

SW MORRISON

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Proposed Right of Way Changes

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TEMPORARY ART

TEXTURE

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Overall, the surrounding streetscape is in great condition. Surrounding the site are wide sidewalks, mature trees, and a variety of transit options. However, we propose some minor alterations aimed at enhancing pedestrian saftey and making the walking experience more enjoyable.

Vegetated Buffers The northern-most and southern-most sidewalks along Yamhill and Morrison are wide enough to allow for the installation of vegetated buffers and street trees. These vegetated urban features provide pedestrians with protection from vehicle and MAX traffic, while also serving as traffic-calming devices and as stormwater management features. Furthermore, these facilites create a welcoming on-street atmosphere for users of the newly created mixed-used frontage. Planters could house gardens of edibles and flowers. Street art, both illicit and not, was found around our site. We encourage tactical urbanism and temporary projects that reflect the artistic character of Goose Hollow. We also encourage the use of textures on the ground to delineate spaces and provide visual cues for curious visitors.

11 ft

12 ft

16 ft

14 ft

53 ft

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4TH

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15 ft

8 ft

8 ft

24 ft

6 ft 76 ft

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Sidewalk Widening

SEATING

13th and 14th avenues feature mature trees, existing bike lanes, and accomodate a substantial amount of on-street parking. Alterations were made on the west side of 13th, and the east side of 14th. These sidewalks run parallel to I-405 and offer little pedestrian comfort -- sidewalks are narrow and not well maintained, and the walk is rather distressing due to noise from interstate traffic.

STREET ART

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15 ft

SW 14TH

Our proposal is to widen these sidewalks from 5 to 15ft.

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6 ft

24 ft 55 ft

8 ft

SW 13TH

12 ft

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Additional suggestion include painting the existing bike lane green to improve visibility, expand bike parking facilities for visitors and residents, and to install vegetated planters with seating for people watching, waiting for restaurants, and enjoying lunch outside.

GREEN BUFFER

15 ft

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Improved p Conditions The site also benefits from our decking proposal through improvements to marked crossings surrounding the site, enhancing the safety of strolling pedestrians. SW 13th and SW 14th will serve as major north/south bike routes.

SW1 4th A ve.

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The expansion of parking accomodations is not required under the zoning code due to its adjacency to MAX along SW Morrison and SW Yamhill. Currently, there is generous onstreet parking parrallel to our proposed three-block development. Under circumstances of

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increased traffic volumes, there is a pay-to-use private garage that offers hourly, weekly, and monthly rates within two blocks of the site. Existing on-street parking contributes to the safety and comfort of cyclists and pedestrians by acting a buffer from street and MAX traffic. Portlanders enjoying the outdoor cafe experience similarly benefit from these virtual buffers protecting them vehicle traffic.

Loading + Trash + Utilities

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Delivery trucks and trash pick-up will have two designated spaces. Both are located on SW 14th, which could be restricted at all times of day or during business hours only. SW 14th was chosen as the access corridor for loading, trash, and utilities since it will not interfere will the flow of bicycle traffic and is compliant with regulations that limit parking access within 75ft. of MAX tracks on Yamhill + Morrison.

Tri Met Bus #15 & #51 MAX

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Bike Lane

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Circulation + Access

On-street Parking

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Delivery Truck/Loading Dock

Bus Stop


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DayCare

Groceries

Arts

Social

Providing Spaces for Activities

Fun

Relaxing

Edible

Events

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Planningg for Opportunity pp y


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Urban Profile + Environment

50’

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Urban Canyon| Our proposal for decking the I-405 truly creates a new and distinctively urban space in center

Sun path| All three blocks are oriented in general SW-NE direction, with

in Goose Hollow. Depicted in the diagram above is the urban enclosure or “canyon” we create by developing the northern and southern blocks facing the central green space.

the highest average amount of sun during the work hours coming from the Southwest. Significant Views | Include partial views of Fremont Bridge to the to the Northeast, the West Hills to the Southwest, and some viewes from the street towards downtown CBD to the East.

Summer Solstice

Equinox

Winter Solstice

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The brick facade blends into the surrounding and existing architecture, much of which was built from various sizes and colors of brick. What is particularly interesting about this architecture style is that it maintains a historic feel, while simultaneously being enveloped in a modern structure that adds visual appeal.

Although a modern and minimalistic piece of architecture, we are drawn to the abundant glass storefronts that offer great visibility to businesses. Although composed mostly of glass, we particularly like the brick accent that distinguishes the different functions of the building. This design concept could be used to differentiate the live/ work space from the multi-family residents on the same block.

This style of architecture may be suited to our live/work building more so then our multi-family residents. The block like facade could be reinforced with walls that reduce noise pollution, making the spaces on the north and south end of our site that face the interstate more desirable. This blocked face can also allow for windows to coordinated with views, thus eliminating the sight of the interstate as well.

We are drawn to the colorful storefronts and industrial feel of this architectural design. We believe that this treatment will do well on the ground floor of the live/work space allowing for individuals to customize the units to based on their needs, while the color scheme allows for visual interest on the street and sets an identity for the business that inhabits the space.

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Envisioned Architecture


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Market Analysis OVERVIEW l SITE ANALYSIS l PROGRAM ALTERNATIVES l PROGRAM SELECTION l ENVISIONING 2030

Market Findings From Trulia.com and Zillow.com

Stabilization of the Residential Real Estate Market

Summary for Goose Hollow : The median sales price for homes in Goose Hollow for Dec 13 to Mar 14 was $244,000. This represents a decline of 6.7%, or $17,400, compared to the prior quarter and an increase of 3.8% compared to the prior year. Sales prices have depreciated 43.9% over the last 5 years in Goose Hollow, Portland. The median sales price of $244,000 for Goose Hollow is 12.86% lower than the median sales price for Portland OR. Average listing price for homes on Trulia in Goose Hollow was $480,011 for the week ending Mar 05, which represents a decline of 9.6%, or $50,754 compared to the prior week and an increase of 4.7%, or $21,518, compared to the week ending Feb 12. Average price per square foot for homes in Goose Hollow was $313 in the most recent quarter, which is 44.24% higher than the average price per square foot for homes in Portland.

Proposed development over the freeway blocks could encourage the development of a vibrant, mixed-use area with new commercial, retail, and office opportunities in the “Flats” part of the district. Development should also seek to capitalize on activity generated by Provident Park and encourage complementary redevelopment in the area bounded by Burnside, Salmon, the I-405, and SW 20th emphasizing local businesses of moderate scale and supporting year-round functions, such as theatres, restaurants, hotels, pubs, cafes, and galleries. Capping three blocks of the I-405 corridor also supports Transportation goals imbedded within Goose Hollow’s District Goals, Policies, and Actions, which call for Circulation and Connectivity between Providence Park, Lincoln High School, and Multnomah Athletic Club, various religious institutions, and Pioneer Square.

Map 1. Current Commercial Market Profile for Goose Hollow. Grey arrows indicate commercial property values, all on a positive trajectory. However, compared to neighboring areas (areas just west of Goose Hollow and Downtown Portland to the east) new listings and real estate sales exhibit market depression (in our case, this is more like market stagnation – not a lot of action). This is indicative of a slow but promising market, which is likely impeded by the physical gash in Goose Hollow’s Stadium District.

Goose Hollow’s residential real estate market follows Portland’s general growth trajectory, although variation in the market is significantly higher. The data exhibit market swings and instability well before the 2008 Subprime Mortgage Crisis, and continue to do so in greater oscillations until today. At the fulcrum of the Stadium District and Downtown Portland, the proposed freeway caps offer Goose Hollow an opportunity to stabilize the residential housing market by anchoring attractive mixed-use development in the neighborhood core. This also supports Goose Hollow’s Draft District Goals, Polices, and Actions by promoting Goose Hollow as a Regional Center and hub for economic development and innovation.

Figure 1. Median Sales Prices for Residential Real Estate in Goose Hollow vs. Portland (2000 – 2014).

Stimulate Residential Sales in Goose Hollow Not only does Goose Hollow’s residential housing market exhibit more variability than the rest of the Portland Area, but it also lags behind in terms off total sales per year. Redevelopment in the area (capping the freeway blocks) ought to stimulate newfound interest in the neighborhood. Mixed-used developments on the freeway blocks can encourage growth in the employment sector, residences, and business proliferation. Figure 2 - Number of Residential Real Estate Sales in Goose Hollow vs. Portland (2000 – 2014).

Promote Mixed-Income Residential and Business Goose Hollow has a great opportunity for property tax revenues due to the high cost of living in the neighborhood. The problem, however, is that there is currently little incentive for speculative buyers or renters relative to the premium to reside in Goose Hollow. Capping the I-405 and the promotion of innovative businesses, public open space, and pedestrian-oriented life brings the promise of enticing the regional market to focus more intently on the urban amenities offered by Goose Hollow and the Stadium District. There is also a clear opportunity to provide Portlanders with more affordable housing options should they become interested in taking up residence in Goose Hollow. Currently, the residential market structure is prohibitive towards low-income individuals including students, minorities, and the elderly. It would be in the best interest of Goose Hollow to promote more affordable housing options to these demographic groups, and to all Portlanders. Promoting mixed-income residential development allows for the enjoyment of Goose Hollow by all Portlanders and not just the wealthy.

Figure 3 - Average Price Per Sqft in Goose Hollow vs. Portland (2000 – 2014).


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2030 Vision Bike parking

Eco Roof

By 2030, the site will have become a thriving mixed-use area, providing both

Active transportation to the site is relatively easy as we are flanked by bike lanes to the east and west. We will continue to encourage bicycling by providing ample parking. Cycling and walking will decrease energy consumption, reduce air pollution, and ease congestion around the site. Bike parking is easy and cost effective addition to the site.

The eco roofs provide several services, such as, the reduction of solar reflections which reduce urban heat islands, provides an increase in pervious surfaces which reduces storm water impacts. By using natural filtration process, water can be cleaned prior to entering the city’s facilities. This area will also lowers cooling cost, and provide habitat for native plants, birds, and insects.

housing and employment opportunities to the city, as well as public open space. The buildings will have morphed into great green structures that create their own power and energy through solar power and livable building techniques. The rooftop gardens will have been partially caped with greenhouses to allow for urban agriculture to take place in the city, offering great benefits to the residents. This garden will be enjoyed by the building residents and cafes and restaurants nearby that rent garden lots to bring fresh produce to their customers.

Transit Oriented Design

Open space

Our site is unique in that it is surrounded by a multitude of transportation options. Residents and visitors alike, don’t have to travel to/from our site via a personal vehicle, this alleviates congestion and provides a safer environment for pedestrians and bicyclist. The surrounding transit and bike infrastructure provides ample opportunities to access services and needs in the community and surrounding neighborhood. Even though our site provides ample transit options, we are also located in a highly walkable area. The need for private transportation is unnecessary at this site.

Green outdoor space allows for citizen to enjoy a little bit of the outdoors in an urban setting. Access to nature is a basic right, especially for those without the means to drive. We are incorporating biophilic design in an area that is not particularly close to any other open spaces. we are reducing urban heat island effects, and combating air pollutants that will still be emitted from the vehicles traveling on interstate 405 underneath the site.

The remaining freeway gaps will have been capped thus increasing density in the core of Portland. Other developments will promote green spaces within their buildings and exteriors as well. All being functional and editable allowing for some food security in the inner city. Our park will thrive as a social place were neighbors can enjoy encounters and warm sunny Portland days. The garden in the park will become a beautiful edible commons space that allows everyone to enjoy its spoils. Because the park is so loved, a volunteer committee of local residents will facilitate educational programs that encourage nutrition and public health education for youth, and entertainment, such as movie night in the park on behalf of the Goose Hollow Neighborhood. This will become a local “town square” were residents feel connected with the community.

Street Trees

Edible Commons

Street trees provide various functions, they provide beauty, clean the air, reduce UHI, and most importantly, create a safe atmosphere for pedestrians. Safety is created by using trees as a buffer between pedestrians, vehicles, and the MAX. They slow down drivers and provide a sense of enclosure to the street space. Proper planting should include a diversity of species that provide an array of canopy types

By providing spaces for gardens that are open to the public, and providing small plots around the site and roof top we are ensuring that food-growing opportunities are available for sustenance and pleasure. These commons and gardens also offer a learning experience for children and adults alike, and encourage healthy eating habits that will transcend multiple generations of Portlanders.

Transit will continue to be an integral part of the site’s success and will make the cap a destination for locals and tourists alike, creating a welcoming and treasured pedestrian-oriented space. Because of technologies in transit and the prime location of the site, personal vehicles ownership will have continued to decrease allowing for cleaner air and safer streets. The cap will have facilitated the mending of the neighborhood of Goose Hollow, and its residents will be forever joyful because of this. This project will have spurred the successful capping of freeways throughout the city allowing for other communities to enjoy their neighborhoods and social connections.

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Envisioning 2030


HAIKU planning studio


Haiku Planning + Design | I-405 Capping Project