TRACK AND TRACE
Keeping engines and turbomachinery healthy
COMBINING CRAFT AND HIGH TECH
The art of MAN welders has worldwide renown
THE SUM OF ITS PARTS From spare parts to value-adding services: how the concept of service is evolving
Browsing the pages of this edition I came to think about
the importance of “trust.” It seems to be reflected in almost all the stories gathered in this issue. If you, for example, mine nickel in northern Quebec at temperatures of -30°C you have to trust in the reliability of your power station. Your life depends on it. To have lives depend on them is everyday business for the doctors and nurses aboard the Africa Mercy, a hospital ship we were able to visit off the coast of Benin. You and I enjoy the
privilege of choosing our doctors. Patients treated on the Africa Mercy don’t. They need to trust in the professionals on board, who again have to trust in the equipment provided. If you have but one option, trust borders on faith. For us here at MAN Diesel & Turbo there is no other value more at the core of what we do and want to achieve. The ability to trust in our employees, partners and suppliers is the foundation we rest our business on. And the privilege of being trusted by our customers allows us to excel in their name. We pride ourselves on the strong relationships we have built with our customers, some of them going back many decades. The Linde Group is one of those customers. Operating more than 145 MAN machines in 23 countries, we have obviously been able to earn this great company’s trust. It is our utmost concern to prove that we deserve it – over and over again. To do so, our service engineers go the extra mile. We do not want to be patted
Trust is at the core of what we do and want to achieve.”
on the back because our machines are up and running. Our mission is to safeguard our customers’ competitiveness and to empower them to further grow their business. Having trust in the work of our editorial team, I am confident you will have an inspiring read. Yours truly,
Dr. Uwe Lauber, CEO of MAN Diesel & Turbo
MASTHEAD: MAN MAGAZINE is published two times a year in English. · PUBLISHED BY MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Dr. Jan Dietrich Müller, Group Communications & Marketing,
Stadtbachstr. 1, 86153 Augsburg, Germany · Editors in Chief: Jan Hoppe (firstname.lastname@example.org), Felix Brecht (email@example.com) · PUBLISHER C3 Creative Code and Content GmbH, Heiligegeistkirchplatz 1, 10178 Berlin, Germany, Tel.: +49 30 44032-0, www.c3.co, Shareholders of C3 Creative Code and Content GmbH are the Burda Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (limited liability company), Offenburg, and the KB Holding GmbH, Berlin, with 50% each. · CONTENT DIRECTOR Klaus-Peter Hilger · EDITORS & AUTHORS Cedric Arnaud (responsible), Deborah Capras, Kirti Letsch. Freelance authors: Hendrik Bensch, Diana Gäntzle, James Haines-Young · COPY EDITOR Asa Tomash PROJECT MANAGEMENT Sara Austen-Schrick · GRAPHICS Igor Clukas, Christian Kühn, Micheline Pollach · PHOTO EDITOR Elke Latinovic, Samantha Taruvinga · COVER IMAGE Rüdiger Nehmzow/ Linde AG, MAN · PRODUCTION C3 Creative Code and Content GmbH · PRINTING Pinsker Druck und Medien GmbH, Pinskerstraße 1, 84048 Mainburg, Germany · REPRODUCTION permitted with reference. Any changes must be coordinated with the editors. · COPYRIGHT ©2016 MAN Diesel & Turbo and C3 Creative Code and Content GmbH. All information provided in this magazine is intended for general guidance only and is not intended to be used as a substitute for specific technical or commercial information and advice.
FUTURE OF SERVICE
THE SUM OF ITS PARTS
The concept of service has changed over the years. A trend that will continue in the future – towards value-adding services.
Track and trace MAN Diesel & Turbo’s laboratories ensure the health of engines and turbomachinery.
06 PHOTOS: Simon Katzer, Max Kratzer, Armin Smailovic, Achim Bieniek, Rüdiger Nehmzow/Linde AG
M Y MAN ower for the flow P At the heart of Europe’s natural gas network, MAN compressors maintain the right pressure.
A giant breathtaker
The world’s largest compressor pushes technical boundaries in its new home in South Africa.
The sum of its parts What’s next? How MAN PrimeServ and Linde Gas are redefining the concept of service.
High craft Artists at work: a portrait of the welders of MAN Diesel & Turbo in Deggendorf.
In the extreme
In the harsh climate of northern Quebec, miners depend on the power generated by MAN engines.
Floating power to those in need How Powerships are bridging electricity shortages in developing countries.
More efficiency, lower emissions Germany has to rethink its energy policy. Combined heat and power might just be the solution.
P owering tradition
Cadets around the world learn the art of sailing on classic sailing vessels supported by MAN engines.
Keeping hope afloat A visit to the world’s largest civilian hospital ship and its inspiring crew of volunteers.
The hybrid future is smarter Find out what leading marine experts envision for the ship of the future.
Changing states A close look into the set-up and function of floating storage and regasification units.
D IALOGUE & OPINION T o fry or not to fry? To achieve decarbonization, we need radical transformation, argues Professor Dieter Helm.
News & facts
Brief business updates.
TRACK AND TRACE 1 Monitoring lube oil for particle contamination may extend engine availability and reduce the risk of expensive damage.
2 The pink ink test measures surface tension and reveals if an engine has been properly degreased. 3 Christoph Rohbogner prepares cooling liquids for testing. Each color marks a different manufacturer.
Regular analysis facilitates proactive maintenance.â€? Dr. Christoph Rohbogner, Head of Chemical Laboratory
B MAN Diesel & Turbo’s laboratories work to keep engines and turbomachinery healthy – throughout their entire life cycle.
Bespectacled men and women in white and gray overcoats, colored test tubes, whirring computer-controlled test facilities, optical instruments and microscopes – stepping into the PrimeServLab in the Quality Assurance department on the production site in Augsburg on the one hand, and the Materials Technology Lab in Oberhausen on the other, the contrast to the noisy workshops outside couldn’t be greater. This pristine environment, mirrored in both laboratories, is where MAN Diesel & Turbo’s chemists and material engi-
Other laboratories may offer similar tests and analy-
neers monitor the health of engines and turbomachinery
ses; however, MAN Diesel & Turbo’s materials engineers
from development throughout the entire life cycle – not
and chemists have a significant advantage: “We know all
unlike doctors. After all, similar to humans, engines stay
the components, their exact functions and operating
healthy when they are treated and fed well. Swirling a tube
principles,” says Berthold Ellermann, Head of Failure
with green liquid between his fingers, Dr. Christoph
Analysis/Metallography & Residual Life Assessment of
Rohbogner, Head of Chemical Laboratory in Augsburg, ex-
MAN Diesel & Turbo in Oberhausen. Considerable experi-
plains: “A large part of our work is approvals of operating
ence that also recommends the laboratories for trouble-
fluids such as oils, fuels and cooling liquids.” The quality of
shooting and damage analysis.
these fluids is essential for reliable operation in all machin-
Whereas many of the tests performed on a daily basis
ery. That is why they are submitted to rigorous tests. “Be-
are standard, damage analysis can be compared to forensic
fore the launch of our new MAN 175D marine engine, we
procedures best known from crime scene investigation pro-
had it run with different operating liquids to test behavior
grams on TV. “We reconstruct the internal as well as envi-
under stress”, says Rohbogner. Only if the fluids pass, are
ronmental factors that may have caused damage,” explains
they recommended for use.
Ellermann. First on site are usually MAN service engineers.
PHOTOS: Max Kratzer
FROM PREVENTION TO DAMAGE ANALYSIS
Their assessment determines whether a laboratory engineer needs to examine the damage site in person. “If a like-
While in use, regular fluid analyses may be purchased
ly cause cannot be determined by the service personnel, we
via MAN PrimeServ and give customers an insight into the
fly out to do more comprehensive tests and secure samples
health of their machinery over time. Evaluating and inter-
– anywhere in the world,” says Rohbogner. Samples are ei-
preting oil parameters, PrimeServLab provides targeted
ther analyzed immediately with mobile testing kits or tak-
recommendations for maintenance and oil care. “Especial-
en back to the laboratories in Germany. Highly modern
ly in machinery that requires large amounts of operating
equipment, such as scanning electron microscope or plas-
oils, regular analysis facilitates proactive maintenance,”
ma spectroscopy, enables the examination of metal micro-
says Rohbogner, “which means we recommend oil changes
structures in fractures and the chemical composition of
when they are actually needed.” The benefit is clear: eco-
components and fluids. “In the end we detail the results in
nomical optimization of fluid usage. After all, preventing
a presentation to the customer explaining the root cause
one lube oil drain often is enough to pay for a lab service
and provide suggestions on how to avoid repeat occurrenc-
over several years that can avoid damage for decades.
es,” says Ellermann. Just as a doctor would to a patient. ▪
POWER FOR THE FLOW
How significant is the natural gas station Baumgarten for the gas network in Europe? It is a central European hub, distributing gas imports from Russia, Norway and other countries. Natural gas is transported to Baumgarten via Slovakia and Germany. Almost one-third of Russia’s total gas exports to Western Europe flows through our pipelines, about 40 billion cubic meters per year. Without our station, many heating units – from Berlin to Rome – would remain cold. We provide millions of households with comfort and warmth. What role do the MAN compressors play in the process? During its journey, natural gas must be compressed repeatedly, as otherwise the pressure decreases, resulting in less gas flowing through the pipelines. Operators of long- distance pipelines therefore build a compressor station every couple of hundred kilometers. While gas-turbine-driven compressors had previously been the machines of choice for our operations, we decided to invest in two electrically driven compressors made by MAN about two years ago. In their area of application, these innovative MOPICO® (Motor Pipeline Compressor) turbo compressors are among the most ground-breaking and best products currently offered on the market and enable us to respond to the transformed market conditions of today. In what sense have market conditions changed? The European natural gas market has become more flexible. Due to the latest liberalization, network operators are obligated to allow market participants easy access to pipelines. While we previously saw long-term agreements, with gas volumes remaining constant for weeks or even months, there are many more short-term agreements today, which can decidedly change pipeline transport conditions from just one hour to the next. We therefore have to be able to quickly activate or turn off compression performance. And here the electrically driven compressors by MAN offer great advantages.
STATION MANAGER OF THE COMPRESSOR STATION BAUMGARTEN
Exactly which advantages would those be? In order to ensure a maximum of flexibility, it is important that the machines can be remotely started up and turned off. We also need to keep the time periods between start-up and peak load as short as possible – for only then can dispatching react in a flexible fashion. This is optimally resolved by the electrically driven compressors, as they reach the peak load level in a third of the time required by the gas-turbinepowered compressors. Another advantage: A traditional gas turbine performs efficiently only when operating continuously. Considering prevalent start-stop cycles today, an electrically driven compressor is a much better choice.
The heart of Europeâ€™s natural gas network beats 50 kilometers from Vienna. Here, Gas Connect Austria utilizes state-of-the-art MAN compressors to maintain the right pressure. A conversation with the station manager of the compressor station Baumgarten.
1 The MOPICO ÂŽ system is ideally suited for remote control operations. 2 The totally sealed and oil-free technology ensures a safer gas transport process.
PHOTOS: Achim Bieniek
Breathing in one million cubic meters of air per hour: after being tested at MAN Diesel & Turbo’s Germany-based technology center, this giant AR-MAX1 compressor solution has been shipped to the African continent. As the world’s largest compressor, it will form the heart of a new air separation unit (ASU) in Secunda, South Africa, operated by another giant: French industrial enterprise Air Liquide. This means a huge step in efficiency: As an ultramodern technology, the ASU, set to be completed in 2017, has enough power to supplant two air separation units of former generations. Its duty is to supply oxygen and nitrogen to the petrochemicals group Sasol, which utilizes these industrial gases for the production of synthetic fuels out of coal. Producing 5,000 metric tons of oxygen per day, it pushes the technical boundaries with regards not only to efficiency, but also to reliability and safety. Driven by an electric motor with 65 MW of power, the ASU also includes an MAN booster air compressor. Thus, the huge amount of air is compressed in a second step after it has passed through the world’s largest compressor. Ultimately, the perfectly balanced machine train results in lower power consumption. So just like humans, it breathes in O2 – but takes care to emit far less CO2 than before.
A GIANT BREATHTAKER 08
PHOTOS: MAN (2), Getty Images [M]
▶ As the world’s largest compressor, this AR-MAX1 is set to breathe in one million cubic meters of air per hour.
▲ At the world’s largest gas-to-liquids facility in Qatar, air separation plants by Linde supply oxygen. MAN products are at the core. ▼ MAN PrimeServ services Linde all over the world, like at this synthesis gas plant in Germany.
THE SUM OF ITS PARTS
What comes after service? Once the simple delivery of spare parts, the service term is continuously evolving through providing solutions towards a complementary creation of value. Since the 1950s, Linde Group has employed turbomachinery from MAN Diesel & Turbo – an example of what service is today, and what it may be in the future.
◀ More than just inspections and repairs – MAN PrimeServ provides a wide spectrum of services to Linde.
From South America to Asia – more than a hundred turbo compressors from the MAN Diesel & Turbo portfolio do their work in Linde Gas plants all over the world. In 23 coun-
P HOTOS: Linde AG (2), MAN (1)
tries they are essential components in the production of a wide spectrum of industrial, medical and specialty gases and gas mixtures: the core business of Linde Gas. But the machinery is only one part on which the relationship between MAN Diesel & Turbo and the Linde Group is based. Decades of working together have fostered a multifaceted partnership built on mutual trust. As in every good
It is a trustful and at times very personal relationship.” Stefan Günther, Head of Rotating Equipment at Linde Gas
partnership, both parties are planning ahead. This includes the future of service – and how treading the path ahead together will be beneficial to both. Ultimately, this also means redefining services, reconsidering and aligning strategies, and potentially even formulating new business models. Classic field services used to be at the core of the relationship between MAN PrimeServ and Linde. “Our basis is a variety of services, from spare parts, parts-related service, inspections, repairs and trouble-shooting, to revamps and retrofits, to Linde Gas,” says Dr. Rolf Habel, Vice President and Head of Sales & Contracts, Asia Pacific, with MAN PrimeServ. And while these remain pivotal, knowledge has become just as important. “Technical consultancy is one of the most important services to us,” says Stefan Günther, Head of Rotating Equipment at Linde Gas. “Whenever we have a question or a problem, we can discuss it with one of MAN’s competent specialists.” For this superordinate service, MAN PrimeServ employs a pool of consulting experts. “Third-party providers usually don’t have this kind of expertise on hand, and not even all original equipment
A PARTNER FOR ALL SEASONS
The advantages of such a collaborative approach are
provide through a worldwide network of service workshops.
apparent at the latest when machines do not perform as
“Linde Gas has a very decentralized organization and
expected. “We had a problem with deviant bearing tem-
decision-making structure. We follow this regionalization
peratures and oscillations in a booster air compressor in a
with our own set-ups,” says Wolfgang Schneiderbauer,
plant in China. Together with MAN we were able to remedy
MAN key account manager for Linde. “To us it is important
the problem with a newly designed bearing to the full sat-
that we don’t have to ship machinery back and forth and
isfaction of our end customer,” recounts Günther. “This was
that our colleagues in the regions have local contact per-
only possible because of the close contact and exchange
sons. A prerequisite is, of course, that the quality provided
with their experts.” Ensuring availability of machinery and
is equally high everywhere,” says Günther. Which the
reducing life-cycle costs in this way helps Linde Gas boost
framework agreement ensures. “It helps simplify our busi-
their competitiveness as they in turn can offer increased
ness processes, which means that routine workflows, espe-
availability and efficiency. This is also the goal of a frame-
cially, take a lot less time. We and MAN PrimeServ as well
work agreement between Linde Gas and MAN PrimeServ,
can only profit from that,” says Günther. The agreement
which has been in place since 2011. The global footprint of
provides not only a frame to define the current coopera-
MAN Diesel & Turbo matches that of Linde Gas very well,
tion, however. In annual meetings, both parties exchange
and this is also an added value for Linde Gas’s own global
feedback and ideas for further optimization.
network of experts. “We need quick response times to all our sites,” says Günther. Which MAN PrimeServ is able to
Optimizing workflows and increasing efficiency is a topic that both companies concern themselves with, also
PHOTOS: Linde AG (2), Carsten Paul (1)
manufacturers do,” says Günther.
▲ One of Linde Gas’s biggest sites is the air separation plant in Cantarell, Mexico. MAN is strategic partner. ◀ Stefan Günther (left) in talks with Klaus Alin, MAN PrimeServ: ensuring a common understanding of business success. ▼ Example for comprehensive framework agreements: MAN machinery in the air separation plant in Leuna, Germany.
▶ Linde Gas and MAN Diesel & Turbo celebrate the completion of an efficiency upgrade. ▼ Local MAN PrimeServ service engineers work closely with the local branches of Linde Gas.
AROUND THE WORLD 14
in the omnipresent context of digitalization. “At the moment we work out solutions for maximizing efficiency based on data provided by Linde,” explains Habel. “But we are also in talks on how to provide new digital services in the future – such as further automation of remote condition monitoring and condition-based maintenance. Which would allow us to draw up exact turnaround plans or to know which spare part will be needed in, say, 12 months at a certain site. Those parts could accordingly be manufactured ahead of time.” As a provider that has machinery from different manufacturers in use, Linde is also looking for comprehensive models: “What we need and what we are talking about with all our OEMs are joint value chains. We have to consider a plant in its entirety, after all,” says Günther. How
MAN Diesel & Turbo’s expertise may support Linde’s strategy and what new services MAN PrimeServ may offer in the
are operated by Linde Gas and covered by a framework agreement with MAN PrimeServ.
future are currently being discussed. Which is also an opportunity to think about new business models, where customers buy output rather than the machinery itself, for example. It is clear that the development has been moving from providing spare parts to providing value-adding services for some time, and that this trend is ongoing. It is progressively characterized by a common understanding of business success, a development that will continue in the
▲ service stations
▲ production sites
PHOTOS: Erik Bohr, Christopher Alpízar Gaviria
future. So that, in the end, the sum is more than its parts.▪
HIGH CRAFT NO 02.2016
H NO 02.2016
Hans-Jürgen Eberhard looks a little like an astronaut wear-
ing a helmet with a large visor and a thick hose that leads to the fresh air filter pack on his back. But instead of a spacesuit, he is wearing red work clothes and a relaxed smile, despite the heat and flying sparks. “It doesn’t bother me,” says
the 45-year-old, referring to the often strenuous conditions
For laymen it may be “just” welding, but the experts in Deggendorf have transformed their work into an art form that has garnered worldwide renown.
of his job. He is used to them, because Eberhard has been a
welder at MAN Diesel & Turbo in Deggendorf for the last 29 years – and is one of the best in his trade.
LEADING THROUGH SPECIALIZED CRAFTSMANSHIP
The fact that the plant is a world leader in its fields of
activity is based to a large degree on the skills of its 110 welders, as Production Supervisor Werner König explains. The Deggendorf facility has come to specialize in the production
of large-scale components for three sectors: reactors for the chemical industry, machines and products for refinery
technology, and specialized designs for physical apparatus construction and research. The competition for these custom-built products is extremely small; according to
König, there are “only a handful of competitors on the world
market” for large-scale chemical reactors. That explains why
Deggendorf-built systems can be found across the globe. “Every reactor is practically unique,” explains König. Such
extensive manual work performed by welders on each one
is rarely seen anywhere else. “Up to 70% of the work consists of manual welding,” the production supervisor estimates. There are hardly any machines that are suited to processing
such large parts. The welders’ mastery of all manual weld-
ing techniques – a rarity in these times of automation and mass production – is essential in order to process the variety of jobs.
YEARS OF TRAINING AND PRACTICAL APPLICATION
“Every one of us has multiple qualifications,” says
Roland Raith, another welding artist. Every three years, he and his colleagues have to pass various examinations pertaining to hand-welding processes. He especially enjoys
PHOTO: Armin Smailovic
the variety of his tasks. “There are always new challenges.
Welding is strenuous work – suit, gloves and helmet protect against excessive heat, hazardous fumes and the unfiltered view of the arc, which can damage the eye permanently.
When we get here in the morning, we don’t know what the
day will bring. You can be creative,” explains Raith and
opens the door to the hall where he currently works. A sign
indicates that unauthorized access is forbidden. Raith and Eberhard are both working on parts for the ITER research
project, in which scientists in France are developing ways to harness nuclear fusion for generating power. Working at
this level – with ever-changing materials, shapes and projects – requires a vast amount of experience. “Our training program is good,” says Raith, who has been with the company for 28 years. “But once it is completed, that’s when the learning really starts.” He estimates that journeymen need five years to master all procedures. Senior colleagues offer assistance by passing on their extensive knowledge. However, the best way to learn is on site under real-life conditions. The welders from Deggendorf are involved in installation projects around the world, often for periods lasting up to eight weeks. “Some colleagues have a permanent visa for China,” says König. If a customer in Asia calls requesting a specialist, a welder will be there the next day. Traveling the world is one of the aspects that Raith and Eberhard love about their jobs. “You visit so many countries and learn about so many cultures. We always face new challenges,” says Eberhard enthusiastically. Sporting three-day-old stubble and an earring, he is more often found at job sites abroad than at the Deggendorf plant. Wherever he goes, be it the US, Taiwan, Oman, Australia or Finland, he takes some time off to visit the sights.
TECHNOLOGY AND HANDICRAFT GO HAND IN HAND
His colleague Ludwig Kerschl currently works in the
relative comfort of an office, sitting just a few meters away, a laptop and monitors in front of him. He, too, is involved in the ITER project, but focuses on the engineering rather
than the manual side of things. Together with a colleague, he must monitor a machine that his colleagues helped to improve. The device was developed to meet stringent geometric requirements in the production of certain components that could not be met manually. The welders are required to offer their expertise and advice for this task as well. “Helping to develop this type of machine represents ‘handicraft’ at the highest levels,” says König. Welding foreman Christian Kandler describes his employees’ abilities as somewhere between craftsmanship and high-tech engineering “because the machines keep getting more and
Most of our work consists of manual welding.” Werner König, Production Supervisor with MAN Diesel & Turbo in Deggendorf
PHOTOS: Armin Smailovic
1 Welding in tandem is particularly challenging as the welders have to work in perfect unison – one from the inside, the other from the outside. 2 Even though it is hard work, the welders are proud of their work. Here, one of them is welding hex mesh in an inlet tube for a cyclone system of an FCC reactor. 3 Every day Werner König (right) makes his rounds, discussing the status of current projects – here with Hans-Jürgen Eberhard (left) and Roland Raith.
König enjoys getting positive feedback from customers: “It confirms our special approach.” A view, underscored by Udo Sauer in Ludwigshafen, welding engineer with BASF, the world’s leading chemical company, and a customer of MAN Diesel & Turbo in Deggendorf for decades. “In 2013, we built two high-pressure reactors with a respective weight of
UNUSUAL ROUTES FOR EXCEPTIONAL PRODUCTS
Once the welders have completed components, most
approximately 245 metric tons. We valued the good cooper-
are too large to fit on a truck. The parts are thus shipped by
ation on this difficult project and the resulting quality of the
sea and riverways. König points to the crane reaching into
components. The tight deadline was also observed. The proj-
the sky between the hall and the Danube River, which runs
ect quickly showed that MAN Diesel & Turbo has a great deal
right by the Deggendorf site. “It can lift 1,000 metric tons,”
of expertise, not just in welding techniques,” Sauer says.
he says, and recounts the most impressive thing he has
König is familiar with what his workers do. Every day
seen, which involved transporting a vacuum vessel for a sci-
he makes his rounds through the halls filled with metal con-
entific experiment at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
structs. On narrow pipes, two men are welding simultane-
The vessel was 24 meters long and 10 meters wide, so trans-
ously, one on the inside, the other on the outside. Elsewhere,
port by road was not an option. Instead of a 400-kilometer
Stefan Pfaffinger is welding lifting lugs to a dome of a five-
overland route, the unit traveled 8,600 kilometers by ship
meter-high reactor head. “The entire weight of the compo-
via the Danube, the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the
nent will hang from these, so we can’t afford to make any
Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the North Sea, and up
mistakes,” he emphasizes. When Pfaffinger is done, he calls
the Rhine – ultimately arriving at its destination intact. The
the inspectors over, who carefully inspect the work in parts
fact that a construct is transported in such an elaborate way
using X-ray devices. Everything must fit neatly, which often
just goes to show how much customers appreciate the skill
means infinite patience to complete a perfect weld seam.
and art of the Deggendorf welders.
The climate is severe in terms of both wind and temperature. Winters are very cold, with temperatures remaining below –30°C for extended periods and often dipping below –40°C. Because of its remote location, employees are flown in and typically lodge at the mine site for weeks at a time. In order to ensure suitable living and working conditions, the mine has all the infrastructure of a small municipality, including a supply of fresh water, fuel tanks and a water treatment plant. The facilities of Raglan Mine are not connected to hydro or natural gas networks. Therefore, Raglan Mine depends on the production of electricity from diesel generators in the on-site captive power plant, where an MAN 9L32/40 diesel engine generates a total of 4 MW.
IN THE EXTREME
An aurora casts its spectral light over the Raglan Mine at night. Located at the northern edge of Quebec, Raglan is part of the Glencore group, one of the largest global diversified natural resource companies. The property stretches 70 kilometers from east to west, and encompasses a series of high-grade nickel ore and copper ore deposits. Four operating underground mines, a concentrator, a housing complex and administrative buildings constitute the facilities. The mine has some 950 employees, many of whom come from Inuit communities in the region.
is the average temperature in the mine during the coldest month. OTTAWA
FLOATING POWER TO THOSE IN NEED 22
PHOTOS: Stephen Gerard Kelly
Powerships built by Karpowership are helping developing countries overcome electricity shortages.
All of a sudden, the lights go out and there is no more elec tricity to power fridges, mechanical tools or medical equip ment. In many developing countries with fragile infra structures, sudden or scheduled power outages are a regular occurrence and put a strain on private households, busi nesses, or even pivotal facilities such as schools or hospitals. The effect of chronic power shortages is often detrimental to economies as development is hampered, miring affected regions in a cycle of poverty. And where hospitals are con cerned, the results are devastating when shortages lead to the avoidable deaths of patients. As the establishment of sta ble power grids usually takes years, Karpowership offers a solution in the form of Powerships.
A QUICK, YET RELIABLE SOLUTION
Since 2009, Karpowership, a member of Karadeniz
Holding based in Turkey, has been teaching power stations to swim and currently operates 13 Powerships with a total installed capacity exceeding 2,700 MW. Individual ships – ▲ A worker on the Karadeniz Powership, “Orhan Bey” – one of 13 Powerships currently in operation. ▶ The Powerships are floating power plants that either sail or are towed to their destinations.
converted from ballast transporters, heavy transport ships and barges – produce between 30 and 470 MW and relieve urgent electricity needs across the Middle East, South Asia, Africa and the Mediterranean. Currently, Karadeniz is the biggest company in the world offering serviced, Powershipbased power generation on a rental basis. While the idea dates back decades, Karadeniz has pioneered the commer cial viability of the method. “We are not a very big group, but we are strong with regard to technology and con struction. We are working with more than one shipyard and have over 60 people working in our investment depart ment. Design and all construction operations are complete ly done in-house. That is why we are the first and biggest
Powership company,” says Gökhan Koçak, Head of Investment for Karadeniz. A set-up that has enabled Karadeniz to prosper in the face of challenges such as the sheer scale of investment and the technical proficiency needed to bring the numerous components together. Or such as converting ships so that they are prepared for the range of global environments they will operate in over their lifetime, from burning deserts off southern Iraq’s Basra coastline to the humid tropical jungle off Indonesia’s island chains.
A PLUG-AND-PLAY CONCEPT
We wanted to select the most reliable engines.” Gökhan Koçak, Head of Investment for Karadeniz
While building a new power station may take
years, the Powerships arrive within 120 days of signing the contract with no major building on site. Once in place, connected to the grid and fueled with natural gas or heavy fuel oil, they begin output immediately, supplying directly into the transmission network from their onboard high-voltage substations. Dozens of trained technicians, engineers, controllers and support staff work in eight-hour shifts and can live, eat and sleep aboard the ship or in accommodation close by for years. While the ships are almost plug-and-play, Karadeniz also places value on hiring local workers to supplement the crew aboard and thus help benefit the local economy with employment. Many of the Powerships are equipped with engines manufactured by MAN Diesel & Turbo. “From the beginning we wanted to select engines with reliability and operation expansion, with the best services and technology. We can say that MAN has been a very good partner,” explains Koçak. He adds, “We have been working with MAN for more than eight years and have seen the engines are reliable, and when we compare them with other brands, technologically they are better, plus the service is so important.”
WORKING CLOSELY TOGETHER
In the engine room of Karadeniz’s Orhan Bey the
throb of the 11 massive MAN V51/60 18-cylinder dual-fuel engines, each the size of a double-decker bus, can be felt throughout the ship. Here plant manager Gürhan Gürsoy and Erol Deniz, country director for Karadeniz, with over 20 years as a chief engineer at sea, can monitor the numerous electronic units that feedback information from every corner of the ship. While the wider fleet of Powerships now in operation runs off a mix of engine makes, both Gürsoy and Deniz express their satisfaction with the MAN engines in use on the ships. “The engines are reliable and also have a good safety system,” Deniz explains, highlighting a recent incident in which the engine’s early warning systems alerted the staff to a developing issue. Deniz describes how they were able to check all the parameters and found some of the main bearing temperatures had increased slightly. Only
▶ Workers performing scheduled checks of the MAN engines powering the Karadeniz Powership. ▼ In the huge engine room, 11 MAN V51/60 18-cylinder dual-fuel engines work to produce 203 MW.
PHOTOS: Stephen Gerard Kelly
percent of the workforce in Powership operations are local, supporting local economies with employment.
MEGAWATTS GENERATED ON BOARD Built in Tuzla, Istanbul Province, the “Orhan Bey” has been supplying electrical energy since 2013.
PHOTOS: Stephen Gerard Kelly
▲ Gürhan Gürsoy, plant manager from Turkey, checking the control panel in the operating room of the “Orhan Bey.” ◀ The 5,600-squaremeter Powership “Orhan Bey” produces 1.5 billion kWh per annum.
that the engine could get back to work as quickly as possible. Deniz explains that this was indicative of the ongoing relationship and aftersales care that MAN Diesel & Turbo provides. They also regularly inspect the engines in situ and work closely with the Karadeniz team to maintain the engine sets in top condition at all times.
PARTNERS FOR EXPANSION
Koçak further relates how the close relationship with
the company and reliability of the MAN engines has placed the supplier at the center of Karadeniz’s global expansion. With 17 new Powerships of varying generating capacity set to roll off the slips at the Istanbul-based shipyards in the next few years, MAN Diesel & Turbo will be an important partner in the expansion of Karadeniz’s fleet. While there have been concerns from experts over a possible slowdown in the global economy, led by a slackening in Chinese growth, Koçak explains that his company is unconcerned. “If economies are slowing, then their energy requirements will be less than expected, but in Africa or the Middle East they still need energy, not only for industrial purposes but also for their domestic requirement. So this is by being able to compare this with the long-term trend
the market that we are focusing on, not China or Germany,”
were they able to spot the impending problem caused by a
Koçak said. The majority of Karadeniz’s clients have been
weakened part. “We initiated a stop on short call and inves-
nations with rapidly expanding power needs that want to
tigated inside the engine and found the damage,” Deniz ex-
bridge gaps while power stations are built. However, the rel-
plains. Accordingly, the problem was identified ahead of an
atively short-term life of contracts and Karadeniz’ ability to
issue, and the damaged part was extracted and replaced. It
quickly deliver, supply and leave again means there are also
was at this point, Deniz says, that the close relationship
new market opportunities beyond the current area of oper-
Karadeniz and MAN have established came into play. “Their
ations in developing countries. Koçak points to a contract
customer service and upkeep is amazing,” Deniz says. With-
under discussion with the UK government to supply three
in hours of being notified, MAN Diesel & Turbo had sprung
Powerships with MAN installed engines, a first working in
into motion to get a replacement part flown to the site so
an advanced industrialized economy.
MORE EFFICIENCY, LOWER EMISSIONS
Only three months after the celebrated and acclaimed
Paris Climate Agreement, German climate protectors received bad news: CO2 emissions in Germany had once
In Europe, energy efficiency is supposed to increase by 27% and CO2 emissions to decrease by 40% by 2030. To reach these ambitious goals, Germany must work hard and is counting on highly efficient technologies.
again increased in 2015. High electricity exports, cold weather and lower fuel costs had once again caused more greenhouse gases to reach the atmosphere.
Germany’s energy policy, thus, is facing a dilemma. Since the turn of the century, Germany has pushed for a low-carbon energy environment. Renewable energies as
shining, respectively. That means that in the future, power
part of current electricity consumption have doubled since
stations will be needed that can generate electricity in-
2010. By now they account for nearly 33%. In the same time
stantly and are able to balance out fluctuations in renew-
frame, CO2 emissions only decreased by 4%. That is a big
able energies. “We will need flexible gas power plants for the
challenge for Germany. By 2020, emissions are supposed to
foreseeable future as complementary technology supple-
decrease by 40% in comparison with 1990. However, so far
mented by storage and demand management,” says energy
they have only decreased by about 27%. The energy efficien-
expert Matthias Zelinger. “These power plants have to have
cy goals are a long way off.
the midterm potential to be operable with greenhouse-gas-
That is why the federal government is working on new concepts. One key scenario is the exit from coal power. Espe-
toward renewables and gas.
cially older plants with low efficiencies are supposed be tak-
CHP (combined heat and power) is an important
en off the grid in a timely fashion. But that is not enough. “If
building block for Sigmar Gabriel, Germany’s Minister for
we want to reach the previously set climate protection goals,
Economic Affairs and Technology. He calls it an important
we have to reach climate neutrality by the middle of the cen-
“efficiency technology.” CHP plants generate electricity and
tury. Fossil fuels producing high emissions, like coal, can no
heat at the same time and utilize the respective fuels opti-
longer be used for power generation in this scenario,” says
mally. “We can reach overall efficiency factors of up to 95%,”
Matthias Zelinger, speaker for energy policy with the
says Tilman Tütken, Vice President MAN Diesel & Turbo
Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau (VDMA).
and European sales manager for the power plant division.
A scenario that seems quite drastic given that coal still ac-
The share of CHP in German electricity generation is sup-
counts for 40% of the German power-generation mix.
posed to increase to 18% by 2020. Additional motivation
WHO WILL CLOSE THE POWER-GENERATION GAP?
neutral fuels.” That means that fuel sources will shift more
may come from the EU’s goals to increase efficiency. Which means Germany would be catching up to the
Renewable energies alone cannot replace the large
leaders in Europe when it comes to CHP utilization. Den-
amount of coal-generated power. Wind turbines and solar
mark is ahead of the pack, having already reached the high-
panels only produce when the wind is blowing or the sun is
est development standard, with more than 50%.
▶ Cutting pollution: Combined heat and power reduces energy input and carbon dioxide emissions.
ILLUSTRATION: SÃ©bastien Thibault
We will need flexible gas power plants for the foreseeable future as complementary technology.”
Matthias Zelinger, speaker for energy policy with the Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau (Mechanical Engineering Industry Association)
◀ CHP plants simultaneously generate electrical energy and heat. The heat is used for heating purposes (local and district heating) or for production processes.
OVERALL EFFICIENCY FACTOR UP TO 95%
engine power plants are built based on a modular system
The German government aims to replace coal-fired
that is scalable from seven megawatts to any desired size.
plants with gas-fired cogeneration technologies that are
This modular building method allows for the load-based ad-
low in CO2 emissions. This is an area where MAN can draw
dition or removal of individual power units. Engines can
on considerable experience. Early in 2016 the corporation
reach their full performance within only minutes. “That is
equipped a CHP power plant with four gas turbines of the
a factor that makes gas engine power plants highly flexible.
MGT series for the SAIC Volkswagen Automotive Company
And this flexibility is necessary when the future generation
Ltd. (SVW) in Shanghai. Each of the four turbines not only
of renewable energy in the power grid grows and the re-
delivers electrical energy, but also enables the use of waste
quired remaining residual energy fluctuates,” describes
heat for the production of process steam. This way the pow-
Tütken. Cogeneration plants allow customers to respond
er plant reaches an overall efficiency factor of over 80%.
quickly to price signals from the market. “With these en-
“The inauguration of this cogeneration system is a mile-
gines, it is worth revving up the plant for 15 minutes when
stone for our automobile production in China. The plant de-
the prices are high,” explains Tütken. This allows for reve-
livers steam and electricity for our Car Plant 3 here at SAIC
nues in the area of balancing energy, which serves as a re-
Volkswagen and replaces all coal-fired plants. That means
serve and compensates for power grid fluctuations.
an annual reduction in CO2 emissions by 59,000 metric
Are gas engines the superior technology? Tütken
tons,” explains Prof. Dr. Jochem Heizmann, president and
does not want to leave this as a blanket statement. “This is
CEO of the Volkswagen Group China.
the question most often asked by clients,” he says. “But
As early as 2014, MAN Diesel & Turbo put a gas engine
there just is no definitive answer. It depends on each case
power plant into operation at the VW location in Braun
individually. What is the purpose of the plant? For example,
schweig, Germany. This allows the car manufacturer to gen-
in the case where process steam needs to be generated, tur-
erate highly efficient heat and power and emits 30,000 few-
bines are almost always the better solution since the ex-
er metric tons of CO2 per year. Even greater savings will be
haust heat has a higher initial temperature. In contrast, gas
achieved by the energy provider EnBW with their combined
engine plants are usually advantageous as a district heating
heat and power 30-megawatt gas engine plant. The gas en-
solution.” That is the conclusion of a recent study carried
gine power plant that is currently planned for a Stuttgart-
out by the University of Duisburg-Essen. In comparison
Gaisburg location will take the place of a primarily coal-
with a conventional gas-turbine combined-cycle power
fired plant to generate district heat and will thereby reduce
plant with a large gas turbine, the two versions of gas en-
CO2 emissions by up to 60,000 metric tons per year.
gines arranged in combined power plants showed higher
ILLUSTRATION: Sébastien Thibault
ENGINE OR TURBINE
energy and economic efficiency. Only a direct discussion with the client can clarify
Gas engine power plants are still a fairly young tech-
which technology is the right one for power and heat pro-
nology in European markets compared with the well-estab-
ducers. MAN Diesel & Turbo is one of the few enterprises
lished and widespread CHP facilities powered by gas tur-
that produce both engines and turbines and that can con-
bines. “After the ‘Energiewende,’” the German turnaround
sult with their clients without any bias toward one technol-
in energy policy, “and increasing renewable energy genera-
ogy or the other. “We have the most comprehensive CHP
tion, gas engine technology is just starting to gain ground,”
production portfolio in the market and can consult with
explains Tütken. The big advantage is the flexibility. MAN’s
our clients with full neutrality,” says Tütken.
Every year the Esmeralda of the Chilean Navy sets forth from its home port of Valparaíso for a six-month tour. During that time the naval officers and crew members who graduated from the respective academies complete their training on board the vessel. The training ship, which was named after the old corvette Esmeralda, commanded by Chilean naval hero Commander Arturo Prat, was built in Spain by the Sociedad de Astilleros de Cádiz S.A. The Chilean flag was hoisted in June of 1954. Although modern warships use advanced propulsion systems, traditional sailing ships are still deployed to enhance the professional vocation of future officers and petty officers. In the case of the Esmeralda, the art of sailing is supported by an MAN 12V23/30A-DVO complete propulsion package that includes an Alpha Propeller and Alphatronic 2A.
PHOTOS: Armada de Chile, Oliver Design
On the other side of the world another classic sailing vessel will soon set sail to train Indonesian recruits. When not propelled by its 3,350 square meters of sails, the 110-meter cadet training ship KRI Bima Suci will be powered by an MAN 6L21/31 engine. Ordered by the Defense Ministry of the Republic of Indonesia, the ship will have accommodations for 200 people, 120 of them being cadets in training.
◀ Graphical representation of what the “KRI Bima Suci” will look like after its completion in 2017.
W KEEPING HOPE AFLOAT
Africa Mercy is the world’s largest civilian hospital ship and offers much-needed medical help to thousands of people in developing countries every year.
“When we’re hot, sweaty and dirty down in the engine room, we sometimes lose track of what’s happening on the upper decks,” admits Mick Dunne, the Second Engineer on Africa Mercy. “Mostly, though, we’re acutely aware that the medical teams rely on us. They need us to provide oxygen and power as they carry out life-changing operations and procedures.” The engineers may have seemingly normal maritime routines and duties, but the Africa Mercy is no ordinary vessel. Not anymore. In her previous life, as Dronning Ingrid, the ship ferried rail carriages around the Danish Straits for the Danish State Railways. Today, she is the world’s largest civilian hospital ship. Dedicated to the continent of Africa, since 2007 she has brought state-of-theart healthcare to the poorest of the poor. Thanks to the Christian aid organization Mercy Ships, and the committed efforts of a unique crew.
With over 450 crew members at one time on board,
between 1,500 and 2,000 people from up to 40 nations serve on the floating hospital each year. Many spend anything between a few weeks to several years on the ship, often many times over many years. It’s this long-term commitment to Africa Mercy that makes it work. And it requires substantial sacrifice, too, as most crew members are volunteers, even those who stay for years. As such, they are required to raise enough funds to pay for their own travel costs, crew accommodation and food on board during their service, while at the same time losing out on any income.
▶ People line up to find help on board the “Africa Mercy,” the world’s largest floating hospital. ▼ In Benin, there are only six physicians for every 100,000 citizens, so the “Africa Mercy” is often the only chance for an operation.
PHOTOS: Josh Callow & Ruben Plomp/Mercy Ships
â–ź Away from the patients, but playing a key role: Engineer Mick Dunne has served since 2013 and plans to stay for at least two more years.
They need us to provide oxygen and power.â€? Mick Dunne, long-term volunteer and Second Engineer on Africa Mercy
7,000 OPERATIONS PER YEAR
SACRIFICES FOR A COMMON GOAL
Dr. Itengré Ouédraogo, who is originally from Burki-
na Faso and normally works as the Chief Medical Officer in a mission hospital in Niger, has served several times on
the maxillofacial team for an 18-month stint funded by friends, family and sponsors, and has witnessed heartbreaking conditions. “Some patients brought me to tears more than once,” she says. “It’s impossible to imagine their suffering before they reached us.” But it was still the most rewarding experience for her, emotionally and spiritually. “To me there is nothing more beautiful than desperate people receiving hope.” Elisabeth Rostved, a Danish surgical nurse, has served three times, taking care of patients before and after surgery. For her, contributing to the stories of personal transformation, especially of children, remains special. “To be part of the healing, knowing that they can grow up to have a normal life, is truly a privilege,” she adds.
REMOTE AREAS NEED EXPERT SUPPORT
Back down below, Mick Dunne, who served 23 years
board Africa Mercy. Motivated by a desire to be useful to
in the Royal Australian Navy as a Marine Engineer Officer,
others and his strong faith, Ouédraogo has provided sur-
is keeping the power supply running. The four MAN 21/31
gery to women who have sustained traumatic childbirth in-
GenSets – installed at favorable conditions in 2010 to power
juries. In much of the developing world, basic obstetric care
the floating hospital’s medical equipment – make his life
is not available, so women must live with, or die from, the
much easier, he says. As the person who’s responsible for
effects of unattended childbirth. Moreover, they are often
operations and maintenance in the engine room, he’s grate-
treated as outcasts by their families or villages. In an aver-
ful that he has modern machinery in such a remote part of
age week on Africa Mercy, Ouédraogo operates on over ten
the world. “It’s a real challenge working in areas without
patients, and feels he is able to repair their broken homes.
proper infrastructure, without sufficient resources, which
“I’ve seen women who came without hope to the ship, and
is why the close partnership with MAN is crucial for us, par-
left it with a smile and a feeling of thanksgiving,” he says.
ticularly for rapid technical support,” he explains. Dunne
As in any hospital, the nurses play a key role in pro-
has lived on board with his wife and three sons since 2013,
viding the necessary healthcare on Africa Mercy. Maryke du
and will probably stay another four years. The family has
Preez, from Pretoria, South Africa, served as the leader of
given up a lot, but feel more satisfied by their choice.
4 Maryke du Preez is from South Africa. She has volunteered her expertise as a surgical nurse. 5 First-world healthcare includes a simple, basic eye test, but it could change someone’s life.
Knudsgaard has felt the crew’s commitment firsthand. “It was a most humbling experience,” he says. “Our direct involvement makes me extremely proud.” Dunne is also appreciative of the partnership and especially of the fast turnaround of technical queries. He highlights a recent case where he e-mailed a photo of the equipment to MAN PrimeServ one evening, only to have the solution in his inbox the next morning. “It’s a blessing to have the support of such a large company worldwide that helps us keep the operations afloat and running smoothly,” he says. The partnership with MAN not only supports the engineers, but also means that expenses that would otherwise be necessary for maintenance can instead be spent on patient care.
2 The expert support from MAN makes a difference in remote regions. 3 Capturing one of the happier moments: Dr. Ouédraogo and Elisabeth Rostved say their goodbyes to a patient.
Since her transformation in 2007 into the largest ci-
vilian hospital ship in the world, Africa Mercy has cruised along the coast of Africa. Currently, she is docked in the port of Cotonou, Benin, for the fifth time, for a 10-month field service until June 2017. By then, the team of medical volun Since installing the GenSets, MAN has been commit-
teers is expected to perform 1,700 surgeries on board, as well
ted to offering support, providing spare parts, equipment
as treat more than 8,000 people at a dental clinic on land. In
and servicing at greatly reduced rates, but also with com-
Benin, a country with a population of 10.6 million, but only
prehensive crew training sessions with MAN PrimeServ en-
six physicians for every 100,000 citizens, access to adequate
gineers. Over the years, the commitment has grown. Re-
medical care is beyond the reach of many. With the average
cently, MAN’s ongoing engagement and support for Africa
life expectancy a mere 59 years, the region has a dire need
Mercy was formalized as a proper sponsorship agreement
for the skills of the crew.
and covers spare parts with an annual cost of €250,000.
Although most of the volunteer crew members are
“Such a partnership is essential to the ship, and also for
only on board for short stints, their passion for helping and
us to uphold our company’s values and sense of social
healing gels them quickly together into a team. This tight
responsibility,” says Poul Knudsgaard, Vice President
community is bringing first-world, cutting-edge healthcare
MAN Diesel & Turbo (Denmark). Having been on board,
to the people of Africa.
Since it was founded in 1978 by Don Stephens, an American and a devout Christian, Mercy Ships has provided free medical services valued at more than $1 billion to more than 2.5 million people. To provide this service, Mercy Ships depends on volunteers and donations. Find out how to donate your time, resources or money to the organization at www.mercyships.org
PHOTOS: Debra Bell, Timmy Baskerville, Michelle Murrey & Ruben Plomp/Mercy Ships
1 The “Africa Mercy” is now docked in Benin, where more than 8,000 patients will be treated in the dental clinic.
THE HYBRID FUTURE IS SMARTER DRIVEN BY DIGITAL AND GREENER FUELS The biggest change in shipping will be the improvement and spread of connectivity between ship and shore, with vessels
The fleet of the future will be in an ongoing digital ‘conversation’ with its managers.”
Knut Ørbeck-Nilssen, CEO of DNV GL – Maritime, the classification society
and their sensors and systems transmitting a constant stream of data. The fleet of the future will be in an ongoing digital “conversation” with its managers and perhaps even with a new “traffic control” system that is continually monitoring vessel positions and speeds. Fleet managers will be able to analyze this data, enabling them to advise the captain and crew on navigation, weather patterns, fuel consumption and port arrival. This will help reduce the risks of human error leading to accidents, increase cost efficiency and help improve environmental performance. Data will be widely shared. Ports will use it to help them plan and optimize loading and unloading.
Classification societies will analyze it to check the status of machinery and hull, letting owners and operators know when a survey is required, based on the condition of the systems, thus reducing downtime and unnecessary maintenance. The way that ships are powered will also change. The world’s modern fleet will rely on a broader range of fuels and propulsion solutions. On the long-haul trades, we could see a move toward dual-fuel engines, or pure gas-fueled, with newly developed renewable biofuels as part of the mix. The use of batteries to complement main engines will grow, to smooth power delivery, drive auxiliary systems and maximize energy efficiency. In some sectors, such as ferries and coastal vessels, we could see many more vessels powered completely or largely by electricity. At DNV GL we are excited to be a part of this coming transformation. We will continue to work with stakeholders to realize the potential of our industry.
Digitalization, climate change and big data are driving innovation and disruption across every single industry, shipping included. Leading marine experts reveal their distinct visions of the ship of the future.
VIRTUAL REALITY: A REAL PLUS By introducing virtual real-
In the future, it could work on even more levels. Imagine
ity into our design process,
being able to tour the engine rooms in the virtual world together
we have already taken our
with service engineers, suppliers, designers and ship owners, dis-
next big step into the fu-
cussing the service space, accessibility and maintenance. The
ture. Using our virtual real-
next step would be individual reality, when the ship has been de-
ity software ShipSpace, I
livered. Virtual reality could help in maintenance, allowing an
can be in Denmark, but also
engineer at sea to pull up a manual on the glasses and communi-
in the same room as a client
cate with the supplier back in the office in Europe. Virtual reality
in Australia. The software allows us to actually walk
will change the industry, for sure. Ships will be more sophisticated and more hybrid. It’s hard
through and experience a
to say, however, which system will win out, and there will be more
full-scale ship, discuss the
than one winner. Wind power will definitely increase in impor-
design, and decide together
tance. One of our ideas is that on certain routes, where time is not
whether we should include,
crucial, wind power will come in as an alternative to normal com-
move or remove some-
bustion. We investigated the feasibility of wind-assisted commer-
thing. Virtual reality is per-
cial vessels in our Windship project and concluded that such ships
fect for seeing vessel concepts and designs, understanding how
could be significantly more fuel efficient, and produce less pollu-
spaces work and what’s needed, while we are still at the draw-
tion, than mechanically driven ships. A back-up engine, maybe
ing-board stage. This is changing the design process, making it eas-
burning on gas, and advanced technology in the engine room
ier, smarter, faster. And it really works.
will, however, always be needed for the ship’s propulsion.
Finn Wollesen, Managing Director of Knud E. Hansen, ship designers
◀ Economically feasible and ecologically sound: the Windship design by Knud E. Hansen.
PHOTOS: Knud E. Hansen, Torben Soerensen, Damir Dvor
Virtual reality is perfect for seeing vessel concepts and designs.”
AUTONOMOUS FOR A SAFER, AFFORDABLE FUTURE
▶ EU funding supports the optimization of Flettner-type rotor sails from Norsepower.
Safety and cost are driving my vision of unmanned ships. Many accidents at sea are caused by human error, so lowcrew or no-crew vessels – equipped with innovative technologies and sensors for navigation, linked to fleet operation centers – will invariably improve safety. Such centers will control the ship just as the captain and the crew do now. In terms of costs, we see savings that are twofold, in
construction and in operations. Although the technology will add to the construction costs at first, in just a few years’ time the cost of building such a ship will be lower than for a vessel with a full “hotel system” on board. The challenge for unmanned shipping lies in technology but also in legislation. Until international shipping law is overhauled, autonomous ships will not operate in international waters. But by 2025, small unmanned ferries will operate within the territorial waters of a single country. By 2040, we will see autonomous, unmanned oceangoing vessels, connected via communication links to
By 2040, we will see autonomous, unmanned oceangoing vessels.”
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Carlos Jahn, Head of Fraunhofer Center for Maritime Logistics and Services CML
center on shore. Autonomous shipping won’t work in ships powered by heavy fuel, however, as this will always require an experienced crew and lots of manual work. Other fuels, such as LNG, and maintenance-reducing innovations in engine design and propulsion are needed. The aircraft industry should serve as our inspiration, where all the maintenance is possible on the ground. But we will need to completely rethink the whole design of a ship to reach our target.
◀ The Ecoship on a mission to become the most environmentally sustainable cruise ship in the world.
A COMPLEX FUTURE
What will power the ships of the future?
The simple one-fuel-for-all picture will change. Innovative answers are needed to meet the goal of low or zero emissions. Traditional liquid fuels are most likely here to stay, but in the future we are going to see a whole basket of hybrid systems and fuel types. Already engines have been developed so that they can change between traditional liquid fuels, low-sulfur designer fuels, and either natural gas, methanol, ethane or LNG. This increases the flexibility of the engines and results in lower operation costs for the owners. As a result, propulsion systems will become more complex, but also more environmentally friendly. Wind propulsion is on the cards, but we don’t expect to see ships that are purely wind driven. They couldn’t reach today’s requirements for speed and reliability. We just don’t see vessels being built without some sort of traditional propulsion system as part of a hybrid system. How advanced are wind-hybrid systems right now? Our propulsion systems can work together with wind-hybrid propulsion systems, supplementing wind power with the required thrust for maintaining the desired constant speed, whatever system is used to harness wind power, whether it involves sails, rotors or kites. For wind-hybrid propulsion, we recommend installing an MAN Alpha controllable pitch propeller with the latest MAN Alphatronic 3000 propulsion control system featuring the MAN Alpha Eco Speed Pilot. Furthermore, a reduced environmental footprint can be achieved by complementing the hybrid propulsion systems with our highly efficient MAN Alpha Kappel propeller design with its characteristic forwardly swept blade tips. What’s the secret to eco-friendly ships in the foreseeable future?
Many projects on harnessing wind energy in shipping are still at a fairly conceptual stage and are supported by public funding or sponsorships. The EU, for instance, is funding research into the Norsepower Rotor Sail Solution technology, a project involving the largest ever Flettner-type rotor sails. Peace Boat, the nonprofit and nongovernmental organization, is running the Ecoship project, which focuses on developing a flagship for sustainable energy solutions for the cruise and shipping industry. MAN Diesel & Turbo is closely following such projects, contributes wherever possible and has already developed the technology necessary for wind-hybrid propulsion systems.
ment is now essential for building a vessel that is compliant. It includes the gas-supply system, the engine with the proPHOTOS: Fraunhofer Institute, Norsepower RotorSails, Ecoship, Erik Gunst Lund
A complete, well-matched system. What was once seen as auxiliary equip-
pulsion system, as well as the exhaust gas after-treatment system. For instance, the exhaust recirculation systems
We are going to see a whole basket of hybrid systems.” Kjartan Ross, Business Development Manager at the Propeller & Aft Ship headquarters of MAN Diesel & Turbo, Denmark
and selective catalytic reduction systems already used in the automotive industry are now available for the marine industry and can reduce NO x to close to zero levels. And it doesn’t stop there. At MAN Diesel & Turbo we are constantly pushing our R&D further to continuously develop new innovative solutions. ▪
LNG CARRIER SHIP The floating storage and regasification unit receives LNG from Âarriving LNG tankers.
4 X MAN 9L51/60DF MAIN ÂGENERATOR ENGINES Generation of propulsion power and onboard power. CARGO COMPRESSOR HOUSE Boil-off gas compressors feed dual-fuel engines with gas from cargo tanks at defined pressure; by means of a heat exchanger, the temperature is adjusted. MEMBRANE-TYPE CARGO CONTAINMENT SYSTEM The transferred LNG is pumped to the storage tanks. The naturally vaporizing LNG is used as fuel for the engines. REGASIFICATION PLANT LNG is sent from the tanks to the regasification plant installed on the topside of the FSRU. The regasification plant directly regasifies LNG from its liquid state and supplies the gas to the onshore gas network. The main equipment of the regasification plant includes recondenser, high-pressure LNG booster pumps, vaporizers and sea water system. Depending on the onshore gas network, send-out pressure can be up to 100 bars.
This is a rendition of an FSRU – which stands for “floating storage and regasification unit” and is basically a floating LNG import terminal. Both FSRUs and onshore LNG terminals take LNG and regasify it – taking it from the liquid form, where it is reduced 600:1 in volume, and expanding it back into a gaseous form for the production of electricity and other uses. Both facilities need a berth for the LNG carrier, storage tanks and pipelines. But traditional, land-based terminals take five to seven years to be planned, constructed and brought online. Old LNG carriers, in contrast, can be converted into FSRUs in just 14 to 16 months. FSRUs not only get to market faster, but are also cheaper: a new-build 170,000-cubic-meter FSRU typically costs around $250 million, whereas the cost of developing a landbased terminal of comparable size is likely to be in the region of $1 billion. MAN already equips FSRUs with their engines. In addition, MAN Cryo offers cryogenic fuel gas systems, providing special storage tanks, pipes and cooling systems for the LNG industry. Onshore MAN pipeline motor compressors are, moreover, in use for transporting the gas.
ILLUSTRATIONS: Hokolo 3D
GAS TERMINAL Compressor stations are critically important to the transportation of natural gas over long distances. MAN Diesel & Turbo offers both conventional pipeline compressors (RV) and hermetically sealed compact compressors with an integrated high-speed motor (HOFIM™ or MOPICO®).
Floating regasification is a quick way to get LNG into a yet-to-be-developed market. MAN engines and compressors play key parts on these mobile units.
DIALOGUE & OPINION
TO FRY OR NOT TO FRY?
The last quarter-century has been defined by fossil fuel and increased carbon emissions. Decarbonization requires a rapid transformation that is achievable only through new technologies and radical digitalization, argues Prof. Dieter Helm, a leading economist specializing in utilities, infrastructure, regulation and the environment.
After a quarter of a century of trying to
lead to defeatism. Climate change is a solv-
electricity. Add in the electrification of trans-
tackle climate change, carbon emissions keep
able problem – just not by existing policies. It
port (and its digitalization through robotics
going up. Kyoto, Paris and even financial cri-
is easy to define: how can sufficient energy
and AI), and the creation of new materials,
ses like that in 2008 have made little impact.
be provided to meet a global population of
like graphene, and the conventional world of
The slowdown of China has begun to register,
around 10 billion and, under current growth
fossil fuels as the primary energy sources
but there is always India to take up the strain.
rates, GDP around 16 times bigger in 2100,
morphs into one where the primary way en-
Though there have been some limited gains
without more carbon emission?
ergy is provided is by electricity, and the
in the US through the switch from coal to gas,
This future energy demand is going to
other energy sources jostle for a role in gen-
Europe’s contribution has been to switch
be very much about electricity, and hence it
erating electricity. The answer is that this
from carbon production to imported carbon
is in generating electricity that we have to
electricity must come from near-zero-carbon
in its carbon consumption. The illusion that
look for answers. Why? Because the world’s
sources. None of the existing technologies –
Europe has made great strides is created
economies are digitalizing. Robots, 3-D print-
except perhaps nuclear – can contribute
because it chooses to measure the wrong
ing and artificial intelligence (AI) are the bed-
much to this. Current wind and solar are low
things, and deindustrialization and low
rock of future manufacturing and services.
density, diffuse and intermittent technolo-
economic growth are no substitutions for
Almost everything can be digitalized, and
gies, which, despite all the lobbying from
reducing carbon footprints. Germany is a
most things will be. Everything digital is
those who benefit from the subsidies, make
stand-out case: whilst trumpeting
very little difference to this global
the “greenness” of the Energiewende,
problem. If we have to rely on these
it has added 13 GW of new coal in the last 15 years, some of it using the extremely polluting lignite. Business as usual, pumped up with new objectives such as the Paris 1.5 degrees warming (when Paris doesn’t achieve the 2 degrees, even if everyone does what they promise), is a world in which we will fry. There is no shor tage of fossil fuels, the prices are back to normal, and demand is holding up. It pays to be ruthlessly realistic about the carbon mess we are in. But it should not
The endgame is in sight and with it we may finally get to grips with climate change.”
technologies we will fry, and do so in an expensive way. There are four main low-carbon technologies: solar (including wind), nuclear, geothermal and gravity. We can probably rule out gravity as a major contributor, since this is largely about big dams, and the environmental impacts are often awful. Geothermal may help, but not in a hurry, and then probably largely for heating. That leaves nuclear and solar. Current nuclear is largely based around the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and
One hour of sunlight is worth a year’s global output of the electricity industry today. We will not run out of solar radiation. Improving the application – the ways of capturing solar radiation and turning it into usable electricity – requires new materials, nanotechnologies and the development of solar film. Instead of having individual panels, imagine applying solar film to virtually everything – windows, buildings, roof tiles, roads, clothes, cars and indeed virtually any surface area. These technological developments may never take place. They may fail because we are instead wasting billions and billions on existing solar, wind and nuclear, which will not solve our problems. The science may not work. But we have no option: either we develop new technologies or we fry. Alongside these new ways of generating electricity for a digital age, there are a host of exciting technological opportunities already appearing. These include new batteries and other forms of storage, powering not only cars, but also backing up solar at night. They include the application of digital technologies to grids, networks and household energy management, as well as the demand side through smart systems. Decentralized networks with smaller and more local balanced systems may evolve. After a century in which little has happened technologically in energy, the
ILLUSTRATION: Sergio Ingravalle
prospect is for rapid and radical trans its variants. There are over 400 worldwide,
in scale, and just as politically difficult to lo-
formation. The internal combustion engine
and most are old or very old. They are closing
cate near populations. Nuclear needs a techni-
and the coal power station are 19th century,
faster than new ones are being built. The
cal breakthrough. This may come – and it has
and gas combined-cycle turbines and PWRs
gradual decommissioning has been aug-
been repeatedly promised. But even if it does
are mid-20th centur y. These were the
mented by the forced closures in Germany
it will probably be a post-2050 technology.
fossil-fuel times, but now the endgame is in
and in Japan, together taking out over 60 re-
That leaves solar. Conventional solar is
sight and with it we may finally get to grips
actors. Even if China builds as planned, and
hopelessly inefficient and requires lots of so-
with climate change. Kyoto and Paris encour-
others in the Middle East and India also in-
lar panels. It is hard to see it really making a
age world leaders to believe the problem is
vest, it will take quite a while for these new
massive impact without solving two prob-
being cracked, but it is only through digitali-
ones to make up the shortfall.
lems: how to open up the light spectrum to
zation, electrification and the supporting
The nuclear problem is one of cost and
capture more of the sun’s radiation, and how
R&D that we will protect our planet from sig-
complexity, as well as political acceptability.
to capture the energy much more prolifically.
There is roughly one big accident every de-
Opening up the light spectrum involves cap-
cade (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fuku-
turing bits like the infrared and even the UV.
Dieter Helm is Professor of Energy Policy at
shima), and another one will further delay
This is a “science” problem, and many think
the University of Oxford, and author of The
investments. Some pin their hopes on small
it can be done. This would change the solar
Carbon Crunch (2016) and Burn Out: The
modular nuclear reactors, but these are in
opportunities by an order of magnitude.
Endgame for Fossil Fuels (March 2017), both
practice often just small PWRs – less efficient
There is, after all, no shortage of solar power.
published by Yale University Press.
NEWS & FACTS
A smaller, eco-friendly plant for Germany In the future, Stuttgart’s air quality is set to improve. Energie Baden-Württemberg AG (EnBW) has commissioned MAN Diesel & Turbo to plan the construction of a combined heat and power (CHP) plant of up to 30 MW to replace the mainly coal-fired thermal one pictured. “Switching from coal to gas will reduce CO2 emissions by up to 60,000 metric tons per year,” says Wayne Jones, Member of the Executive Board for Global Sales and After Sales at MAN Diesel & Turbo. The CHP at the Stuttgar t-
Gaisburg site will be operated using three MAN type 20V35/44G gas en-
BILLION US DOLLARS
How much the Australian Antarctic program will invest in research, including a multi-million-dollar icebreaker ship to be powered by two MAN 16V32/44CR main engines.
of oxygen a day will be produced in Secunda, South Africa, by a machinery train from MAN Diesel & Turbo that features the world’s largest compressor. The AR-MAX1 breathes in one million cubic meters of air an hour.
gines and will supply electrical power and 30 MW of district heating.
First orders: the Italian Navy chooses the MAN D175 engine MAN Diesel & Turbo has won the contract to supply the first shipset of GenSets for the multipurpose, offshore patrol vessel – Pattugliatore Polivalente d’Altura (PPA) – program. Each vessel will feature four 12V175D GenSets, each delivering 1,640 kW. The newbuilds have been ordered as part of the Italian Navy’s fleet renewal, a major project that also features other vessels with MAN technology. Fincantieri, one of the world’s largest shipbuilding groups and reference player in naval shipbuilding, will build the ships in Italy. The GenSets were chosen for their highly reliable and fuel-efficient design, as Dr. Matthias Schlipf, the Project Lead responsible for the MAN 175D, highlights: “The MAN 175D is compact, reliable and efficient, properties that are of essential importance to allow safe maneuverability in the most challenging and roughest
▼ The ReTPac concept serves refinery applications such as hydro-treating, hydro-desulfurization and hydrocracking.
weather conditions.” The PPAs will serve multiple roles, including patrolling with sea-rescue missions.
in Honiara, the Solomon Islands, have received a 10 MW boost to their electricity supply from four MAN 9L27/38 diesel generator sets.
With a double-digit-million order volume, MAN Diesel & Turbo will deliver two turbomachinery trains of its ReTPac concept to a refinery 450 kilometers south of Iran’s capital, Tehran. Ordered by Iranian EPC Nargan Company, they will be operated by Esfahan Oil Refining Company (EORC). The ReTPac customized design is based on preengineered modules, ensuring short delivery times, and offers multiple refinery applications.
PHOTOS: EnBW, Yves Beaulieu/Plain Picture, MAN
▲ The 12-cylinder MAN 175D engine is available with an output spectrum from 1,500 to 2,200 kW and also scores highly in eco-friendliness.
What Really Drives Us? The power to set the world in motion
of global trade is powered by MAN marine engines
locations make up our global service network
megawatts of power and heat are generated at MAN plants
Marine Engines & Systems Power Plants Turbomachinery After Sales MAN Diesel & Turbo is a major driver of global commerce and energy production. Our highly efďŹ cient transportation and energy solutions deliver reliable shipping and sustainable power worldwide. And with our extensive and ever-expanding service network, weâ€™re ready to meet your after-sales needs wherever you are in the world. On water or on land, MAN Diesel & Turbo is your ideal partner for power that sets the world in motion. Find out more at: www.mandieselturbo.com
With this issue of MANmagazine by MAN Diesel & Turbo, we invite you to explore our universe of versatile technology. Join us to discover the...
Published on Jan 12, 2017
With this issue of MANmagazine by MAN Diesel & Turbo, we invite you to explore our universe of versatile technology. Join us to discover the...