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Gerardo Manllo  A01192708   David  Garza  A01192405   Juan  Carlos  Gonzalez  A01192469   Team  7  


1) "Paracelsus revived the first-century “doctrine of signatures."- Univ. of Virginia. The doctrine of signatures was made with the objective of being capable to identify the medicinal herbs, minerals, and animals that can help the human organism. This has been very helpful for modern day medicine because every time that is found a new herb or mineral is tested to see how it looks like and if it looks like a part of a body that is the part that can give benefits. 2) "Paracelsus was the first to connect goitre with minerals, especially lead, in drinking water. He prepared and used new chemical remedies, including those containing mercury, sulfur, iron, etc." - Britannica Academic Edition. This part that is included in the doctrine of signatures was a very helpful discovery or experiment since it helped humans and in a modern day it is still used due to its benefits. 3) Andreas Vesalius is considered the father of modern human anatomy and is one of the major contributors to modern science. He published the first complete textbook on human anatomy in 1546 - Rationalrevolution.net. The book called De Humani Corporis Fabrica was the first textbook done on the human body and was the base for the future scientists to rely on for information. This textbook has information about the structure and about the organs. 4) Antony van Leeuwenhoek was the first scientist to discover bacteria, parasites, sperm cells, blood cells, microscope nematodes and rotifers and much more. Discovering this helped develop more scientific advances and developed also cures for certain illness. This led to a full investigation of each. 5) Nicolai Coppernicus, who was an astronomer, started the scientific revolution due to its model in which the sun was in the center and Earth was orbiting around it. In this way he proved what is correct now a days, proving that the Ptolemaic system wasn’t correct. 6) Galileo Galilei was proved the Copernicus theory by improving the telescope and by making observations about the moon, stars, and planets. Galileo with this theory did speak about his discoveries, something that Copernicus did not do. This was one of the first times they challenged the Catholic Church by proving theories that they did not allow. 7) Sir Isaac Newton has been recognized as one of the most important scientists of all time due to his great acknowledgement in mathematics where it is said that he advanced every branch that he ever worked on. He made a great change in mathematics, physics and medicine due to his accomplishments and discoveries 8)Sir Isaac Newton developed the 3 laws of motion and the law of gravity in which he greatly changed the way physics is looked at. These 3 laws of motion are still used now a days by modern physics and together with the law of gravity it brings a huge understanding of the earths nature.


"Britannica Academic Edition." Paracelsus. N.p., 2012. Web. 19 Jan 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/442424/Paracelsus>. "University of Virginia." A Brief History of Herbalism. N.p., 2009. Web. 19 Jan 2012. <http://www.hsl.virginia.edu/historical/rare_books/herbalism/history.cfm>. "A Historical Outline of Modern Religious Criticism in Western Civilization." Rationalrevolution.net - Making Sense of History, Economics, Politics, Philosophy, and War. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. <http://rationalrevolution.net/articles/religious_criticism.htm>. "The Scientific Revolution." Boise State University. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. <http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/westciv/science/03.shtml>. Mihos, Chris. "Isaac Newton." Chris Mihos - Webhome. 11 Jan. 2006. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. <http://burro.astr.cwru.edu/stu/pre20th_europe_newton.html>.

Adler, Philip J. and Randall L. Pouwels. World Civilizations. 6th ed. United States: Wadsworth Cengage Publishing, 2012. Print.


Now in days, skin care is very important on our daily lives, for a good personal presentation and for feeling comfortable of not having imperfections. This is a very common fact in adolescence due to the hormonal changes and because of the sebum production. There are many facts that cause that the skin becomes damaged, the first one is the UV rays produced by our sun that becomes denser while time passes and their damage is worse if there is no protection used like sunblock with UV protection. These is serious because it can cause skin cancer and also affects acne in face. It is also very important to take care of you alimentation, eating food that contains high levels of fat will increase acne production and if it’s not well controlled it can expand and become serious problem. Acne as well as Skin cancer are two of many things that can happen to you if you don’t have good care for your skin. For teenagers, one of the most important things is to have a clean face, meaning not having imperfections, better known as acne. Acne starts when the pores in the face become covered with oil called sebum. This has a natural function of lubricating the skin and the hair but the problem starts when this overcomes its natural levels. These problem manifests in the face because most of these oilproducing glands are in the forehead, chin, cheeks. This is called the T Zone where is the most affected in a person’s face. But you still can prevent all these by taking care in several ways. The first thing to do is washing your face in the morning and before sleeping with a special soap for acne control. Not popping the pimples is very important because most of the people believe that with these they will be eliminated but that’s not true, by making these you only cause that infected material gets in the pimple causing more redness and becoming bigger with less chances of being disinfected. Touching your face with your hands is also a common error that teenagers make because of the anxiety of having the imperfection or just trying to get rid of it, these only causes that you spread more bacteria all over your face causing that the pores become more infected and inflamed. Also for people that train or do their daily life exposed to the sun, it is very important that they use UV protection for preventing to get their skin damaged, these takes them to have high risk of getting skin cancer. Skin cancer is the most popular of cancer branches. There are almost 1,000,000 cases detected yearly. These is divided into three branches that are Basel cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. These light colored skin and it is caused by the sun. For removing this type of cancer the doctor does an operation living you with just a scar. To prevent it you can start by buying UV protection and putting it minimum in uncovered parts as face and arms for a better protection. In conclusion, for a general Skin Care, you must maintain a healthy stile of living. Eating many fruits and vegetables will keep you away from many diseases that can damage your skin by reinforcing your cells. For the main skin problems in adolescents as acne, you should always remember to have a clean face using special soap and also taking conscience to keep fats low in what you eat because these is the main cause for acne in the face and also for shoulders and your back. Also important to start preventing since young age skin cancer by using skin protection when exposed to the sun and UV rays.


Lautenschalnger, Hans. "Skin Cancer Care." dermaviduals. Version 1. Dr. Hans Lautenschl채ger, n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. <http://www.dermaviduals.de/english/publications/problem-skin/skin-care-for-theadolescent-skin.html>. Publisher, Nemours. "Tips for Taking Care of Your Skin ." KidsHealth - the Web's most visited site about children's health. Version 1. Nemours, 8 Dec. 1999. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. <http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_body/take_c Lanter, Robert. "Skin, Cancer Signs."Medicine.Net. Version 1. Dr. Robert, n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. <http://www.medicinenet.com/skin_cancer


Types of  Exercise      

There are three main types of exercises we can do: cardiovascular exercise, resistance training, and flexibility exercises. Each one is very important to being a healthy person for different reasons. In this article we will explain more each one’s importance to being healthy. Cardiovascular exercise is exercise involving large muscles like the legs to make your heart and lungs strong. This type of exercise is very important because it lowers your blood pressure and burns calories. It’s recommended to this exercise for about 30 minutes a day. Resistance training is any type of exercise that makes your muscles contrast against an external object like weight lifts or dumbbells. This exercise overloads your muscles in order to make them stronger. It’s recommended to do one set of 8 to 10 exercises for major muscles, two or three times a week. Flexibility exercises are exercises that make you more flexible. This is important because it allows your joints to do more motions without getting hurt. You should do this type of exercise before you do any other type, for about five or ten minutes. In conclusion, these three types of exercise are very important in order to be healthy. Cardiovascular exercise lowers your blood pressure and burns calories. Resistance training makes your muscles stronger and gives you more resistant to exercise. Flexibility exercise allows you to be more flexible and gives you less chance to injure yourself. References: "Flexibility - How to Exercise to Increase Flexibility." Pilates - Exercises and Equipment for Strength and Flexibility - Pilates DVD Reviews and More. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. <http://pilates.about.com/od/pilatesexercises/a/All-About-Flexibility.htm>. "What Is Cardiovascular Exercise?" Ideas for Women. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. <http://www.ideasforwomen.com/health/fit-5sp-cardio-1.php>. "Resistance Training Benefits, Types, Techniques and Programs on EMedicineHealth.com." Web. 29 Jan. 2012. <http://www.emedicinehealth.com/strength_training/article_em.htm>. "Exercise for Beginners - Flexibility." Exercise - Get Weight Loss Advice, Cardio and Strength Training Workouts, Information on How to Get Started and More. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. <http://exercise.about.com/cs/exbeginners/a/begflexibility.htm>.


Soluzione:  


Our hypothesis in these tests was that if a teenager (or any person) smokes, then their physical stamina decrease and their muscle fatigue would increase.

Variable: Smoker/Non-Smoker

Yes, we made sure the muscles were not exposed to active physical activity prior to the experiment. • By looking at your results, could you pinpoint when lactic acid stated to build up on the test subjects? In the non-smoker subject, around the 6th-7th trial.

• What is the relationship between your experimental variable and muscle fatigue? Smokers will have a higher inhale/exhale rate, which will give them less time for their muscles to expand and collapse, which will cause fatigue faster. • Did you exercise appropriate control during the experimentation phase (did you avoid conflicting variables from affecting the results)?

Trail 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10  

Non-­‐Smoker Number  of  Repetitions  in  10  sec.   10   10   9   9   8   7   7   5   3   3  

In the smoker subject, around de 3th trial. • What changes on the protocol would you suggest to other students that might want to perform this experiment in the future? Try having more trials or more seconds, as 10 are too little to determine an exact conclusion.

Trail   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10  

Smoker Number  of  Repetitions  in  10    sec.   10   9   7   7   6   6   5   4   3   2  


Bibliography "Health Dangers  of  Smoking  for  Nonsmokers."  Health  &  Literacy   Special  Collection.  Web.  26  Jan.  2012.   <http://healthliteracy.worlded.org/docs/tobacco/Unit5/1health_ dangers.html>.     "Global  Smoking  Statistics."  Quit  Smoking  |  Quit  Smoking  Support  |   Smoking  Cessation.  Web.  26  Jan.  2012.   <http://quitsmoking.about.com/cs/antismoking/a/statistics.htm >.     "Smoking  And  Exercise  |  Exercise  Can  Do  a  Smoker's  Body  Good  -­‐   Los  Angeles  Times."Featured  Articles  From  The  Los  Angeles  Times.   04  Aug.  2008.  Web.  26  Jan.  2012.   <http://articles.latimes.com/2008/aug/04/health/he-­‐ smokingside4>.      

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Gerardo Manllo David Garza Juan Carlos Gzz

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