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A Manhattan Beach Media Publication

a R E V I E W of

Arnold Rosner’s works, including

an O V E R V I E W of Donald J. Young’s

CLARINET RHAPSODY by John Darling by Keith Kinder

The all purpose

AMERICAN SCHOOLS

The Future and quality of Music Education may depend on it.

AMERICAN FA M I L I E S

POWER TOOL by Bob Margolis

photo by Charlie Grosso

an UPDATE to the FRANK TICHELI COMPOSITION C O N T E S T

hel pi n g

we honor you

P O DI UM CLO NE S

FRANK FRANK TICHELI’S

by Gregory B. Rudgers

INTERPRETING

TICHELI’S SYMPHONY No. 2 by John Darling


Since 1876

“ Jim Cochran and the people of Shattinger Music are the best music dealers in the business…period. Nobody knows the wind band repertoire better than Jim Cochran. He is a walking encyclopedia — the single greatest authority on wind band repertoire. For band directors and wind musicians alike, he is a national treasure.”

Frank Ticheli Coda: He seems to know things about my new works even before I do!

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E N C H A N T E D I S L A N D

D E T N A E N C H D N I S L A

S T E V E S T E V E

E D

I S L A N D

c h M u s i c . c o m

R O U S E

E N w w C H A N T w . M a n h a t t a n B e a

R T C O N C E

E S R O U

N D B A

m c o . c s i M u h c e a t t a n B a h n a M . w w w Enchanted Island for concert Band by Steve Rouse - Grade 1

www.Manhattan Beach Music.com RAISING THE STANDARDS

of the

AMERICAN CONCERT BAND and BANDS ALL OVER THE 2

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W

ayfaring Stranger was born in the southern Appalachian Mountains about the time of the American Revolution, according to widely held beliefs about the origins of this popular, early American song. At that time, the immigrants of the region were mostly English, Scottish, Irish, and Welsh, but there was also a mysterious group known as Melungeons. Sometimes called the Black Dutch, the Melungeons are often said to be of Portuguese descent, though their precise lineage is still a mystery, varies much and is a complex mixture thought to include Native American, African (including Bantu), and some Mediterranean, with Turkish as a favorite. In recent years much research has begun to yield more clues to the Melungeons’ origins and

by

Steve Rouse

history. They appear to have been semi-nomadic, generally moving inward from the Atlantic coast in search of more favorable social conditions. Probably because of this, Wayfaring Stranger has become associated with Melungeon history. Regardless of descent, in those days the people of the region lived lives of enormous hardships, struggling to survive in an environment of often-rugged wilderness terrain, few supplies, not always friendly Indians, and the frequent loneliness of isolation. Wayfaring Stranger is typical of many of the spiritual songs of the time, expressing the pain and hardship of daily life, while dreaming and hoping for a bright and beautiful life after death. Continued on page 57

Wayfaring Stranger


E D I T O R ’ S

V I E W

…selling out

T

here are five players in the world of band music: They are the composers, who create the music for the publishers, who print it and sell it to the retailers, who promote and deliver it to the band directors (who themselves are not part of this production mechanism). The band directors are the end consumers. But all this is for the benefit of the students. It is interesting that they, undeniably the most important part of the equation, have the least say in the process and remain the most vulnerable to it. It is the job of everyone above them in this hierarchy to serve their welfare — but as we shall see, events may conspire against this. How do the band directors find out about music? Band directors (whom you would think were the real arbiters of taste) can only easily buy what the retailers show them, and what they show them may at times have nothing to do with quality. What it may have something to do with is profit. Retailers, for example, find it easier to keep music in stock when publishers make it easy for them to do so, by providing return privileges, consignment orders, good payment terms, and deep discounts. There you have it: convenience and money may largely determine which music the band directors are most exposed to. Not everyone, not everywhere — but more often than you would suspect, and in places you would never suspect. The best music requires extraordinary talent and skill to write, dedication and extra expense to publish and promote, and true musical understanding to perform well. In contrast, the easiest music to sell is music that is easily played and often easy to publish. What I am talking about is music that appears in catalogs that are crafted,

MBM

Editor in Chief, Neil Ruddy

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somewhat cynically and somewhat of necessity, to attract the largest number of buyers. This music may please the audience, but so far as education is concerned, not much is happening. So far as furthering the art of band music, nothing is happening. One might conclude that there has been a deliberate dumbing down of music, to ensure profit. To counter all of this there is a wind of change blowing across the landscape: There are state-sponsored committees that choose music for state contests; there are magazine reviews that identify for their readership the best music; and there are good books that tell band directors which music is the most worthwhile. Despite this, the purveyors of mediocrity still have a foothold. In part it is because, in commerce, the greatest influence is often wielded by those who succumb to profit as the guiding motivation. When you are still doing business the old way, you need lots of cash to feed the machine — for example, to print and to mail the thousands of paper catalogs containing stuff that sells the most — and quality can take a back seat. Again, not everyone, not everywhere — but more often than you would suspect, and in places you would never suspect. Something is lost, or more likely hidden, in this process: Music of quality is seldom shown on “page one” — sometimes it is not shown at all. And to make things worse, sometimes works of very little worth are identified as being works of quality. Quality threatens the machine because there is so little of it. The machine needs quantity to survive. But there is hope. A smaller, quality-driven industry has risen to challenge this machine. My advice is this: Do not rely upon any single source. Each has its own agenda. By and large place your trust in the expert reviewers and authors who at the least have good and unbiased intentions and at the best have real skill in identifying the best and brightest. Be wary especially where commerce is concerned. When you see a display of music on the front page of an Internet site or the main pages of a paper catalog, ask yourself the following questions: How was this music chosen? How was this music really chosen? Band directors — not retailers — should shape the industry and be responsible for its direction. It is your job and challenge to locate and teach the best music. It is the most important thing you do. Raise the art of band. Don’t feed the machine.

CONTENTS INTE RP RE T ING Frank Ticheli’s

SYMPHONY No. 2

Donald J. Young's

Clarinet Rhapsody

C L AR IN ET RHAPSODY

8

by John Darling for Concert Band

an O V E R V I E W of Donald J. Young’s

CLARINET RHAPSODY Donald J. Young Hear complete recordings at www.ManhattanBeachMusic.com

www.ManhattanBeachMusic.com

37

by John Darling

C R

update on the F R A NK TICH E L I C OM P OS IT I O N C ONTE ST

47

www.ArnoldRosner.c

om

D

a R E V I E W of

www

Arnold Rosner’s works, including

48

by Keith Kinder

Neil Ruddy



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CONTENTS A M E R I C A N

S C H O O L S

H E L PI N G A M E R I C A N

FA M I L I E S

we honor you P O DIU M

52

C LON ES

“The great conductors are not noteworthy for their conducting technique; they are memorable because they have a deep and resonant understanding of the music.”

by Gregory B. Rudgers

54

The all purpose

POWER TOOL

The Future and quality of Music Education

may depend on it. by Bob Margolis

58

MUSIC REVIEW from the BEST MUSIC SERIES BOOKS

64

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MBM

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A Manhattan Beach Media Publication

NEIL RUDDY

Publisher & Editor-in-Chief Managing and Copy Editor BOB MARGOLIS Contributing Writers JOHN DARLING, KEITH KINDER, BOB MARGOLIS, GREGORY B. RUDGERS Additional Graphics and Art Direction ROBERT BENNETT Authors and Advertisers may contact us at: editorial@mbmtimes.com advertising@mbmtimes.com Copyright © 2006 Manhattan Beach Media. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior written permission of Manhattan Beach Media. All photographs of Frank Ticheli by Charlie Grosso are copyright © 2006 Manhattan Beach Music and may not be used without written authorization of the copyright proprietor.


Best Music for Chorus and Winds

by Keith Kinder

foreword by Frank Ticheli edited by Bob Margolis


photo by Charlie Grosso


Frank Ticheli’s SYMPHONY

No. 2

Interpreting a Masterpiece by

In the history of band literature, only a few pieces have achieved iconic stature: Lincolnshire Posy, First Suite for Military Band, Symphony for Band, to name a few. The names of the composers who wrote these pieces are of equal importance: Grainger, Holst, and Persichetti. There are numerous other compositions and composers who could be elevated to the same level of achievement. If there was any doubt that Frank Ticheli belongs on that list, then his recent addition to wind band repertoire should lay any questions to rest. The importance of 

John Darling Ticheli’s music is not lost on those who work outside of the band genre. His compositions for chamber groups and orchestra have consistently received impressive reviews. He is recognized as one of America’s outstanding composers along side other eminent composers such as Copland, Corigliano, and Adams. It is a testament to his prowess as a composer that during a review of Symphony No. 2 in the South Florida Sun-Sentinel, Lawrence Johnson

describes Ticheli as “one of the most interesting and attractive composers on the scene today.” Johnson goes on to describe the symphony as having a “huge energetic impetus and, perhaps most impressively, a hopeful quality and optimism.” Compositions for bands have only recently started to be recognized by the mainstream press and this rare review of a non-orchestra composition is yet another example of this composer’s importance to the genre of bands and wind ensembles. Those familiar with Ticheli’s compositions will hear vague allusions to his other works laced www. MBM

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throughout the symphony. Imagine the combination of the energetic drive of Postcard, the rhythmic complexities of Gaian Visions, the playful spirit of Blue Shades, the emotional contrasts in Vesuvius and An American Elegy, all amalgamated and reworked without restrictions to time or technical demands, and you might have a vague impression of Ticheli’s new symphony. But don’t be misled by the previous statement; this is not “The Best of Frank Ticheli” repackaged as are so many of the pieces by other band composers. This piece has an identity of its own as a major new work for wind bands and it will receive much deserved attention. The intent of this article is to shed some interpretive insight into this masterpiece. Symphony No. 2 is classified as a grade 6 difficulty and should only be attempted by conductors and ensembles of the highest abilities. There are extreme instrument ranges and professional level technical passages required of nearly every part. However, Ticheli has gone to great lengths to make the piece as accessible as possible which will be discussed throughout this article. The piece takes approximately 21-22 minutes to perform in its entirety. Conductors will find the information in this article useful, even if for score study purposes only. Like most of Ticheli’s scores, Symphony No. 2 has extensive program notes and descriptive performance notes. It is highly recommended that anyone who reads this article have a copy of the full score at their disposal. It will be useful to read through the notes provided by Ticheli while observing the instances described within the score. Although many examples are illustrated within the body of this article, it will be necessary to cross-reference observations to the score and several direct references to score itself.

COMMISSIONING BACKGROUND In the spring of 2002, the Director of Bands at Florida State University announced his plan to retire, adding his name to a list of several of the countries most influential college conductors who were about to retire: Donald Hunsberger from the Eastman School of Music; H. Robert Reynolds from the University of Michigan; and James E. Croft from Florida State University. The adMBM 10         TIMES  

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vent of the Dr. Croft’s announcement sparked a flurry of speculation and set into motion a series of events culminating in the commissioning of an important addition to the wind band repertoire: Symphony No. 2 by Frank Ticheli. Croft’s retirement, although significant, was not unexpected. Two years before his announcement, many of his former students were informally discussing ways to pay homage to their former mentor and friend in the event of his retirement. Among the many suggestions was the idea to commission a new work for wind band by a composer of Croft’s choosing. The intent would be that the work should be a substantial addition to the wind band repertoire with multiple movements. Initially, the participants in the consortium was to be restricted to Croft’s former doctoral students, each contributing $1,000 to the commission. A target goal of twenty-five participants was set. Ultimately, several contributors included some of Croft’s former Masters conducting students, close friends, and colleagues. With the money secured, the next step was to set the plan in motion without Croft knowing. During a casual conversation with Croft, Dr. John Carmichael, Director of Bands at the University of Kentucky, indicated that he had some money available for a commissioning project and asked Croft for some suggestions about who he might choose for a composer. Croft replied that if he were available at the time, he would choose Frank Ticheli. When Ticheli first appeared on the band scene, Croft was intrigued by his fresh approach to composition exhibited in his early band works. As many conductors have done, Croft sought out opportunities to work with and encourage a developing composer, the result being that Croft and Ticheli have collaborated several times over the years. With the composer selected, Carmichael approached Ticheli to secure the commission. The amount of the commission was $25,000, with the stipulation that the piece be a significant addition to the repertoire with multiple movements. A target of April 2003, coinciding with Croft’s farewell concert, was set as the premiere date. The most important aspect of the commission was that it was to be kept a secret from Croft. Although not specified in the commissioning, it soon became evident that the form of the work would be a symphony. Early discussions between the Carmichael, Ticheli, and Croft’s wife Diana, included a list of songs had special meaning to Croft that might be incorporated into the com-


position. A stylized “Ives” treatment of these tunes was ultimately and reluctantly abandoned. Instead, Ticheli chose to use Bach’s Chorale BWV 433 (Who Puts His Trust In God Most Just) in the final movement. This particular chorale is especially meaningful to Croft whose own arrangement for band and optional chorus is available from Shawnee Press. A commission of this magnitude was a difficult task to keep secret. In the end, Croft knew that Ticheli was writing something, but he did not know the background of the commission or the participants in the consortium. At Croft’s retirement concert on 25 April 2003, Donald Hunsberger conducted the premiere of the first two movements. Dr. Patrick Dunnigan, Professor of Music Education at Florida State, conducted all rehearsals; many of the rehearsals were in the presence of the composer. Croft conducted the work (first and second movements only) at the 11th WASBE Convention in Stockholm on 1 July 2003. With the third movement finished, the complete symphony was first performed at the CBDNA North Central Division Conference by the University of Michigan Symphony Band under the direction of Steven Davis in February 2004. Croft’s first hearing of the complete version was 27 February 2004, performed by the Western Kentucky University Wind Ensemble under the direction of Dr. John Carmichael.

I N S T R U M E N TAT I O N At first glance, the instrumentation seems very basic for the modern wind ensemble. There are very few “extra” instruments required (i.e. harp, piano, organ), although five trumpet players are required to perform the tone clusters in the first movement. Even the commonly accepted instruments to the symphonic wind ensemble are not scored: string bass, English Horn, marimba. These observations are mentioned here only as a warning to unsuspecting conductors who might think that this piece is within their ensembles capabilities. While the technical demands are those expected at the collegiate or professional level, especially for the first two movements, Ticheli has taken meticulous steps to ensure the piece remains accessible. His use of only the basic instrumentation eliminates the necessity of having to bring in extra personnel to accomplish a proper rendition (i.e. a harpist, a third oboist to play English Horn, etc). Important structural, melodic, or supportive elements are carefully cross-cued in alternate parts to accommodate those advanced school programs who can handle the technical requirements but may have personnel shortages due to an occasional off-year of recruiting. There are a few important observations that conductors need to keep in mind as they evaluate and prepare this piece

For the Advanced Band Ticheli’s Masterwork

Symphony No. 2 This is Frank Ticheli’s most significant contribution yet to the concert band repertoire.

...an explosion of light, color, and motion

21 minutes / Grade 6 

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for performance. The E-flat Clarinet is required for the first movement only. Important solo lines for this instrument are cued in the first clarinet part, however, the extreme tessitura of many of these lines dictates that the E-flat be used. The instrumentalist chosen to play the Eflat clarinet part needs to be of the highest caliber with acute sense of pitch. As hard as the instrument is to play in tune normally, Ticheli wrote many passages in the highest range of the instrument’s capabilities compounding the intonation difficulties inherent with the instrument. The instrumentation also calls for an E-flat Contrabass Clarinet rather than the more frequently required B-flat Contrabass. There are no “solos” marked for the E-Flat Contra and important moments are doubled with other instruments or cued in other parts. However, there are several moments where Ticheli has orchestrated certain timbral colors that require the use of an E-flat Contrabass, particularly in the second and third movements. Most important of these moments is the final chord of the second movement: the low b-flat is not available from a baritone saxophone; a bassoon would disrupt the timbre color; the only other instrument available to play this note in context is a tuba. Although this note is cued in the tuba, the dynamic level and the emotional context of the moment require that the Eflat Contrabass be used for this very delicate moment. Having two oboists

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and two bassoonists is highly recommended. There are numerous examples of where these parts are not doubled or cued in other parts making the requirement of two players almost absolute: bassoons, Movement 1, measure 26; oboe 2, Movement 1, measure 83; bassoons, Movement 2, measure 26; oboe 2, Movement 3, measure 189. Even without the moments just cited (and there arguably more), it doesn’t negate Ticheli’s expectation as to the weight that these additional instruments add to the orchestration where he has written them. There were no restrictions placed on Ticheli when it came to technical demands. You will need more than just one or two good players per section to attempt this piece. Anyone familiar with Ticheli’s orchestration techniques knows that he often places important melodic or thematic lines within the sections (i.e. second and third parts) as normal rule. It should come as no surprise that the first chair parts are demanding, but the technical requirements of the inner parts are equally as difficult in most sections. These are just a few examples: clarinet 2 and 3, Movement 1, measures 37-39; clarinet 2, Movement 1, measure 96; baritone saxophone, Movement 1, measure 161-165; clarinet 2 and 3, Movement 2, measures 15-16; trumpet 2, Movement 2, measures 147-148; alto sax 2 and trumpet 3, Movement 3, measures 85-93.

FORM As mentioned in the background above, the ultimate form chosen by Ticheli was a multi-movement symphony. From Ticheli’s notes, the outside movements are in a fast tempo and the middle movement a slow, expressive tempo. Although not a requirement of the commission, Ticheli chose to use traditional symphonic forms for each movement, albeit in a loosely applied interpretation: Movement 1: Quasi Rondo — ABACABD (Transition) B (Transition) ACA Coda; Movement 2: Through-Composed in seven distinct sections; Movement 3: Quasi Sonata Form — Introduction, Exposition, Development, Varied Recapitulation, Coda. The tables facing are intended as brief road maps to be used during continued score study. A discussion of the melodic elements described in the “salient features” will follow.


Movement 1 – Quasi Rondo Section A B A C A B D Transition B Transition C A Coda

Measures 1-17 18-34 35-43 44-61 62-66 67-82 83-102 103-108 109-116 117-137 138-151 152-157 158-171

Salient features Main Theme, rocket-like tone clusters, dance-like staccato chords B Theme – lyrical quarter note triplets Slight variations of previous material C Theme – dotted-eighth note, sixteenth note, eighth note rhythm Continued development of previous material Continued development of previous material Similar C Theme, leaping eighth notes, parallel sixths Relaxation of the tempo Calm presentation Return to original tempo, continued development of material More aggressive variation Short last statement Brass pyramids, 16th note runs, timpani solo

Movement 2 – Through-composed Section A B C D E F Reprise

Measures 1-18 19-25 26-36 41-84 84-112 113-146 147-168

Salient features Main Theme, blues scale, 32nd note runs Chant Theme Call-motive Alto saxophone solo 4 part canon Long accelerando Main Theme/Chant Theme counterpoint, ffff Saxophone solo quotation

Movement 3 – Quasi Sonata Form Section Introduction Exposition

Development

Varied Recapitulation Coda



Measures 1-46 47-84 85-103 103-133 134-199 200-214 214-220 221-227 227-234 235-247 250-255 256-263 264-269

Salient features Sparse textures, F-A-Bb-C-Eb cell, hemiola Galloping “A theme” New material, joyous outburst “B theme” Bach Chorale BWV 433, first and middle sections “A theme” and cell development, ascending scale passages Introduction of new material Chant Theme from Movement 2 Main Theme from Movement 1 Main Theme from Movement 3 Bach chorale conclusion Timpani solo “A theme” fragments, ascending P4 Final Main Theme quotation

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MELODIC DEVELOPMENT Movement 1 – Shooting Stars As with many of his compositions, Ticheli presents the main ideas (melodic, rhythmic and harmonic) of the movement, and ultimately the entire work, in the first few measures. A long, protracted introduction is a common element found in other composer’s works of equivalent scope, but they are often distracting, poorly organized, and lend nothing to the essence of the piece except length. Ticheli, by contrast, often gets to the heart of the piece immediately, engaging the listener from the first moments by revealing the fundamental elements which are the nucleus of the composition. A look at the first four measures of the full score will reveal three important ideas that Ticheli mentions in his notes: the main theme; “rocket-like” tone clusters; and dance-like “staccatissimo” chords. With each subsequent emergence of the Main Theme, Ticheli demonstrates a crucial compositional technique seen in virtually all his works and a vital characteristic that separates his music from so many others: the lack of exact repetition. The Main Theme, which appears eight times throughout Movement 1, is first presented as it appears in Example 1. Example 1: Main Theme

With each subsequent statement of the Main Theme, Ticheli alters (develops) this material without ever repeating it exactly. This concept can be seen in his first major composition for bands, Fortress, where he repeats the main idea eighteen times without ever repeating the melodic shape or orchestrations. In this way, Ticheli keeps the listener engaged by not letting his music become predictable or pedantic. The technique seen in Example 1 of sounding a second voice at an interval other than an octave below the main idea is not a new idea for Ticheli. He used this same approach in Loch Lomond, measure 58, using a different texture. He will use a variation of this technique in Movement 2. The second element Ticheli describes in his notes is the “rocket-like” tone clusters that first appear in the trumpets and colored by the chimes glissando. Although the notes and the rhythm is always the same for the trumpets, the beat placement is often shifted and the surrounding textures are often varied. Example 2: Diatonic Tone Clusters

The last element Ticheli describes is the syncopated dance-like chords used for the foundation of his accompaniment throughout this movement. Short, “staccatissimo” chords are a favorite element in many of Ticheli’s works which illustrates one criteria of his overall approach to composition: music should have some aspects of singing and dancing.

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Example 3: Dance-like Syncopation Background

The emphasis on a dance-like quality is one of the consistencies that one can expect in a Ticheli composition. There are numerous examples of this character in Ticheli’s music. Good examples of this can be found in Postcard, Blue Shades, and Sun Dance, yet each piece has its own character and identity; the dance-like figures are not “cookie-cutter” repeats from previous compositions. The authenticity of each piece, including this one, is maintained because of Ticheli’s consistency to the integrity of each piece. Using these three ideas as the basic building bocks for the movement, Ticheli, in typical fashion, does not linger over these ideas. Instead, he moves quickly to develop them and reshape the ideas to keep the musical environment from becoming stale and plodding. Ticheli will keep enough of the core essence of each idea in order for the listener to follow the development, but as mentioned above, he rarely repeats any passage exactly. Having established the foundation of the movement, Ticheli introduces new material that he uses throughout the entire symphony in measure 14, beats 1 and 2. The triplet passage in the piccolo, flute 1, alto saxophone 1, trumpet 1, and xylophone is a series of



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Example 4: Ascending Fourths

ascending perfect fourths (P4), seen above. The interval of the fourth, both perfect and augmented, ascending and descending, becomes more obvious as the movement, and ultimately the entire symphony, develops. Ticheli’s harmonic language is not strictly quartal or quintal, but there are allusions of this modern technique in his dance-like figures. Also present in measure 14 is a mirror image of the trumpet tone clusters. Notice that the intervallic relationship remains the same in the inverted form. Measure 18 introduces the contrasting lyrical Theme B in the French horns. Having introduced the element of the P4 in the final measures of the A section, Ticheli connects the two sections through the use of this interval. Notice the melodic interval of the P4 is used prominently in the construction of Theme B and that some of the harmonizing in the lower three horns represents quartal harmony, although not strictly. Example 5: Theme B

The inter-connection of contrasting themes through the use of a common element like the P4, may not be immediately recognized by the listener, but it is yet another example why Ticheli’s music seems to work so effortlessly, even though the process of making that happen is anything but simple. It is this kind of attention to the details of composition that gives Ticheli’s music an identity of its own. In measure 29, Ticheli introduces another element that he uses and develops throughout: contrary scale lines or crisscrossing scale passages. Similar ideas can be found as a cohesive element in Vesuvius. Example 6: Contrary Lines

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With the A section at measure 35, Ticheli demonstrates another example of how to keep the presentation of familiar elements fresh. By using the idea of crossing lines, Ticheli colors the “rocket-like” tone clusters by presenting a mirror image of the trumpets in the woodwinds. Example 7: Return of the A Section, measure 35

A check of the full score shows that all of the other elements are present as well. Measure 38 has another development of the P4 interval idea, this time as a descending episode of two superimposed passages a sixth apart.

Example 8: Measure 38

In the example above the stem directions have been altered to help illustrate the descending P4 concept. Look at the xylophone or vibraphone parts in the full score to see a better illustration of the concept of the two superimposed passages. Further analysis shows that the clarinets double the lines shown in Example 8. Also look at the clarinet parts in measure 43 to see another example of the crossing lines idea, this time using the P4 instead of a scale passage. The example above is another development of the trumpet tone clusters, minus one note, which is just another example of the complexities of Ticheli’s inter-connected melodic schema. The “C” section begins at measure 44 with a very dance-like melodic idea. Two elements make up the core idea of the theme: a



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Detail from the composer’s manuscript sketch of Movement 1

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dotted-eighth, sixteenth note, eighth note combination; and a divergent expanding melodic line, which could be seen as another development of the crossing passages cited earlier. Example 9: Theme C

In measure 49, the oboe and clarinet 1 present an important idea that will play prominently in the third movement: repeated ascending four note scale passages. The trumpet presents the contrary line established in movement 1. Other examples of the complexities of the schema can be seen in the bassoon which presents the descending line in a syncopated rhythmic pattern and the French horn breaking the ascending pattern with rests. Example 10: Repeated-Four Note Scale Passage

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The four note scale passage is quickly picked up in other instruments in various rhythmic manifestations, as well as an inverted form of the same idea. The C section ends with the low brass using the repeated four note scale passage that ultimately transforms into a syncopated form of the entire scale (in opposite directions) and the trumpets defining the ascending P4 idea in fourths. (See the full score.) This confluence of ideas sets up a dramatic pause before an abbreviated and slightly varied A section returns in measure 62. A return of the B section continues the development of ideas presented earlier, this time with different textures and timbre combinations. Ticheli explains in his performance notes that the D section is largely based on the material presented in the C section, however, his presentation and development of this material is sufficiently different enough to warrant its own identity. He cites three different layers presented in counterpoint: the basic melody, the leaping eighth notes, and the syncopated parallel sixths. Example 11: D Section

Notice that the thematic motive enters at a different beat placement throughout (see brackets in Example 11).14 Ticheli has used leaping eighth-note passages effectively in other pieces as well. One of the most notable applications can be found in the marimba



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part behind the clarinet solo in Blue Shades. While there are similarities between the Blue Shades moment and the one found in this piece, it is Ticheli’s ability to mold each application to individual needs of each piece that keeps Ticheli’s compositions from blurring together. Both textures are very different and the melody of each moment has a separate function. In Blue Shades, Ticheli draws the listener back to the original energy following a dramatic slow down using the Pete Fountain-like clarinet solo as the main focus. The circumstances in Symphony No. 2 are much different; the D section functions as a continuing development of familiar elements where the focus is on the entire texture, not just an individual soloist. A transition to a slower, calmer tempo leads to an abbreviated B section (measure 109) which is quickly interrupted by a return to the original tempo. Ticheli incorporates similar back-and-forth changes in Postcard, measures 104-11, and again in Sun Dance, measures 138-143. These are all cleverly placed at the right moment in each piece providing a false moment of repose for the listener. Just as a good story teller uses a dramatic pause to keep an audience engaged, Ticheli uses these moments to keep the listener connected to the ongoing development. The transitional section between measures 120 and 137 feels like a continuation of the previous transition section. Ideas and thematic motifs extracted from all of the sections can be seen throughout the transition. As this section moves forward, Ticheli gradually thickens the texture, setting up the return of the next C section. The end of this C section is virtually the same as the first time which represents the only exact repeat in the movement. By using this brief repeat of the C section, Ticheli grounds the movement by giving the listener a moment of recognition, not to mention that the return of previous sections is the design of the rondo form. Ticheli finishes the movement with one last statement of the A section which moves quickly to the coda. The coda is laced the elements that Ticheli used throughout the first movement. Specific elements that will be used prominently in Movement 2 are: ascending P4 (combined with running sixteenth-notes a P4 apart); divergent scale passages; and descending P4 passages in a unique double canonic treatment. (See the full score, measures 164-165)

Contact: USC Thor nton School of Music , Los Angeles , Califor nia 90089-0851 (213) 740-5389 uscmusic@usc .edu

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Movement 2 - Dreams Under a New Moon This movement highlights two of Ticheli’s favorite compositional techniques: the use of poly-rhythms and poly-tonality. Dr. Warren Olfert, Director of Bands, North Dakota State University, mentions that the second movement will change the way directors and performers think about rhythm. The rhythmic complexities of this movement can be seen in a number of other Ticheli works, but most notably in the third movement of Gaian Visions. It is absolutely imperative that the conductor have a clear understanding of the proper tempos and a very distinct ictus for the performers. That does not mean that expressive conducting is not needed, quite the opposite. The challenge will be to find the proper balance between expressive conducting and the need for a clear distinct beat. Three melodic ideas dominate this movement. As explained in his performance notes, the main theme uses the harmonic characteristics of blues. The blues scale gives Ticheli the shifting major-minor-major instability that poly-tonal techniques can provide, helping to set the character of the various dream episodes. Example 12: Main Theme Movement 2

The next melodic idea is the Chant Theme which is hinted at in the third measure. Example 13: Chant Theme

Notice the introduction of the G-flat by the oboe. This unstable note will be used to anchor the closing measures.



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The first complete statement of the Chant Theme occurs in measure 19. Example 14: Chant Theme, Measure 19

Ticheli voices the trumpet in parallel tenths with the piccolo, similar to the same technique mentioned in the first movement. He explains that the combination of notes of both parts (B-flat minor and D-flat minor, both colored by a lower 5th) connects the Chant Theme with the Main Theme by creating a blues scale. The last thematic material used in this movement is the Call-motive, first introduced in measure 27 by the flutes. Ticheli describes this melodic fragment as the “introduction of [the] minor 3rd ‘call-motive’” which places emphasis on the use of the minor 3rd interval for the foundation of the melodic construction rather the P4 interval that has played a critical role in the continuity to this point. Example 15: Call-motive

This shift towards minor helps set up the next episode which takes on a darker and more intense character. The alto saxophone introduces this episode “like a lone voice raging against injustice.” He points out that the Call-motive is interwoven throughout the melodic material of the saxophone solo. In Example 16, the minor 3rd motivic element is highlighted with brackets. Example 16: Alto Saxophone solo

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Also notice that the P4 is a major component of the solo as well. At measure 58, a development of the chant theme, a more intense and chorded variation, has a connection to the divergent scale passages from the first movement. Example 17: Measure 58

According to David L. Kish’s article, “A Band Repertoire Has Emerged� in the Fall 2005 Journal of Band Research, between 1998 and 2003 the works of Frank Ticheli were more widely performed by university bands than those of any other living composer of wind band music in the world.

Example 18: Vesuvius, m. 38 In this movement, the scale passage expands outward. This outward expansion in opposite directions is similar to the effect that Ticheli used in Vesuvius, except that in Vesuvius, the lines close in on each other, filling in the scale. The entire ensemble becomes involved in this counter-statement to the alto saxophone solo at measure 62. Following a final statement by the entire ensemble, the tempo and the overall mood relax again. At measure 82, Ticheli hints at what will become a final climactic moment for this movement by presenting the main theme and the chant theme together before moving on to the next episode. (See the full score.) The rhythmic coordination and balance between the



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piccolo and the trumpet will be critical because of the very thin texture, as it was the first time. The next episode is a strict double canon spaced two measures apart. The melodic shape and intervallic make up of both voices use elements from all three of the core ideas of this movement: the rising shape of the Main Theme; the repeated eighth-note rhythm of Chant Theme; and the melodic structure of the Call-motive. Example 19: Canon

Canons and canonic passages are found in many of Ticheli’s compositions. The inclusion of well designed counterpoint that enhances the character of a piece is another criterion that Ticheli looks for as he develops his overall schema. Certain composers include a canon in every composition whether it is needed and functional or not. Many times these passages have no connection to the integrity of the piece; they are included as a matter of rote and serve as a distraction rather than an enhancement. It is quite the opposite when Ticheli includes this technique. It is the beauty of the design that his canons blosMBM 26         TIMES  

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som effortlessly as part emotional journey and development of the movement. The next episode is very important to the structure of this movement because is sets up the first of two climatic moments that conclude the movement. In the same way that Ticheli used the recapitulation of the introduction in An American Elegy to set up the powerful conclusion of that piece, he uses the same general effect here, but the climax has a more profound affect because Ticheli is able to pace the anticipation of the moment over a longer period of time. The “accelerando poco a poco to measure 145” will take every ounce of re-

straint on the part of the conductor and the performers not to get ahead of the required tempo or dynamics. This entire episode moves over 34 measures and it takes the last 25 measures to accomplish the accelerando and subsequent ritardando. Even more difficult, the tempo should go from 66 beats per minute to only 80 beats per minute for the top end of the accelerando. Without careful attention to the pacing, a conductor may spoil this moment by becoming too involved in the emotional anticipation that he or she knows will be the pay off at measure 147: the full voiced climax is hinted at in measure 82. (See the full score, page 70.)


Example 20: Final Climactic Moment

An even bigger moment, both dynamically and emotionally, appears at measure 155. There has to be enough control of the dynamics and intensity left to accomplish this last explosive moment. Fragments of the alto solo are passed from the saxophones and horns, to the trumpets, and back to the saxophones over a poly-tonal chord consisting of A-flat major and C major triads expanding off a B-flat major downbeat.



Careful attention to the dynamics and control of the tone color will be needed in order for the saxophones and horns to be heard. Notice the harmonic change that happens in conjunction with the indicated decrescendo starting in measure 157 as Ticheli sets the mood for the final moments of the movement. In measure 159, the shift between B-flat major and D-flat minor over a B-flat /F pedal point supports fragments of the Chant Theme and the Main

Theme recalling the opening moments of the movement. The thinning of the texture should be accomplished without disturbing the mood; releases need be carefully tapered and controlled. Ticheli writes in the Performance Notes that “the final Bb major chord is colored by a questioning Gb, stated by the first clarinet.� (Recall the mention of the oboe introducing this off-colored note at the beginning of the movement.) www. MBM

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Movement 3 – Apollo Unleashed Similar to Movement 1, Ticheli uses a familiar symphonic form for the last movement, and this sonata form is slightly altered to fit Ticheli’s needs. The basic bones of the sonata form are present: exposition, development, and recapitulation. To the form, Ticheli adds a long introduction and coda, elements frequently found in a traditional application of the form. Ticheli refers to his version as a “quasi sonata form” for several reasons. The exposition has the required contrasting “A” and “B” themes, but not the typical tonicdominant key structure. The “B theme” is the borrowed Bach Chorale BWV 433 (discussed earlier and mentioned again in Ticheli’s performance notes). The “varied” recapitulation, however, does not have a full restatement of the “A theme” that is normally required for a sonata form. The concluding measures of the chorale, the “B theme” colored by a “flurry of 16th notes,” is the climax of the recapitulation, the movement, and the symphony. This is a brilliant moment that magnificently punctuates an uplifting atmosphere of optimism. Ticheli uses 46 measures to encompass the introduction. Throughout this long introduction, the elements of the movement are foreshadowed. The short punctuated chords, at first very sparse, gradually thicken and become the background for the “A theme” material. Example 21 illustrates Ticheli’s explanation of the harmonic material: “a dominant-seventh chord combines with the tonic pitch.” (F-A-Bb-C-Eb). (See Example 21 facing.) The divergent scale passages used throughout the first two movements become a prominent feature in this movement. A canonic passage using this element leads to measure 26. (See Example 22 facing.) The complex interpretation of the 12/8 (3+3+2+2+2) stays consistent throughout the movement and should not prove difficult. In measure 26 the harmonic element of the dominant seventh chord with the tonic note (F-A-Bb-C-Eb) starts to be revealed in linear form. (See Example 23 facing.) The basic rhythmic aspect of the “A theme” is revealed in measure 31, using part of the harmonic material described above. (See Example 24 facing.) A longer presentation of the melodic application of the harmonic schema is heard in measure 35 sounded by the first clarinet. (See example 25 below.) Example 25: Melodic Elements

After a skillfully paced introduction, the “A theme” is finally presented in measure 47 by the first trumpet. Notice that the pitches are comprised of only the basic cell previously cited (F-A-Bb-C-Eb). (See Example 26 below.) Example 26: A Theme

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Example 21: Harmonic Material

Example 22: Divergent Scale Passages

Example 23: Linear Application of Harmonic Elements



Example 24: A Theme Rhythm

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Harmonic structures that are presented in a linear form is a characteristic found in many of Ticheli’s compositions. Another favorite technique used by Ticheli in almost all of his pieces is the layering of contrasting rhythmic patterns, creating a poly-rhythmic schema. In his performance notes, Ticheli explains that the use of the hemiola is an important aspect for this movement and that careful attention to the accents will help clarify this rhythmic element. Example 27, showing only the rhythm, illustrates a passage where Ticheli uses various forms of hemiola in a layered context. Example 27: Various Applications of Hemiola

An interesting note to the example above is that any sense of 3/4 meter is lost among the various implied rhythms. A joyous outburst at measure 85 introduces a new theme using recognizable elements from previous movements. The constantly shifting metrical pulse is reminiscent of moments from other Ticheli works, most notably Postcard and Gaian Visions. Example 28: Measure 85

A brief reminder of the “A theme” leads to the presentation of the Bach Chorale BWV 433. Ticheli uses Bach’s original harmonic voicing of the chorale; however, he augments the rhythm to adapt to the faster tempo of the movement. By augmenting the rhythm this way, the Bach still sounds as a slow chorale juxtaposed against the faster tempo of Movement 3. Example 29 shows the original harmonization of the “first section” (full score measure 103) transposed for ease of comparison (the original key is F), followed by Ticheli’s adaptation in Example 30 (facing page). Example 29: First Section Original Voicing (Transposed)

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Example 30: First Section, Measure 103

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A look at the full score will show fragments of the “A theme” scattered through the texture of various instrumental combinations. The “middle section” (full score meas. 123) and “final section” (full score meas. 235) are shown below in the original harmonization as a guide for comparison to the other appearances of this theme in score. Example 31: Middle and Final Section Original Voicing (Transposed)

The accompanying texture at measure 123 now uses the familiar ascending P4 pattern, vaguely hinting at the Main Theme from Movement 1, in combination with other melodic elements from this movement. The development section begins at measure 134. The “A theme” and harmonic cell are transposed and reordered, the ascending scale passage is fragmented and inverted, and multiple layers and manifestations of hemiola rhythms are all explored and developed; a very traditional application of the development section in a very modern context. Look for these elements as you examine the full score between measures 134 and 214. A brief return of the Chant Theme from Movement 2 begins in measure 214. Example 32: Chant Theme Quotation

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from

GIA Publications, Inc. “I do believe that for the band community to grow artistically, some things are going to have to change. Simply, we need better, more interesting literature and a dedication to the creation of new, different works. Much of the industry is now controlled by a handful of major publishers and as such they can dictate which pieces will be popular and receive the most exposure. I think it is essential for band conductors to find and nurture the music that lies on the fringes. Only then will the rest of the concert world start to recognize the wind band for what it can become: the most influential and relevant live performing ensemble in concert music.�

Eric Whitacre writing in Composers on Composing for Band, vol. 2 (pp. 266-67)


A more distinct quotation of the Main Theme, the ascending “rocket-like” tone clusters, and the dance-like rhythms from Movement 1 appear in measure 221.

A short return of the “A theme” from this movement sets up the “final section” of the Bach chorale. The running sixteenth notes that accompany this final statement are laced with rhythmic aspects of the “A theme” but no direct quotation of the “A theme.” The beginning of the coda, measure 250, is dominated by the timpani similar to the end of Movement 1, except here the timpani solo is more declamatory. One last reminder of the ascending P4 motif (trombones), fragments of the “A theme” from Movement 3 (trumpets), and shades of quartal harmony used throughout the symphony (saxophones) are layered together at measure 256. One final “shout” of the Main Theme from Movement 1 at measure 264 concludes the symphony. Ticheli mentions that he took time to meticulously indicate articulations and dynamic levels. The articulations are particularly important in helping define the character of the “dance-like” quality of his melodies and motives. Close attention to the articulations in all three movements will help distinguish the important elements among the multiple layers of textures prevalent throughout the symphony. While the dynamics are straight forward and clearly marked, it is incumbent on the conductor to maintain the proper balance as it pertains to their particular instrumental sections to clearly delineate between foreground and background material.

CLOSING THOUGHTS This is Ticheli’s most mature work for winds. Nothing else he has composed for winds to date comes close to the scope and breadth of this piece. Although several compositions were mentioned above showing comparison moments, this piece unmistakably has an identity of its own. The comparisons were intended to help conductors establish a mental image of what to expect and the complexities with which Ticheli composes his music. If an ensemble can not handle Postcard, Blue Shades or Gaian Visions, Ticheli’s other more mature wind works, this piece will be impossible to prepare. It might prove useful to program these and other pieces over a series of concerts before attempting this symphony in order to prepare the musicians for this most demanding piece. It can not be properly prepared on a short rehearsal schedule. Even those who would be tempted to program only the last movement due to its grade 5 classification will find it necessary to give more rehearsal time to this piece. As is typical with most of Ticheli’s other compositions, this one has virtually no repeated sections, except for seven measures in the first movement; that leaves 508 measures (less the seven) that will need to be rehearsed, just to put it in perspective.  (Continued on page 51)

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Donald J. Young’s

Donald J. Young CLARINET RHAPSODY

An Overview

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onald Young composed his Clarinet Rhapsody in 1984. Young’s inspiration for his compositions at the time was the relaxing setting of the north woods of Wisconsin. Young completed two pieces for clarinet choir and two pieces for band around the same time. A complete list Young’s works can be found at the end of this article.

by

John Darlin�

ability, skillfully placed between moments of absolute enjoyment for both the performer and listener. The contemporary nature of some of the harmonic language is not overpowering due in large part to a very solid rhythmic scheme and recognizable structures.

The composition is available in two versions: solo clarinet and piano accompaniment; and solo clarinet with concert band accompaniment. In addition, an optional cadenza composed by Tim Bell is available with both versions. The piece runs approximately 7:00 minutes with the Young’s original cadenza and approximately 10:30 minutes with Bell’s optional material.

Young wraps his Clarinet Rhapsody in a wonderful blend of contemporary sounds and traditional structures. The performing artist will F O R M find this piece both The overall form is through-composed, although through the use of rechallenging and repeated thematic ideas and motives, a large ABA' form could be identified. A warding. There are rhapsodic approach encompasses the first section which includes the cadenza plenty of technical pasand the restatement of the introductory material. This is followed by dance with sages that will require variations portion that begins with the tempo change at measure 57. The restatestudious prepament of the Main Theme at measure 141 can be seen as a coda section. Young uses ration and virtuosic



two distinct compositional devices, one intervallic, the other a modal/whole-tone melodic fragment, to help provide clarity and continuity. www. MBM

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Below are the major sections of the piece by measures and salient features of each section. Section

Measures

Salient Features

Intro.

1-10

P4 interval, whole-tone fragment

A

11-43

Main Theme, rhythmic motives

Cadenza

44-45

Melodic ideas presented in ascending P4’s

Recap Intro.

45-56

Restatement of the introductory material

B

57-69

Accompaniment statement, new rhythmic motive

C

69-86

Clarinet presents new material using previous motivic elements

x gesture

87-88

Dynamics shifts

A'

92-112

Whole-tone motive, augmented Main Theme

C'

113-120

Return of the previous C section with variations

A'

121-128

Return of the previous A' material

x gesture

129-130

Dynamic shifts

C

131-137

Return of C material from measure 69

transition

138-140

Accompaniment establishes new tempo using previous elements

A''

141-149

Main Theme at the new tempo

x gesture

150-151

Dynamic shifts

Coda

152-157

Most elements present

MELODIC & RHYTHMIC ELEMENTS It is through his careful use of melodic elements that Young gives this piece the majority of its continuity. Several motives are explored and revisited throughout the piece, as can be seen in Table 1. The major themes and moments are derivatives of these recurring motives. The melodic ideas used during the introduction initially provide more character and emotion than thematic material. However, one of Young’s unifying elements is subtly introduced: the interval of a fourth, both perfect (P4) and augmented (Aug4). Example 1 – Introduction Material

In measure 9, Young introduces a whole-tone pattern that becomes a motivic element later. Initially, this whole-tone pattern provides more of a harmonic emphasis that a melodic statement.

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Example 2 – Whole-tone element

The Main Theme is presented by the clarinet in measure 11. The prominent compositional element is the interval of a P4. Example 3 – Main Theme

The rhythmic ornamentation used on beat 1 of measure 13 is also used to provide additional continuity throughout the piece. In measure 19, Young presents the Main Theme a P4 higher than the pitch in measure 11. Example 4 – Main Theme Aug 4 Higher

Notice that the orientation is present in measure 20 in a slightly varied form on beat four. There is a brief interlude in measure 23. The melodic makeup of this interlude is comprised of previously heard elements, particularly the P4 interval and the dotted-eighth and sixteenth-note rhythm. Young provides a slight variation of the Main Theme at measure 30 by introducing the interval of a perfect fifth (P5) into the melodic construction.



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Example 5 – Introduction of the P5

This is the first time the P5 interval takes a prominent role in the melodic construction, however, the P5 interval is presented by the accompaniment at the very beginning of the introduction. (see Example 1) Also notice that the Main Theme is now presented a P5 lower (or a P4 higher with the octave displacement) than measure 19. At measure 35, the Main Theme is again a P4 higher than the previous statement. Young cadences this opening section centered on the key of C, again a P4 higher than the last pitch center. Example 6 – Main Theme P4 higher

Example 7 – Main Theme conclusion

The cadenza begins in measure 44. Using the interval of the P4 as well as other familiar melodic elements, the melodic elements of the cadenza are presented in a series of ascending P4’s, starting on the C tonal center then moving to F to B-flat and finally to E-flat. Example 8 – Cadenza Beginning

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The low E-flat (shown on the second line of example 8) fits into the ascending P4 schema with the obvious octave displacement. From the low E-flat, Young shifts up a P5 to B-flat. Young then presents a series of statements that shift up a P4 in rapid succession from B-flat to E-flat to A-flat to D-flat and ending on G-flat. Notice the sequence of ascending P4 patterns (indicated by the brackets) that are present early in the cadenza and then lead to the climax of the cadenza. This pattern of implied quartal harmony will play prominently in Tim Bell’s optional cadenza and will be discussed later. Example 9 – Cadenza End

The original cadenza ends by moving from the high G-flat to a low B-flat centered tonal area that leads to a restatement of the introduction material, which is presented by the accompaniment starting in measure 46. No new material is presented, although Young does change the textures by giving some of the melodic elements to the clarinet. The beginning of the next section is presented solely by the accompaniment. Young emphasizes the P4 interval by constructing harmonic material that is loosely based on quartal harmony as seen in the cadenza, and constructing the new melodic motives using the P4 interval. Example 10 – Implied Quartal Harmony

Example 11 – New Material



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The accompaniment introduces a new rhythmic motive that will become a prominent feature for this section. The soloist enters at measure 69 with new material based on elements already presented. Example 12 – New Material m. 69-72

As he did in the A section, Young presents the material at a P4 higher. Example 13 – Theme at a P4 m76-80

Young interjects into the C section a moment of change with what I call the "X Gesture." This gesture will become another recognizable element helping to further unify the piece Example 14 – X Gesture m. 87-88

Following the X Gesture, the C section finishes quickly. Young begins the next section by combining the whole-tone motive and a rhythmically augmented version of the Main Theme. The accompaniment and the soloist pass this new material back and forth in a call and response style. An interesting feature of this section is that while Young presents the Main Theme material in an augmented form, the accompaniment later interjects fragments of the Main Theme in its original rhythmic scheme.

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Example 15 – C Theme

The next section which contains new material begins at measure 113. Young follows his established pattern by presenting the material at a P4 higher, and then an Aug4 higher. Another interjection of the X Gesture at measure 129 is also a P4 higher than the last X Gesture. (see the full score) Another brief statement of the C section leads to the final section which begins with a three measure statement by the accompaniment. Young does not present any new material; however, a new tempo provides variety. A restatement of the Main Theme in its original rhythm scheme follows.



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Example 16 – Main Theme Restatement

Another interjection of the x gesture begins the coda at measure 150. Young wraps up the composition quickly with one last flurry of familiar motives.

T I M B E L L’ S O P T I O N A L C A D E N Z A

Young invited Tim Bell to perform this piece with Young’s high school band in the early 1990s. Bell was very adept as a jazz soloist and extremely skillful at the art of ad lib. Bell composed an extended cadenza in a free flowing improvisation style that has become a particular favorite of Young’s, to the point where Young has included this additional material in his publication of the piece. Bell’s cadenza begins at a point close to the end of Young’s original cadenza. (see example 9) Using primarily the P4 interval, Bell constructs his cadenza to sound similar to the Main Theme and the various elements discussed earlier. Example 17 – Melodic Elements

Bell’s additional material is significantly more difficult than Young’s cadenza. Example 18 – Thirty-second Note Run

Within Bell’s additional material, he provides an option cut to bypass some of the more difficult passages in his cadenza. Shortly after the optional cut, Bell displays another characteristic that Young incorporated into his composition: implied quartal harmony.

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Example 19- Implied Quartal Harmony in Bell’s Cadenza

Like Young’s cadenza, Bell exploits the full range of the instrument. Example 20 – Three Octave Run

The soloist moves to Bell’s additional material and back to Young’s original cadenza at the same point in the music. This provides a seamless splice of the two pieces.

C O M PA R I N G T H E T W O V E R S I O N S : C L A R I N E T A N D PI A N O ; C L A R I N E T A N D C O N C E RT B A N D Young’s piano setting of Clarinet Rhapsody is a measure for measure duplicate of the original version for concert band. There are some differences in texture, and sometimes the piano version is less embellished than the concert band version. Example 21a –Simpler Piano Version

Example 21b – Embellished Band Version



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The difficulty level of the band orchestration is moderate. There are neither extreme instrument ranges nor rhythmically challenging moments. As one might expect, Young keeps the texture limited while the soloist is playing, however, there are a few moments where the band will have to be cautioned about maintaining the proper balance and dynamic levels. Example 22 – Dense Orchestration

In example 22, the orchestration overlaps the solo part. Given that much of the solo part is written in the throat tones of the clarinet, the band will have to be very sensitive to the indicated dynamics and defer to the soloist throughout this section. Another moment that may be problematic is a short passage between measures 108 and 113. (see the full score) Some restraint may be needed during the X Gestures in order for the soloist to stay in the foreground as well.

CONCLUDING COMMENTS Donald Young’s Clarinet Rhapsody is fresh and comfortable addition to repertoire for solo clarinet. It can easily be programmed for solo recitals and as an alternative to the traditional concert band pieces for solo clarinet and band. It has contemporary features that are more appealing to the modern audience without being overly excessive with the treatment of these elements. The fact that so much of this piece is easy to follow will make its appeal to the performer and the listener a favorite for many years. There are many contemporary pieces that are performed only once as a courtesy to the composer. Donald Young’s Clarinet Rhapsody will be performed quite often.

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UPDATE We at Manhattan Beach Music would like to thank all the composers who entered their compositions in the Frank Ticheli Composition Contest. The response was nothing short of amazing, with entries received from all over the world — from young gifted amateurs to seasoned professionals. We are indeed impressed with the quality; thank you so much! Please go to www.ManhattanBeachMusic.com & www.FrankTicheli.com where in the upcoming weeks we will announce the winners. good luck to you all!

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ga Takin k loo close at i’s ichel T k n Fra JOY” “ and TED” I EVIS R Y “JO

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Taking a close look at Frank Ticheli’s “JOY” and “JOY REVISITED”

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Meet the winners of the Frank Ticheli COMPOSITION C O N T E S T

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Arnold Rosner’s

Keith Kinder reviews his first two concert band publications along with his exciting new work, Raga! for concert band.

The Band Music of Arnold Rosner: Old Forms, New Resources Arnold Rosner brings a distinctive new voice to band composition. With his individualistic approach to harmony, counterpoint, scoring and form, Rosner creates a brightly colored soundscape that both attracts and surprises the ear, while at the same time offering enough familiar elements to ensure a satisfying musical experience for performers and listeners. In Rosner’s music triadic harmonies prevail, but are free of the chord relations expected in traditional tonal harmony. Indeed, his chordal structure appears to juxtapose sonorities largely from considerations of harmonic color rather than root progression. This already lively context is further enhanced by the composer’s interest in counterpoint, which drives the music forward with immense energy. Also apparent from the works currently available is Rosner’s interest in assigning particular musical ideas to specific instrumental groups and his concern with re-exploring the forms of the past and imbuing them with new sensibilities.

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“Indian ragas All of the above considerations are amply illustrated in the first movement of Dances of Initiation. (The enigmatic title is deliberate. Rosner wants performers to wrestle with its implications and suggests a wide range of possibilities from musical to metaphysical.) This movement has a unique form. Episodes of vigorous counterpoint alternate with short chordal segments. However, the chordal passages are set against sustained pedal points and the resulting dissonances maintain the impression of continuing contrapuntal activity. Many aspects of this movement suggest the music of the Medieval and/or Renaissance period, and, in fact, Rosner himself has pointed in that direction. Two brief passages abruptly appear that set short motives

have two ‘fixed’ notes and three, four or five variable pitches. The fixed pitches are usually a fifth apart.”


by Keith Kinder “In this remarkable work, Rosner has captured the mesmerizing quality of Indian music and successfully translated it into the concert band medium.” in imitation at a very close time interval in a texture that the composer has called hocket. Although no precise repetition of material occurs, the reappearance of the chordal segments, especially since they almost always employ the same instrumentation (clarinets, saxophones and low brass under high register pedals), hints at ritornello form. Rosner’s near-modal melodic structure during the contrapuntal episodes would also imply a Renaissance influence. Since these sections are constructed linearly, and always employ at least three independent lines, momentary passing dissonances frequently occur, as is characteristic of the modal counterpoint of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The frequent open-fifth harmonies throughout the movement add to the archaic reference. It would appear, then, that in this movement Rosner’s model was the dance music of the Medieval and Renaissance eras. The second of the Dances of Initiation both continues the practices of the previous movement and adds new concepts.

Most of the harmony throughout consists of open fifths, but in a strikingly imaginative touch, the composer often provides the third of certain chords in a pedal point scored in a contrasting color at some considerable registral distance from the root and fifth. The most remarkable feature of this movement, however, is an exquisite cantilena presented first by A R N Othen L D resolo alto saxophone, ROSNER'S peated by full band with each phrase set for a different instrumental group and supported by a robust near-modal countermelody in horns and euphonium. While a specific prototype for this movement is difficult to determine, it suggests the slow, expressive dances of the folk music of many cultures. CONCERT BAND The final movement specifically evokes folk traditions. The basic rhythmic structure www.ManhattanBeachMusic.com (2+2+2+3) is the “additive” rhythm common to Balkan folk dances. This movement comes closest to a traditional form. An introduction leads to the primary theme presented by trumpets accompanied by the full band and supported by a vigorous countermelody in low brass. A second melody, derived from the first, follows in a much www. MBM

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reduced scoring, leading to a of Initiation appear here rather conventional developas well. Open fifth harArnold Rosner’s ment of both themes, a recamonies, multiple lines pitulation and a brief coda. of chromatically inflectAs in the previous moveed counterpoint, and ments, high register pedal imaginative scoring ideas points, open fifth harmonies (including suggestions of and strong countermelodies hocket) can all be found appear throughout. throughout this work. Rosner’s Dances of However, the intensity of Initiation is a remarkthe subject matter appears ably fresh addition to the to have demanded a more band repertoire. While forceful harmonic vocabthe complexity of some of ulary. Dual key areas are the counterpoint provides implied from the opening technical challenges to perbars and develop quickformers and demands that ly into polychords. At the conductors pay careful atwork’s climax, most sotention to balance, these norities involve multiple harmonically and rhythmihalf-step clashes. cally inventive movements Perhaps Rosner’s most will certainly capture the atintriguing band work to tention of performers and date is Raga! — another listeners alike. exploration of a very old In Eclipse, Rosner revisform. Considering this ited another earlier form composer’s emphasis on — the 19th century promelodic construction (as grammatic symphonic observed in other compopoem. This work describes sitions), it seems singularly a total eclipse of the sun, appropriate that ultimately and a program is presented he would turn to a purely in the score. The progress of melodic form. the phenomenon described Even a cursory glance “Arnold Rosner’s adventurous and unique dictated the structure of the at the score indicates that work, which is a modified Rosner is familiar with the harmonic style is one result of his outlook arch form, although Rosner traditions of Indian music. on contemporary music.” indicates that the events folHis raga is presented immefrom Dances of Initiation lowing the central point are diately and is comprised of substantially altered (and shortened) in order to ensure musimelodic minor thirds and major and minor seconds, the most cal momentum. As might be expected, the mid point of the common intervals in raga construction. (Rosner’s raga consists composition is very dramatic. of the pitch set: E-flat, C, B-flat, A, A-flat, F, which is almost Many of the characteristics discussed in relation to Dances pentatonic. All of the melodies employ only these pitches and

DANCES of INITIATION

DOING SOMETHING DIFFERENT

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E they are also occasionally used harmonically as well.) Indian ragas have two “fixed” notes and three, four or five variable pitches. The fixed pitches are usually a fifth apart, are called Sadja (SA) and Pañcama (PA), and are played as drones throughout the performance. Rosner’s SA and PA are F and C respectively, and these two pitches sound as pedals virtually constantly. The work requires two sets of timpani, probably a means of replicating the tuned drums of Indian music. Ragas are an improvised form in which the performer begins with the ending notes of the melodic pattern then develops more and more elaborate preparations leading to these final pitches using only the notes specified for the particular raga he or she is performing. Rosner’s raga develops exactly the same way. The opening segments are transparently scored with often only a single melodic line over drones and simple drum patterns. Very slowly the work develops more density with busier melodic patterns, more active drumming and rudimentary counterpoint. Ultimately, many strands

E of differentiated subdivision are superimposed, generating extended passages of immense complexity both melodically and rhythmically. Rosner has also attempted to integrate Indian rhythms (talas) into his work. 5/8 meter represents Rupaka tala, and 4/4, divided 3+2+3, derives from Matya tala. Apart from these considerations, Raga! also displays certain Western musical characteristics. Most notable is a brief chorale that appears frequently and seems to be intended to separate individual sections of the work. This chorale is harmonized in parallel fifths and the melody is drawn directly from the raga. Later in the composition this melody reappears in the style of a cantus firmus. Also, the opening bars recur twice, once as an exact repeat, the second time considerably altered, which would appear to be an acknowledgement of Western concepts of formal construction. In this remarkable work, Rosner has captured the mesmerizing quality of Indian music and successfully translated it into the concert band medium. There can be little doubt that this composition will quickly establish itself in the repertoire of fine high school, college and professional bands.

(Ticheli — Symphony No. 2, Continued from page 36) This symphony can easily take its place next to Symphony in B-flat, Hammersmith, Lincolnshire Posy, Emblems, A New England Triptych, La Fiesta or any number of other masterpieces for winds. From Portrait of a Clown to Symphony No. 2, those who enjoy performing and listening to wind music are indebted and owe a great deal of gratitude to Frank Ticheli for the meticulous quality and craftsmanship that he puts into every one of his compositions. At a time when other major composers focus their talents strictly towards the orchestra environment, Ticheli remains an advocate of good music, regardless of the medium. “Most directors understand the benefits of bringing [the best] music to their students…It can fuel the students’ enthusiasm in ways that transcend words. It can nourish their souls, teach them about beauty, and enhance their lives. How unfortunate it would be to squander these possibilities on anything but the best music.” (Frank Ticheli, foreword, Best Music For Young Band: Revised Edition, by Thomas L. Dvorak; Manhattan Beach Music: 2005.) www. MBM

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American Schools Helping American Chinook Middle School, Lacey, Washington (1st to e request  the fundraising sets) e Washington Middle School, Olympia, Washington e Westgate Music Center, Westlake, Ohio e James H. Vernon School, East Norwich, New York e Travis Middle School, Temple, Texas e Watertown High School, Watertown, New York Los Angeles Lutheran High School, Sylmar, e California e Orangeville High School, Orangeville, Illinois Northwest Clasen High School, Oklahoma City, e Oklahoma e St. Mary’s High School, Calgary, Alberta, Canada e Sartartia Middle School, Sugarland, Texas e Bellaire Community Band, Bellaire, Michigan Cascade High School, Leavenworth, Washe ington Cashmere High School, Cashmere, Washinge ton Thomas Jefferson High School, Council Bluffs, Iowa

University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washe ington Mountain View High School, Vancouver, Washington

e Ames High School, Ames, Iowa

e Brea Olinda High School, Brea, California

Stanton Community School, Stanton, Iowa

Samuel Morse Middle School, Milwaue kee, Wisconsin

Brea Junior High School, Brea, California

Stahl Junior High School, Puyallup, e Washington

Hanahan High School, Hanahan, South Carolina William Workman High School, City of e Industry, California

Taunton High School, Taunton, Massachusetts Sherman Oaks C.E.S., Tarzana, e California

Umatilla High School, Umatilla, Oregon

Northwestern High School, Winsted, Connecticut Aitken High School, Aitkin, Mine nesota

Rochester Adams High School, Rochester Hills, Michigan

Gratiot, Michigan St. Paul School, Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan

e Mtn. View High School, Bend, Oregon

…we honor you and

High School, Rowlett, Texas e Armand Larive Middle School, Hermiston, Oregon e Rowlett e South Garland High School, Garland, Texas e Ottumwa High School, Ottumwa, Iowa e Oakview Middle School, Oakland, Michigan e e Modoc High School, Alturas, California Lutheran High School North, Macomb, Michigan e Columbus Middle School, Columbus, Nebraska e e Whitnall High School, Greenfield, Wisconsin e e Sidney Community Schools, Sidney, Iowa Life’s Discoveries Academy of the Arts, Hesperia, e e McMinnville High School, McMinnville, Oregon Calif. e Christian Heritage School, Dalton, Georgia e Fortuna Union High School, Fortuna, Calif. e e Garland High School, Garland, Texas e Valley Stream Memorial Jr. HS, Vly. Stream, New e Saks High School, Anniston, Alabama York e Laurel High School, Laurel, Mississippi e University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington Dodgeville High School, Dodgeville, Wisconsin e e CYO BAND, Kenosha, Wisconsin e e Clarkdale High School, Meridian, Mississippi e East Jessamine High School, Nicholasville, Kentucky e Baker Middle School, Troy, Michigan e Anchor Bay High School, Fair Haven, Michigan e Hanover HS, Hanover, Massachusetts e e Denfeld High School, Duluth, Minnesota e e BCLUW High School, Conrad, Iowa e Oxford Hills Comprehensive HS, South Paris, Maine e e Lakeview High School, Lakeview, Michigan e Stayton High School, Stayton, Oregon e Qualters Middle School, Mansfield, Massachusetts e Santaluces High School, Lantana, Florida e Longfellow Middle School, La Crosse, Wisconsin e Central York High School, York, Pennsylvania e Deer Valley High School, Antioch, California e Griffin School, Olympia, Washington e Bellaire Concert Band, Bellaire, Michigan e North Attleboro HS, North Attleboro, MasBoulan Park Middle School, Troy, Michigan

Classen School of e Advanced Studies, Ok. sachusetts

Sam House ton Middle City, Oklahoma

St. Albert Schools, Council Bluffs, e WoodIowa e land Middle

e Port Huron Northern Bands, Fort

Troy Athens High School, Troy, Michigan

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School, Brentwood, Tennessee

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This list is not complete…we will continue our tribute in the next issue.


Families

all you are doing!

e Bremerton High School, Bremerton, Washington e San Diego Academy, National City, California e Old Rochester Regional HS, Mattapoisett, Massachusetts e Northfield High School, Northfield, Vermont e Niles High School, Niles, Michigan e Lawrence School, Falmouth, Mass. e Big Foot High School, Walworth, Wisconsin e Mahone Middle School, Kenosha, Wisconsin e Norton High School, Norton, Massachusetts e Nashoba Reg. High School, Bolton, Mass. e White Plains High School, White Plains, New York e Westview High School, Portland, Oregon e Walter Strom Middle School, Cle Elum, Washington e Kent-Meridian High School, Kent, e

Washington

Montgomery County High School, Mt. Sterling, Kentucky

e Bridgman High School, Bridgman, Michigan Mineral Point High School, Mineral Point, e Wisconsin e De La Salle High School, Concord, California Bloomington Community Band, Bloomington, e Indiana e Shelby Public Schools, Shelby, Michigan e Estancia High School, Costa Mesa, California e Lone Tree Community School, Lone Tree, Iowa e Mapleton High School, Ashland, Ohio e South Dade Senior HS, Homestead, Florida e Huntingtown HS , Huntingtown, Maryland e Hartford Union HS, Hartford, Wisconsin e Lincoln Middle School, Kenosha, Wisconsin e St. Joseph School, Marion, Iowa e Stanfield High School, Stanfield, Oregon e North Powder School District, North Powder, Oregon

e Churchill High School, Potomac, Maryland

e Pine Eagle School District, Halfway, Oregon

e

e

e Grant Union High School, John Day, Oregon

e Hermiston High School, Hermiston, Oregon

Irrigon Junior Senior High School, Irrigon, Oregon

Eastern York High School, York, Pennsylvania



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M

ost musicians have vivid memories of inspiring moments in performance. We all remember a time when our souls were touched by the drama, the power, or the gentleness of a musical phrase. Those moments certainly came from the music, but when we think back, we most often associate them with a particular gifted conductor.

When Walter Beeler reached down to his knees for the critical downbeat in the Funeral March from Gotterdammerung I experienced a deeply soulful moment; I recall John P. Paynter using the simple but powerful gesture of thrusting his index finger at the French Horns on the final call in the Overture from Candide, where the section, to a person, nearly leapt from their chairs. Even though many of us have not had the personal experience of performing under the great conductors — Bernstein, von Karajan, Szell, Ozawa, to name a few — we have all been moved by their ability to embody the essence of the music.

Podium C of them, he likely would be advised to consider another occupation. (Goodness gracious, the man conducts with his face.) Why the sarcasm? I will tell you. It seems our conducting programs have become so regimented, so conformist, that originality and individuality are being slowly stripped from our profession. I am not sure how it happened, but somewhere along the line conducting teachers decided that there was but one way to conduct a band; and then they informed their students. As a result, what we are producing are musical clones. They all look the same. They have the same gestures, the same carefully guarded enthusiasm, the same resistance to extravagance and passion. They are perfectly prepared and perfectly boring.

C O M P OS E R on C O N

DUCTING

Now, place any or all of the conductors named above in a modern conducting class. Evaluate their skills and critique their movements using video tape with voiceovers. Alas, these geniuses of the podium would not fare very well. You see…they don’t follow the rules. Their gestures are uncertain and ill defined. They sometimes grimace, snarl, close their eyes. There are times when there is no discernible downbeat, or — horror of horrors — no beat at all. I have attended conducting clinics throughout my career and I can assure you that if Kurt Masur were to show up incognito at any MBM 54         TIMES  

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From time to time I hear about exciting new conductors, and frequently attend concerts on college campuses to watch and hear their work. What I generally discover is that they have been designated as the next young rising star because they have conformed to their teacher’s vision of the perfect conductor — not because of their embodiment of the music, but because they embody the 12 golden rules of conducting. And I must ask, where is the passion? Where is the insight? In short, where is the music? It may well be that the music is lost: lost in the emphasis on the physical and mechanical. We are hearing more and more technical perfection and, sorry to say, less and less character, personality, and imagination. We stand and applaud accuracy, while excusing the lack of interpretation. We give bands that perform the most diffi-


Clones

by Gregory B. Rudgers Just what are our conducting classes producing?

cult works the highest ratings, while neglecting the possibility that there has been no art in the performance — merely machinery. We celebrate bands that play a hundred thousand notes but do not rise to our feet to exalt a beautiful shape of phrase.

onant understanding of the music. After all, conducting is not a craft; it is a logical extension of one’s insight into the art form. Attaining the highest level of musicianship possible should be the prerequisite for stepping on the podium.

I recently attended a lecture by H. Robert Reynolds in which he addressed a room of band directors. He played two recordings of the same piano piece by the same artist, recorded about 20 years apart. The notes were the same of course. But in the second recording we all heard the artist stretch the first phrase to the level of pure elegance. Dr. Reynolds was too much of a gentleman to point out the obvious, but the message was clear. That elegance, that thoughtfulness, that sensitivity to the phrase, that is what is lacking in our profession. A telling demonstration it was.

There it is. Musicianship. There is no secret here. And there are no curricula that are going to make the attainment of artistry any easier.

Yes, the history of concert bands pushes us toward the regimented and militaristic: If you are going to march to music, it better be precise. But, history and tradition should not be allowed to narrow our experience; bands do not have to be held in the firm grasp of the past. All one has to do is listen to the any of the beautiful, lyrical music that is available for winds, to understand that our musical lives do not have to be restricted to technical flamboyance and militaristic precision. So, what to do? We need to require our young conductors to do more than master the physical demands of the podium. Much more. Young conductors should spend at least as much time studying scores, listening to performances, and learning effective rehearsal techniques, as they now do learning how to look so terrific on the podium. A conductor needs to have something to say. The great conductors are not noteworthy for their conducting technique; they are memorable because they have a deep and res-



First, of course, you have to be the master of your instrument — you must attain the highest level of performance you possibly can. The time you spend in the practice room will inform what you do on the podium. And, you have to study, and read, and write, and listen. And study, and read, and write, and listen some more. The more you absorb of music, the more you will have to say. Also,

you must know the score.

The ability to mentally encompass a full score is the most demanding challenge we face. In fact it may be one of the highest forms of mental activity anywhere, any time. And, as in performance, that must include more than the notes and the rhythms. I have seen conductors who conduct without a score when that act is little more than a parlor trick of memorization skills. But, I have also seen conductors who know the score so well that it has literally become part of their musical personality. They don’t need to know that measure 56 is marked mezzo forte in the 2nd oboe — they feel that line in proportion to the rest of the ensemble. They have spent so much time with the music that they have become the music itself. The expression of that music is for them as natural as breathing. www. MBM

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That is when the magic happens. When a conductor is so imbued with the music in front of him that the music itself directs his movements, we see the merging of two forces — the music and the conductor. Without imposing himself or herself on the score, the conductor becomes free to move, and smile, and scowl, and gesture with all the drama and sensitivity that the music commands. And that freedom is available to our young conductors as well. When the score is mastered and true understanding of the composer’s intent has occurred, our young conductors can break out of the box and be that which they have become, not an imitation of someone else. One of my most memorable teachers used to say, “Don’t worry about your conducting skills. Become the best musician you can be and your conducting will reflect your artistry.” With one’s musical personality in control of the rehearsal, as opposed to the mechanics of motion, the resultant music will share in that musical insight. It will have personality. It will have an identity. It will have a soul. Indeed, it is important to have technical skill on the podium. Conductors must have spent time developing the physical motions that compel the musicians in their care, just as they must have spent time mastering the technique of their instrument. There is no debate about that. But, when you come right down to it, that’s the easy part! We can probably teach anyone to look good on the podium. The hard part, and the part that needs our increased attention, is making sure that our young conductors have something to say — that they have the insight, the imagination, the joy, and the passion to bring the music to life. Let us not be satisfied with automatons. Let us make the music live. Gregory B. Rudgers is retired from teaching music in the public schools after thirty-five years, but he is not retired from the art of music. He is now a full time composer, with music for band and orchestra published by several prominent publishers. He has written articles for The Instrumentalist, the Music Educators Journal, Teaching Music and state journals.

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Listen to Gregory B. Rudgers talk about his music at BestMusicSeries.com


(Wayfaring Stranger, continued from page 3) As many of these settlers moved westward in the expansion during the years following the American Revolution, Wayfaring Stranger, one of the favorite songs of the day, traveled with them, eventually becoming widely known all across North America. More recently, in the middle of the twentieth century, Wayfaring Stranger was revived by the American folk music movement and by musical researchers and performers such as Pete Seeger and Burl Ives. It was Burl Ives who popularized many early American songs, including Wayfaring Stranger. Known as Wayfaring Stranger, Poor Wayfaring Stranger, or I Am a Poor Wayfaring Stranger, the song is described variously: spiritual, American spiritual, folk-spiritual, Negro spiritual, traditional Southern spiritual, Southern folk-hymn, spiritual folk-ballad, religious ballad, hymn, etc. There is some evidence that supports a black American spiritual source for Wayfaring Stranger, and surely the song’s history is not complete without the significant influences of the black spiritual tradition. I think that ­­­­­­­­David Warren Steel of the University of Mississippi describes well the intermingled transformation and development of many spirituals when he writes in the Journal of Musicological Research 5 (November 1984), pp. 260-264, “The spiritual song tradition is neither white nor black, neither northern or southern, but American.” I understand this to mean that, whatever their often hard to trace initial origins, spirituals were quickly adopted and adapted by the diverse people and traditions of America. And so it continues today. Like most early American songs, there were hundreds or even thousands of variations of Wayfaring Stranger. In my quest to learn about Wayfaring Stranger, I communicated with University of Georgia Professor Emeritus of Chemistry and published music researcher John F. Garst, who has extensively studied the song’s history. His article, “Poor Wayfaring Stranger” – Early Publications,” was published in 1980 in (continued on page 61)



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The

P O W E R of the

RECORDER by Bob Margolis

The recorder — this inexpensive, and often misunderstood instrument — if widely adopted as pre-band instrument can have a profound effect on the future of the concert band itself.

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Choosing the recorder for a pre-band experience can be an inhe recorder can be the most imporvaluable asset to building the beginning band program. First of all, tant pre-band instrument used for it is a significant instrument in itself. It was the predominant solo preparing students to play in a conwind instrument of the 18th century, and wind consort instrucert band. Every student can gain a heightened ment of the 17th century (and now, a significant avant-garde wind musical experience from learning to play the re“Learning to play the recorder in tune will corder. The important develop a sensitivity to intonation which issues of proper technique will transfer to any wind instrument. It is — hand position, instruso easy to play the recorder off-pitch that ment position, breathing, good recorder players habitually become tone production, articuexquisitely sensitive to being on-pitch.” lation — and all aspects of musicianship, can be learned from a study of instrument of the late 20th century). Some of the most beautiful the recorder. These skills transfer readily to con- music the world has ever known was written for and performed on cert band wind instruments. it. Composers such as J.S. Bach, Handel, Telemann, and Purcell

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“Only a relatively shallow range of articulations can be used: too strong and the tone will crack. If anything, this sensitivity to strength of articulation will develop a more musical student.” all knew the depth, breadth, and charms of this expressive instrument and wrote specifically for it. An original-instrument performance of J.S. Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 in G Major will feature not two flutes, but two alto recorders, with violin, and continuo; this is what Bach intended and specified. Since most recorder books utilize classical and folk music as a basis for their formats, the recorder readily serves as an introduction to this repertoire. The transfer of this learned repertoire to the beginning band books, where much of the song material is likewise classical and folk, makes yet another strong case for the use of the recorder. The understanding and appreciation of classical music depends upon the extent to which we expose ourselves to it. Does it not seem logical then to have our students respond to this repertoire at their earliest ages? The recorder is also an instrument manageable by youngsters in the elementary school, and its costs are quite small by comparison to other wind instruments. It is therefore very possible for music programs to spring up where before there were none, and for children, both in wealthy and impoverished areas, to gain valuable and essential experience in making music.

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hat many musicians do not expect to discover, but quickly do, is that the recorder is surprisingly challenging to play well: It is unexpectedly responsive to subtleties of articulation and breath pressure. This responsiveness makes it an ideal teaching instrument, for there is so much to master that is directly related to mastery of essential musical skills. The pitch of any tone produced by the recorder is directly related to and responsive to breath pressure. To be on pitch



you must use the proper breath pressure. If you use too little breath pressure (this is uncommon) you will be below pitch; if you use too much (this is common), you will be above pitch. Learning to play the recorder in tune will develop a sensitivity to intonation which will transfer to any wind instrument. It is so easy to play the recorder off-pitch that good recorder players habitually become exquisitely sensitive to being on-pitch. With respect to articulation, the recorder is perhaps closer to brass instruments in responsiveness. Among woodwinds, the recorder is uniquely responsive to subtleties of articulation. (The basic articulation is “dah,” with the “d” barely pronounced.) Only a relatively shallow range of articulations can be used: too strong and the tone will crack. If anything, this sensitivity to strength of articulation will develop a more musical student. Also, fingerings are similar to other winds, and fingering technique is similar, except that recorder’s fingering patterns are somewhat more difficult than any modern woodwind’s. Therefore, mastery of recorder fingerings virtually guarantees mastery of other woodwind’s fingering technique. But most important of all, playing the recorder in a group — a consort of recorders including soprano, alto, tenor, and bass in any combination — is superb preparation for playing in a concert band. It cannot be overemphasized that an early start in ensemble playing can have a positive effect upon your students’ musical development. The recorder is the perfect means to expose our students to great music at an early age, to develop new skills, and to afford them richer experiences. More recorder proThis ar ticle originally appeared with in the book “Best Music for Beginning Band” (Thomas L. Dvorak and Richard L. Floyd, Manhattan Beach Music). Bob Margolis is the Director of Manhattan Beach Music, and a recorder player and composer.

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grams can eventually produce more music departments in more schools. This can in turn lead to more bands, more performances, and more music everywhere. There are six sizes of recorder commonly encountered, which are, from smallest to largest: The sopranino (in F); the soprano, also called the descant (in C); the alto, also called the treble (in F); the tenor (in C); the bass (in F); and the great bass (in C). Soprano, alto, tenor, and bass are those most often encountered in ensembles, and are all available in relatively inexpensive plastic models; professional instruments are made from exotic woods. The most important recorder for baroque repertoire is the alto. For ensemble use, the soprano, alto, tenor, and bass are equally valuable. There are these octave relationships: (C recorders): the tenor is an octave lower than the soprano, and the great bass is an octave lower than the tenor. (F recorders): the alto is an octave lower than the sopranino, and the bass is an octave lower than the alto. Each recorder has a distinctive timbre, yet they blend well with each other in ensemble. The repertoire of the recorder is surprisingly extensive (there are thousands of works), and there are many collections of solo and ensemble music for recorders in various combinations, not only with themselves, but with many other instruments. All recorders sound in and are written “in C” The treble-clef instruments: The sopranino and soprano recorders sound one octave higher than notated (just like the piccolo does); the alto recorder and the tenor recorder sound at notated pitch. The lowest two octaves of the tenor recorder are identical in pitch to the lowest two octaves of the modern flute, although the timbres are rather different. The lowest two octaves of the soprano recorder are (except for the low C present on the soprano and absent on the piccolo) identical in pitch to the lowest two octaves of the piccolo, although the sounds are markedly different. MBM 60         TIMES  

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(The sopranino much more closely resembles the piccolo in timbre.) The bass-clef instruments: The bass and great bass recorders are notated in the bass clef, and sound one octave higher than notated. They are relatively quiet instruments and are extremely useful to the recorder consort. Players learn one set of fingerings for the C instruments and another for the F instruments. In this regard, recorder is unique. Whereas all the modern wind instruments are provided transposed parts, it is the recorder player who does the transposition; therefore, both the F recorders and the C recorders always sound “in C” and their music is always written “in C,” with octave transpositions as noted above. CHOOSING THE RIGHT INSTRUMENT FOR SCHOOL USE For young children, you will use primarily soprano recorder (for most children from seven years old up to eight or nine years old), adding alto (for children beginning at approximately nine or ten years old), or tenor (approximately eleven years old for children with a large hand stretch). The choice of soprano or alto is primarily a matter of hand size; tenor, not only hand size but age and lung capacity (it takes more breath to play). Some tenors, and all basses, have keywork, so do not overlook them, as some can be played with smaller hands than are needed for alto. It’s a matter of fitting the right recorder to the right individual. The teacher will most often take the tenor or bass. For school use, plastic recorders are ideal, and as previously mentioned, quite inexpensive (especially the soprano). Small percussion instruments are ideal adjuncts to the performance of early and folk music; so too are guitar or other plucked-string instruments. The recorder — this inexpensive, and often misunderstood instrument — if widely adopted as pre-band instrument can have a profound effect on the future of the concert band itself.


(Wayfaring Stranger, continued from page 57) the journal, The Hymn (31(2): 97-101). Having examined hundreds of early versions of Wayfaring Stranger, he mentions that the song has an oral history that probably dates back to the 1780’s. He then goes on to describe its history in hymnals from the mid-1800s into the early 20th Century. I am grateful to Professor Garst for sending me, from his private research collection, several examples of early versions of Wayfaring Stranger. Even among these samples, there are so many variations of melody, harmony, lyrics, and even titles. Still, I feel that the song’s essence remains intact in every version. Wayfaring Stranger is a tremendously popular, universal, and timeless song that still strikes a deep, resonant chord within us today, just as it has for over two centuries. by Steve Rouse (reprinted from the composer’s program notes from the score of Wayfaring Stranger, Manhattan Beach Music)



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Christopher Tucker’s unique and masterful Grade 3

9:20

Americans Lost

Southern Music Company

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mericans Lost was the winner of the 2001 CBDNA Young Band Composition Contest. It is based upon a four-part poem, written by the composer, and dedicated to those Americans who have lost loved ones due to unnatural causes such as war, disease, drugs, and terrorism. The work is also written as a special dedication to the victims’ families from the attack on America on September 11, 2001. In prefacing notes to the score, Christopher Tucker writes, “I wanted to compose a serious piece of music, which would open a venue for the director to create an awareness of these fatal acts and discuss their tragic repercussions.” Americans Lost was commissioned by the Desoto West Junior High School in Desoto, Texas. This moving salute is meant to be performed in two parts, for it is a four-movement piece divided into two sections. With a small pause separating both sections, a guest speaker should read the first half of the poem before the performance of Section I, and the second half of the poem before Section II. Colorful harmonic writing, use of independent lines, brilliant percussion writing, and thoughtful architecture of form makes this piece both unique and masterful. The composer includes aleatoric writing in the percussion parts of the third movement, using new notation and unmeasured playing. Over the entirety of the piece, one solo each is found in the chimes and oboe part; however the oboe solo is cued in the flute. The first movement, entitled Fallen Remembrances, begins with a rhythmic motive in the snare drum that grows from the rumbling sounds in the tuba and timpani. The feeling of this movement is that of pride, and the openness of perfect fifth intervals resonates like the American sound we are accustomed to hearing in pieces of this com-

by Thomas L. Dvorak positional style. “The Star Spangled Banner” is also quoted early in this movement. The second movement, Tragedies, is much more violent sounding in its focus. With continuous eighth notes driving in a heated fury, the music is accented, filled with energetic trills, and shaped in a fast Allegro, quarter note = 156. Here the players must play with marcato style, with a slight edge in the sound. In the third movement, Ashes to Ashes, the music literally represents death with the main motive derived from the actual word, death. The movement begins with the chimes, in aleatoric spirit, like church bells ringing on a Sunday morning. In minor tonality, the music quotes the spiritual, Lay Dis Body Down. The woodwinds and brasses are required to perform longer sustained hymns over the aleatoric percussion sounds — an awesome musical effect! The last movement, Healing of the Hearts, begins with a series of progressions that unfold to reveal a very powerful statement of “America the Beautiful.” In the composer’s words, the music is “a tribute to America and its people.” As the pieces comes to the last chord, the first six pitches to “God Bless America,” played by bells, rings out in the distance. The final result could bring an array of emotions from the players and audience alike. This extremely significant work for young bands gives the repertoire a seriousness often reserved for the repertoire of advanced ensembles. The orchestration and use of aleatoric sounds are all important in developing and establishing these aural concepts. The work is well within the playing capabilities of young bands, requiring standard instrumentation with the exception of one horn part and two trombone parts. Although percussion 2, 3, and 4 require marimba, percussionists can perform on one marimba simultaneously. This is an extensive piece, befitting a concert to those fallen American Heroes of September 11, 2001 or as programming material for concerts of serious intent.

The review of Christopher Tucker’s “Americans Lost” is reprinted from Thomas L. Dvorak’s book, Best Music for Young Band – Revised Edition (Manhattan Beach Music) MBM 64         TIMES  

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MBM Times Premiere Issue (Issue #1) from Manhattan Beach Music  

MBM Times Premiere Issue (Issue #1) from Manhattan Beach Music