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GIS and EA Engr. Mansoor-Ul-Hassan Siddique Government of Pakistan


Formal Definition of GIS “ A system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth. This is normally considered to involve a spatially referenced computer database and appropriate applications software� Chorley Report, 1987


What GIS can do? What would happen if . . . Achemical leaked into a riv er? Is there a correlations between . . . The location of cattle colony and the spread of water- borne disease Has . . . Population pattern changed ov er the last ten years? Is there a spatial pattern related to . . . Car ownership in our area?


GIS comprises of: 

Tools to execute four operations on geo-referenced data:     

Data input Storage Management Analysis Output


Type of Information 

Spatial   

Maps Post Codes Census Report

Management   

Financial Statement EIA Guidelines Schematic Diagram


What is Spatial Data? 

Grid co-ordinate

Place Name

Longitude -Latitude

Post Code

Distance and bearing


Numerical Data


Maps to Display Spatial Data

200’

Sta. 94, DOC 4.9

Stream,3 Former Land Fill

100’ FOREST

URBAN

FOREST

200’

100’

WELL

Duvall, pop 1170 AGRICULTURE

Snoqualmie River, 1

Brush Creek, 2


GIS Organizes Data in Layers Land use Soils Streets Hydrology Parcels


Sites of Ecological Importance

Overlaying Component Maps

Water Quality

Landscape Consideratio ns

Development A (e.g., Industrial Plant) Development B (e.g., road scheme)

Complete Composite Map

The Compilation of an Overlay Map from Various Component Maps


GIS System Architecture and Components

Data Input

Query Input

Output: Display and Reporting

Geographic Database

Transformation and Analysis


Use of GIS in Environmental Studies

Monitoring environmental risk

Modeling storm-water runoff

Management of watersheds, floodplains, wetlands, forests, aquifers

Environmental Impact Analysis

Hazardous or toxic facility siting

Groundwater modeling and contamination tracking


Features of GIS for EA 

Description and distribution of natural resources

Identification of environmental stress

Description of project stress

Assessment of response

Risk assessment

Assess effectiveness of mitigation measures


Global Information System (GIS)