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ABPL 30048 | air MYENG SON | 351288


CASE FOR INNOVATION 1.1 ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

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AESTHETICISM VS STRUCTURAL CONSTRAINTS

Throughout extensive history of architecture, structural requirements of the building, by and large, has been a constraint to an architect when it comes to designing an architecture. However, through continuous exertion of many creative minds and their critical thinking upon this relationship with design and structural theory - discourse, structural mechanism of building now became a new possibility of architecture design in whole - whether it be an aesthetics, structural design, materials, sustainability and what not? Furthermore it broadens our understanding of architectural design from mere formality and aestheticism to other essences of the archi-

tectural design - which has been neglected in public realm for far too long. This part of journal is a collection to put together ideas and innovations in history of architecture which pushed boundaries and limits which came from limited understanding of relationship between formal design of architecture and structural mechanism of the architectural design in the past ~COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE


1.2 FIVE POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE | VILLA SAVOYE� ARCHITECT : LE CORBUSIER

Le Corbusier's 5 Points of Architecture: 1: Support pilotis, elevating the building from the earth, 2: Functional roof, serving as a garden and terrace, 3: Free floor plan allowing walls to be placed freely and only where aesthetically needed, 4: Long horizontal windows, providing illumination and ventilation, 5: Freely-designed facades, serving only as a skin of the wall and windows and unconstrained by load-bearing considerations. "Progress brings liberation. Reinforced concrete provides a revolution in the history of the window. Windows can run from one end of the facade to the other" ~ Le Corbusier In today's context the formal design of the Villa Savoye may not appear as arresting as it may have seemed to its first viewers. However, there is no questioning that the ideas that formed the basis and formal design of Villa Savoye were an innovation which pushed the limits and boundaries of the architectural design in its form and function and desired aim. The Pilotis, or Stilts as Corbusier also referred to them, eliminated the need for supportive walls which in turn allowed an open floor plan - formal layout and design of interior space. Another structural innovation Corbusier acheived was an unrestrained facade, that, because it was fully supported by the Pilotis, would demonstrate the aesthetic of a thin exterior of both the window and the walls.


4.3 RESEARCH PROJECT: CUT | DEVELOP

"The proposed site for the Western Gateway offers a high exposure location to those entering the urban precint of the municipality, as well as to those travelling along the freeway. Wyndham City is seeking responses from design professionals for the design and documentation of an exciting, eye catching installation at Wyndham's Western Gateway. We would like to take this opportunity to thank you for your interrest in this initiative organised by Wyndham City, and encourage and challenge you to develop a proposal that inspires and enriches the municipality." ~Wyndham City Council Architectural concepts and principles of architecture has evolved through the struggle of many creative minds, constant innovations throughout architecture history. Structural requirement of an architecture is no longer a constraint that limits architecture's design process, but rather an open door for new ideas and inspirations. What was believed to be impossible to build and stand, now is possible through advanced knowledge and understanding of architectural mechanism. Intergration of structural principles of an architecture was one stretch to our conceptual design from conventional for-

mality and its visual aspects to another realm of design. Manipulating structure theories to create surreal forms and structure of a building floating villa of Corbuiser and literal curtain wall house of Shigeru Ban - will not only be an eyecatching installation for Wyndham City , but also a call for all passer-bys and publics to participate and engage into an architectural discourse. ~ EOI Gateway Project


CASE FOR INNOVATION 1.2 & 2.1 ARCHITECTURAL AS A DISCOURSE | COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY X ARCHITECTURE

“In contemporary architectural design, digital media is increasingly being used not as a representational tool for visualization but as a generative tool for the derivation from and its transformation – the digital morphogenesis.”~ Kolarevic, Branko In shifting away from traditional architectural desgin, “digitally-generated froms” are no more perceived as the traditional understanding of it, but it is calculated by the generative computational method incorporated in between human and computer. “ The digital generative processes are opening up new territories for conceptual, formal and tectonic exploration, articulating an architectural morphology focused on the emergent and adaptive properties of form.” (Kolarevic, Branko 2003) Such innovation

is manifested and driven by the development of complex geometry in modern day architectural designs. Complexity in use of geometry which was near impossible 10 years ago now has became available to many through computer system. ~COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE


2.2 THE SEED CATHEDERAL� ARCHITECT : HEATHERWICK STUDIO

DESIGN THEME OF UK PAVILION: technology driven pavilions, filled with audio-visual content on screens, projections and speakers. During the day, architecture’s rods functions as optic fibres , drawing light to illuminate the space at night. It creates a new experience for the viewers with its glow from light source embedded in the fibres. Sophisticated technology and precision was enabled from 3D modelling techniques in the placement of the holes which the fibres were plugged to. Also, an interactive software was utilized for the comprehension of structural behaviour of the system. ~UK PAVILION: THE SEED CATHEDERAL

The UK Pavilion has been designed by Heatherwick Studio collaborated with AKT/p.art ~parametric engineering research team. Led by the internationally-acclaimed Thomas Heatherwick, the studio pushes the boundaries boundaries of architectural discourse with its utilization of computational design process. The Seed Cathedral is a successful sydnergy effect created from integration of computational engineering ~parametric and conceptual architectural thinking. Use of interactive software applications which informs the structural behaviour of architecture allows more innovative explorations seen in the Seed Cathedral. (Architectural Design, July 2011, Vol. 81 Issue 4 ~Wiley Online Library)


“The proposed site for the Western Gateway offers a high exposure location to those entering the urban precinct of the municipality, as well as to those travelling along the freeway. Wyndham City is seeking responses from design professionals for the design and documentation of an exciting, eye catching installation at Wyndham’s Western Gateway. We would like to take this opportunity to thank you for your interest in this initiative organised by Wyndham City, and encourage and challenge you to develop a proposal that inspires and enriches the municipality.” ~Wyndham City Council My interest in the Seed Cathedral was particularly within its texture created by metalic fibres extruding out of the architecture. The studio have employed over 60,000 stiff fibre strands which creates an overal uniquely smooth and soft texture~ this fibre strands would have been impossible to planted without computational technology. I took an interest in its illusional texture effect where the texture of architecture differes depedning on the distance of viewers to the building: what seems to be very soft and smooth from far distance is created through dense allignment of hard metallic fibre strands. I aim to employ such qualities of the textural effect

of the Seed Cathedral into a Wyndham City Council’s proposal. Appreciating ATK/p.art’s exploration and design process, the EOI may aim to integrate similar effect to the structure of gateway, relating back to the council’s proposal for an ‘exciting, eye catching installation’ which was also the Seed Cathedral’s design brief to outstand other competing pavillions at the competition. I believe such an exciting and eye catching installation is possible through use of texture and its integration with computational design which broadens a possibility of more abundunt and diverse texture effect. ~Integration to Wyndham City Council EOI


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2.3 THE NATIONAL SWIMMING CENTRE: WATER CUBE ARCHITECT : PTW ARCHITECTS, CSCEC, CCDI, ARUP

The National Swimming Center - Watercube is a cubic formed architecture in Beijing filled with bubble patterns on its façade skin. Using parametric design methods, the bubble shapes were created; and was constructed by steel skeleton with ETFE (ethyl tetra fluoro ethylene.) This architecture is a clear manifestation of computation design in complex architecture. Using computer-aided drawing and parametric designing, enormous amount of architectural documentation required for such architecture is more readily able in shorter amount of time and effort. In technical aspects, it demonstrates how computer based design software affect design of the architecture in terms of material use. Complex geometry of the building is based on a unique lightweight-construction which was developed by PTW with ARUP. Geometry was

derived from an aggregation of foam from the structure of water. Behind what seems to be randomized pattern is thorough geometric codes which are found in nature: crystals, cells and molecular structures. It was then simplified into repetitive units, generating a highly rationalized design. This visually provoking, energy efficient and ecologically friendly architecture is a direct demonstration of a unique innovation of contemporary computational design technique. ~THE NATIONAL SWIMMING CENTER WATER CUBE


CASE FOR INNOVATION 3.1 PARAMETRIC DESIGN

PARAMETRIC DESIGN AND SCRIPTING IN ARCHITECTURE

“In contemporary architectural design, digital media is increasingly being used not as a representational tool for visualization but as a generative tool for the derivation from and its transformation – the digital morphogenesis.” ~ Kolarevic, Branko In a shift from traditional architectural desgin, “digitally-generated froms” are notrdrawn as the traditional understanding of it, but it is calculated by the generative computational method incorporated in between human and computer. “The digital generative processes are opening up new territories for conceptual, formal and tectonic exploration, articulating an architectural morphology focused on the emergent and adap-

tive properties of form.” (Kolarevic, Branko 2003) Such innovation is manifested and driven by the development of complex geometry in modern day architectural designs. Complexity in use of geometry which was near impossible 10 years ago now has became available to many through computer system. ~ PARAMETRIC DESIGN | ARCHITECTURE


3.2 MADREN 5340� ARCHITECT : INFRARED

Madren 5340 is a studio Infrared’s installation for platforma 1 exhibition. The theme of the platform 1 exhibition was asking for proposals that would investigate the concept of private or personal space. Studio Infrared focused on the idea of a filter installation which regulates what comes in and what stays out from such a personal space. Madren 5430, through its perforated surface, dictates the light penetration entering the space behind the installation wall.


Madren 5340 began with the concept of regulating light and visibility - such as, in an intimate space like a bedroom. A patterned surface would act as a filter, creating a perforated facade between two parts of the room. Infrared began by generating the surface algorithmically, interpolating between sine curves of varying wavelengths and amplitudes. These calculations created a double-curved, self-supporting structure that would rest on the ground. The 11 ½-foot-tall wall was then rationalized into a series of simple paper tubes that would be assembled to create the structure. In its project brief, the team described the combined effect of 3-D volumes and round pixels:

"In effect, each paper-tube is becoming something between a voxel and a pixel: it is positioned in space trying to represent a thin volume that reads as a surface—the properties of the volex—while at the same time displays a certain intensity of light—the properties of the pixel.The aggregation of the tubes is approximating the curvature of the initial surface." ~Jennifer K. Gorsche


Infrared is a group of architectural researchers and fabricators based in Thessaloniki, Greece. Initiated in 2010, the group’s work has included public installations like the Thess Bic Seat, an amorphously shaped bicycle rack and bench. Another piece called 313 / 315 is a 25-foot-long seesaw installed between two rooms of a derelict hotel created for last year’s XV Biennale De La Mediterranee. For its most recent installation, titled Madren 5340, the team investigated the theme of private space with a digitally modeled screen made with a series of paper tubes. I believe the Madren 5340 displays the successful innovation of application of scripting in architectural design and fabrication. Madren 5340 is where the development of a new paradigm in digital fabrication based on physical computing and integrated material systems emerges. Design studio practices generative architecture through design information being exported straight to the fabrication process. Such scripting process empowers designers to work beyond the general perceptual capacities with precisions and qualities. Curvatures of the installation are generated algorithmically through interpolation between curves of information founded on mathematical functions. Such new forms and shapes are discovered or generated through computer aided design softwares: grasshopper. Scripting offers to shift architectural design practices to new possibilities. It is a paradigm which this generation is adopting to replace our conventional design processes - traditional pen and paper. ~SCRIPTING CULTURES


3.3.1 VORONOI DIAGRAM�

Modern day architects, more often than it was before, look at the branches of science like mathematics, biology or physics for inspiration and for tips on how to solve problems they are trying to tackle. A Voronoi diagram is a means of decomposing a metric space determined by distances to a specified family of objects in the space. It is a mathematical algorithm deals with tessellation of randomized geometries organized in pattern by the principles of topological transformations - created by Georgy Voronoi. Voronoi diagram is being used by architects because it allows very organic looking patterns to be created as an outcome. It is also useful for space planning. For example for comparing areas covered by different hospitals, or shops; with Voronoi diagram one can easily determine where is the nearest shop or hospital. There are already several architectural applications that can be found online in regards to Voronoi Diagram. One is a plug-in which constructs Voronoi Dia-

grams in rhino, it has already been developed and is readily available for public. QHULL: Qhull computes the convex hull, Delaunay triangulation, Voronoi diagram, halfspace intersection about a point, furthest-site Delaunay triangulation, and furthest-site Voronoi diagram. The source code runs in 2-d, 3-d, 4-d, and higher dimensions. Qhull implements the Quickhull algorithm for computing the convex hull. ~http://www.qhull.org/


3.3.2 AIRSPACE TOKYO ARCHITECT : FAULDERS STUDIO

Designed by San Francisco-based architect Thom Faulders and developed in collaboration with digital technologist Sean Ahlquist of proces2, Airspace Tokyo appears to be covered with layer upon layer of artificial vegetation, created employing Voronoi Diagram pattern. It’s organic form was inspired by the abundant greenery that previously occupied the site; the screen façade comprises four different overlapping organic patterns. With an air gap of 15cm in-between, the 3mm-thick curtain-like coverings of laser-cut aluminium and plastic composite, frame views and light. Using computer generated organic forms and pattern, architect can accomplish a desgin which is material-efficiency, structural design, and also creates aesthetic sensation for public to enjoy. Same patterns and design methodology could be generated and implemented for a Wyndham City Gateway Project. Its visual attraction for public, through its radical organic forms and topology, is suitable for “exciting and eye-catching installation” at Wyndham City Council, as well as its material efficiency resulting in environmental and social benefit of the council. ~AIRSPACE TOKYO X WYNDHAM CITY COUNCIL EOI


3.4.1 AUTO BRAIDS / AUTO BLEEDING ARCHITECT : EVAN DOUGLAS

“The real possibility that these complex geometric assemblies can be constructed. When 3D software arrived, the infinite variety of topological variation had emerged. “ ~Evan Douglas (Autogenic Structures, 2009) Evan Douglas latest creation, Auto bleeding, is an innovative membrane, which was manufactured with sophisticated 3D modeling software and five-axis prototyping milling machine. It composition blends Cartesian grid (it is based repeated modules operating along orthogonal axes) numerical systems ( the computation of a single unit generates infinite growth) and curvilinear morphing ( the surface extension is continuously varied with shifting reference points) Through referencing the 3D model, it is then physical constructed using a casting technologies employed from product design. The beauty of this design is that it is self-supporting structure and has no support or frames, which is vigorously tested with advance computation. Through digital fabrication it allows this digital idea to be a tangable object, creating a totally new material, which can act as a surface and a wall panel. The complexity of Auto Bleeding proves the important of computation in architecture and can be used to create new materials, and forms, which are “original and engaging in form” (Gateway brief ), which can be “integrates with the immediate and surrounding landscape” (Wyndham City Council)” ~AUTO BRAIDS / AUTO BLEEDING & WYNDHAM EOI


3.4.2 AUTO BRAIDS / AUTO BLEEDING FABRICATION


3.5 CHRISTMAS LIGHTS ON BAHNHOFSTRASSE” ARCHITECT : GRAMAZIO & KOHLER

“The Worlds Largest Timepeace”

In a form of collective interaction the Christmas lighting creates an unpredictable, dynamic and immaterial architecture, “the main premises behind the time-based light installation is that light is not static, but fundamentally dynamic in nature” (GRAMAZIO & KOHLER, 2005)

The project for the Christmas Lighting on Bahnhofstrasse (2005) is the world’s largest timepiece lighting installation with a continuous band of light with a changing pattern of light according to the set of various parameters. Empowered by the contemporary digital information technology, this Christmas lighting installation can change its light dynamics and pattern over increase or decrease in the number of visitors and activity level on site which is generated by an algorithm controlled by recorded data using sensors on the streets. In this way, each passer-by can alter the street ambience by influencing the lighting patterns – passer-by can become parameters themselves.


The installation consists of 275 tubes of light, each 7 meters high, and placed at 4 meters constant intervals. Each light tube contains 32 small LED bulbs, which regulates 256 different brightness levels with each bulb. In order to control the intensity of lights and patterns of each light bulb, Fabio Gramazio and Matthias Kohler has invented custom-made software written in C++ called XMAS Generator. Approximately 26,000 line of code were necessary for the creation of this software, enabling different light patterns were generated and transmitted to light tubes via optical databus at the rate of 17 times per seconds.

After many trials and investigation, Gramazio & Kohler stumbled upon the manufacturing techniques for woven glass fibers used in high-tension insulation: glass fibers are soaked in resin and spun around a mandrel. The winder would control the stacking of the fibers via two computer-coordinated movements where sliding carriage drives the wound glass fibers back and forth along the spinning mandrel. This innovative fabrication technique generated extremely stable multi-layered shell for the light tube to solve design obstacles and enable the design ideas to come to physical manifestation. The studio developed customized software, which stimFor the intended effects to come to realization, ulates the fabrication process to come up with each of the 7 meters tubes had to illuminate in optimal joints of both light diffusion and rigidall directions as well as withstanding wind and ity: enabling the architects to test weaving variawater, and be lightweight. In addition, shelf of tions with different bandwidths, angles and tiers. the light tube had to be of a sufficiently rigid and transparent material – which transmits light – to replace aluminum core component of the tube, in order to avoid unattractive shadows on the outer shell compromising the lifting effects.


An intense involvement with the computer-operated production process allowed the architects to integrate two incongruent requirements into one single material, and thus implement for the first time wound glass fibers for lighting on such a large scale. The brief requires the gateway to “propose new, inspiring and brave ideas, to generate a new discourse.” (Gateway Brief, 2011) Therefore Gramazio & Kohler’s Christmas Lighting installation becomes a precedent of great importance and relevance to the Wyndham City Council’s proposal for it seeks to find new solution to digital architecture design and the realization of design concepts into tangible reality with numerous inventions of software and manufacturing techniques through experiment after

experiment. This advances and extends current architectural discourse further, stretching the new possibility of digitization of architecture and realization of it through continuous development of fabrication techniques. Another advantage that is found in this installation is in its relationship and interaction that it has with the public. As people on the streets become parameters of the design, this encourages peoples involvement or their attention to the artwork: “art ... become woven into the fabric of everyday life and a central thread connecting people and place.” CHRISTMAS LIGHTING & WYNDHAM EOI


4.1.RESEARCH PROJECT: CUT

GANTENBEIN VINEYARD FACADE, FLASH, SWITZERLAND ARCHITECTS / DESIGNERS : Gramazio & Kohler COMPLETED : 2006 CLIENT : Marta and Daniel Gantenbein


The façade design of the Gantenbein Vineyard was undertaken by the design office of Gramazio & Kohler – who proposed for a masonry infill between the concrete skeletal frames. The masonry facade serves as both temperature buffer, and sunlight filter for the fermentation room of the Gantenbein Vineyard. The fermentation hall had to be windowless because constant temperatures and subdued lightings are required for grape fermentation. In order to provide natural lighting despite these preconditions, Gramazio & Kohler designed a façade in which the bricks were laid with gaps between them to allow daylight to enter the fermentation hall. The façade of the vineyard is imbued with a grape pattern, thus branding the identity of the vineyard. To create this textural effect, an information generation process had to be generated which produces an impression of a precisely controlled result by applying purely systematic chance. The composition of grapes was experimented into a virtual container via digitally simulated gravity, until a sufficient density of the balls was achieved. The acquired image of the grapes was then used to create the grape-like brick wall patterns, using an automated layout process.

“A three-dimensional brick façade, therefore, is far more afective than a twodimensional image” ~Gramazio & Kohler The brick wall patterns are three-dimensional, rotated slightly, thus reflecting light differently. This results in different tonal values across the surface of the façade. Bricks of the facade function like pixels that form the grapes image pattern. Unlike the two-dimensional image, the facade contains a subtle interplay between plasticity, depth, and color in a dynamic texture of the brick pattern, maximizing its material effect that constantly shift during the course of the day. On a closer view, the walls reveal a materiality that resembles stonework, and it is surprising that the soft round form from a distance is actually composed of individual, orthogonal, aard material - bricks. Inside of the fermentation hall, the transparency of the brick wall creates a mild, yet luminous atmosphere in the fermentation hall during the day – manifesting the design intent through the subtle light modulation by the gaps between the bricks.


4.2 R-O-B, Mobile Fabrication Unit ARCHITECT : Gramazio & Kohler

“We are not interested in replacing conventional techniques with robots, we are interested in giving new, unexplored techniques to architects and designers to work with, resulting in new aesthetic expressions or new construction methods.” ~Gramazio & Kohler R-O-B is a mobile fabrication unit invented by Gramazio & Kohler’s design office, making use of computer methodologies in the design and fabrication process allows for manufacturing building elements with highly specific forms, which could not be building manually. It combines the advantages of prefabrication – precision and consistent high quality – with the advantages of short transport routes and just-in-time production on the building site. Furthermore, the mobile fabrication unit is not restricted to a predefined manufacturing process or a particular building material. The idea for R-O-B initiated in 2006 during Gramazio & Kohler’s project with brick manufacturers Keller AG Ziegeleien: Gantenbein vineyard façade. Creating a robot in the studio’s warehouse, they produced in-house the elaborately woven brick walls for the Gantenbein vineyard project with absolute precision, despite the complicated motif. Proving its efficiency and catching the eyes of many, researchers are now looking at expanding its applications into a variety of materials.


VIDEO RESOURCE | DEMONSTRATION OF R-O-B: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kDW6XCB7HPE | http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z8L1WF-Sxlg


4.3 RESEARCH PROJECT: CUT | DEVELOP

CASE STUDY EXPLORATION

4.3.1

ROTATING BRICKS: FOUNDED ON EX-LAB TUTORIAL ON ROTATING BRICK, THE TEXTURAL ELEMENTS OF GANTENBEIN VINYARD FACADE WAS REPLICATED AND EXPLORED THROUGH GRASSHOPPER. USE OF IMAGE SAMPLER DICTATED OVERALL PATTERN AND TEXTURE OF THE WALL. USE OF SMALLER BRICK ELEMENTS - SMALLER PIXEL, AND GREATER PROXIM-


4.3 RESEARCH PROJECT: CUT | DEVELOP

4.3.2 EXPLICIT GRID / IMAGE SAMPLER / EXTRUSION: USE OF EXTRUSION OUTPUT, MORE DYNAMIC AND VARIOUS TEXTURAL IM-

AGE WAS CREATED. ONCE AGAIN, THE IMAGE USED IN IMAGE SAMPLER ASSOCIATION HAS DICTATED OVERALL SHAPE AND TEXTURE OF THE OUTCOME. IN TERMS OF FABRICATION, EXTRUSION WOULD BE MORE DIFFICULT TO FABRICATE WITH WHAT FABLAB CAN OFFER. YET THIS WAS A WORTHWHILE EXPLORATION: VOLUME CREATED THROUGH EXTRUSION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE SURFACE TEXTURE


4.3 RESEARCH PROJECT: CUT | DEVELOP

4.3.3 HERE WE USED EX-LAB’S TUTORIAL ON “RATIONALIZATION” AS OUR GUIDANCE TO EXPLORED IN CREATING DIFFERENT TEXTURE AND MOTION ON THE PLANE, THAT WE WOULD PERHAPS BE ABLE TO FABRICATE THROUGH FABLAB. OUR UNDERLYING AIM WAS TO CREATE SOMETHING THAT WE WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO MANUALLY FABRICATE, GOING BACK TO OUR INITIAL DISCOURSE ON DIGITAL FABRICATION.


4.3 RESEARCH PROJECT: CUT | DEVELOP

4.3.4 THESE ARE THE TOP VIEW OF THE GRASSHOPPER DEFINITIONS THAT THE GROUP HAS PRODUCED. ALTHOUGH THE SENSE OF MOVE-

MENT AND TEXTURAL VOLUME HAS BEEN DECREASED DURING THE EXPORTING PROCESS FROM RHINO TO TIFF FILES, IT WAS AN EXPLORATION TO SEE HOW LIGHT AFFECTS THE SURFACE IMAGE OF THE FACADE. RELATING BACK TO GANTENBEIN VINYARD, WE ATTEMPTED TO EXPERIMENT HOW LIGHT HITTING THE PANNELS AFFECTS THE VISIBILITY OF THE UNDERLYING PATTERNS AND SHAPE OF THE FACADE. WHERE THERE WAS A LIGHTING CASTED UPON THE MODEL WHILE WE WERE WORKING ON GRASSHOPPER AND RHINO - CREATING A VISUAL IMAGE ON THE SURFACE, IT DISAPPEARS WHEN THE LIGHTING ON THE GRASSHOPPER DEFINITION IS GONE AFTER EXPORTING AS TIFF FILE.


4.3 RESEARCH PROJECT: CUT | DEVELOP

4.3.5 EXPLICIT GRID / IMAGE SAMPLER / ROTATE: THIS WAS AN EXPLORATION OF SENSE OF MOVEMENT AND TEXTURAL ILLUSION ACHIEVED THROUGH MANIPULATING LINEAR ELEMENTS

- DIRECTION, LENGTH, DENSITY AND SAMPLING IMAGE


4.4 RESEARCH PROJECT: CUT | 3D MODEL

4.4.1 3D MODEL MAKING PROCESS


4.4. RESEARCH PROJECT: CUT | 3D MODEL

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4.4.2 FABLAB 3D MODEL

3D MODEL: 3D Model was fabricated as part of research cut project’s reverse engineering of the Gantanbein Vinyard Facade. This enabled further exploration of the case study on the effect and the advantage computer coordinated designing and fabrication process holds. Although our initial ambition to the fabrication was to create a physical model with greater proximity of panels, thus improved resolution of the desired effect, this fabrication process yet revealed many aspects of architectural design and fabrication that we were not aware of. Size of the panel had a direct relationship with the possible proximity of each panels and the high level differences between each horizontal rows decreased the level of resolution significantly.


4.4.2 FABLAB 3D MODEL

DEPICTION OF THE IMAGE: Impact of light hitting on the panel surface is clearly demonstrated through this photos. Light hitting on the surface, and the shadow casted on another, creates contrasts and overall creates an image which Gramazio & Kohler has employed computer design software to design in their Gantenbein proejct. Redcuing the size of the pane, hence increasing the resolution and the level difference between each rows would enable detailed depiction of the desired image/ effect on the facade surface. ~FABLAB 3D MODEL


RESEARCH PROJECT & MID-SEMESTER CONCLUSION

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WHERE FROM, WHERE AT, WHERE TO

From the explorations of the research project: Gantenbein Vineyard Facade, as well as the selected precedents from our individual journal, our group has developed a unique approach to EOI which focuses on Grmazaio& Kohler's architectural discourse on digital revolution in architecture: computer aided design and fabrication. We focused on how digital revolution in architecture: parametric design, computer coordinated fabrication R-O-B, can benefit or advance the architectural design and construction. In addition to that we paid attention to various textures and material effects that we can create using different parametric design methods - grasshopper definitions, and how we can successfully bring them into physical realm - digital fabrication. Although the outcome of the reverse-engineered process were not exactly what we have speculated, we were able to apply similar methods and techniques to develop our approach to an Wyndham Council EOI. However, through presentation critiques and feedbacks from tutors, we came to realize that focusing on design proccess itself is not sufficient for the outcome of EOI. Thus, our group will from here onwards endeavor to find a sufficient approach to Wyndham Council's proposal which encompasses all of our expressed interests. One thing that we picked out from our precedents was an idea of building's interaction with viewers - humans themselves becoming parameters of the design Christmas Lighting, Gramazio & Kohler) Our exploration on Gramazio & Kohler's Christmas Lighting installation encouraged us to investigate how a gateway may "connect people and the places together" as a form of "public art", as well as embracing our expressed interests on textural effect, digital fabrication and technology. Our aim now is to search through different precedents of architecture which arouses interaction between the installation/ architecture and the viewers. ~MID-SEMESTER CONCLUSION


5.1 HYPOSURFACE” ARCHITECT : GRAMAZIO & KOHLER

VIDEO DEMONSTRATION: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=np0j7uoKMbY&feature=related “It is…a harbinger of nanotechnology-the intersection of information and matter itself” ~Mark Goulthorpe of dECOi The Aegis Hyposurface is a dECOi project, designed principally by Mark Goulthorpe and the dECOi office with a large multi-disciplinary team of architects, engineers, mathematicians and computer programmers, among others. This team included a Professor Mark Burry, who was working at Deakin University at the time. The piece marks the transition from autoplastic (determinate) to alloplastic (interactive, indeterminate) space, a new species of reciprocal architecture. Hyposurface—a metamorphasizing, fabric and plastic wall, all controlled by many thousands of mechanical pistons below the surface. The facade surface is made up of several modules and becomes kinetic through an arrangement of electrically controlled cylinders embedded in the structure behind the surface. The link below shows a video of people interacting with the “Hyposurface.”


CUT DEFINITION

MOVEMENT & FLUIDITY | FACADE

4.3.6

EXPLICIT GRID / IMAGE SAMPLER / ROTATE: TO VISUALIZE AND CONVEY THE MOVEMENT OF THE FACADE ONTO A GRASSHOPPER DEFINITION - RELATING BACK TO HYPOSURFACE. WE USED DIFFERENT LENGTH AND CURVATURE FOR THE LINEAR ELEMENTS TO CREATE DIFFERENT TEXTURE AND SENSE OF FLUID MOTION ACROSS THE PLANE/ FACADE


EXPRESSION OF INTERESTS CONCLUSION: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

DIGITAL | TEXTURAL | INTERACTIVE

Through our approach to Wyndham City Council's proposal and our expression of interest, we have searched through the innovative digital technologies in architecture which advances architectural design practices and have applied them into the context of Wyndham City's Proposal. We have proposed that through use of computer coordinated design and fabrication process, the non-standardized unique shapes and forms of complexity can be generated and fabricated with great precision and quality. Furthermore, we have narrowed our scope to a textural effect which a public art can create through interaction with public: passing cars or surrounding conditions. We believe such form of public hard will be able to bring art "woven into the fabric of everyday life and a central thread connecting people and place" at Wyndham City. Exploring possiblities for interaction, we sought to encourage people passing the gateway to be part of the form of public art itself, people being the parameters themselves. Our proposal aims to integrate sophisticated digital technology of architecture with its infinite possibility towards new patterns and textures, which is created through an interaction with public: our approach to deliver ‘an exciting, iconic and eye-catching installation’ to Wyndham City. ~ EOI CONCLUSION: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE


ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: AIR

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LEARNING OUTCOMES

"To introduce the teaching of digital architectural design. The faculty, the accreditation bodies and the teaching team all agree that the teaching of contemporary technologies (including computation) needs to be considerably improved." ~MOTIVATIONS AND STRUCTURE

In forming an architectural EOI approach to Wyndham Council's Proposal stretched my paradigm of architecture to broader scale. Seeing architecture: design, building, concept, etc, as a form of inter-dependent/ related discourse rather than an autonomous, independent objects revealed hidden links of architectural ideas and designs around the globe, and also a glimpse of architectural zeitgeist of current days. Research processes for precedents developed my ability in researching itself as well as being able to critically analyze and evaluate an architectural work in various aspects: validity of the authors' arguement, complexity, innovation, etc. My ability to engage with architectural computation - rhino, grasshopper and perhaps indesign and photoshop as well. Through different learning outcomes and exercises I have become increasingly familiarized with complex/ simple logic of computer aided architectural design and their efficiency in design and fabrication proccesses. I believe this is one of the most significant achievement through this course, and I believe gained knowledge and understanding of architectural scripting will heavily influence, thus benefit my architecrual design proccesses from now on. ~ LEARNING OUTCOMES


ABPL 30048 | air MYENG SON | 351288


FINAL DESIGN PROGRESS JOURNAL 6.2 DESIGN PROGRESS AND OUTCOME

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6.2.1 TRIAL AND EXPLORATION

Our exploration of the 4.4.2 FABLAB 3D model went further with varying the length of the panels that were cladded to the facade structure. Varying length of the panels were intended for accentuating the curvatures of the structure - the shape of the structure was derived from the shape of the proposed site's contour lines. As a result we were able to achieve some interesting effects and dynamics on the surface of the facade model. ~TRIAL AND EXPLORATION


FINAL DESIGN PROGRESS JOURNAL 6.2.2 EXPLORATION: PHYSICAL MODEL

These are photographs of the physical model which we have fabricated. Different length of the panels positioned around the curves accentuate the curvatures on the surface. Number of layers of contours were slotted into a column structure - shown on the left, located at the centre of contour panels. ~PHYSICAL MODEL


FINAL DESIGN PROGRESS JOURNAL 6.2.3 EXPLORATION: MORE PHYSICAL MODELS AND MORE PHOTOS


FINAL DESIGN PROGRESS JOURNAL 6.3 NEW DESIGN IDEA

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INTRODUCING NEW IDEA

After our design studio's feedback, our group have decided to take a new step to explore into different design ideas for the Wydnham Council proposal. One of the suggestion from the tutors was to manipulate or accentuate the existing landscape of the proposed site with unconventional elements - matchbox cars and animal toys. Perhaps something that is playful, "fun, excting and eye-catching." However we did not throw away our previous design progress as the group had little idea how this exploration may turn out. We started to looking into architects and artist who introduced similar elements into their

projects. Then we spent time searching for toys and other possible appropriate materials that were available for us to use - toys, wax animal figures, 3D printing, pinky sil. Also we began to explore for skeletal structure we might want to use to place design elements, toys, on site. ~NEW DESIGN IDEA


FINAL DESIGN PROGRESS JOURNAL 6.4 PRECEDENTS AND RESEARCHES

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FOUNDTAIN

ARCHITECT : GREG LYNN

"I was interested in an intricate approach to masonry but instead of geometries of how to place bricks I decided to start with a new kind of brick itself"

~GREG LYNN

FOUNTAIN is a architectural project of Greg Lynn where he created a functioning fountain made out of large plastic found children’s toys that have been cut and reassembled in multiple layers, with water spouting from its top and pooling at its base. Greg Lynn argues that through the use of more than fifty-seven pre-fabricated playful toy sharks and whales, he "celebrates youthful forms of expression and ascribed preternatural innocence to the child and, through association, primordial virtue to the artist." These toys were

pre-fabricated using computer driven fabrication machines and each elements are cut in particular shape to be integrated to other elements -designed and planned on computer design software. Greg Lynn's celebration of such playful elements in architecture is certainly of great relevance to proposal of Wyndham City how this can be "fun, exciting and eye catching" element which can accentuate the city of Wyndham. ~FOUNTAIN & WYNDHAM CITY EOI


6.4 PRECEDENTS AND RESEARCHES

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HEAD ON

ARTIST: CAI GUO-QIANG

HEAD ON is an artistic exhibition designed by Cai Guio-Qiang. In researching and processing this work, our group have not focused on the idea and the concept behind the work as we thought it was somewhat irrelevant, but we have focused on how the surface and overall installation was created with the use of 99 animal models. As it is depicted in the photographs above, the polymer animals create an arch pattern. This is very similar to what our group was envisioning with our new exploring design - creating a surface or landscape using unconventional design element whether it be toy cars or animals. ~HEAD ON & DESIGN PROGRESS


FINAL DESIGN PROGRESS JOURNAL 6.5 DESIGN PROGRESS AND OUTCOME

6.5.1 PORK WAFFLE

"Wyndham City is seeking responses from design professionals for the design and documetation of an exciting, eye catching installation at Wyndham’s Western Gateway" ~ Wyndham Council City


6.5.1 DESIGN PROGRESS AND OUTCOME: PORK WAFFLE

“Untitled” is an innovative architecture specifically designed and developed for Wyndham City Council’s gateway proposal. It is an architectural installation, which consists of polymer of pigs sitting on top of curved surface structure. “Untitled” was designed to blend into the existing landscape of Wyndham City as its surface shape conforms to an existing topography of the proposed site, however it creatively accentuates the current landscape into more playful and dynamic one through an “exciting, eye catching” sculptural elements – pigs. In choosing toy-like pigs, “Untitled” targets to appeal to people in all ranges of age group, functioning as a mediator “connecting people and place” in form of public art: 1. Pig is one animal which mankind in every age group is most familiar with in their everyday lives – media and food. 2: Playfulness and creativity in installation appeals to public who belongs to younger age group which are attracted to fun, “exciting, eye catching” elements. 3: Use of computation and parametric design in developing and manufacturing the installation will attract scholars and public who are interested in architecture as well as introducing architectural discourse to those who are not yet to be passionate or familiar with architecture. “Untitled” innovates in form and structure, opened by digital technology and eccentric idea to integrate everyday life’s animal into architecture. It generates unique and surreal experience to public through the use of over-scaled pigs woven together, marching towards the sky. It aims to advances a “discourse” of architecture, extending the aesthetic and functional realm of public architecture. Furthermore, sculptures marching towards the sky give the sense of ascension – an entry to a utopia, as people drives into the Wyndham City though “Untitled”, “encouraging a sense of pride within the local community”. ~PORK WAFFLE


FINAL DESIGN PROGRESS JOURNAL 6.5 DESIGN PROGRESS AND OUTCOME

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6.5.2 MAKING PORKS

After searching for adequate pig model to be used in our project, our group have decided to produce pig models for our project using a pinky sil. We have made a formwork using a thumb sized wax pig model from target. After creating a formwork, the pinky sil was injected into a formwork using syringe. Although fabricating formwork manually has been a difficult process, using a formwork with pinky sil has enabled us to produce as many models we needed in relatively uniformed texture and colour. Each pigs roughly took 30 minutes to be injected into a fromwork and dry. Producing pigs without stains or tear marks were extremely difficult especially when the damage was added onto the formwork as a repeated fabrication process continued. Due to financial and time constraints, we were not able to produce additional formwork. However, we have managed to visually document our fabrication process with photographs. ~MAKING PORKS


6.5.2 MAKING PROKS PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION


6.5 PORK WAFFLE FURTHER EXPLORATION 6.5.1 RHINO WIREFRAME VIEWS

~PORK WAFFLE WIREFRAME VIEW FROM RHINO4.0

~PORK WAFFLE WIREFRAME VIEW FROM RHINO4.0: PIG POLYMER, SURFACE, WAFFLE STRUCTURE


~SURFACE DEVELOPMENT WITH WAFFLE STRUCTURE CREATING MORE DYNAMIC SURFACE WHICH ACCENTUATES THE EXISTING LANDSCAPE

~PORK WAFFLE WIREFRAME VIEW FROM RHINO4.0: VIEW FROM FRONT


6.5.2 RHINO WIREFRAME VIEWS: SURFACE DEVELOPMENT

ORIGINAL

MODERATE

INTENSE

~SURFACE DEVELOPMENT: INTENSIFYING THE SURFACE DYNAMICS, CURVATURES

ORIGINAL

MODERATE

INTENSE

~WAFFLE STRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT VIA GRASSHOPPER COMPONENT


6.5.3 GRASSHOPPER DEFINITION: RATIONALIZATION

In placing the pig polymer on the surface, the pig meshes acquired online - which was similar to our physical pig model was referenced as a point on the surface which was created on rhino4.0: through grasshopper components, each pigs were placed on the surface which was organized and oriented by the grasshopper function according to x and y grids of the planar surface. Through number sliders connected to Surface Frames components, the density of the pigs on plane in x and y grids was possible to be manipulated, and the positioning pattern of the pigs were set through manipulating Cull component's multiple boolean setting. ~GRASSHOPPER DEFINTION: RATIONALIZATION

6.5.3 GRASSHOPPER DEFINITION: WAFFLE

After producing a pig polymers, we created a waffle structure underneath it - referencing to the same surface which was used for the rationalization. Luckily we were able to download pre-made grasshopper definition from EX-LAB website, by simply referencing the surface into ReferencedBrep component. Using number sliders on x and y divisions, it was possible to control the number of waffle ribs being placed underneath the surface. Material_Thickness component changed the distance of the slot on a waffle rib, for other rib to be slotted and connected. RibDepth component determined the depth/ width of the rib, which would affect how high off the ground the surface/ pig polymers would sit above the ground. And also, the greater the depth value meant the stronger and more stable the waffle structure would become. ~GRASSHOPPER DEFINTION: WAFFLE


6.5.3 SCALE VARIATION

x2.2

x1.6

x1.0

x1.9

In further exploring design outcome of Pork Waffle, we have vary the scale of the pig on the surface. Where uniformly scaled pig models conveyed the original structural surface of the waffle clearly, varing the scales of the pig created slightly more dynamic surface and pattern of the design which differentiates further from the original waffle surface. However this was not applied to our model fabrication due to cost and time constraints. ~SCALE VARIATION


6.6.1 STRUCTURAL DETAIL

POLYMER PIG BOLTED INTO THE WAFFLE SYSTEM

POLYMER PIGS BOLTED AND WIELDED TOGETHER

BOLTED TO THE LEGS OF THE POLYMER PIGS

BOLTED INTO THE LEGS OF THE POLYMER PIGS

SURFACE PANELS CONNECTING PIG TO THE SURFACE PANELS

HORIZONTAL CONNECTION BETWEEN THE POLYMER PIGS

This is a structural illustration of how the pigs will be installed to a waffle structure. The legs of pig will be bolted to the structure, they they will also be bolted and welded together to other pigs on the sidelines. This achieves a horizontal and vertical connection which stablizes the position and the structural continuity of the pig polymer on surface structure ~STRUCTURAL DETAIL

6.6.2 SITE PLAN DETAIL CHOSEN LOCATION

02 ACCENTUATES THE CURRENT LANDSCAPE AND PRIME LOCATION BETWEEN THE TWO HIGHWAYS

SERVICE STATION SITE B PRINCES HWY

SITE A

01 OUTBOUND FROM THE CITY

SITE BOUNDARY

~SITE PLAN INFORMATION, LOCATION OF THE PORK WAFFLE ON PROPOSED SITE


PROJECT TITLE:

PROJECT DESCRIPTION:

WYNDHAM CITY SITE PLAN:

CHOSEN LOCATION

02 ACCENTUATES THE CURRENT LANDSCAPE AND PRIME LOCATION BETWEEN THE TWO HIGHWAYS

SERVICE STATION SITE B PRINCES HWY

SITE A

01 OUTBOUND FROM THE CITY

SITE BOUNDARY

PHOTOGRAPHS:


SUBJECT:

GROUP MEMBERS:

TUTORS:

CLIENT:

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR ABPL 30048 2012

MYENG SON ADAM KIM

GWYLLIM JAHN ANDY YU

WYNDHAM CITY COUNCIL WESTERN GATEWAY PROJECT

PROJECT DESCRIPTION:

01. CREATE A SURFACE

03. REFERENCE POLYMER PIGS TO SURFACE

02. CONNECTING SURFACE TO WAFFLE SYSTEM

ELEVATION

PLAN VIEW

FRONT VIEW

BACK VIEW

CONSTRUCTION DIAGRAM:

POLYMER PIG

POLYMER PIGS BOLTED AND WIELDED TOGETHER

BOLTED INTO THE WAFFLE SYSTEM

BOLTED TO THE LEGS OF THE POLYMER PIGS BOLTED INTO THE LEGS OF THE POLYMER PIGS

SURFACE PANELS

CONNECTING PIG TO THE SURFACE PANELS

HORIZONTAL CONNECTION BETWEEN THE POLYMER PIGS


ABPL 30048 | air MYENG SON | 351288

351288 ADS AIR JOURNAL COLLATED  

351288 ADS AIR JOURNAL COLLATED

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