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How to Make a Perfect Process Book

Mandy Yu Hui Emily Carr University COMD 410 S002 | Spring 2018


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Abstract This project is about sustainability, a good material to educate our next generation about the importance of preventing food waste. As a developed country, Canada has high standards of the lookings of food. Lots of produces were wasted because they were considered “imperfect� due to our unsustainable cosmetic standards. To challenge this issue, this book was designed to gear towards children and their parents to bring attention to the produce left behind because of our unsustainable cosmetic standards for our food.


Acknowledgments Firstly, I would like to thank our Instructor, Katherine Gillieson for her help through the whole 4th year’s semester. Please don’t let others know but SHE IS THE BEST! I would also like to thank Kelly Small, her passionate advice really helped me to look back on my project over and over in the past year. Also thank you, Lucy Kinsella, who wait for me every Thursday & Friday noon at Writing center and help me with my story line and grammar. I also wish to express my gratitude to my boss for letting me be absent so many times before each due days so I can work on my project. Finally, I would like to thank my family especially my parents, mostly for the funding, which plays the most important part in this project and this four-year bachelor degree. Without these lovely people, I would never be able to achieve this project.



Problem Space In the fight for global sustainability and resource conservation – and indeed the fight against climate change – deforestation, fossil fuels and water management are often at the forefront of local and national policy debates. Little attention is paid to the troubling global food waste trend, or the shocking 160 billion pounds of food waste that Americans toss each year, or how that accumulated waste impacts our already flailing ecosystem. That means the non-renewable resources used to grow that same food — water, topsoil, fuel, manpower — are then wasted as well. In fact, food production alone accounts for 80 percent of freshwater use, 33 percent of human-made greenhouse gases and 50 percent of all land use, making food waste one of the most urgent socio-environmental challenges of our time.


As an urban city, Vancouver has high standards of the lookings of food. Lots of imperfect food products got wasted due to the unrealistic and unyielding cosmetic standards and the waste should be stopped.

Animal Feed





Design Goals According to my early stage research, our food supply chain is usually divided into four steps: Production, Processing, Retailing, and Consumption. Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for most of the food waste happens in the chain. For example, if we want to reduce food waste by persuade consumers to accept suboptimal food(odd shaped/discolorations) and have lower cosmetic standards on food. Then the growers don’t have to over-plant to make sure the total quantity they need to provide meets the standards. Some Consumers of these days are aware of food waste and sustainability, after all kinds of environmental-friendly movements and campaigns. My design targets at the younger generation -- children who are too young to understand the concept of food waste. My purpose is to design a picture book for children between 3-5 years. The book will contain colorful food-shaped characters, mostly 8

irregularly shaped food. By sample shapes and story, I wish the young readers can understand that all foods are the same no matter how different their looks are(And humans too!).

Research Research includes primary research and secondary research. My primary research focuses on every character in our food supply chain. To truly understand what is going on with our unsustainable food beauty standard, I decided to do an informal survey. From the growers to retailers, from shoppers to customers, I talk to them and gather their opinions about imperfect produces My secondary research area mainly stays with the report from Food Waste Organisation, food-related industry, to know more about our current food waste situation. Besides, I also dig into books and lectures about design for kids, early education theory, book bindery and self-publish. 9


Design Outcomes This project aims to bring attention to the produce left behind and the daily choices we made during our grocery shopping. It shall arouse the topic about food and food waste between children and parents. By educating children, parents will also keep that eco-friendly idea in mind more frequently. Moreover, if the young readers require to have more irregularly shaped food on the table, the supplier will finally notice that requirement and lower cosmetic standards on food to cause less food waste.





Bad Cook Bad Storage Overstock Picky about Looks Leftovers Use-by date

Handling Storage Unrealistic Cosmetic Standards

Pest Weather Machinery Food Surplus Storage

*The chain of food waste



SUMMAYR My secondary research went through the basic reports such as Metro Vancouver annual Food Recovery Organics Processing Program report, Food, Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and some web articles about the food waste situation on Earth. Those astonishing data are here to remind me WHY we need to save our food and how bad the situation is right now. Besides, I also dig into studying children, including children education theory, well examples of design for children, children habits and behaviors etc. Most of the valuable sources come from libraries and the UNESCO database. During my primary research, I visit local Farmers Market and library with a list of people that I needed to talk to: Growers, Retailers(farmers), Retailers(non-farmers), Consumers at Farmers Market and Consumers in a regular store. To my surprise, most people don’t really mind if the shape of food is irregular. 12




A traditional media: printed book

Paper media is hard to reach the further audience

Few competitors

Mother language is not English, hard to make puns and rhythms

Following the trend of being sustainability



Good quality illustrations

The printing process may also produce waste

Pretty interest idea Urban city, easier to accept new ideas

Copyright problem if published online



In Canada, 40% of the edible food is never eaten.

According to the data from Metro Vancouver Waste Composition Monitoring Program in year 2015, almost a third of the food we purchase will not be eaten and ends up go into the garbage, mostly because of people buying too much food and not finishing it on time, or just simply not liking what they bought (Metro Vancouver, 2015). The surplus food and leftovers used to go to the regular garbage bin and were buried at the landfill and the compost will likely result in increased surcharges on this waste stream which could financially impact regional businesses (Metro Vancouver, 2015).


Meanwhile, a survey done by Vancouver Coastal Health in 2014 shows almost 10% of Vancouverites have reported being food insecure. That means at some point in the year, they had difficulty accessing safe, healthy food while other people in Vancouver waste about 13,000 tons of healthy, edible food per year. The data from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Statistical Yearbook (2015) shows that 40% of the food produced in Canada is never eaten. When the statics expends to a global perspective, this number of food waste is one-third, which is equivalent to 1.3 billion tons and worth around 1 trillion USD. This means that over 30% of the food produced on the earth will be thrown away each year while there are still over 900 million peoples starving (FAO, 2015). The whole world is trying to produce more and more food to feed the steady increasing 15

SECONDARY RESEARCH: PROBLEM population but paying less attention on the food they waste. It is noteworthy that our nature sources are limited and we are about to reach the limits while we producing food and processing its waste. The resources we use to produce food included but are not limited to water, soil, fuel and other energy sources. It costs energy to harvest, storage, transport, cook, process and service food as well. Most of the food waste goes straight to the landfill because the other methods still carry out at a higher relatively elevated cost. The discarded food in the landfill is not only polluting the soil but also produce methane, which is 21 times more potent than the wellknown greenhouse gas: 16

carbon dioxide (Haibo, Singh, & Qureshi, 2015). Under this condition, it seems impossible to largely grow agricultural while stay sustainable and respect the equilibrium of this planet. Food waste drags human to a great risk of irreversible changes, which could expose future generations to great problems such as deforestation and desertification (Bonaccorsi, 2015). Therefore, food waste reduction is critical to solving today's ecology crisis.



Pimary research at vancouver farmers’ market food waste problem cannot be solved easily. It happens in many stages from production to consumption. and in this case, I am particularly looking into i call it a cosmetic standard food waste chain. I think us consumers are responsible for some avoidable waste, if they were willing to accept imperfect food. So I started my pimary research with the vancouver farmers’ market because I think both of the retailers and consumers there are less picky on looks and care more about qualities… and turns out I was partly correct.


I did found more imperfect food at the farmers market rather than the regular stores. However, most of them I found were hiddened at “the backstage” , I have to ask for “imperfect food” and were give me as gifts because the farmers though no one will pay for them. Also, according to my survey, no costume said they mind the look of food but all they purchased were good-looking, shiny vegetables. Then I talked to the kids, kids love those ugly shaped food and called them cute and special. 19


My question list at vancouver farmers’ market To Farmers: -Which produce get waste the most? -Which produce has highest chance to “born ugly” ? -Which produce is rejected by retailers the most? -Where does all those ugly food go?

To Consumers: -Do you care about the look of food? -How do you react? -Do your kids care about the look of food? -How do they react? 20

By visiting the local farmer's market, I realized that even most people care about bruised and bugs, they don’t really mind if the shape of food is irregular. Furthermore, I got feedback from some people says that they even prefer to consume those “funny looking food” more than common ones. However, most suppliers didn’t realize that and they kept storing their imperfect shaped products away from consumers’ view. Could it relate to the way we educate our next generation? when urban kids being raised and all the images they see are like this: perfect, good looking, in specific colors or shapes. If they only see the pretty ones when they were young, then it may become the image of how food should look like in their mind. To solve this problem, I have to give kids something different to look at. I have to let people realize that irregular shape IS regular and they should expect to see them on suppliers’ shelves. I then moved my research to younger generations’ picture books.



Studying children, early education theory, habits and behaviors. Kids 2-4 years old Focus on details instead of the “big picture.” They can’t distinguish main elements of an interface from the details. Create a very clear visual distinction between interactive items and design extras. Can rank items by only one characteristic at a time (i.e., color, shape, and so on). 22

They get overwhelmed when there are too many variables competing for their attention. Pick a smallish set of easily identifiable elements (like colors) and use them consistently throughout your design. Can only see items on a screen in two dimensions, not three. Everything on a screen looks like it’s in a single, flat plane to them. Make your foreground items much clearer and more detailed than stuff in the background. You’ll want to make a realistic-looking interface, so these very literal-minded users understand, but it’s better to focus on using color and detail for foreground (important) elements and rely on simple shapes and muted colors for background (secondary) elements, instead of designing a fully realized environment. Are just learning to think abstractly. They are unable to understand icons and symbols that are second nature to adults. Use icons that are highly representative of the task you’re trying to communicate. Are starting to develop their own identity. They develop a sense of self at around age 2, complete with gender identity, which forms very early. Create a design that allows for gender identification without forcing kids down a specific gender path. 23


Kids 4–6: “The Muddy Middle” You’ll find that 4–6-year-olds have learned “the rules” for how to behave, how to communicate, and how to play. Now they’re looking for ways to bend and break these rules. They understand limitations—angry parents, broken toys, and sad friends have taught them well—but they still take every opportunity to test these limitations. 4–6 year-olds… Are empathetic: They’re beginning to see things from other perspectives. Have an intense curiosity about the world: They’re very interested in learning new ideas, activities, and skills, but may become frustrated when that learning takes longer than they would like. Are easily sidetracked: They sometimes have trouble following through on a task or activity. Keep activities simple, short, and rewarding. Provide feedback and encouragement after milestones. 24

Have wild imaginations: They prefer to create on their own rather than following strict instructions or step-by- step

Early Learning for

Every Child Today

A framework for Ontario early childhood settings

directions. Make “rules” for play/engagement as basic as possible. Are developing increased memory function: Can recall complex sequences of events just by watching someone perform them. Make it social: Presenting it in the first person. Speak directly to kids

Give and reinforcement: 4–6-year-olds have short Best Startfeedback Expert Panel on Early Learning • attention spans. January 2007 Limit distractions. : Break it up. Simple steps are better than fewer, longer ones.4–6s like finishing a step and moving to a new screen. Make it rewarding: Provide feedback after each piece of an activity is completed. Keep it free-form: Older kids will hang around and pay attention to directions if the perceived reward is high enough, but young ones abandon the site right away. (2014, Gelman)



The Differences Between Kids and Adults The differences are much more subtle and nuanced than people thought just a few years ago. When you are designing for adults—even when designing games for adults—the goal is to help them cross the finish line. When you are designing for children, the finish line is just a small part of the story. Here are some key differences to consider: -Challenge -Feedback -Trust -Change



Kids delight in challenge and conflict, regardless of their goals. Adults don’t. Toca Boca nails this concept with its Toca House. In this game, kids have to clean a rug by swiping a vacuum cleaner over it. Instead of making the dirt disappear after

a single swipe, the Toca Boca design team created a more challenging interaction, where the dirt fades slowly with each swipe. While this ongoing friction would drive adults nuts, kids love it. The added challenge makes the accomplishment more significant for kids, and also makes the app feel more exciting and fun. Conflict is important for adults, too, but at a more macro level. Conflict in movies and in games for adult audiences helps move the story along, but for kids, little micro-conflicts, like cleaning up a dirty rug, help them resolve their own inner conflicts. LEGO did an interesting study on “conflict play” where it determined that conflict helps “…youngsters develop skills such as: Predicting how others are likely to react to their behavior Controlling their own emotions Communicating clearly Seeing other people’s points of view Creatively resolving disagreements” Feedback



Kids love visual and auditory feedback whenever they do anything in a digital space. They like to be rewarded for everything they do. If you open any site or app that is designed for kids, you’ll see that every interaction produces some sort of response or reaction. On the other hand, adults like to get feedback at the point of success, or when they do something wrong. Unlike kids, adults tend to get annoyed when every movement of the mouse or every gesture on a mobile device results in a sound or animation.


Trust Kids are much more trusting than adults because they are unable to see or understand the ramifications of their actions ahead of time. This behavior continues through the teenage years, and it explains the risky behavior of teens both onand offline. As designers, you are responsible to protect your young users Change Kids change pretty quickly. Adults, on the other hand, are generally pretty consistent in terms of cognitive capacity, so they aren’t apt to change as frequently as children.

The Similarities Between Kids and Adults Consistency Purpose Surprise Lagniappe


SECONDARY RESEARCH: BOOK & KIDS Consistency When designing apps, make sure that your design patterns are consistent. Both kids and adults get annoyed by design elements that seem random and unnecessary. Children like items on a screen to do cool stuff as long as is controllable. Purpose Kids, like adults, need a reason to use a site or an app, and they need this reason to be evident right from the start. While kids will be more open to exploring and learning than adults, they’ll get bored quickly if they are not immediately engaged in the goals and purpose. For example, if it’s a game, will it be fun? If it’s a tool, what will it help them do or learn? They need to know what’s in it for them before they’re willing to fully engage. You have to communicate clearly what your app is and how it works before users have time to decide they’re not interested. Surprise Neither kids nor adults are particularly interested in being


surprised, or in having an experience deviate from how they expect it to work. No surprise, thanks. Lagniappe an “Easter egg”—both adults and kids enjoy these small, unexpected interactions that enhance their experience with a site or app. For example, Twitter’s mobile “pull down to refresh” option shows a nice little animation, letting users know their feed is being updated. If kids leave the Talking Carl app open for a few minutes without interacting with it, it sings softly to itself to get their attention. It’s important to note that there is a difference between a “surprise” and an “unexpected delight”. (2014, Gelman)



Tips for Children’s Books 1. Balance your childhood with that of the children you now know, don’t dumb the language and messaging down. 2. Do your homework, understand the key emotional triggers. 3. Know your audience(s), parents, teachers, friends, and relatives are buying. 4. Show and tell, convey messages through both words and pictures. 5. Keep writing, write all of one story then go back to the beginning and change it. 6. It is best to keep adult involvement in children’s novels to a minimum, allowing the protagonists to solve their problems without adult intervention. (2017, Canizares)


Tips for Children’s Books 1. Balance your childhood with that of the children you now know, don’t dumb the language and messaging down. 2. Do your homework, understand the key emotional triggers. 3. Know your audience(s), parents, teachers, friends, and relatives are buying. 4. Show and tell, convey messages through both words and pictures. 5. Keep writing, write all of one story then go back to the beginning and change it. 6. It is best to keep adult involvement in children’s novels to a minimum, allowing the protagonists to solve their problems without adult intervention. (2017, Canizares)



Award kids book & kids book about food Children’s preference on picture books: A Face-to-face conversation was more effective. I when to the library and observed the way how children chose their books and tried to find the common part. I also had a little talk with the parents about their children’s preference of book style or storyline. I can tell those children like various styles and storylines but there are some specific rules sharing among the most popular books. When they were asked to choose their own book, they didn’t judge every book by its cover then made the choice. They were attracted by some bright colored books and made their choices quite randomly. I also talked to the librarian and been noticed that the kids books categories are: babies(0~2), J+ fic(3~5), J fic easy(4~7) and J fic(7~12) (J=Juvenile) Since I was going to design for kids between 3-5, I mainly researched the J+ fic section. Including the Illustraion (Styles, tools, techniques, colors, characters, etc.), Storyline 34


PRIMARY RESEARCH: BOOK & KIDS (Text, Layout, Handwritten, Words range, Pages length, story simplexity and complexity, etc.) and others (Book size, binding techniques, paper quality, special interaction techniques(different material prints/smell book/touch book/ play book) and awards.) I read all the J+ books I found on the “Awarded� shelf and took notes of every storyline of them, just to see which complexity of story is the best suit for kids between 3-5. Futhermore, I looked into the kids book relate with food topic: both in book store and online. To my surpres, there is no precedents in the imperfect food area. Every pictures was illustrated with beautyful images of vegetables and fruits. The 36

mindset of “If it’s pretty, it’s better.” stil makes sense to many people. Because we are surrounded by all kinds of perfect images of food when we grow up. All the images they have seen: from books or TV commercials or magazines, most of those images were edited to display the most pretty side of food. Therefore, that was the kind of food people feel more familiar and have higher chance to purchase.

Conclusion I realized that the problem may not only about persuading people, no matter children or adults, to “be sustainable“ or “be eco-friendly“. This project should be the one let people realize the shopping habits they have and the choices they made. Let them know what leads to their habits and giving them new choices by showing “Different Looks“ of the imperfect foods on picture books.



Children(3~5) and Guardian

The reader targets at children between 3-5 years old, who are maybe too young to understand food waste, but haven’t built up their own standard of “perfect food” yet. In one case, their guardian read this book for them; In another case, the child read this book by him/herself. 38

In both cases, the imperfect food will have a higher chance to be noticed by the young readers and their parents. I wish this picture book can also arouse the conversation about food and food waste between children and parents.

When kids grow up and go grocery shopping, they will keep that in mind and make choice between perfect & imperfect food instead of going straight to the perfect ones.



Also, this book is designed for kids around 3-5 years old, which means most of the time, their parents are involved in the reading progress. By educating children, parents will also pay more attention to the daily choices they made during grocery shopping and keep that idea of imperfect food in mind more frequently. 40

Moreover, if this idea can be spread and really make different on consumption habit. Then the supplier notices once the customers are willing to accept imperfect food. The cosmetic standards of food will be lowed and relief the problem of surplus production and food waste, especially in developed countries.

Consumption -Less Picky


-Lower Cosmetic Standards

Production -Less Surplus






I started with character design of misshapen food cuz I want kids to like them so i have to make them cute enough. 44

I tried out some other illustration techniques rather than watercolor: Handcraft + photos can play a big part on this as well. I also tried to use food as raw drawing materials as well. (Such as beets juicy, tea and coffee grain). I also designed a few vegetables and food characters and settled the carrot with two legs as the main character.


DESIGN PROCESS: STORY DEVELOPMENT While the character design is still roughly finished, I started to develop the storyline of this book. Inspired by I Want My Hat Back, at first I wanted to make the story sounds catchy and black humor - but no, I realize this is for kids to read, not the parents. So I took the suggestion from lots of instructor & parents, removed the ending of having all the food be eaten.





By the beginning of this spring semester, I developed a rough story which can show every veggie and fruits' diversity while having their personality and an open ending without being eaten. I made a really rough storyboard and colored it. Somehow I was still not happy about it. Even though I have visited the kid's section at the library so many times and I have seen kids books with the rich story or some kids book with no story. Both of them are simple and nice but somehow I was stuck at the story part. So I decided to get back to the character development part.




At the beginning I was planning to have the story set first, then I can work on style and coloring the illustration. My original plan is to refine the illustration little by little since I cannot settle my story and I didn't have much time left. I pushed myself to illustrate all the veggies and fruits first, then I can arrange them later in the story. I also drew some eyes and mouths in separate layers so I can add and edit the faces at the very end if I need to change the story.


DESIGN PROCESS: STORY DEVELOPMENT With the feedback I got from the last experience, I refined the story with my new characters. I increase the plot, detailed illustration, riched the colors and tried to show more about the concept of food saving instead of just having fruits bumping around.


Then I got more feedback about I should make the typeface playful in illustrated style or hand scripts. I also tried to arrange the layout of the whole book to have the flow, the rhythms going on. I tried to be playful while still have the continuity. Also, I was told to refine the eyes and mouth so the style matches. Otherwise, they looked like they were floating on the surface of the food.



Storyline - final version To build empathy, I tried to make the readers feel sorry for our little carrot at the beginning of the story and I also make it clear in the end: looks don’t matter, even though everyone is different, they are all perfect. I also switched the conversation back and forth. Since it is common for kids book to have content going back and forth, repeating the same line “how to be a better carrot” is a bit too boring. Consider parents need to re-read the story over and over again before bedtime, making the storyline more catchy in changing ways saying things is reasonable. I have been to the writing center and asked help with my storyline and grammar. Thank you, Lucy Kinsella!




After all those days hard thinking, the title "How to Be a Perfect Carrot" came so naturally following the story. For types inside of the book, I use Century Gothic. Century Gothic is a type that not too blocky but bold and clear. It shows cuteness in a formal way, not too goofy. 56

AvantGarde How to Be a Perfect Carrot Bell Gothic How to Be a Perfect Carrot Rockwell How to Be a Perfect Carrot Franklin Gothic How to Be a Perfect Carrot Ubuntu How to Be a Perfect Carrot Berlin Sans FB How to Be a Perfect Carrot Century Gothic How to Be a Perfect Carrot Cooper Black How to Be a Perfect Carrot 57


I used cooper black instead of hand script because the illustration style is not rough anymore. I also kerned the title really hard so it looks more intense.



Background & Layout I tested the background style: without shadow, with shadow, single layered color, and multi-layered color. I have to say, since the illustration style is rich and the shape is in-depth, white background creates the highest contrast and has the most legibility for kids to read. I have also tested to see if the eyes are necessary for my characters, turns out the readers really need an “eye contact� to focus on the story. Without emotion, the story is getting too plain.








Cover Design The design of cover didn't start until the storyline finished. The flora background was a pure decor, I changed it into a thinking bubble to match the theme perfectly also increase the legibility. I also designed the version with fingers pointing at our sad little carrot to increase empathy. But I was stuck on the way to decided the skin tone. I didn't go with that design also because there are no human shows elsewhere in this story. I also tested out the background color in different tones and chosen orange because orange still matches the best.


DESIGN PROCESS: EXHIBITION DESIGN For takeaways at the exhibition, I designed pins, bookmarks, and stickers. Although people may prefer pins without too many ad information, I think it is still important to have my website on it at lease. Since I am pretty sure when they google "how to be a perfect cucumber", my site will not pop out in the first line. I have contacted the factory in China but printing stickers in small amount are pretty expensive. Besides, they last way shorter than pins and bookmarks so I decided to only do pins and bookmarks.


Luckily, for the exhibition, I got a corner, which are two walls to put on my design. On one hand, I want to keep everything stay minimized, on the other hand, I want to have a super eye-catchy exhibition with lots of stuff. I think I will go with the minimized style since we are all presenting together in different styles. 67



The bindery of this book is regular hardcover bind over good quality full-colored paper instead of the board book with round corners. Since due my research shows most board books are for babies under 2 years old. In the story you can tell, the carrot’s mood is really down from the beginning, and graduating becoming better represented by its “tail�. The very first and very last page also respond to each other our little carrots find new friends!














How to Be a Perfect Carrot gears towards children and parents to bring attention to the produce left behind because of the unsustainable cosmetic standards in our food industry. In Canada, 40% of the food is never eaten, costing about $27 billion per year. This means all the non-renewable resources used to grow the food — water, topsoil, fuel, manpower — are wasted as well. Arguably, a large part of the waste could be avoided if consumers were willing to eat some ugly produce. In an urban city like Vancouver, we have a high expectation for food to be blemish-free. The mindset of "If it's pretty, it's better." is closely related to the perfect but unrealistic food images that surround us. To focus on this problem, I wrote a kid’s book with all kinds of imperfect, lumpy, misshapen veggies and fruits.The young readers and their parents will have a chance to discuss food waste and peek into the reality of the diversity of our produce. In How to Be a Perfect Carrot, on a journey of self-discovery, our little carrot meets other oddly shaped veggies and fruits and learns the importance of accepting our differences… even the bumpiest berries are sweet!


Conclusions Start from the second year at Emily Carr, I already started my research on food waste. It was not an easy task to repeat the same topic over and over again. I would say it was my interest in food kept my passion alive. Food waste problem is deep, and also easy. Sometimes it's only about personal habits, even just the attitude of food. I believe food represents something else, such as the most primitive representative of happiness and satisfying, which are something people nowadays don't treasure anymore. Food is cheap, and people do not cherish something easily obtained. In this case, I have to add up some other values in food and to lead people to think differently. In this project "How to Be a Perfect Carrot", I added personality and soul to each character. I wish people feel sad about the thrown misshapen food one day. My expectation of this project in the future is to promote it through the internet. I have contacted a few international


and local food saving organization to see if they can help me with promoting this book. Paper book is hard to spread even being published. Although I will contact local publishers I would love to have a digital version of this book with sounds and animations. I understood screen is not the best media to study for kids, but I believe the digital media will help my wish spread to a wider place.


Bibliography Phillips, C., Hoenigman, R., Higbee, B., & Reed, T. (2013). Understanding theSustainability of Retail Food Recovery. Plos ONE, 8(10), 1-9 doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0075530 Metro Vancouver. (2015). Food Recovery and Organics Processing Demonstration Project. Retrieved from http:// www. solid-waste/SolidWastePublications/ FoodRecoveryOrganicsProcessing-DemonstrationProject.pdf FAO. (2015). FAO Statistical Pocketbook 2015. Retrieved from http:// www.fao. org/3/a-i4691e.pdf 10154427926559249. “Innovative Ways Companies Are Repurposing Richardson, Phyllis. Designed for Kids: a Complete Sourcebook of Stylish Products for the Modern Family. Thames & Hudson, 2008. Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica, et al. “Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action.” MDPI, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 26 May 2015,


Bilow, Rochelle. “Are the Beauty Standards for Fruits & Vegetables Unfair?” Bon Appetit, Bon AppÉTit, 29 July 2014, entertaining-style/trends-news/article/fruit-vegetable-beauty-standards. Oostindjer, Marije. “Project Description.” Project Description | Norges Miljø- Og BiovitenskapeligeUniversitet, 16 Oct. 2014, description. “Querfeld | Wir Liefern Natürliche Vielfalt.” Querfeld Startseite, www. querfeld. bio/. Lupton, Ellen. Indie Publishing: How to Design & Publish Your Own Book. Princeton Architectural Press, 2008. Galindo, Michelle. Kids’ Design. Braun, 2014. Canizares, Milena. “5 Tips for Children’s Books.” Blurb Blog, 13 Oct. 2017, www. Gelman, Debra Levin. Design for Kids: Digital Products for Playing and Learning. Rosenfeld Media, 2014.

“Early Childhood Development & Learning.� Children's Defense Fund, earlychildhood/. Richardson, Phyllis. Designed for Kids: a Complete Sourcebook of Stylish Products for the Modern Family. Thames & Hudson, 2008. Gelman, Debra Levin. Design for Kids: Digital Products for Playing and Learning. Rosenfeld Media, 2014. Galindo, Michelle, et al. Kids' Design. Braun, 2014.

This is the last process book I do at Emily Carr University. Thank you so much for your help, everyone. It was such a fortune to have you around and the time we passed will be the best memory of my life. Wish you the best in your life, and hope we see each other in the future. Goodbye.

Mulcahey, Christine. The Story in the Picture: Inquiry and Artmaking with Young Children. Teachers College Press, 2009. Jackman, Hilda L. Early Education Curriculum: a Child's Connection to the World. Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2012.


How to Be a Perfect Carrot - Process Book - Mandy Yu Hui  

This Project gears towards children and parents to bring attention to the produce left behind because of the unsustainable cosmetic standard...

How to Be a Perfect Carrot - Process Book - Mandy Yu Hui  

This Project gears towards children and parents to bring attention to the produce left behind because of the unsustainable cosmetic standard...