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Response to Intervention Series Module 2: Creating the Framework

Alice Stabiner & Liz Irwin

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Purpose/Process/Payoff Purpose: p Review RTI overview Review to key types of assessment Di Discuss three h kkey steps: Building consensus Creating the infrastructure Implementation Case Study Process: Discussion, Reflection, Fish Bowl, Case study AUSSIE 2010


Payoff Leave the session with further understanding of structures and organization needed to underpin strong Response to Intervention foundations

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Protocols • Adopt a sense of responsibility for the group as a community of learners • One person at a time talking so as to keep the meaning • Attend to and listen to others • Accept where others are at • Suspend p jjudgement g • Allow and give no putdowns • Common signal for gaining AUSSIE 2010 everyone’s attention


Parking Lot Any questions you have today today, write them on a post-it and “park” them in the “parking lot” during the session and they will be lot addressed at the end of each session

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Icebreaker

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ABC’s ABC s of Team Work

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RTI Diagram An Overview of the Three Tiered Model of RTI The th Th three titiered d model d l iis th the mostt common RTI d design. i A titiered d model d l iis an effective design to offer instructional support at increasing levels of intensity according to student need, and with specific features.

Tier 1: Universal or General Education •About 80% •All students •Flexible grouping and differentiated instruction Tier 2: Targeted or Supplemental •10 to 15 % •Small group not to exceed five •One thirty minute daily session

Tier 3: Strategic or Intensive 5 to 10 % 2010 not to exceed three Individualized or veryAUSSIE small group Two thirty minute daily sessions


New York State Model Tier lll

Core Instruction + Customized Intervention

Tertiary intervention intended for about 1-5% of students who are not responding to instruction at Tiers 1 & 2

Tier ll

Core Instruction + Supplemental Intervention Secondary Intervention intended for 10-15% off students t d t who h are nott making ki adequate d t progress with core instruction at Tier 1

Tier l

Core Instruction + Customized Intervention Core instruction or primary intervention intended for all students in the general education classroom

Effective July 1, 2012, all school districts in NYS must have an Rti program in place as part of its evaluation process to determine if a student in grades K-4 is a student with a learning disability in the area of reading. (NYSED, 2009)

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From: PPT Hervey, S. (Chief Academic Officer, AUSSIE


Two main types of assessment in i an RTI model d l • U Universal i l Screening: S i school-wide h l id overview of student need related to grade l level l and d di district t i t goals. l S Screening i nott detailed enough to tell us what to teach-can only l suggestt who h may need d additional dditi l support beyond Tier 1 • Progress Monitoring: occurs throughout intervention with role of guiding instruction AUSSIE 2010


Universal Screening • Occurs at key points points, three times year • Often referred to as a benchmark at beginning of year year-first first view of overall achievement • Mid year and d fifinall checkpoint h k i th help l teachers assess impact of instruction • Ensure multi-angle view of screening AUSSIE 2010


Developing RTI Assessment Inclusive Wh l School Whole S h l Assessment A t Frameworks 1. Developing a Visual Model of Assessment NonNegotiables based on Principles of Effective Assessment p of Balanced Whole School Assessment 2. Development Framework- ascertaining current systemic and schoolbased assessment 3. Teacher-led Development of Bottom-Line Assessment Expectations for f each grade level (for (f each marking period) 4. Alignment of RTI Assessment (Universal Screening and P Progress M it i ) with Monitoring) ith Wh Whole l S School h lA Assessmentt Framework

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1. Developing a Visual Model of Assessment NonNegotiables based on Principles of Effective Assessment: eg Whole School S Balanced Math Assessment Model 2. Portfolio Tasks Open-Response/ Exemplars

3. Progress/ Simulated Tests: Checking

1.Teacher Assess’t: Ongoing Observations & Conferencing

Standardsb based d Rubric

Data Driven Instruction & Intervention

Š 2008 AUSSIE Inc. All rights reserved

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Progress, State Simulated Tests

SelfAssessment


2. Teacher-led Development of a Whole School Assessment Framework G d K Grade

G d 1 Grade

G d 2 Grade

Reading: Systemic D t Data Reading: Internal Data Writing: Systemic Data Writing: I t Internal l data Math: Systemic Data Math: Internal data

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G d 3 Grade

G d 4 Grade

G d 5 Grade


3. Teacher-owned and led development of Yearly Overview of Assessment: Bottom-Line Expectations

Grade_____ _____

First M ki Marking Period

Second M ki Marking Period

Internal Assessment O Ongoing i Observations Ob ti Internal Assessment: Formative Authentic OpenEnded Tasks Internal Assessment: Unit/ Checking Progress Tests Internal Assessment: Self Assessments Systemic Assessments AUSSIE 2010

Third M ki Marking Period

Fourth M ki Marking Period


Grades: __________

Coree Co Curriculum

Phonemic Awareness

Word Identification

□Accuracy □Rate Expression

□Phonics □Spelling □Structural Analysis

Fluency

Vocabulary

Comprehension

Writing

□Accuracy □R t □Rate □Expression □Self Monitoring

□Word l learning i strategies □Breadth of vocabulary

□Fiction □N Fi ti □Non-Fiction □Reading Strategies □Breadth of Rdg

□Habits of □St t □Structures off Lang □Conventions oGrammar oSpelling

UNIVERSAL SCREENING

ALL KIDS

CLASSROOM PROGRESS MONITORING Targeted/ Strategic Interventions

DIAGNOSTIC

SOME KIDS

INTERVENTION/PROGRESS MONITORING

Intensive Interventions FEW KIDS

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INTERVENTION/PROGRESS MONITORING

Writing Genres □Response to Lit □Report Writing □Procedural □Narrative □Persuasive (6+)


Grades: __________

Phonemic Awareness

Word Identification

□Accuracy □Rate Expression

□Phonics □Spelling □Structural Analysis

Core Curriculum

Vocabulary

Comprehension

Writing

□Accuracyy □Rate □Expression □Self Monitoring

□Word learning strategies □Breadth of vocabulary

□Fiction □Non Fiction □Reading Strategies □Breadth of Rdg

□Habits of □Structures of Lang □Conventions

Running Records Developmental Spelling Inventory

ALL KIDS

Targeted/ Strategic Interventions

Fluency

Phonemic Awareness Test

Comprehension Rubric

Oral Reading Fluency – Aimsweb

SOME KIDS

Intensive Interventions

Oral Reading Fluency – Aimsweb

FEW KIDS

Adapted from RI “Response to Intervention”

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oGrammar oSpelling

Writing Genres □Response to Lit □Report Writing □Procedural □Narrative □Persuasive


Reflect for a moment‌..

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How might this illustration represent how things work with regards g meeting g the needs of all students in schools?"

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Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a2DXXoenAg&feature=related

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Creating the Framework

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Managing Change: A Diagnostic Model (See Handout)

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Where is your school in terms off thi this diagnostic di ti model? d l?

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RTI: Plan of Action

A. Consensus Building

B. Infrastructure Support

C. Implementation

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Process of Systems Change • “Until, and unless, consensus (understanding the need and trusting in the support) is reached, no support will exist to establish the infrastructure. Until, Until and unless, the infrastructure is in place, implementation will not take place • A fatal flaw is to attempt implementation without consensus and infrastructure • Leadership must come from state, district and building level” (Howard) AUSSIE 2010


RTI: What Are the Desired Outcomes off a Successful S f l School S h l Plan? Pl ? • Support for individuals experiencing the change • Professional development p to p provide the needed knowledge and skills • Building level leadership (shared leadership) • Efficient structures for ongoing data collection, analysis, and decision making • Effective system of instruction to meet the needs of all students • Improved I d achievement hi t and d outcomes t ffor AUSSIE 2010 students


A. Consensus Building

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A. Consensus Building "Take Take time for team building. It is critical to include general and special education staff in the discussion and db build ild consensus and clear expectations of what RTI is and how it will be implemented." p AUSSIE 2010


Consensus Building ¾Beliefs are shared and agreed upon ¾Vision statement exists ¾RtI and PS are understood ¾Implementation requirements are understood ¾Leadership is provided by the principal and key school staff

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What beliefs about RTI do you think need to be shared y with staff during this “consensus building� time?

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What Beliefs Should Be Shared? • RtI/PS is a General Education Initiative,, not primarily a Special Education initiative. • Improving the effectiveness of core instruction is b i to this basic hi process • NO Child Left Behind Really Means “NO”; Meeting AYP through RtI! • Assessment (data) should both inform and evaluate e a uate the t e impact pact of o instruction st uct o • Beliefs must be supported by research

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Beliefs (cont.) • There is a shared responsibility for student achievement across the entire school community. community • Parents are vital members of the team to support students students.

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A. Consensus Building: g School

1. Coordinate with network – This assumes consensus building work and analysis h b has been d done att tteam llevell as wellll

2. Provide information to school staff/information sharing – – – –

Why RtI What is it? Benefits of RtI What will it take?

3 Id 3. Identify tif th the consensus llevell among staff that is necessary for implementing RtI – What % of agreement is 2010 needed? AUSSIE


A. Consensus Building: School 4. Determine next steps – –

If consensus has been reached, form RTI team and begin to plan If consensus has not not, continue activities to build consensus among staff

5. Plan to support change initiative – – – – – –

Align with building vision, values, mission Conduct current reality audit and analyze Conduct assessment audit Set goals Identify elements of change process Plan for ongoing g g communication AUSSIE 2010


T Two Minute Mi t Personal P l Reflection Looking at these five steps in consensus building what will be the major areas of building, consideration for your school in building consensus?

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RTI Checklist

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B. Creating the Infrastructure

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B. RTI Infrastructure C Considerations id i 1 Establish RTI School Team (Mellard and 1. Johnson, 2008) and processes/protocols f operation for ti General Functions : to discuss students who are struggling, help design intervention plans, and to meet as needed to reevaluate and assess the effectiveness of the interventions AUSSIE 2010


Building and Choosing an RTI Team

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Who are the possible team members you would include on your school’s “Response to Intervention” team? Intervention

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Political and Human Resources Ch i Choices Need to use the political as well as human resources frame of Bolman and Deal’s “Four Frames” when Frames choosing RTI members AUSSIE 2010


Team Roles • Role of Principal • Role of Team Recorder • Role of P ti i Participants t • Role of Facilitator • Role of Case Manager g • Role of Parent AUSSIE 2010


Characteristics of RTI Team: * Share commitment to RTI * Knowledgeable about RTI process • Know how to read and interpret data in light of effective learning and teaching • Ability to communicate- listen to others as well as express opinions, respectful of differences in learning by allll tteam members b • Possible RTI Team Members, Team member ( ) collaboration checklist (Handout) • Supplemental teams- Grade level team, IST, Child Study Team, Literacy team, Content Area team- act as consultants to RTI team AUSSIE 2010


RTI Initial Team Meeting Guide At your table table, highlight the sample questions for each step of the meeting process. process * With thi this iinformation, f ti what h t will ill you h have tto consider when forming your RTI team?

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Creating the Infrastructure Brainstorm all the other infrastructure considerations that your school sees as necessary to the successful implementation of RTI AUSSIE 2010


B.

RTI Infrastructures

2. Select the most appropriate pp p tools for universal screening and progress monitoring- look at existing whole school assessment frameworks and review/revise/adjust j 3. Conduct audit of current interventions 4. Consider research-based academic and b h i l programs behavioral 5. Establish forms, processes and paperwork“Simplify S p y Rule� ue (Request for Intervention form, Intervention plan form, parent letter-Handout) AUSSIE 2010


5. Professional Development What sort of professional development do you think will be necessary for general education teachers?

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B. RTI Infrastructures 5. Professional Development: p “Everyone needs training” (Applebaum, 2009) General education teachers: * *essential ti l th they kknow h how tto diff differentiate ti t iinstruction t ti tto accommodate such diverse learners • need training in -implementation procedures, -universal screening, - effective data collection, collection - progress monitoring, and g - instructional interventions and strategies AUSSIE 2010


B. RTI Infrastructures • Need to learn how to use assessment instruments and practice collecting and translating data f progress through for th h effective instruction

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RTI Infrastructures 5. Professional Development (cont 5 (cont’d) d) • Consideration of specific training needs of specialist support staff

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B.

RTI Infrastructures

6. Scheduling g time for data collection ((Universal Screening g and Progress Monitoring) and analysis (building this within existing Whole School Assessment Frameworks)) 7. Establishing structures to inform all school personnel of RTI- workshops, professional development sessions 8 Establishing structures to support general education 8. teachers in the process (handout) 9. Establishing structures to inform parents and family members b off RTI (handout(h d t letters, l tt newsletter l tt articles) ti l ) 10. Resources and materials 11. Budgeting time and money AUSSIE 2010


C: Implementation: S h l School

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Whatt do Wh d I have h to t consider at the implementation level? AUSSIE 2010


C. Implementation: p School 1. Develop an action plan for implementation 2 Establish RTI team and processes 2. 3. Provide professional development and ongoing supports pp to those conducting g assessments and those providing instruction p logistics g of assessments and 4. Implement periodic data analysis 5. Implement logistics of core, supplemental and intensive instruction 6. Monitor implementation of i t ti /i t instruction/intervention-RTI ti RTI team t 7. Adjust as needed AUSSIE 2010


Case Study • Every table will receive a case study study. • Please read the background and general scenario. scenario

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Fish Bowl • One person from each table will come into the fish bowl and will be given a role to p as an RTI team member. The Fish adopt Bowl will act out the RTI meeting discussing the case study. • Observers looking into the Fish Bowl will record what they see happening at the RTI meeting ti on the th Fish Fi h B Bowll Ob Observation ti template AUSSIE 2010


Feedback * At your table table, discuss what you saw happening during this RTI meeting- use description not evaluation description, * Brainstorm: -what h t other th processes could ld h have b been used -next steps for this team and for the school regarding this child’s progress AUSSIE 2010


Facets of High Quality D il Instruction Daily I i Ongoing Assessment

Differentiated Instruction

High-quality Hi h lit curriculum

Targeted Support

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Ongoing Assessment


“Theory of Action” Planning as S h l Teams School T • Take your Theory of Action Plan out out. • L Look k att your school’s h l’ needs d iin each h phase h eg. Consensus Building, Creating the I f t t Infrastructure, Implementation I l t ti • Discuss needs

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Module 2 Part B

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Concerns that warrant attention i • Program g that p position the five p pillars as equal q and exclusive • Program that consistently teach one component i isolation in i l i • Programs that emphasize teaching phonics in isolation • Programs with questionable research support • Program considered effective based on popularity rather than research

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Problem Solving Process Define the Problem Defining Problem/Directly Measuring Behavior

Evaluate

Problem Analysis

Response to Intervention (RtI)

Validating Problem Ident Variables that Contribute to Problem Develop Plan

Implement Plan Implement As Intended Progress AUSSIEMonitor 2010 Modify as Necessary


Problem Solving • A process that uses the skills of professionals from different disciplines to develop and evaluate intervention plans that improve significantly the school performance of students

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Problem-Solving: What It Is and Is Not • What it is…. – A process designed to maximize student achievement – A method focused on outcomes – A method to ensure accountability and intervention evaluation – It is all about student progress, progress regardless of where or who that student is • What it is not… – A way to avoid special education placements – A less expensive way of schooling AUSSIE 2010


Case StudyStudy Current Reality * Problem of Practice being investigatedinvestigated “Only 57% of students achieving on Grades 3 4 5 State Literacy test” 3,4,5 test . • Last five years, has not increased substantially b t ti ll iin spite it off a wide id variety i t off interventions • Large ELL population y Audit • Current Reality AUSSIE 2010


Collecting the data What Literacy strategies and interventions do you see in classrooms and within other forms of intervention? I what In h t ways do d tteachers h teach t h literacy lit strategies- in classrooms and within other f forms off intervention? i t ti ?

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Case Study • At your table table, read through the case study data gathered during the audit of current practices and policies Note data is: * about the instructional core core, * related to the problem of practice AUSSIE 2010


Case Study What questions does this data create for you? What discrepancies between theories of action ti d do you question? ti ? What practices do you query? AUSSIE 2010


Case Study With this theoryy of RTI, do you y have anyy further questions about the case study? Reflect on your own school school’s s Literacy interventions… What q questions do yyou want to investigate? g Consider the teachers in your building. • How many of your classroom teachers are expert teachers of reading? • How many of your intervention teachers are expert p teachers of reading? g AUSSIE 2010


The Case of Carlos • Carlos is a 9 year old, 3rd grade student. He was retained in 3rd grade after achieving a Level 1 in reading on the ELA test. Carlos is bilingual, is the oldest of 6 children,and reads Spanish at the same level as English (beginning 2nd grade level). His fluency rate is 40 wpm and that of his peers is 80 wpm. His parents speak only Spanish. p His teacher states that in the p past 2 months,, Carlos does not participate, completes little or no written work and has significant absences. His teacher wants Carlos to participate in verbal activities (reading (reading, group instruction), improve his reading fluency and to complete 70% of his written assignments. AUSSIE 2010


The Case of Carlos What would we want to know or do first? Thi k off the Think th problem bl solving l i model…… d l

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Problem Solving Process Define the Problem Defining Problem/Directly Measuring Behavior

Evaluate

Problem Analysis

Response to Intervention (RtI)

Validating Problem Ident Variables that Contribute to Problem Develop Plan

Implement Plan Implement As Intended Progress AUSSIEMonitor 2010 Modify as Necessary


Facilitating the Process: Pre-Meeting • Review teacher request materials • Ensure duplication and dissemination of materials-1week t i l 1 k prior i tto meeting ti d date t • Review upcoming process with teacher-answer questions • Review data sources with teacher • Select invitees • Prepare for meeting AUSSIE 2010


Facilitating the Meeting • • • • • • • • •

Introductions Review Steps in the Process Re-State Vision/Purpose of Meeting Problem Identification Problem Analysis Plan Development Plan Implementation p Plan Evaluation Follow-up

Refer “Initial Meeting Companion Guide” handout for process

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Priority Setting • Prioritize multiple replacement behaviors • Criterion for prioritizationacademic/behavioral/social stability • Consensus

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Replacement Behaviors State specifically p y what yyou want the student to do (developing set of sub-skill goals) • Example: Be able to make meaningful attempts at unknown words • Example: Remain on-task for 7 minutes • Example: Use words instead of fists when teased

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Expectations Example • • • • • • • • • • • •

Third Grade 3.0 Working at Mid-First Grade Level 1.5 1.5 years behind Rate of Progress .5/year 5/year Intervention Doubles Progress 1.0/year In three years (6th grade), grade) student will be at at….. 4.5 How far behind? 1.5!!! Who’s HAPPY with this one?

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Setting Expectations4 Steps • • • •

Current Level of Functioning Desired Level of Functioning First Intermediate Step Consensus

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Problem Analysis • Wh Why iis problem bl occurring? i ? PBS lilink. k • Facilitate Problem Analysis – Skill vs performance – Hypotheses: Curriculum/Teacher/Peers/Classroom Env/Home-Community – Which ones supported by data? – Prioritize Note: Specific Hypotheses Important-must lead to interventions. Reinforce data link AUSSIE 2010


What Would We Want to Know/Do First? Hi t Tier Hint: Ti 1/Tier 1/Ti 2 • Determine if the student was in an “effective” learning environment. • Determine D i if there h h had db been iinterrupted d access to the curriculum (e.g., absences) • Increase I time ti and d ffocus in i weakk areas. • Monitor progress frequently and track rate of improvement. improvement

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The best way to get a good idea is to get a lot of ideas. -Linus Pauling

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Hypotheses • Teacher – Supervision – Teaching style – Discipline style – Beliefs about child child, family family, etc etc. – Movement – Teacher T h Bx: B fatigue, f ti etc. t

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Hypotheses • Curriculum – Too easy – Too difficult – Irrelevant – Format issues: cloze, cloze matching, matching writing, writing fill in the blank, etc.

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Hypotheses • School/Classroom Environment – Seating – Noise – Movement – Rules – Schedule, or lack of one

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Hypotheses • Family/Home – Beliefs about school, levels of support – Values regarding behavior, goals – Parenting style – Familyy stress – Marital stress – Etc.

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Assessment: How Do We Confirm Hypothesis? • • • • •

Review Interview Observe-progress monitoring Test-progress monitoring Self- monitoring, rating

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Allocation of Resources • Cannot do something different the same way as in the past • StudentStudent or problem problem-based based problem solving • Academic A d i engaged d titime criterion it i • All or some of the available resources

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Next Steps

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“Theory of Action” Planning as S h l Teams School T • Refer again to your Theory of Action Plan • Relook at your school’s needs in each phase eg eg. Consensus Building Building, Creating the Infrastructure, Implementation • Within Withi each h off th these phases, h what h t are your goals and plans?

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Evaluation

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Between Modules • Readings • Theory of Action Plan • Complete assessment audit and development of whole school yearly assessment framework • Conduct and analyze intervention audit/ inventory • Develop plans/processes for formation of RTI team AUSSIE 2010

RTI Module 2 Creating the Framework  

RTI Module 2 Creating the Framework