PSF COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

www.psf.org.rw 1


COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

Private Sector Federation (PSF) P.O. Box 319, Gikondo, Kigali - Rwanda Tel: 2233 or +250 252570650 Email: info@psf.org.rw Twitter: @PSFRwanda1 Website: www.psf.org.rw 2


COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

Table of Contents Executive Summary 6 Chapter 1: Background and why Communication is Key to achieve PSF Mandate

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1.1.1 Introduction 11 1.2

Rationale of communication and information management manualºººººººººººººººº.

.

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1.3 Objectives of this manual 12 1.3.1 Specific objectives of the manual 13 1.4 Principles and standards for the Manual 14 1.5

Relationship between PSF Mandate, Communication and Information management

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Chapter 2: Communication Planning and Information management 16 2.1 Best communication is planned 17 2.2 Purpose of communication 17 2.3 The PSF's rationale for communication: 12 2.4 The Process and stages in planning communication

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2.5 key stages of planning 12 2.6 Prerequisites for planning 13 Chapter 3: Information Management: What, Why, When, Who and How

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3.1 Introduction 21 3.2. The nature of information of information to manage and why

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3.3. Assigning Responsibilities in managing information within a team

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3.3.1 The Role of the Communication Team 24 3.3.2 The Role and profile of the Spokesperson

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Chapter 4: Mapping Media and How to Work the media

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4.1 Introduction 26 4.2. How to communicate using the media 26 4.3. The role of communication with the media to achieve PSF Goals

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4.4. What the media want 27 4.5. Guidelines on working with the media 27 Chapter 5: A Communication strategy to follow 28 5.1. FIRST THINGS FIRST: Internal versus External communication

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5.2. General Rules for Internal communication at PSF

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5.3. Communication through PSF Structures: From National level to lower levels

31

5.4. Internal Communication channels/tools 31 5.5. External Communication 33 5.5.1. Target audiences. 33 5.6. Channels of Communication for the External Audience

33

5.6.1. Earned media. 34 5.6.2. Paid media. 34 4


5.6.3. New media. 34 5.6.4. Events 35 5.6.5. Meetings 35 5.6.6. Surveys/Polls 35 5.7. Targeted Tactical Plans 36 5.8. Equipping and financing the communication and advocacy teams

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Chapter 6: Developing messages 36 6.1. Introduction 37 6.2 Key Messages: ™TheKey Three∫ 37 6.3. Types of Messages and appropriate types of channels

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6.4. PSF Media Relations Policy 38 6.4. PSF Communications Policy 38 6.5.Mandate of the Official spokesperson(s) 39 6.6. Social Media 39 Chapter 7: Communicating During a Crisis: Guidelines 40 7.1 Crisis prevention: the case for issues management

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7.2 Vulnerabilities audit 42 7.3. Creating a crisis communications plan 42 7.4. Testing the plan 43 7.5 Crisis Management: ™Plan or f the worst; hope for the best∫

43

7.6. Assessing a crisis 44 7.7. Crisis Contigency Plan 44 7.8. Rules for crisis management 45 7.9. Conduct of employess in Media relations during a crisis

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7.10. Tips for hadling media in a crisis-Crisis recovery: Regaining trust

46

7.10. Weathering a crisis: 47 General Recommendations 48 Conclusion 49 Annexes 38 Annex I: List of contacted Persons 39 References 50

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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T

his Communication and Information Management Manual is laying out guidelines, procedures, principles and rules that the Rwanda Private Sector Federation (PSF) follows when communicating with its internal and external audiences. The guidelines also include how information is managed and shared to maximize the institution's ability to influence policy outcomes, promote business, speak on behalf of its members and help to create and sustain a private-sector-led economy; The manual is intended to ensure coordinated, effective, efficient, evidence based and timely communication within PSF, its members, partners and varied audiences. The central idea is to have communication and information management that purposefully helps PSF to accomplish its vision, mandate, goals, and objectives; The manual is to be used by the PSF communications team at the Secretariat and throughout all other levels, the provincial, district, sector and cell levels;

THE MANUAL IS DIVIDED INTO SEVEN CHAPTERS AND SEVERAL SUB-SECTION PER CHAPTER; Chapter One

Outlines the objectives of the manual and how it is used within PSF as well as the principles that guided the production of this manual. The chapter also provides the background to communication and information management and why they are important for PSF to accomplish its mandate; besides the definition of how communication and information management is understood and applied within PSF. Finally, the manual also outlines the principles and standards that informs all information management and communication through PSF;

Chapter Two Discusses the benefits of planned communication and information management and concludes that, for effective outcome, PSF always deliberately plans and executes its communication. The chapter has two sub-sections, including why planning communication is critical and the broad rationale and purpose of communication at PSF; and the process and key stages of planning, including the prerequisites for planning effective communication, along with a checklist for planning communication and managing information at PSF;

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

Chapter Three Has four sub-sections. The chapter defines what information management is and what it means for PSF, why it is important, when it is done; by whom and how. In particular, the chapter also defines the roles and responsibilities of PSF the communications team in managing the profile and role of the PSF spokesperson.

PSF OFFICIAL

INFO PORTAL

The main role of the spokesperson is to maintain PSF's stakeholders' relations and its reputation, as well as influencing policies towards creating an environment that is attractive for investment and conducive for doing business . Central to the role of the communication team is to fast-track the media coverage of PSF and produce daily and monthly news briefs for PSF's leadership and staff in order to keep the federation abreast with its Share of Voice (SoV) and Share of Ink (SoI). Chapter Four Maps out the media outlets and outlines principles on how to work with the media for the benefit of PSF. It has three sub-sections, including how to communicate through and use of the media effectively, media influence and how PSF can leverage it to pursue its mandate. The chapter also outlines guidelines on how PSF can work with the media.

Chapter Five Provides a communication strategy and has five subsections. The first section explores the difference between internal and external communication and how these are handled within PSF; section two outlines general rules on how to employ effective communication within PSF and the role of the communications team. Section three outlines the importance of involving all PSF organs, from the national level through the provincial, district, and sector levels to ensure effective internal communication and the different types of communication channels to use within PSF. The rest of the sections deal with external communication and different types of communication channels. This section deals with how to use targeted and segmented audiences. This highlights the differences between ™Earned media∫; ™Paid media∫ and ™New Media∫ and how to use them effectively. This chapter also outlines why providing adequate human and financial resources to the communications team is critical and why PSF should have its own radio, television and web-powered media outlets to influence its varied audiences. 8


Chapter Six Deals with how to develop messages and has six sections. It defines why developing the message prior to communication is important, types of messages and how they can be developed. The chapter also outlines a communication policy to use at PSF and also the mandate of the Official spokesperson.

Chapter Seven Deals with and provides guidelines on how to communicate and handle information during a crisis. The chapter provides general recommendations, including the importance of the PSF's Senior Management Team (SMT) and the Board to internalize, own and endorse this Communication and Information Management Manual, for its content and guidelines to bear fruit; why the communications team, and all staff at PSF need to be trained on how to use and benefit from this Manual; and why PSF should invest in its own radio, television and a high-powered website to share news and information more regularly using its own controlled channels of communication.

This Communication and Information Management Manual is laying out guidelines, procedures, principles and rules that the Rwanda Private Sector Federation (PSF) follows when communicating with its internal and external audiences.

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CHAPTER

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BACKGROUND AND WHY COMMUNICATION IS KEY TO ACCOMPLISH PSF'S MANDATE


1.1

BACKGROUND

T

his document outlines the necessary guidelines that will inform an efficient operation and direction in regard to PSF's communication goals. On the other hand, the manual seeks to spell out specific activities that will foster broad participation of stakeholders within PSF's communications activities implementation and integration process. The manual guides the communication team to develop key messages that suit PSF's specific stakeholders' needs and support PSF to realize its targets. This will enable PSF to contribute to the national agenda of being a private sector led economy. The manual shall serve as a tool to ease the daily communication activities of all PSF's organs (all Chambers and their Associations, and PSF offices at all decentralized levels) and harmonize the way of communication among them. The manual addresses different forms of communication required for internal as well as external audiences. Internally, PSF's staff shall be adequately informed about PSF matters and externally, PSF gains optimal visibility in public sphere.

1.1.1 Introduction This Communication and Information Management Manual aims at laying out principles that the Rwanda Private Sector Federation (PSF) follows when communicating with its audiences. The manual includes how information is managed and shared to maximize the institution's ability to influence policy outcomes, promote business, speak on behalf of its members and help to create and sustain a vibrant private sector. The manual is intended to ensure coordinated, effective, efficient, evidence-based and timely communication within and outside PSF. This approach to communication and information management is significant for the institution to accomplish its mandate, goals, objectives and vision. The manual is based on the current state of communication within PSF; best practices from elsewhere and principles in effective, efficient and coordinated communication.

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

The guidelines in this manual will bring about change in the way PSF communicates and manages information and contributes to achieving institutional goals, if and only the guidelines are internalized, owned, supported and implemented by the PSF's departments and the top leadership, from the Board to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and the Senior Management team (SMT). An effective standard way to communicate with the audiences is by developing and profiling a databank of all PSF's information (members, partners, visual data, facts & figures and studies).

1.2

THE RATIONALE OF COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL The overall rationale of the manual is to raise PSF's visibility by effectively engaging and influencing its stakeholders and other audiences to contribute to the national goal of having a vibrant private sector-led economy.

1.3

OBJECTIVES OF THIS MANUAL The main objective of this manual is to clarify principles and offer guidelines that all communication and information management at PSF follows.

1.3.1 Specific Objectives

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The specific objectives of this manual are five: 1.

To lay out principles that the PSF communications team follows when planning and

executing communication on behalf of PSF;

2.

To list recommendations on how to manage information and perception based on

best practices;

3.

To offer guidelines on how the communications team works with other departments

within PSF and its leadership right from the grassroots level to the national level.

4.

To outline roles and responsibilities of the communications team, including naming

the specific roles of the spokesperson;

5.

To recommend how to work with the media and how to influence using traditional

as well as social media.


1.4

PRINCIPLES AND STANDARDS FOR THE MANUAL 1.4.1 The principles of this manual are the following: a)

Having a clear understanding of PSF vision, mandate, goals and objectives;

b)

A clear understanding of how PSF currently communicates, existing gaps in

how it communicates and how these gaps can be filled;

c)

Guided by the idea that effective, efficient, coordinated and timely communication is

important to achieve institutional goals, objectives and mandate;

d)

Informed by the belief that effective communication takes place when deeds, activities

and actions of the institutions are synchronized with words to communicate to the

wider institutional audiences;

e)

That for effective communication to take place, the communications team of PSF will

not only be specialized in managing information but also be proactively involved in

timely communication and generating communication materials packaged and made

easily accessible by both the media and the general public;

f)

That communication is a result of planning and directly connected with what

PSF does on a day-to-day basis. This means that teamwork is central and every

department, unit and office directly works with the communications team at

PSF without exception;

g)

That investing in communication and information management is an integral part of

PSF's way of securing a business-friendly environment and private-sector led economy;

h)

That for effective communication to take root at PSF, it is a result of team work where

lines of information sharing are seamless between different departments and officials;

i)

That there is a single custodian of information management, flow and communication

to the external audience. This custodian, is the PSF's spokesperson who is directly

linked to regional, district and local levels within the PSF organs and use all

these levels to generate communication materials and to communicate it in a

coordinated manner;

j)

That to ensure effective communication, PSF has a single spokesperson who is an

ex-official or a member of both the Senior Management Team and the Board

and works directly with the CEO. This is VERY important to ensure that he/she is well

informed of all the decisions taken within PSF's management and therefore is able to

effectively speak for PSF.

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

1.4.2 Standards for communication and information management: a)

Inclusivity - From the grassroots unit of PSF through to the district and regional offices

to the national level.

b)

Pro-active - The communications team is guided by the principle of taking a proactive

interest in and initiating storylines that promote the interests of the business community;

c)

Interoperability - All the information in possession of PSF, including facts, figures

and scientific findings on different matters are stored and made available to different

actors in usable formats and availed in formats suitable to the target audience;

d)

Accessibility ± PSF to provide requested information on an equal basis ± upon CEO's

approval. e)

Accountability - The communications team provides accurate and verifiable information

The guidelines in this manual will bring about change in the way PSF communicates and manages information and contributes to achieving institutional goals, if and only the guidelines are internalized, owned, supported and implemented by the PSF's departments and the top leadership, from the Board to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and the Senior Management team (SMT).

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1.5 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSF'S MANDATE AND THE COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT PSF is the voice of the business community in Rwanda. The vision of PSF is to provide the grounds towards ™Profitable businesses for a prosperous Rwanda∫. Its mission is to ™Advocate effectively and reinforce members' businesses∫. In broad terms, PSF represents, advocates for and promotes the interests of the business community in Rwanda. To pursue this mandate, PSF has to use the power of language, words, images, pictures, facts and evidence that assists all Rwandans to understand the importance of business, industry and entrepreneurship towards the country's development and to influence favourable business policies, laws and investments in the country. Communication and information management are critical to advance ideas, interests, institutional objectives, vision, and mission; Communicating and properly managing information around activities and programs implemented by PSF is important to ensure that PSF is well understood and supported in its endeavours.

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

CHAPTER

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COMMUNICATION PLANNING AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT


2.1

BEST COMMUNICATION IS PLANNED

P

lanning is critical because it allows to clarify the reason for communication and its timing, the context, resources needed, understanding the target audience and who the best information

carrier is.

2.2

PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION The purpose of PSF's communication is to ™win hearts and minds∫ of the target audience or the general public. This requires: A consistent, coordinated and result oriented communication strategy; Confer effectively & efficiently with external & internal audiences, using effective tools to protect reputation Strengthen two-way communication and make staff best ambassadors

2.3

THE PSF'S RATIONALE FOR COMMUNICATION IS TO: a) Advance greater understanding of its mandate, vision, goals and objectives; b) Contribute to creating an enabling business environment; like contributing to friendly tax policies and business laws; c) Effectively advocate the business community's interests

2.4

THE PROCESS AND STAGES IN PLANNING COMMUNICATION It should involve materials needed, strategies to be used and media activities to be performed and how to engage other communication channels. For PSF it is a sensitive affair as its role is connected to the national strategy of building a ™private sector-led economy∫.

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2.4.1 KEY STAGES OF PLANNING The planning approach starts with involving staff members and has the following stages:

2.5

a)

Situation analysis: SWOT of institution and existing communication strategy;

b)

Defining goals (general) and objectives (specific)

c)

Mapping and defining target audiences;

d)

Researching audience perceptions (survey, Focus groups, etc.)

e)

Defining the message/s and channels;

f)

Implementation and tactics: who to do what, when and how

g)

Collecting feedback, monitoring and evaluating

PREREQUISITES FOR PLANNING Planning at PSF should involve:

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a)

A clear understanding of Institutional (PSF) vision, mission and objectives and

clarifying howthese can be represented through communication, information

management and sharing;

b)

Understanding context and key players in the business, political and policymaking realms,

c)

Collecting and producing information or content to inform and guide every communication;

d)

Organizing, sorting and disseminating information


Table 1: Checklist for planning communication process and outcome KEY QUESTION TO FIND ANSWER TO

ANSWER/RESPONSE/

What is the situation?

Analyzing context/diagnosis

Why communicate?

Clarify objectives

To whom is communication intended?

Name target audience

How?

Channels, media outlets, strategies

When?

Timelines for action

Who?

Name responsible individuals for each course of action

With what?

Resources/money

What's the progress?

Monitor, gather feedback from the public and adjust as necessary

How impactful?

Evaluate and act on findings

It should involve materials needed, strategies to be used and media activities to be performed and how to engage other communication channels. For PSF it is a sensitive affair as its role is connected to the national strategy of building a ™private sector-led economy∫.

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

CHAPTER

3

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT: WHAT, WHY, WHEN, WHO AND HOW

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3.1

INTRODUCTION

A

t PSF, information management is to be understood as ways in which the institution and its top leadership, including all departments gather, store and share facts, evidence and clarification in a timely

manner.

3.2.

THE NATURE OF INFORMATION, HOW TO MANAGE AND WHY Key factors in managing and sharing information at PSF: The communications team shall:

work in collaboration with the Research & Development

unit on a daily basis to generate, collect and produce information

about the private sector;

always classify information and store it in a safe databank, easily

retrievable;

develop a databank of all major media outlets, their owners and

editors, their editorial beliefs, keep in touch with them and brief

them on PSF's current affairs as may be planned and required;

proactively initiate the media coverage of PSF activities on a

regular and planned basis which includes producing

newspaper articles, television and radio talk-shows and

other promotional materials;

keep PSF's website updated on a regular basis;

keep the federation's social media channels, active and

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

3.3.

interactive on a regular basis.

ASSIGNING RESPONSIBILITIES IN MANAGING INFORMATION WITHIN A TEAM 3.3.1 The Role of the communications team The role of the communications team is divided into: I) managing information and II) communicating I)

Managing information at PSF shall include:

a)

Resourcing and managing PSF's information databank.

b)

Prepare daily briefs for PSF's leadership and workforce.

c)

Prepare notes for PSF's senior leaders for speeches and briefings.

d)

Disseminate relevant PSF information in a timely, efficient and effective manner.

II) Communicating shall include: a)

Speaking on behalf of PSF;

b)

Producing communications materials (brochures, newsletters, newspaper articles,

documentaries, talk-shows, exclusive interviews) to promote PSF's image;

c)

Lead the planning of communications and its delivery;

d)

Monitor media coverage of PSF and its organs

3.3.2 The Role and profile of the Spokesperson The profile of the PSF spokesperson:

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a)

Trusted and respected by PSF's top leadership ;

b)

Part of the Senior Management Team - as this will facilitate speaking for the institution

from an informed position.

c)

Articulate, thorough, informed, confident, effective, efficient, motivated;

d)

Functional & resourceful;

e)

Ability to produce, organize, analyse and interpret information;


3.4.

f)

Critical thinker, command of languages (English, Kinyarwanda, French);

g)

Ability to work under pressure and make decisions

h)

Ability to facilitate dialogue, talk-shows

i)

Ability to manage sensitive information and sensitive political situations

PSF MEMBERS, STAKEHOLDERS AND INFORMATION SOURCES The best information source for PSF is its members, stakeholders and the environment within which the business community operates in. It is the role of the communication and research teams to gather information from and profile its members, stakeholders and the environment within which they operate.

3.5.

PREPARATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF DAILY NEWS BRIEFS AND MONTHLY REPORTS On a daily basis, the communications team prepares and distribute a news brief. This news briefs is not only highlighting all major business related stories but also other major news that may impact the business community and the progress of PSF. This news brief will be distributed to the leadership of PSF every day before 10am. In addition, the communications team will develop and distribute monthly news reports. These reports serve as a summary. Table 2: Guidelines for producing news briefs and monthly reports Do's

Don'ts

1. Use clear and direct language

Don't exaggerate text

2. Be brief and straight to the point

Avoid adverbs and adjectives

3. Provide sources of news / information

Don't assume your readers knowledge

4. Analyze and interpret stories

Don't be vague and don't make unsupported claims

5. Include data and name of authors

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

CHAPTER

4 24

MAPPING MEDIA AND HOW TO WORK WITH THE MEDIA


4.1

INTRODUCTION

T

he media is here divided into three categories: traditional, online and social media.

Traditional media is further divided into two: the electronic media; and print media. Electronic media includes radio and television stations. Social media include: Blogs and e-groups, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn and Warcraft; Myspace etc.

4.2

HOW TO COMMUNICATE USING THE MEDIA The key to successful communication using the media is to know each and every major media outlet in the country and beyond; their editorial beliefs, their owners, opinion makers and editors and developing a relationship with them. The second is to proactively engaging the media and the third is developing content that can be directly be published and aired without much editing or rewriting by the media outlet's editors or journalists.

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

Media should be considered as key allies and develop alliances and cooperation MoUs with major media outlets. The following type of media outlet and how to deal with it:

Using Traditional news media:

Press releases, regular columns in papers; talk-shows; press conferences, on-spot

responses to news, interviews, call-in, sit-down and on-background briefings;

Newsletters, magazines, brochures, reports

Meetings & community get-together, presentations, speeches & comments in conferences,

etc.

4.3

THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION WITH THE MEDIA TO ACHIEVE PSF'S GOALS The media possess the most insidious and consequential form of soft power that influences minds, perceptions, thoughts and courses of action. The key to benefit from the media's power is to build a relationship with it. Building this relationship would include:

4.3.

a)

Regular meetings between PSF's leadership and the communications team with

editors, opinion leaders and journalists on a one-on-one basis;

b)

Organizing breakfast meetings with the media fraternity;

c)

Producing and sharing usable content with the media

WHAT THE MEDIA WANTS The media wants the following: a)

Accurate, relevant, factual, timely and transparent information;

b)

Information that can easily be used;

c)

Knowing the official positions, complete names and facts about the individuals involved

in stories;

d)

Images, statements, comments and numbers from key business actors; leaders and PSF

members; e)

Timely clarification of false stories to avoid publishing or airing information based on

speculation; 26


4.4

f)

Acknowledgement and correction of errors ± when necessary

g)

Treating journalists with respect

GUIDELINES ON WORKING WITH THE MEDIA a)

The PSF communications team shall anticipate and be proactive – The team shouldn't

wait for the media to ask for information;

b)

Develop a partnership based on trust; showing interest and willingness to share

information; c)

Minimize ambiguity by delivering concise, timely, and clear information;

d)

Provide information that describe facts rather than processes; activities and programs;

e)

Treat journalists and editors equally. Do not discriminate because of size the media

outlet, ideology; local, national, or international coverage; broadcast, or print.

f)

Adapt information to the media outlet's editorial beliefs, and styles;

g)

Pay attention to the demands of journalists without influencing them

h)

Monitor coverage; for providing information is not a guarantee that it will be aired as

published; i)

Keep track of what is and is not published or broadcasted. Keep track of other related

publications/broadcasts which can inform your communication activities as required.

j)

Know key decision makers and editors in media outlets. In important cases, approach

and establish alliances with news editors and directors. They decide the what, how,

and when of the news;

k)

It's important to identify interests, and editorial beliefs of media outlets

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

CHAPTER

28

5

A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY TO FOLLOW


COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

C

ommunicating clearly, frequently and consistently is key to sustaining a successful operation within PSF. For it is this that delivers efficient, objective based and effective communication to the institution's

varied audiences; both internal and external audiences. The primary aim is to make sure that PSF's voice is heard, believed and acted upon; starting with the institution's employees as the best ambassadors. This strategy defines the rules and principles, starting with defining internal and external audiences and how to communicate with each. In order to have a successful communications strategy the staff at PSF have to be trained in communications and information management in order to deliver efficiently.

5.1.

FIRST THINGS FIRST: INTERNAL VERSUS EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS Communicating internally ± among PSF staff, including communicating with the top PSF leadership± is where all communications efforts must begin. No campaign can be successful unless its own employees are informed and activated to help communicate the campaign's key themes and messages. Internal communications is also critical to ensure message discipline and ownership. Work done by PSF does not concern senior management alone, all staff should be on the same page and on the same talking points whenever speaking publicly. Once you have secured the understanding and support of your internal team, you can move your communications to the external audiences that you want to inform, educate and/or influence.

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

5.2.

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GENERAL RULES FOR INTERNAL COMMUNICATION AT PSF

a)

PSF's top management shall regularly have brief in-person meetings with the communications team, where they discuss any urgent matter to address or communicate internally or externally.

b)

The communications team shall prepare a daily news brief and share it, first with the top management (before 10h00 am) and then with the rest of the employees on the general emailing list.

c)

The communications team shall produce a media review after high-level

events organized by PSF, e.g. MiR Expo, Expo, NBF etc.

d)

Working with the IT team, the communications team shall establish and maintain

an information distribution list of all principal internal employees in PSF who must

be reached out frequently, to ensure they are informed and on board with

the institution's communication. Send them relevant news coverage, new

studies and reports, and other related materials. PSF should device a format (tools like

emailing system, intranet and WhatsApp group) to keep team members in the loop on

current events and engaged;

e)

Every PSF staff member (incl. Senior Management) shall, after a working visit

anywhere within the country or outside, write and share a report with the Top

Management, and the communications team.

f)

The communications team shall ensure that notes are taken in the general staff and

departmental meetings and a summary (use template) of the meetings shall

be shared with all staff on the institution's email list for information and comments;

g)

PSF spokesperson shall attend the senior management and board meetings, and shall

ensure that key decisions taken are shared by the communications team with other

staff members leaving

h)

The CEO's office and all other departments shall inform the Communications team 24

hours ahead of time (whenever possible) about Visits

i)

All PSF staff shall use only the institutional email to communicate work related

business and NOT private email, this also includes the staff within PSF's organs.

j)

All PSF staff shall ensure that they check their institutional emails regularly and

respond to all the messages received within the next 12 hours. If a staff member is

absent/out of office ± the automatic ™out-of-office message∫ in Outlook must be used.

(Training must be given and content of text used agreed to).

k)

The Communications Team has the mandate to approve and monitor the use of PSF's

out confidential decisions that may have been taken.


5.3.

stamp, the PSF Logo, PSF Letterheads and PSF's email signatures as per PSF's policy (as

agreed by PSF's top management).

l)

All PSF staff must use the same signature format at the end of an email.

m)

The communications team shall manage all PSF social media channels.

n)

All communication through the general email address (info@psf.org.rw) of PSF shall be

managed by the Communications Team with the support of the Customer Care officer

and the Executive Advisor to the CEO and responded to within 24 hours.

COMMUNICATION THROUGH PSF ORGANS AT DECENTRALIZED LEVELS: Internal communication within PSF shall be managed and proceed through its structures from the secretariat to the decentralized levels. This means that at each level there will be a spokesperson and the overall structure will be headed by the institutional spokesperson, who is the secretariat spokesperson. Apart from the secretariat, the spokesperson at the other levels will also be the already existing chairperson at the same level. The PSF Chairperson retains the power to speak on behalf of the institution as well as the CEO. The designated official spokesperson, in charge of all communication, shall be the secretariat's spokesperson. The communications team gathers information at each level, share it and store it in an easily retrievable format at the national level where the overall databank shall be hosted. On a daily basis, the communications team shall be in contact with the spokespersons of the other levels with the purpose to gather and share information

5.4.

INTERNAL COMMUNICATION CHANNELS/TOOLS The following are the channels and tools that PSF shall use to communicate internally. Letters For official notification (e.g. from HR /CEO) to a staff member, an official letter on PSF letterhead is conveyed to deliver particular information towards an individual to act upon. Face-to-face meetings Regular face-to-face meetings between leaders and employees at PSF shall be the best preferred channel to relay sensitive information to all staff members. During layoffs or restructurings or when handling employee performance issues or during a crisis, face-to-face communication shall be the preferred tool to use. Telephone The telephone is preferred where the message is urgent, not sensitive and mostly intended for a single person or a few. PSF leaders and other employees shall use it in such cases. 31


COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

E-mail Email shall be used when communication is mainly intended for all employees or where the issue to communicate to an individual employee or employees is sensitive or when communicating general information. Social media Social media has changed the way information is delivered and consumed. Social media can help advance an idea or disseminate information and allows employees to keep in touch with their leaders. Virtual team meetings PSF has employees located across the city and the country and will need to rely on virtual team meetings to get work done. Setting expectations and establishing protocols are vital steps in ensuring that communication will be relevant and effective. Handbook Employee handbooks are used to communicate standard operating procedures, guidelines and policies. Once a handbook is produced, PSF should ensure that all staff have the handbook and understand the content. Newsletters and magazines Newsletters and magazines are used to communicate new information about PSF, its products, milestones and services, as well as achievements of its employees. Newsletters and magazines may be in print or electronic format. Intranet An intranet is a private space or network within an organization that is used to securely share information. PSF should also have an intranet where the institution's databank and information is shared by all staff within the organization.

5.5.

EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION

5.5.1. Target Audiences. Target audiences include:

32

a)

The business community (targeted possible members);

b)

Key legislators from and legislative committee leaders in parliament (who will be

crucial in case PSF is lobbying for changing or enacting business friendly laws and a

pro-business tax code);

c)

Policymakers (who should be targeted for support to create an enabling policy

environment for businesses)

d)

Key community groups and opinion leaders at every level within the country's local

government structure (it's important to determine who is listened to by others in a

particular district);


5.6.

e)

Religious leaders and religious organizations;

f)

Civil society organizations

g)

The media, opinion-makers and influencers (Note: The media is a vehicle through

which you can reach and influence your target audiences. It is important to know even

within the media, there are critical decision-makers and opinion writers and editors

who need to be targeted and won over by PSF)

CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION FOR THE EXTERNAL AUDIENCE There are various types of communications channels that you may want to use depending on the target audience and their information consumption habits. Several channels are available for communicating your messages to your target audiences, and certain channels might be more effective for reaching particular target audiences than others. No channel should be used in isolation; combining channels is very effective. The key is ensuring that no matter what channel you choose; you remain consistent on your key messages tailored to each audience.

Below are different types of media differentiated by how they relate with your messages: 5.6.1. Earned Media. Earned media includes any media for which you do not pay. These are news articles, editorials, op-eds, broadcast talk-shows, interviews ± any kind of media content that is free to obtain. When PSF conducts studies and surveys (e.g. PSF 2019 launched a BICS) it is used for news hooks as an effective way to garner earned media attention. The media is usually eager to write about data and success stories of this nature. It is for this reason that the PSF communications team shall deliberately work to cultivate, maintain and reproduce earned media with the above tactics. 5.6.2. Paid Media. Paid media, is paid media, including print and broadcast ads, advertorials, and audio news releases etc. Often times budget restrictions will preclude a paid media component to your outreach campaign, trade fairs etc because to be successful, paid advertising normally has to saturate the market; however, sometimes, a paid ad can be timed and positioned in such a way that it does not have to cost a lot to get a big impact 5.6.3. New Media. New media includes blogs; social networks, such as Facebook and Twitter; Web 2.0 applications, such as online chats and instant online polling; and mobile interactions, such as text messaging. New media has the benefit of reaching large groups of people, especially younger audiences.

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

5.6.4. Events Hosting events can provide solid opportunities for directly bringing your messages to your target audiences, e.g. the GBF (Golden Business Forum) brings attention to the national and international Business Community for network opportunities. Every event needs its own communication plan. 5.6.5 Meetings Meetings are options to gather members together to share news, celebrate successes or communicate PSF information or even debate certain critical issues. Alternatively, meetings may be held in various locations when members are widely dispersed geographically or may be held electronically via webinars or teleconferences and Skype. 5.6.6 Surveys/polls Two-way communication is vital to any effective communication strategy, and developing formal tactics to listen to members is essential. Members can give fast feedback through surveys and polls about specific issues (like a new service or policy) or general concerns. One other similar way to gauge members satisfaction about a particular issue is through a Suggestion Box located in a place easily accessible by all members or employees and it has to offer confidentiality such that employees can easily give sensitive feedback.

5.7.

TARGETED TACTICAL PLANS Once you have defined your key messages and the various channels for communicating those messages, then you address tactics. You should consider the specific actions you will take and the best channels in which to take them to meet each of your defined target audiences. To tailor three key messages to each target, you draw out specific points that will motivate a particular audience. A sample tactical outline is below.

34


SAMMPLE STRATEGIC TACTICAL PLAN Target Audience

Define the target audience with specificity: all business owners, legislators (MPs) policymakers, students, etc.

Objectives

Define the outreach objectives: e.g. to increase the number of PSF members by 25%

3 Key Target Messages

Outline the tailored messages for this target group: ∑ Provide advocacy for business owners to solve business constraints ∑ Help open advertising opportunities ∑ Reduced cost for Business management trainings.

Channels/ Vehicles

Identify the kinds of media (earned, paid and new media channels) to reach this audience and channel type like electronic channels (TV, radio) or print, online or social media: E.g. Owners of businesses will be targeted through: ∑ A series of interviews with sample of business owners in which they speak about the challenges they face caused by external factors. Post those videos on PSF website, which is no cost (New Media) ∑ Send an SMS to business owners about upcoming developments in business or a reminder (with contact address like phone) that PSF offers reduced cost in business management trainings (New Media) ∑ A year-end awards ceremony / certificate for new members. [Potential for earned media coverage] ∑ Offer a contest for business owners to create their own campaign (in print, video, audio, etc.) around the importance of rigorous service delivery. Publicize the contest and winners and use material on Websites and new media outlets. [New media; no cost, potential for earned media. Possible paid media]

Measuring Success

Define what actions the target audience could take to show success: ∑ Monitor and publicly report annually on the increase in the number of business owners registering as PSF members ∑ Monitor how many business owners are actively responding to campaigns ∑ Segment regions to determine which regions have business owners that are easily enrolling

You need to consider which message will motivate each audience.

5.8

EQUIPPING AND FINANCING THE COMMUNICATIONS TEAM In any organisation, effective communication is critical to its success. It is important that the communications team be given adequate resources, including human and financial resources to communicate efficiently and effectively.

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

CHAPTER

6

36

DEVELOPING MESSAGES


6.1.

INTRODUCTION

T

he guiding questions when developing positive messages are:

6.2

(a)

What does PSF want the chosen audience to know

about the institution's work? E.g. The successful

organization of the last EXPO

(b)

What should be on the mind of the audience when they

see PSF staff? Are they professional? Are they transparent

and service orientated?

(c)

What is PSF's reputation and goal?

(d)

How does PSF want to be associated with accountability?

KEY MESSAGES: ™THE KEY THREE∫ PSF should summarize what you want to communicate with three central messages in every communication ± the ™key three messages∫ are: 1.

Define the issue;

2.

Outline the problem;

3.

Explain the solution.

The key three message are distributed to all PSF staff and communicated consistently. The discipline of repetition should be carried across all communication channels.

6.3

TYPES OF MESSAGES AND APPROPRIATE TYPES OF CHANNELS The type of the message always determines the appropriate communication channel to deliver the message to the concerned audience. E.g. An employment termination can only be delivered through an official letter. Likewise, announcing a national event, such as the Gorilla Baby naming ceremony, the best channels are Radio and TV stations. Note - when selecting visual and audio materials, prior consent of the people displayed, is a paramount consultation.

37


COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

6.4.

PSF MEDIA RELATIONS POLICY

The policy is a framework of how media relations are conducted by PSF 6.4.1 All media relations activities shall be routed through the PSF Spokesperson and the communications team:

All enquiries/requests from the media shall be referred immediately to the Communications team;

All interactions with the media shall be conducted through the Communications team;

All statements to the media shall be made in writing or be self- recorded, toavoid any

misunderstanding or misinterpretation and shall be issued through official documents

or e-mails.

6.4.2 All PSF statements shall be:

a) Prepared by the communications team;

b) Reviewed by the respective units concerned and / or by the top management

6.5

MANDATE OF THE OFFICIAL SPOKESPERSON(S)

Although the CEO is the overall spokesperson, PSF should have an official spokesperson who focuses on matters relating to business policy issues and PSF stakeholders'

relations;

regarding the PSF's business direction and activities as well as PSF's response to issues

/ situations that are of a particular controversial or sensitive nature.

38

The spokesperson is the official spokesperson and conveys the official position

Depending on the specific circumstances, the CEO may designate another member of

management to serve as a spokesperson for PSF.

a)

However, the authority to represent PSF applies only for a specific purpose, for a

specific issue and lapses upon completion of the said task.

b)

The information disclosed or opinion expressed is confined to operational matters or as

agreed with or approved by the CEO or Chairman.

c)

The information given will be shared with the Communications Team after the occasion.


6.6

SOCIAL MEDIA a)

All Social Media channels (except for WhatsApp) shall be set-up and administered by

the communications team.

b)

Employees are not allowed to set up social media accounts on behalf of PSF without

the permission of the Communications Team.

c)

Should such accounts exist prior to this policy, all such accounts shall be reported to the

communications team.

d)

Employees are not allowed to display or upload content which may adversely affect

the reputation of PSF and the business community.

e)

All sensitive / confidential information should be approved by the CEO before being

shared.

The type of the message always determines the appropriate communication channel to deliver the message to the concerned audience. E.g. An employment termination can only be delivered through an official letter. Likewise, announcing a national event, such as the Gorilla Baby naming ceremony, the best channels are Radio and TV stations.

39


COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

CHAPTER

7

40

COMMUNICATING DURING A CRISIS: GUIDELINES


COMMUNICATING DURING A CRISIS: GUIDELINES

F

or the purpose of this manual, crisis is defined as a ™specific, unexpected, and non-routine event or series of events that create high levels of uncertainty and threaten or are perceived to threaten

an organization's high-priority goals∫. As the ultimate unplanned activity, a crisis does not lend itself to conventional ™command and control∫ management practices. Preparation and sound judgment are critical for survival.

7.1

CRISIS PREVENTION: THE CASE FOR ISSUES MANAGEMENT The first task is to identify crisis risks or to manage a crisis when it breaks out. From a communications standpoint, a crisis is a business or organizational problem that is exposed to public attention, and that threatens PSF's reputation and its ability to exist. A crisis can take on many forms, including natural or man-made disasters, environmental spills, product tampering or recalls, labour disruptions or criminal acts. What makes them a crisis is the fact that they are the focus of intense media scrutiny. Examples:

PSF registers a company for the annual Expo, only to emerge during the Expo that the company is selling expired products or works with terrorists;

A major chemical company spills its chemicals into a wetland. Relentless media attention reveals that the company and PSF had known for months about the spill but have both not come out to highlight the situation and show the public that they care.

A telecoms firm, steeped in its own male macho culture, routinely subjects female employees to embarrassing or degrading working conditions, and ignores the most reasonable of complaints (and PSF has known), until an employee launches a lawsuit and gains the support of women's organizations nationwide. 41


COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

A coordinated approach to ™issues management∫ can help PSF effectively identify and anticipate potential issues, prevent crises from developing, and influence their evolution and outcome. Here is step-by-step formula:

7.2

VULNERABILITIES AUDIT The first step is to conduct an issue audit, and assess an inventory of PSF's vulnerabilities and critical issues it is likely to confront. The audit is very necessary considering the fact the PSF works with diverging entities, all of which have their own challenges. Within PSF organs, a series of interviews with senior management are conducted. Processes, relationships and previous experience are analysed. Key contacts in the media and oversight functions are identified, and existing communications plans inspected for relevance. Outside PSF, media analysis, legislative tracking, industry reports, polls and surveys all help to bring potential threats to the surface. Once a framework is established, the critical issues should be identified and prioritized in order of magnitude and likelihood of occurrence.

7.3.

CREATING A CRISIS COMMUNICATIONS PLAN The issues audit becomes the front end of a PSF's crisis communications plan, and the most important document in the plan. As a complement to PSF's emergency procedures, the crisis plan should contain detailed communications response procedures in the event that any of the potential crises identified in the communications audit, or unforeseen external events, come to pass. The following is a checklist of the content of a good crisis communications plan:

Names and contact information of the crisis team/ spokesperson.

∑ People need to know who holds responsibility for leading the organization through the crisis

and who drafts and approves the crisis messages.

Crisis triage;

∑ Understanding what level of ™crisis∫ you're facing. Establish criteria to decide when a minor

incident has the potential to become a national crisis.

First response; ∑ What information has top priority? How will you initially respond to the media? Alert or notification procedures; ∑ Who needs to get information, and in what order of priority? By phone, e-mail, or social media

messaging?

42


Situation room;

∑ Assess the physical space that will be the nerve centre for managing the crisis, including the

required hardware and software, staffing, location and layout.

Stakeholder communications; ∑ How do you plan to communicate with PSF members, employees, the media and other

stakeholders?

∑ Include the ™inputs∫ (which media outlets and Internet message boards should be monitored,

which opinion leaders should be kept track of, etc.) and ™outputs∫ (which journalists should be

contacted, which newspapers and television programs should be approached, which media

outlets need to hear your story).

7.4.

Contact lists;

Template responses,

∑ Standardized format, language and protocol for all communications.

Access to the crisis plan is essential. PSF should maintain both print and electronic versions for

ease of access and remote retrieval.

TESTING THE PLAN In order to ensure that the messages contained in the crisis plan are delivered effectively and with credibility, and that the plan can be carried out, it needs to be tested.

7.5

CRISIS MANAGEMENT Despite the best planning and foresight, organizations inevitably find themselves in a crisis from time to time.

Heavy rain floods Nyabugogo area affecting hundreds of business owners

News report in a major newspaper or radio station highlights the plight of employees

of a leading company among PSF's Golden Circle which was awarded by PSF as best

company

7.6

ASSESSING A CRISIS One of the most vital skills PSF needs to possess is the ability to determine if, when and at what level of importance a crisis has struck:

Is this a crisis, or is it simply a continuing business problem coming to the surface?

Is it confined to a local area, or does it have the potential to become a situation of national or international importance? 43


COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

7.7

Has someone verified the incident or crisis?

What are the legal implications for PSF?

What level of resources will be required to manage it?

CRISIS CONTINGENCY PLAN Although PSF cannot predict a crisis, it can implement strategies to effectively respond to the notions of such an event. By preparing a system of communication, PSF will quickly be able to respond to the public's communication needs. For example, if the press presents useful, rather than sensationalized information on economic downturn, affecting members or PSF operations, the public can make informed decisions when provided with accurate and timely information, instead of relying on rumours. A crisis contingency plan depends heavily on the type of crisis faced. It helps to expedite an organization's image restoration process. Such a crisis contingency plan should be based on models which have been effective in the past, which PSF has employed or discerned from best practice. Effective strategies include three aspects: 1.

PSF should be willing to share information.

a Failure to provide information promptly can result in serious negative

repercussions to the organization's image and finances. Sharing information

increasestheorganization's credibility.

2.

Legitimacy can be regained when PSF is willing to accept responsibility for harmful

mistakes. 3.

7.8.

PSF should show empathy and offer possible solutions.

RULES FOR CRISIS MANAGEMENT 1.

Respect the role of the media. Prepare a statement that includes the confirmed facts;

communicate what PSF is doing and provide background information.

2.

Communicate, communicate, communicate. The first rule of crisis management is to

communicate. Early hours are critical and they set the tone for the duration of the crisis.

The media's first questions are likely to be simple and predictable: What happened? Where?

44


When did you know of the problem? What are you doing about it? Who's to blame? Were there warning signs? How will life or property be protected or compensated? Be as forthright as possible; tell what you know and when you became aware of it; explain who is involved and what is being done to fix the situation. Be sure to correct misinformation promptly when it emerges. Example: Rumours emerged that the Senior Manager has embezzled funds which were mobilized by members to support the widows of the Genocide against the Tutsi: PSF calls for a staff emergency meeting (one voice). The Communications team, together with the Spokesperson elaborate a press release, stating that PSF is investigating the rumours and will react according to the outcome. The owners / editors of major media outlets will be contacted to announce the press release. 3.

Take responsibility. One of the more controversial tenets of crisis management is that

someone involved in a crisis must be prepared to empathize, even publicly apologize,

for the events that have transpired. This is different from accepting blame.

Taking responsibility means communicating what PSF is doing to remedy a situation

that the media and the public have determined involve that organization in some

way. 4.

Centralize information. PSF needs to move quickly to gain control over information and

the resolution of the crisis. Ensure that appropriate levels of management are updated

with information from a wide variety of sources (media coverage, analyst

comments, competitive intelligence, managers' first-hand reports, etc.).

5.

Establish a crisis team. PSF should create and train a crisis team before a crisis strikes,

and establish a situation room. During a crisis, when everyone goes into action, be sure

the team has access to the highest levels of management.

6.

Communicate with employees. Remember that employees are your front-line

™ambassadors∫ in a crisis. Be sure they are aware of what PSF is doing to deal with the

situation. 7.

Third parties. Use third parties to speak on your behalf. Third parties act as character

witnesses and often carry more credibility than PSF at the center of a crisis.

8.

Use research to determine responses. Polling, market research and focus groups

provide essential insight into the magnitude of a crisis and public attitudes

about where hidden issues may lie. Monitor the Internet, chat rooms and blogs.

9.

Create a website ± If circumstances warrant, create a website to give quick, up-to-the-

minute information and get PSF's story out.

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

7.9

CONDUCT OF EMPLOYEES IN MEDIA RELATIONS DURING A CRISIS 7.9.1. All PSF employees, subsidiaries, divisions, departments and units are not allowed to: a)

Offer any information or issue any statement to the media during a crisis.

b)

Grant any interviews to the media, organise or participate in any media event or meet

with the media under any circumstance during a crisis.

c)

Respond to any media enquiries.

d)

Make comments officially or unofficially, in any form, unless with written permission

from the CEO or his/her designate(s).

e)

Any request for permission must be made through CEO and be accompanied by the

recommendation of the spokesperson.

7.9.2. Employees at all levels within PSF shall immediately notify the spokesperson when they are approached by the media for any information about the PSF or when requests are made by the media about product information, events, research, personnel appointments or publications. Such notification can be particularly important if follow-up enquiries are to be made with other divisions within PSF to ensure a coordinated, consistent response.

7.9.3. Only with permission from The Chairman and/or CEO

can members of senior management are allowed to participate or issue statements during a

crisis. However, the participation/statements shall be confined to operational issues and/or their

area of responsibilities.

7.10

Tips for handling media in a crisis - Crisis recovery: Regaining trust As the crisis comes under control, PSF should examine the impact the incident has had on its brand(s) and reputation. If the brand has taken a hit, PSF may need to give members and the public a reason to trust them again.

46


Tips for handling media in Crisis DO

DON'T

∑ Prepare for interviews

∑ Speculate about circumstances and facts. Tell a reporter

∑ Develop key message and facts about the incident and steps taken so far

what you and commit to disclosing more as you learn the facts

∑ Anticipate questions journalists will ask. Have answers and keep them short

∑ Repeat loaded words like ™crisis∫ or ™de vastating∫ ∑ Make ™off-the-record statements∫. Anything you say can be

∑ Respect deadlines

used in the media

∑ Provide written information

∑ Use jargon

∑ Be positive but show empathy for affected by the crisis

∑ Say ™no o c mment∫ to something you are not sure about.

∑ Ask a journalist to clarify something you don't Tell what you know

understand ∑ Correct misinformation

∑ Lose your temper

∑ Make yourself accessible

∑ Try to stop a journalist from writing a story

7.11. WEATHERING A CRISIS A well-managed crisis response, coupled with an effective recovery program, will leave stakeholders with a favourable impression and renewed confidence in PSF. A crisis can be an opportunity to change direction for the good that would not otherwise be done in normal times. This is an important lesson and to benefit from it, the points below can help guide the response:

depends on management;

Know that it is not a given, that crisis will end in damage or negative outcome; it

Determining beforehand the importance of quick response, transparency, and equipped team; don't panic but run away with story, own it!

Take responsibility, correct mistakes! Let spokesperson or CEO lead.

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS For this communication and information management manual to be used effectively and for communication to achieve their objective along with those of PSF, the following recommendations are made: 1)

The PSF Senior management team and the Board should meet, internalize, own and

endorse this Communication and Information Management Manual;

2)

The communications team, along with all PSF staff need to be trained on how best to

use and benefit from this communication and information management manual, incl.

other relevant trainings for its effective implementation.

3)

This manual should be made known to the organs of PSF.

4)

It would be beneficial if PSF invested in its own radio, television and a high-powered

website to share news and information more regularly and through channels it has

direct control of.

5)

The Communications team should be empowered with adequate human and financial

resources.

48

6)

PSF should elaborate a strategic communications plan.

7)

The Communications team should be facilitated with all relevant information by all in

the PSF structure.

8)

The Communications team should work directly under the CEO's office


CONCLUSION Communication is an essential component of business development and this manual, reviews why effective communication matters to Private Sector Federation. Communication may break down as a result of many communication barriers that may be attributed to the sender or receiver. Therefore, effective communication requires elimination of these barriers. Choosing the right channel for communication is also important, because choosing the wrong channel undermines the message henceforth being sensitive and preventive to errors fortifies PSF communication effectiveness. Annex I: List of individuals at PSF interviewed S/N

NAME

POSITION

01

KANAMUGIRE CALLIXTE

Chief Advocacy Office

02

KARASIRA FAUSTIN

Chief Operations Officer

03

KAYITAKIRWA DEUS

Director of Advocacy

04

KIIZA YOSAM

Director of Operations

05

NTAGENGERWA THEONESTE

Director of Internal Audit

06

TUMWIINE EDMOND

Head of PPD

07

NDAHIRWA BENJAMIN

Head of M&E

08

CLAUDIA SPERLICH

Research Development Advisor

09

MUHIZI ALLAIN DIDIER

Policy Analyst

10

CLEMANCE MUREKATETE

Head of Labour Relations

11

JOSEPH MUTABAZI

Advisor to CEO

12

BETTY ABATONI

Head of District Coordination

13

NATASHA KANEZA

Head of Association Coordination

14

MUHASHYI ANASTANSIE

Head of Institutional Relations

15

MUGISHA ROBINSON

Head of R&D

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

REFERENCES 1. https://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Inc-Int/Information-Management-and-Processing.html

2. Business Investment and Climate Survey (2019-2023)

3. https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/toolkits/pages/managingorganizationalcommunication.aspx

4. The Executive’s Handbook of Trade and Business Associations: How They Work https://books.google.rw/books?id=kUKOQSszu1QC&pg=PA68&lpg=PA68&dq=Spokesperson+of+business+association&source=bl&ots=wwr12ZFFz8&sig=ACfU3U2wZ9i5SovcOUYHfGpVJz8OLMW_mg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiD5dPP_dfkAhUl1eAKHdpqDcg4ChDoATAAegQICRAB#v=onepage&q=Spokesper son%20of%20business%20association&f=false

5. Promoting Private Investments in Rwanda: A case of Rwanda Private Sector Federation https://www.academia.edu/5799954/Promoting_Private_Investments_in_Rwanda.A_case_of_Rwanda_Private_Sector_Fed e ration 6. https://www.achieve.org/files/CommunicatingInternallyExternally_0.pdf

7. Beyond Advocacy, Private Sector Federation, Rwanda

8. PSF Annual Report 2018

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NOTES

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COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MANUAL

Private Sector Federation (PSF)

52

P.O. Box 319, Gikondo, Kigali - Rwanda Tel: 2233 or +250 787 421 444 Email: info@psf.org.rw Twitter: @PSFRwanda Website: www.psf.org.rw