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GIS and EA Engr. Mansoor-Ul-Hassan Siddique Government of Pakistan

Formal Definition of GIS “ A system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth. This is normally considered to involve a spatially referenced computer database and appropriate applications software� Chorley Report, 1987

What GIS can do? What would happen if . . . Achemical leaked into a riv er? Is there a correlations between . . . The location of cattle colony and the spread of water- borne disease Has . . . Population pattern changed ov er the last ten years? Is there a spatial pattern related to . . . Car ownership in our area?

GIS comprises of: 

Tools to execute four operations on geo-referenced data:     

Data input Storage Management Analysis Output

Type of Information 

Spatial   

Maps Post Codes Census Report

Management   

Financial Statement EIA Guidelines Schematic Diagram

What is Spatial Data? 

Grid co-ordinate

Place Name

Longitude -Latitude

Post Code

Distance and bearing

Numerical Data

Maps to Display Spatial Data


Sta. 94, DOC 4.9

Stream,3 Former Land Fill







Duvall, pop 1170 AGRICULTURE

Snoqualmie River, 1

Brush Creek, 2

GIS Organizes Data in Layers Land use Soils Streets Hydrology Parcels

Sites of Ecological Importance

Overlaying Component Maps

Water Quality

Landscape Consideratio ns

Development A (e.g., Industrial Plant) Development B (e.g., road scheme)

Complete Composite Map

The Compilation of an Overlay Map from Various Component Maps

GIS System Architecture and Components

Data Input

Query Input

Output: Display and Reporting

Geographic Database

Transformation and Analysis

Use of GIS in Environmental Studies

Monitoring environmental risk

Modeling storm-water runoff

Management of watersheds, floodplains, wetlands, forests, aquifers

Environmental Impact Analysis

Hazardous or toxic facility siting

Groundwater modeling and contamination tracking

Features of GIS for EA 

Description and distribution of natural resources

Identification of environmental stress

Description of project stress

Assessment of response

Risk assessment

Assess effectiveness of mitigation measures

Global Information System (GIS)