Issuu on Google+

Urban Incarnations: Adaptive Re-use of Derelict Mill Lands in Mumbai, India.

Central Mumbai through a broken window in Madhusudan Mills,photograph by Anarchytecture’s photostream on flickr

Report By Rucha Mandlik - Fall 2009


introduction Sustainability

Adaptive Re-use

The term ‘sustainability’ is fairly ambiguous. It has a number of contextual meanings. In an ecological context, sustainability can be defined as an ability of an ecosystem to maintain ecological processes, functions, biodiversity and productivity into the future. In a cultural aspect, it is about preserving and fostering the inherent culture and traditions. In its social aspect, sustainability is related to the economic, intellectual and physical well being of the society, and when it comes to design, planning and architecture, the term tries to pull all the aspects together.1

Adaptive reuse is the process of adapting old structures for new purposes. It is the process that harnesses the energy and quality of the original building, and combines with the new energy and activity that the new use brings.2

Use of local materials in buildings, incorporation of bioclimatic design ideas, water & energy efficient structures, vernacular design strategies, walkable communities, adaptive re-use are some of the few techniques discussed so far. Each of the above strategy has its own limitation. However, combination of number of techniques used in appropriate ways will result in designs that are more sustainable. Perhaps the concept of adaptivereuse coupled with other strategies can turn out be a vaiable soultion in coming decades.

The concept of adaptive re-use is now considered all around the world where older buildings from the Industrial Revolution, Colonial Era are available. Creative re-use of a older or historic building not only gives a new life for the building but it also fosters community development. Along with reconditiong the old structure, it helps in urban revitalization.

The balance between the existing and the new use is variable dependent upon character, condition and the needs of the user. The success of a re-use project depends on the perfect harmony that is achieved by the celebration of both the uses of a building.

Historic entrance and Captain Cook Wing of the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney photograph by Max Dupain

1


Case tudies Re-use in Urban context An urban culture is a result of human development and one of the peaks of its achievements. Old districts in a city or a town are not just precious structures belonging to the history of the city but they are also an important element of city’s urban and socail fabric. They are many times an essential part of the ‘image’ of a city for its people. Therefore, it is necessary to conserve and respect historic districts and structures. The implementation of new uses and designs for old urban areas should be handelled carefully in order to achieve a sucessful adaptation. The intent of ‘what to preserve’ should be clear and focused. Such an urban ‘incarnation’ should facilitale the local public and benefit the society and the city in a wider perspective. A number of successful urban adaptive re-use projects are observed around the world. A case study of some of these projects represent a wide array of land and building (re) use, historic contexts, ecological principles & urban as well as community revival.

1

Lowell National Historic Park, Lowell, Massachusetts

Lowell National HIstoric Park is the oldest park urban national park in the United States. Lowell was an important mill town in 1820s. This textile manufacturing center was designed with ample green space and dormitories for mill workers. With the decline of textile manufacturing industry in 1820s, most prt of this district was in ruins. In 1978 the site was declared as a national historic park and in 1980s mill buildings were restored and converted into mill museums. Restoration and revitalization of waterfronts and canals was also done.

2

Mill Ruins Park, Minneapolis, Minnesota

In its 19th-century heyday (1859s-1890s),the Saint Anthony Falls Historic Mill disctrict in Minneapolis comprised the largest direct-drive water-powered facility in the world and was the leading international producer of flour. A number of years after its decline the site was declared as a National Historic Park. Development of the park happened in phases from 2000 to 2005. Some of the original mill buildings were converted into condomoniums and offices. The rest of the park consists of a restored water canal and the remains of several flour mills and other industrial buildings. The park combines an exploration of the history of Minneapolis with present day activities for all ages.

3

Presidio of San Francisco, San Francisco, California

Presidio of San Francisco was originally a Spanish military center in 1776. After it was passed to the US government, it was transferred to National Park Service. After 219 years of military use, the land was converted into commercial and public use. The park has a large network of around 800 buildings, many of them historical. By 2004 about 50% of the buildings on park grounds were restored and partially remodeled. Today the presidio is a hub for offices, retial shops and tourist places along with a museum and the Bay School of San Francisco.

2


case studies Advantages of Industrial Buildings for Adaptive Re-use Incorporating new uses within a historic framework is complex.3 Therefore, while considering new uses for them it is important to understand the nature of those buildings and districts as well as the possible consequences on the urban scale. However, in most cases the revival of old and abandoned industrial blocks has only enlightened the urban district as a whole. (e.g. LoDo District, Denver, Lowell National Historic Park) This is because these structures are historically, culturally and socially woven into the local urban fabric. Adaptive re-use of these structures is not only an economically viable solution for urban revival but it is also the best move towards an ecological and sustainable redevelopment. In addition, industrial buildings are best suited for civic and public uses like, a musem, hotel, offices, retail & market spaces, theater (e.g. John Vollum Capital Center, Portland) as well as residences. Mill buildings are especially highly adaptable. Their short spans, masonry construction, ornate detailing, and large windows results in naturally lit interiors withunique features. In addition, the vernacular craftsmanship of historic industrial buildings is of a higher quality than most current construction.4

4 Lo Do District, Denver, Colorado

Lo Do District or Lower Downtown Disctrict was the original downtown of Denver City established in 1850s. However in 1960s, 20% of the buildings in the area were demolished. With the intention of encouraging the preservation and vitality of this historically, architecturally and economincally vaulable area, Lo Do was declared as a Historic District in 1988. Soon after, a number of buildings were restored and reused in the district. Lo Do District Inc. still continues to keep Denver’s past as a vital and positive force in its present and future by preserving the history, culture and community of the district.

5 Jean Vollum Natural Capital Center, Portland, Oregon

The building is a part of Portland’s revitalized Pearl District, a pioneer in green urban design. It served as an armory & a warehouse before it was reused for public events and other celebrations. The Portland Center Stage theater company had been looking for a new space with a more intimate feel and recognized the potential of this single-room, near-windowless space at the heart of an re-emerging downtown district. The organization took the challenge of green adaptive re-use and now it is one of the influential building in downtown Portland. The armory project is a part of five-block Brewery Blocks project, which turned out to be a successful urban redevelopment project in Portland.

6 St. Agustine, Florida

St. Agustine in Florida is the oldest European city in the United States. It was the spanish center of power in North America for nearly 200 years. The heart of St. Augustine retains the distinctive plan of a 16th century Spanish Colonial walled town, much of which has been restored. A number of buildings in the city were re-used for civic purposes. Today the historic city of St. Augustine has become a center of colonial Spanish culture and an favorite destination for travelers from all parts of the world.

3


A Case for Mumbai Introduction According to the.....Most of the global population in coming years is expected to be ‘urban’ and is estimated to grow in the‘developing’ world. In this context, the idea of sustainable revitalization and adaptive re-use of downtowns districts in the developing cities of the world becomes crucial.

amalgamation of 7 separate islands mahim

sion

worli parel maharashtra mazgaon malabar hill

These cities are already facing some of the major environmental problems like deforestation, resource degradation, increased natural disasters, destruction of biodiversity, waste generation & air, water & land pollution. 70% of the air pollution in Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia is caused by traffic.1 The city of Mumbai in India was originally surrounded by 5000 acres of mangrove swamps. Of these, the city has lost almost 40% to reclamation of land for construction and developmental projects. However, these cities hold the best chance for a sustainable future and the strength lies in concentration of settlements and economies with effective urban planning. In case of Mumbai, a golden opportunity to revive its inner core lies in front of it in the form of its historical and abundant mill lands in central district of the city. What is done with this chunk of land will majorly direct the future urban development of Mumbai.

colaba

arabian sea

Early Map of Mumbai

Mumbai

bay of bengal

Map of India

Mumbai is the capital of Indian state, Maharashtra, on the western coast. The globe above shows the location of India in the World and the map of India on the left identifies the state of Maharashtra.

south Mumbai in 1970s

Mumbai is the biggest metropolis in India. It is the economic capital of the country and a city that attracts thousands of migrants from rest of India. It is growing in size from early 18th century, when the British amalgamated seven closely spaced islands: Colaba, Malbar Hill, Worli, Mazgaon, Parel, Mahim & Sion. Land reclamation continued, closing the numerous creeks and bays that once flowed into the island. This physical growth of the city encouraged a tremendous increase in trade & business and hence the economy. It offered employment and educational opportunities for millions. Soon, Mumbai became the most influential city and a financial, commercial and entertainment center of India. Today Mumbai has a total population of 19 million with a density of 22,000 people per square kilometers. It spans a total area of 603 sq km (233 sq mi) with a total coastal length of 180 km (112 mi)

4


Mumbai: Urban Issues Urban Issues Sanjay Gandhi National Park

Park’s shrinking boundaries

Suburban Mumbai consists of a national park that is 1/6th (104 sq km) the total area of the city. Apart from a number of green open spaces in Island city, this park acts as the only breathing lung for entire city. Lack of land has pushed the urban development to the periphery of the park. Illegal constructions are still coming up in the boundaries of the park. This is shrinking the park and its biodiversity at a very fast pace. The salt pan lands to the east are getting replaced for residential complexes. Rich Mangrove lands that are very common in the coastal regions of the city are constantly being sacrificed for residential and commercial development. In addition more and more creeks and rivers are getting filled up in order to accommodate the growing population and its needs. Mumbai’s urban sprawl is growing so rapid and creating numerous satellite towns and exurbs that, in near future, there would be no distance between Mumbai and its neighboring towns.

Suburbs

Suburbs

The island city of Mumbai is already very dense. This is because, the city was never planned, but it evolved and followed the organic development. As different areas in the city developed, more and more roads and rails emerged in order to connect the important centers. As the migrants increased, more high-rise residential complexes came up and as the city demanded even more commercial complexes to support the growing economy. Irresponsible and haphazard development reduced the open lands and green area within the city.

Central Mumbai Mangrove forests

Central Mumbai, also very dense, still has a chance to replace some of the green space and provide an additional lung for island city by developing its Mill Lands meaningfully and sustainably.

Island city or South Mumbai

Mumbai

5


Mill Lands in Mumbai Mumbai & its Mill Lands Mumbai was initially a port city. In 1880’s the city transformed from a trading town to manufacturing center. With this change, the textile industry gave Mumbai an economic boost and it was soon one of the most flourishing textile-based cities. With the rise of textile industry, the city attracted huge number of migrants from the rest of the state. The number of mills in the city rose from 27 in 1875 to 42 in 1880 to 58 in 1900. Consequently the textile industry became the most significant employer in the city. By 1931, half of the city’s population was economically dependent on textile industry. Areas where the mills were located grew to become the heart of the city. However, by 1928, the mills started to lose their market to other countries like Japan. A year later there was an overall slump in the world textile market and Mumbai mills were badly affected. Today there are 58 mills in Mumbai. 26 of the mills are owned by the government and the remaining 32 are owned by private sector. The total area of mill lands in central Mumbai is around 600 acres.

mill ruins in Mumbai

City developers and builders have already redeveloped a number of defunct mill lands. The land in most cases is used for residential high-rises and in some cases for commercial, retail and entertainment sectors. Almost all the existing structures on these mill lands were demolished completely (except a few factory features like Chimney) for redevelopment. In turn, a complete site built up replaced mill buildings with very little open or green space. The developers of these lands did not consider the original mill workers who were living there for years. They were forced to move to outskirts of the city. Many of these lands today are mere privately own residential or commercial complexes. Some of the developers did create some public spaces like shopping complexes, multiplexes and other retail outlets, however the benefit of these areas and buildings for the ecological sustainability of the city is open to debate.

6


Mill Lands Urban fabric Bruhanmumbai Municpal Corporation is controls Mumbai’s civic infrastrucutre. The city is divided into total 17 wards. Majority of the mill lands belong to the 4 wards outlined in the adjacent figure. (wards G-south & north, F-south & north) Potential lands for this redevelopment project are selected amongst these wards. In the following pages a brief site analysis of each land is prepared in order to understand its feasibility for this project. Following is a list of ALL the mill lands in central district of the city. Some of these lands are already redeveloped or acquired by builders and some of them are either derelict or partially working.

Government owned lands

Wards containing mill lands

1. Kohinoor Mills no.3 (North)

17. India United Mills no.2

2. India United Dye Works no.6 (North)

18. India United Mills no.3

3. Elphinstone Mills (South)

19. India United Mills no.5

4. Jupiter Mills (South)

20. Gold Mohur Mills

5. Shree Madhusudan Mills (South)

21. Poddar Processors (Edward Mills)

6. Jam Mills

22. India United Mills no.1 (North)

7. Sitaram Mills

23. Finlay Mills

8. New Hind Textile Mills

24. Poddar Mills

9. Kohinoor Mills no.1 (North)

25. New City of Bombay Manufacturing

10. Kohinoor Mills no.2 (North)

Mills - Maharashtra State Textile Corporation

11. Tata Mills (North)

26. Western India Spinning & Weaving

12. Mumbai Textile Mills

Mill

13. Bharat Mills 14. Digvijay Mills 15. Apollo Mills (South) 16. India United Mills no.4

Key Redeveolped Derelict lands No information

7


Mill Lands Privately owned lands 27. Swadeshi Mills

48. Gokuldas Morarjee Mills no.2

28. Standard Mills

49. Dawn Mills

29. Matulya Mills

50. Standard Mills no.2

30. Phoenix Mills

51. Piramal Spinning & Weaving Mills

31. Modern Mills

52. Raghuvanshi Mills

32. Hindoostan Spinning & Weaving

53. New Great Eastern Spinning &

Mills no.1

Weaving Mills

33. Hindoostan Spinning & Weaving

54. Simplex Mills

Mills no.2

55. Bradbury Mills

34. Ruby Mills

56. Mafatlal Mills no.1

35. Hindoostan Spinning & Weaving

57. Mafatlal Mills no.2

Mills no.3 (Crown Mills)

58. Mukesh Textile Mills

36. Bombay Dyeing (Spring Mills) 37. Victoria Mills 38. Gokuldas Morarjee Mills no.1 39. Swan Mills 40. Mafatlal Mills no.3 41. Khatau Makanji Spinning & Weaving Mills 42. Century Spinning & Weaving Mills 43. Bombay Dyeing & Manufacturing Company 44. Prakash Cotton Mills 45. Shriniwas Mills 46. Kamala Mills 47. Shree Ram Mills

old machinery in Mumbai mills

8


Site Analysis SWOT Analysis In the following map, six potential mill lands are identified for redevelopment. Following is a SWOT (Strength - Weakness - Opportunity - Threat) analysis for each. Depening on this and the physical site analysis, the site for redesigning project will be decided.

1

India United Mill Lands # 1

STRENGTH

WEAKNESS

1. Located along the most important road in central district. 2. More 75% of the mill buildings on site are in a good condition. 3. Close to a raliway station and several bus stops. 4. Land use around it is mostly residential.

1. Located along a very busy street. 2. Lesser site area compared to other mill lands.

OPPORTUNITY

THREATS

1. Opportunity to for a mid-size public park or garden. 2. Existing mill buildings can be converted into a small public school or community center. 3. Helpful in revitalization of the streetfront.

1. Site contamination is possible in some areas. 2. Unstable structures on site will have to either demolished or repaired. 3. Part of site area might be reserved for road widening in the future.

2

India United Mill Lands #2&3

1. Large site area. 2. Strategic central position in a dense residential zone. 3. Close to 3 raliway station and several bus stops.

1.Away from the main street. 2. Central yet isolated position.

1.Good opportunity for adaptive reuse of mill buildings. 3. Ideal for a public park or plaza. 4. Opportunity to revitalize central district and establish a link between west and east coast.

1. Number of Unstable structures on site. 3. Isolated position may encourage crime.

3

Digvijay Mills

1. Located along the most important road in central district. 3. Close to a raliway station and several bus stops. 4. Land use around it is mostly residential.

1. Located along a very busy street as well as a flyover. 2. Limited site area compared to other mill lands. 3. Single huge mill building might be a challenge to re-use.

1. Opportunity to copnvert the existing mill building into a market place or bazaar. 2. Helpful in revitalization of the streetfront.

1. Part of site area might be reserved for road widening in the future.

central district

9


Site Analysis STRENGTH

WEAKNESS

OPPORTUNITY

THREATS

4

India United Dye Works

1. Located along a sea front to the west and an important road to the east. 2. Consierably large site area for redevelopment. 3. Several bus routes and stops along the adjecant road. 4. Good number of trees and vegetation on site.

1.No easy access from any of the railway station. 2. Transportation to the site or site access will be car-driven.

1. Opportunity to for a mid-size public park or garden. 2. Existing mill buildings can be converted into a small public school or community center. 3. Helpful in revitalization of the seafront. 4. Two existing water bodies on site can be a good element to use in redevelopment.

5

Madhusudan Mills

1. Part of a bigger mill disctrict. 2. Consierably large site area for redevelopment. 3. Thick existing vegetation.

1.No easy access from any of the railway station or bus routes. 2. Isolated position.

1. Opportunity for a 1. Isolated position mid-size public park may encourage or garden. crime. 2. Existing mill buildings can be converted into a museum or theater.

1. Part of site area might be reserved for road widening in the future. 2. Proximity to the sea.

india united mill lands no. 1

10


Annotated Bibliography 1. Web Urbanist: 7 examples of Recycled Urban Architecture, July 13, 2008 http://weburbanist.com/2008/07/13/7-more-examples-recycled-urban-architecture/ Retrieved on July 18, 2009

3. Australian architect to redevelop Wadias’ land, Sagar Malviya, June 11, 2007 http://www.livemint.com (The Wall Street Journal) Retrieved on October 1, 2009

For ecological reasons, more and more architects today are considering adaptive re-use. This article talks about new innovative adaptive re-use of old buildings around the world.

The article talks about the current scenario of one of the biggest mill lands in central Mumbai: Spring Mills. The owners (Wadia’s) are planning to develop 4.3 million square feet of their mill land in private hotels, residences, malls and office complexes. Apparently because of the ‘lack of knowledge’ of local Indian architects for ‘international style’ ‘mall design’, an Australian architect has been appointed to work out the master plan!

2. The Murder of the Mills: A Case Study of Phoenix Mills, Shekhar Krishnan A Report by the Girangaon Bachao Andolanand Lokshahi Hakk Sanghatana, April 2000 This paper narrates the history of textile mill areas in central Mumbai in the context of a changing urban political economy and discusses the textile industry and its growth and changes, and address questions of urban development, city spaces, and what the citizens should demand. Under the name of ‘urban redevelopment’ & ‘globalization’, mill owners, the government and politician are merely exploiting the valuable mill lands at the expense of mill worker’s livelihood, their culture and their existence in the city. Mass media, town planners and urban elites portray the mills and their workers as a burden on economy and efficiency, an impediment to progress. The author studies history of one mill land as a case study in order to understand the bureaucracy and politics behind it’s so called ‘redevelopment.’

4. Adaptive Reuse: Uncovering Hidden Assets and Obstacles, Greener Buildings Staff, October 16, 2007 http://www.greenerbuildings.com/research/ report/2007/10/17/adaptive-reuse-uncoveringhidden-assets-and-obstacles Retrieved on November 22, 2009 Different factors and strategies in adaptive re-use of buildings are addressed here. A detail study of site environment, context, and history of the building, its structure and mechanical system needs to be done before approaching a re-use design project. 5. BMC to turn India United Mill 2 and 3 into museum, PTI, February 14, 2009 http://www.mid-day.com/news/2009/feb/140209BMC-to-turn-India-United-Mill-2-and-3-intomuseum.htm Retrieved on September 16, 2009 This is a fairly recent article about BMC’s (Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation) proposal for

redevelopment of India United mill lands 2 & 3 at Parel. The BMC plans to convert 61,000 sq m of mill land into a museum showcasing the history of Mumbai’s textile mills. Heritage structures on site will be identified soon, and master plan will retain the existing mill building and improve its quality by beautifying the surrounding open space. 6. Whitehead-Elniski Residence, Green Adaptive Reuse, Preston Koerner, March 18, 2008 http://www.jetsongreen.com/2008/03/whiteheadelnis.html Retrieved on July 18, 2009 This is a brief case-study of a green adaptive reuse in Chicago. Frances Whitehead and James Elniski covered a 3000 sq ft brick warehouse on a chunk of land with a contaminated underground gasoline storage tank, into an impressive live/ work residence. The house has a number of green features like cellulose insulation, geothermal heating and cooling, solar thermal hot water and cooling, photovoltaic panels, rainwater collection cisterns, and water-saving appliances and dualflush toilets, etc. 7. The Adaptive Reuse of Historic Industrial Buildings: Regulation Barriers, Best Practices and Case Studies, Sophie Francesca Cantell, May 2005 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Sophia Cantell in her master’s report describes the importance of adaptive reuse in architecture for the future. Any adaptive re-use project today has to face a number of regulatory & financial challenges like site contamination, historic preservation, approval of new designs, securing funds etc. However, a successful adaptive reuse project can

11


Annotated Bibliography bring redevelopment, heritage tourism, and new life into a community. Increasingly, practitioners are combining sustainable design with adaptive reuse of historic buildings creating the field of green adaptive reuse. This combination makes sense since the premise of adaptive reuse is more sustainable than green field development since the infrastructure and materials are already in place. Rehabilitating old urban industrial neighborhoods or structures is an issue at the forefront of contemporary urban development in the United States and other colonial countries. Industrial buildings are especially well suited to adaptive reuse due to their large, open spaces. Some of the more popular conversions are of industrial building to museums, art studios, live-work units, offices, residential units, schools, retail, and increasingly more are combining several uses together. Indeed, it has been a growing trend in the United States for the last forty years. In this paper, the author covers a number of case studies around the United States to help us understand the current practice of adaptive re-use. 8. Making Green Places Through Adaptive ReUse& Historic Preservation, Dr. Mary Ann Heidemann, June 25, 2009 MSU Extension Land Policy Educator: Citizen Planner Advanced Academy This presentation discusses the concepts of embodied energy in buildings, new uses for old structures, adaptive reuse and LEED, downtown revitalization and sustainability, place making, historic preservation. It gives examples of creative reuses of old buildings as well as old sites in the United States.

9. A verdict for Mumbai, Anupama Katakam, November 23, 2005 Frontline, Vol. 22 – Issue 23, Nov 03-18, 2005 http://www.flonnet.com/fl2223/stories/20051118002304500.htm Retrieved on July 21, 2009 Mumbai’s real estate is among the most valuable in the world. The mill lands are located in prime areas of the city, which is why there is so much interest in these properties. The above article in Frontline magazine talks about the current issue of derelict mill lands and government regulations related to it. According to the 1991 Development Control Rule (DCR) 58, a third of the mill land could be kept by the mill owner for redeveloping or reviving the mill, a third would have to be given to the Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA) to provide housing to families of workers who lost their livelihoods when the mills closed, and the remaining third would be given to the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) for creating green areas. Not many mill owners made use of the DCR. In 2005 this rule was finally altered to allow large-scale public development on mill lands. Hopefully the rule will help the city towards achieving an environmentally sound and socially sustainable urban future. 10. Mumbai mill lands, retrieved for the people, Good News India, October 29, 2005 http://www.goodnewsindia.com/index.php/ Supplement/article/mumbai-mill-lands-retrievedfor-the-people Retrieved on March 9, 2009 This is yet another article celebrating the new DCR rule 58. A little known group of environment activists, the Bombay Environment

Action Group [BEAG] raised its voice and challenged the amendment to Rule 58. The old amendment to this rule was no ordinary matter- it violated Article 48a of India’s Constitution entitled ‘Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife’. Also the builders had begun construction without commissioning an Environmental Impact Assessment [EIA] and obtaining clearance from the Ministry of Environment and Forests. On October 17, 2005 a bench consisting of Mr Justice S Radhakrishnan and Mr Justice S C Dharmadikari struck down the amendment to Rule 58;all sales of mill lands based on the amended rule was set aside. The Honorable Court stated without ambiguity: one third each of *all* lands owned by the National Textile Corporation was to be given over to low cost housing and public use. The balance third may be developed after obtaining an EIA. 11. Preservation: The Original Green, Susan Turner, May 28, 2009 http://www.greenbeanchicago.com/preservationoriginal-green-historic-preserve-energy-efficienct/ Retrieved on July 18, 2009 The above article describes the benefits of preservation for building green. Based on the quote by Adolphe-Napoleon Didron: ‘It is better to preserve than to repair, better to repair than to restore, better to restore than to reconstruct;’ the article explains the importance of preservation for conserving energy and resources. Preservation is about retaining a cultural resource that was inherently respectful of the environment, and was built to last hundreds of years. It’s about life cycle costing, and building for future generations. The author suggests that today’s green building

12


Annotated Bibliography professionals can learn from historic building’s passive, low-tech systems. Knowledge of these historic buildings, combined with new technology, can inspire effective solutions for lowering a building’s carbon footprint.

14. Mumbai Mills Report: Analysis & Conclusions of INTBAU India Workshop, March 2005 International Network for Traditional Building, Architecture & Urbanism (INTABU) http://www.intbau.org

12. Denmark Renovates Water Tower into Green Student Housing, Bridgette Meinhold, March 18, 2009 http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/03/18/denmarkwater-tower-rennovation/ Retrieved on July 18, 2009

A charrette was held in Mumbai by INTABUIndia from March 7 to March 11, 2005 to come up with a viable solution for re-use of derelict mill lands in Central Mumbai. Participants in the workshop carried out a detailed urban analysis of the city and came up with development solutions for a strategic connectivity across the breadth of the city through the central district. They also developed a pilot appraisal for India United Mill land # 1 after a thorough environmental, heritage and structural assessment of mill structures on site. A mixed re-use plan that had a dedicated open/recreational space, public market place and a considerable space for low cost housing was proposed by the workshop. The results of the charrette were presented to different stakeholders and government bodies. Further development of this project is expected by INTABU in the future.

The above blog on www.inhabitat.com documents an intelligently reused water tower in Jaegersberg, Denmark. An ordinary water tower was converted into a stylish 10 storey student housing complex & youth center in 2006. 13. Revitalizing Mumbai – The Mill Land issue, Pratik Mhatre, October 17, 2005 Urban Planning Blog : http://urbanplanningblog.com/2005/10/17/revitalizing-mumbai%E2%80%93-the-mill-land-issue/ Retrieved on March 9, 2009 An organic city like Mumbai constantly evolves and adapts itself to the times. The central district of this city needs a serious physical renewal. Mumbai’s economic base has shifted from textile to service industry leaving a large chunk of mill lands vacant. The re-use of these lands has always been debated, but the current development on these lands is definitely not a sign of progress. It is making the city even more congested, dense, environmentally unsustainable and socially unjust. In above blog, Pratik points out a current redevelopment plan of one of the mill lands in central district of Mumbai. He also highlights the need to understand the public opinion regarding the re-use of mill lands.

13


Significance and Conclusion A city has to develop, it needs to flourish and modernize in order to attain a global existence. But, doing so at the cost of a city’s heritage, culture and its social fabric is totally unfair. Understanding Mumbai’s local scenario, its people, its culture, its history and its urban issues is a prerequisite for every individual involved in decision-making at city level. What Mumbai needs today, is some breathing space, for a better environment. It needs modest green parks and plazas to retain its social life. It needs better and affordable housing options for mill workers and their families; it needs more public schools and playgrounds. Developers, builders and civil administration are required to rethink their agendas and future development plans for the city. For central Mumbai, re-development

14


Urban Incarnations (initial report)