power REBOOTING THE SILK ROAD
A new logistics route opens up to China
PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS Power prospects for Senegal
02.2017 SMART ISLANDS
Isolated communities are providing a benchmark for self-sustaining grids
As First World inhabitants, we take a lot for granted. It is
only when we deliberately move the curtains aside that we discover the background machinery that so smoothly maintains our privileged existence. The curtain we have peeked behind in this issue covers the amazing work of the navy. We jumped at the chance to visit the HNLMS Holland, a Dutch Navy offshore-patrol vessel, and were impressed by the personal commitment, professionalism and teamwork of a crew whose challenges range from chasing drug traffickers to helping hurricane
victims – all in a day’s work. Another article in this issue has historic roots that can be traced back to Marco Polo, the great explorer. In the 13th century he traveled on the so-called Silk Road from Europe to China, one of the world’s most ancient trade routes. With the rise of global shipping, its significance faded, but it is now about to undergo a resurgence with heavy Chinese investment into the Iron Silk Road – a new European rail connection to China. To learn more about the future possibilities for this historic route, we sent our technology, equipped with state-of-the-art sensors, on a 16-day trip through the heart of continental Europe and Asia. On our final journey, rugged green mountains meet barren Caribbean landscapes when we contrast two equally isolated spots at opposite ends of the world: the island of Bonaire and the Faroe Islands. As distant and different as they are, they have one thing in common: both operate one of the world’s most advanced hybrid-energy systems. As you will see, there is a lot to
We were impressed by the personal commitment.”
learn from these smart islands. I hope you will enjoy the journey we are about to take you on.
Dr. Uwe Lauber, CEO of MAN Diesel & Turbo
MASTHEAD: MAN MAGAZINE is published two times a year in English. · PUBLISHED BY MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Dr. Jan Dietrich Müller, Group Communications & Marketing, Stadtbachstr. 1, 86153 Augsburg, Germany · Editors in Chief: Jan Hoppe (firstname.lastname@example.org), Felix Brecht (email@example.com) · PUBLISHER C3 Creative Code and Content GmbH, Heiligegeistkirchplatz 1, 10178 Berlin, Germany, Tel.: +49 30 44032-0, www.c3.co · CONTENT DIRECTOR Klaus-Peter Hilger · EDITORS & AUTHORS Cedric Arnaud, Deborah Capras (responsible), Kirti Letsch. Freelance author: Eamonn Fitzgerald · COPY EDITOR Asa Tomash · PROJECT MANAGEMENT Christa Krick · GRAPHICS Charlotte Bourdeix, Michael Helble, Andrea Hüls, Christian Kühn, Linda Lorenz · PHOTO EDITOR Elke Latinovic, Samantha Taruvinga · COVER IMAGE Jan Egil Kristiansen · PRODUCTION C3 Creative Code and Content GmbH · PRINTING Pinsker Druck und Medien GmbH, Pinskerstraße 1, 84048 Mainburg, Germany · REPRODUCTION permitted with reference. Any changes must be coordinated with the editors. · COPYRIGHT ©2017 MAN Diesel & Turbo and C3 Creative Code and Content GmbH. All information provided in this magazine is intended for general guidance only and is not intended to be used as a substitute for specific technical or commercial information and advice.
14 HYBRID POWER PIONEERS
REMOTE ISLANDS: MODELS IN SUSTAINABILITY Isolation drives innovative solutions in advanced hybrid-energy systems on the Faroe Islands and Bonaire.
PHOTOS: Simon Katzer, Henri-Jean Vittecoq, Aker BP, Nicky Bakker, Olavur Frederiksen
06 08 10 14 20 22
MAN and hybrid propulsion specialist AKA have joined forces. MY MAN
Banking on digital
An electronic upgrade improves efficiency and reliability for the German Federal Bank. POWER
As no roads lead to the Amazonian city of Iquitos, commissioning a new power plant was a challenge.
When the World Bank has a say
How public-private partnerships are improving the power prospects for Senegal.
Shining a light on smart islands
Two remote islands on opposite sides of the world are the pioneers in self-sustainable communities. MARINE
Fueled for change
Moving forward toward eco-friendly marine transport: freighters powered by LNG.
Powered up, on patrol and mission ready On board the HNLMS Holland for counter-drug, anti-piracy and humanitarian missions.
28 32 34 38 44 46
Offshore turbines: up and turning
Facing the challenges of the forces of nature with engineering, expertise and advanced equipment. TURBO
Subsea technology goes topside
A multitalent and a breakthrough in offshore compression: the Ivar Aasen oil platform.
Tapping the treasures of the deep
Vast deposits and major reforms are attracting international players in the oil industry to Brazil.
Rebooting the Silk Road
Why the modern Iron Silk Road works as a viable alternative for transporting goods to China. DIALOGUE & OPINION
“It’s not a revolution yet!”
How far can 3-D printing change manufacturing, and who stands to benefit in the future?
News & facts
Brief business updates.
▲ The “Deepwater Thalassa”: the world’s first hybrid drilling vessel. Among other improvements, AKA technology ensures fuel savings of over 40%.
▲ Jason Aspin: leading the switch to electrical systems with smaller carbon footprints.
The fast-evolving transition to decarbonization and digitization requires strong partnerships. In 2017, MAN Diesel & Turbo acquired a 40% stake in Aspin Kemp & Associates (AKA), a specialist in electric and hybrid systems. Jason Aspin, co-founder and Managing Director, reveals why the tie-up works for both parties – and for customers.
er and hybrid power and propulsion solutions. So, it is a winwin set-up, and, yes, you could say, a match made in heaven. How will your customers benefit? What does this partnership essentially bring to the table? This is a partnership between a larger, established and global-oriented group, a specialist manufacturer of diesel and gas engines, and a small, nimble and agile company, a specialist in highreliability power, hybrid technology and energy storage sys-
How would you describe the partnership between your
tems. This partnered approach will enable us to develop new
company and MAN Diesel & Turbo SE? Is it a match made
applications on a larger scale. Particularly when it comes to
in marine-power heaven? For many years, we have been
marine propulsion, we see a distinct advantage to this tie-up
struggling with what would be the ideal strategic partner. As
for clients. Together, we will link up the MAN Diesel & Turbo
a small company, it’s hard to compete against larger organi-
expertise in engine technology with our knowhow in ener-
zations, even though we might have a superior technical solu-
gy storage and energy management systems. This combina-
tion. The industry trend is also moving towards complete
tion will lead the industry in improvements in reliability
packages, so we need to be able to deliver such solutions. The
and safety, and to reduced emissions. There are lots of areas
competences of MAN Diesel & Turbo in the fields of engines,
where we will be able to leverage this relationship to build
exhaust gas after-treatment, and gas and propulsion systems
the solutions our customers seek. Solutions that would have
complement our expertise and technology in electrical pow-
been more difficult to deliver separately.
How so? If you look at how the market is developing and the
added value of an IoT solution does not lie so much in detailed
challenges our customers face, there is a lot of insecurity
insight into the operational status of each and every asset. It’s
about the future. In the face of tightening emission regula-
the overall system he is interested in. So this is where we are
tions, being a trusted OEM who provides components is
trying to take things. MAN Diesel & Turbo provides the adap-
not good enough anymore. We need to be trusted advisors,
tive knowledge on the engine side, and we can combine that
too, and not only offer optimization of isolated components,
with our knowledge of power and automation systems. Such
but also look at power and propulsion from a systemic
a combined offering of digital solutions has the potential to
angle. Clients need partners who offer integrated solutions
drive efficiency, reduce costs and improve reliability.
tailored to their specific challenges. Our area of expertise is integration, pulling different components together and
Your first joint project will be to supply a diesel-electric
making them work as a single system. This joint expertise
propulsion package for a multipurpose supply vessel –
allows us to offer the guidance and system approach our
can you tell us little more about the project? We are really
looking forward to successfully getting it out the door and
MAN Diesel & Turbo promotes a maritime energy transition, a global shift to gas as a fuel to reduce emissions from shipping. What is your take on the subject? With the Paris Agreement in place, the maritime industry – like any other – has to reduce its carbon footprint. If we are to make this work and reach climate neutrality by 2050, everyone needs to chip in. MAN has been a real driver behind the move towards more eco-friendly propulsion systems in shipping, both technically and – especially lately – also on a political level. From our side, since we founded the company just over 20 years ago, we have always focused on developing technology to reduce environmental impact, increase reliability and safety, while reducing operating costs. So in a
Jason Aspin is the co-founder and Managing director of Aspin Kemp & Associates, a systems integration and technology company specializing in power supply, energy management and drive systems for marine applications. Based in Montague, Prince Edward Island, Canada, it is the world market leader in equipping diesel-hybrid-powered ship propulsion systems with integrated battery storage and high-reliability onboard power systems in dynamic-positioning applications for the marine and offshore oil and gas sectors.
way, both companies have been driving the energy transition, just from different ends. The transition will continue to change and morph as we go forward, but together we are even stronger leaders in this movement.
being able to demonstrate how we can seamlessly put together a complete package. The key to its success is developing an
Next to decarbonization, digitization is a major trend.
AKA/MAN solution that provides all the reliability and effi-
How will it change the industry? There is a lot of focus on
ciencies of AKA’s successful power solutions in a power and
digitization right now. But it often lacks direction. I’m confi-
propulsion package. Lower fuel consumption, maintenance
dent that together we will be able to provide this direction.
costs and emissions will be the result. Our expertise in ener-
Essentially, we will bring more clarity on how data can be
gy management and electrical-system integration, combined
used to provide real value to the owners. This will involve
with the vast experience in power-train solutions on the side
capturing and combining all the data that both companies
of MAN Diesel & Turbo, allowed us to deliver together a
have access to, and then figuring out what questions we need
completely integrated power and propulsion system for this
to ask of this data to bring value to the operators. Most cus-
vessel. The project is moving along well. We’re expecting
tomers are looking for partners here, not companies that tell
to be in operation around mid-2018.
them what they need. Customers have valuable process knowledge and problems that can be solved within the data
How do you see the long-term impact of this partnership
that is available. We believe that a successful model involves
with MAN Diesel & Turbo? I see us as joint leaders in tech-
a systems-based, iterative approach, with significant custom-
nology and engineering, developing new solutions, solving
er and stakeholder participation. Everyone is trying to offer
problems that are out there now, and building a basis for
their solution to this, but the provided packages are often of
tackling future ones, too. We will push the limits as far as the
more value to the OEM than to the owner, as they lack a
technology goes. Decarbonization and digitization present
systems approach. Each operator is running a multitude of
all kinds of challenges, and if we are perceptive and flexible,
assets, from a multitude of OEMs, on each of his ships. The
we will be able to master them for our clients.
BANKING ON DIGITAL
Over 3,000 people work in the 30 buildings on the campus of the German Federal Bank (Deutsche Bundesbank), one of the largest central banks in the world. Since 1998, an MAN 6L 32/40DF engine has generated energy at the combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Dieter Leichner, the head of the plant, explains why the bank decided on an electronic upgrade.
What is the set-up at the campus? The MAN engine generates electricity for our own micro grid at the bank, heat for the buildings on the campus, hot water, cooling for the IT systems and air conditioning in summer. We use 100% of the energy ourselves. The engine runs around 4,000–5,000 hours a year. Why did you call on MAN PrimeServ? It was simply time for a digital upgrade. This MAN 6L 32/40DF engine has been an absolutely reliable source of energy for over 19 years. Mechanically, there was essentially nothing actually wrong. It was running flawlessly, in fact. But we wanted to take advantage of the next generation of monitoring systems, without having to replace the engine. As MAN PrimeServ has been a close, trusted partner throughout the lifetime of this engine, and also knows our needs inside and out, we knew we could trust them completely to come up with the best solution for our particular situation. What was the solution? A state-of-the-art automation system is at the core of the upgrade. MAN PrimeServ designed the hardware and software, adapting their SaCoSone to fit our engine precisely. On top, the injection unit and gas valves were replaced with next-generation electronic components, so they are now aligned with the system and can work seamlessly together. What were the challenges for the digital retrofit? Carrying out the whole retrofit and testing on site was obviously a challenge, but it was actually a very positive experience. During the upgrade, it was extremely useful to have the same contacts at MAN as we have had for years. The team worked so well, were clearly committed to implementing the best-possible solution, that it gave us confidence in the whole process. It ran smoothly. Honestly, it was an enormous achievement, and I recognize it as such, I have to say. What’s the biggest difference for you? Performance is clearly better. We need much less gas to generate the same energy, around 3%–5% less. This upgrade has made a difference to our environmental footprint overall. For me, personally, it’s made my work a lot easier, as the system is more user-friendly. And we have a stable, efficient and reliable engine!
DIETER LEICHNER HEAD OF THE COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PLANT, GERMAN FEDERAL BANK
1 1 Upgrade successful: the MAN 6L 32/40DF engine on site at the CHP plant of Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt.
PHOTOS: Dominik Pietsch
2 Enjoying a much clearer overview: Dieter Leichner checking the brand-new control cabinet.
â–ś The Iquitos power plants amid tropical rain forest.
Other than a 65-mile, dead-end stretch to the town of Nauta, there are no roads leading in or out of the Amazonian city of Iquitos. Only the river and a small airport provide access to Peru’s largest and most isolated jungle town. Due to its remote location, the city is not connected to the national power grid. And while plans to connect Iquitos via an electricity transmission line that would run for approximately 586 kilometers through the Amazon exist, they have been delayed indefinitely due to environmental concerns and disputes over indigenous territory rights. When it became apparent that old and obsolete thermal stations would no longer be able to meet the city’s power demands, Israeli EPC contractor Telemenia was commissioned with the installation of a new power plant in 2014. A logistically demanding project, considering that all large parts – seven MAN Diesel & Turbo engines among them – had to be transported in on the Amazon River. After successful completion, the power plant started commercial operation in autumn 2017, ensuring the power supply to the nearly 500,000 inhabitants of Iquitos. With an output of 80 MW – generated by seven diesel engines of the type 20V32/44CR that meet the environmental requirements of the Amazon – the power station supplies baseload electricity to the city. 09
There are just over 15 million people living in Senegal in the far-western region of Africa. The local residents have an estimated average annual income of just under $2,500, and they consume around 250 kilowatt-hours of electricity per person per year. As a comparison, the annual electricity consumption per person in the European Union is far above 6,000 kilowatt-hours. Large areas of this African country still lack power, and in many regions candles continue to provide the light at night. This is all about to change, as Senegal has real potential. The economy grew by 6.6% last year, and the country has a stable democracy. It is a country in transition. Early in 2016, at an inauguration ceremony for a new diesel combined cycle (DCC) power plant that is equipped with five MAN 18V48/60 engines and a MARC
An important contribution to the development of West Africa
The background in numbers _
Population growth per annum: + 2.9% Electrification of the country: 26%
Number of participating countries: 13 Number of suppliers: 70
steam turbine, President Macky Sall formally announced, “The economic upswing will only be successful if we deal with the energy supply with a sensible energy mix and successful public-private partnerships.”
SUCCESSFUL PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
A recently published World Bank report confirms the
head of state’s point of view. Titled “Linking Up: PublicPrivate Partnerships in Power Transmission in Africa,” the paper supports the idea that the private sector can successfully participate in financing, building and maintaining Africa’s energy supply. Such investments, the report concludes, are critical to delivering cost-effective power to households and industries, making it all the more
◀ MATELEC CEO Sami Soughayar (second from left) with President Macky Sall.
PHOTOS: Henri-Jean Vittecoq
Since 2016 a highly efficient diesel combined cycle power plant in Tobène, 90 km north of Dakar, covers about 20% of Senegal’s energy needs. Set up as a public-private partnership, it could serve as a blueprint for resolving energy shortages on the African continent.
WHEN THE WORLD BANK HAS A SAY
◀ Seven bridges were removed to transport the engines the 90 km from Dakar to the site. Speed limit: 15 km/h. Time needed: 24 hours. A moment to celebrate: the arrival of the first MAN 18V48/60 engine at the site. ▼
BEIRUT important for the private sector to participate. As public-
commitment and confidence in the project.” It worked.
private partnerships (PPPs) have reduced project costs and
MATELEC will manage the power plant for the next 20 years
expanded coverage in other regions, including Brazil and
and will sell the power to the national energy company
Peru, the report proposes that the same is possible in Africa,
Senelec as a way to finance their own investment and to
where two in three people still live without access to elec-
serve the long-term loans.
financial guarantees, the World Bank experts summarize. The new 115 MW Tobène power plant covers about
FINANCING WITH CONDITIONS
Sami Soughayar, MATELEC’s CEO, explains the diffi-
20% of the energy of Senegal and is a prime example
culties in building a power plant in the developing African
of how such a PPP can deliver. It was not built by the
nations. “The World Bank looks at all aspects of a project,
state-run energy company Senelec. And operations are not
down to the smallest of details. Was the contract award
managed by a public entity either. Instead, the Lebanese
transparent? Did we adhere to environmental and compli-
power plant specialist MATELEC successfully built this new
ance rules and regulations? Is the network infrastructure
electricity-generating plant as a so-called independent
sufficiently developed? Can we secure long-term fuel sup-
power producer (IPP) in close cooperation with MAN. Proj-
ply? In a nutshell, the power plant has to be able to operate
ect manager Pierre Morantin of MAN Diesel & Turbo France
sustainably over the life of the contract, even if the political
explains: “This is a turnkey power plant. The investment of
framework changes locally.” This means that the Senegalese
€120 million has been financed to 80% with a World Bank
government had to make guarantees and adjust the legal
loan. The highly energy-efficient DCC technology was es-
framework accordingly. And this is not common practice,
sential to secure this funding. The remaining 20% will
as Soughayar reports: “In some countries, the local govern-
come from private investors at MATELEC, as a sign of their
ment cannot handle these complex processes, as it seems
PHOTOS: Henri-Jean Vittecoq (2)
tricity. Private capital has led to positive results, thanks to
culturally foreign to them.” This is where MATELEC comes in and works as an intermediary. Long before the first blueprints were drawn up, the Beirut-based company worked hand-in-hand with the state-run energy supplier to fulfill all requirements of international lenders. Time plays an im-
The Tobène power plant covers 20% of the country’s electricity consumption. ▼
portant role here. “Government entities are under a lot of pressure from the population to generate fast results. That is why we took the risk of starting the power plant construction with our own funds before the financial closing was completely wrapped up,” explains MATELEC’s CEO.
PROSPECTS FOR AFRICA
An additional stipulation by the World Bank was the
requirement to use local labor. “It was very complex to organize, but we managed to get the power plant on the grid in time, and finished the whole project, from ground-breaking to launch, in just 15 months,” summarizes the project manager, Pierre Morantin, proudly and reminisces further: “My thank-you mail at the end of the project went out to 200 MAN employees and partners from Germany to India.” Sami Soughayar is also satisfied: “MAN and MATELEC made a concrete contribution to Senegal’s development. Based on this joint experience, we want to build additional power plants on the continent and help satisfy the incredible need for energy. Over time, this could also help ease the migratory pressures in the region. For this to happen, what’s needed is a continued willingness to take risks and a productive cooperation on an international scale.”
The details tell the story
Project in numbers _
Hours of backoffice work: 40,000 Weight of one single engine: 320 metric tons Cement used: 6,000 m3
Manpower used: 50 technicians and engineers from MAN Diesel & Turbo
◀ Powerful together: The five MAN 18V48/60 engines and the MARC steam turbine generate up to 115 MW.
Xxx there are three sizes for quotes. 20/20 Pt, 25/25 and 30/30. The big mark can be above the content or before the text xxxxx.”
Name and last Name, job position and company infos which are very long
Xxx there are three sizes for quotes. 20/20 Pt, 25/25 and 30/30. The big mark can be above the content or before the text xxxxx.”
Name and last Name, job position and company infos which are most very long
Xxxx the greater the shorter xxxxxxxx” Name and last Name, job position and company infos which are most very long
SHINING A LIGHT ON SMART ISLANDS
Self-sustaining islands need innovative energy solutions. Two remote islands on opposite sides of the planet are true pioneers in the area. Smarter integration of natural resources is the key to their success. 14
An independent mindset is a typical characteristic of most island communities. Out of necessity. The more isolated they are, the more independent they have to be. Such remoteness defines their lifestyles, and also demands innovative solutions for harnessing natural resources, as well as the judicious use of any that have to be transported there. It’s an approach that two remote communities have embraced on opposite sides of this planet.
CLIMATE, CULTURE AND RESPECT
Bonaire in the Caribbean and the Faroe Islands in the
North Atlantic Ocean: These are the smart islands that are setting standards in energy generation from renewables. Total dependence on the local – remote – environment for their livelihood has resulted in communities that have a deep respect for their natural resources. Both are cut off from mainland grids, and for both fuel transportation costs to the islands are high. Energy management has therefore always been a challenge. Along with it comes a strong incentive to go innovative ways, too. In the case of energy supply, this equals the combination of renewable and fossil energy generation in one single hybrid power plant. While not in the same place, but rather spread out across the islands, all production capacities are synchronized to operate as one virtual plant, which feeds each island’s micro grid. The solutions for Bonaire and the Faroe Islands are sophisticated, well proven and well ahead of their time. How do these two islands run smart and largely self-sufficient, sta-
PHOTOS: Ólavur Fredriksen, Pauli Djurholm
ble grids to supply energy to their inhabitants?
◀ Strategically placed wind turbines over the Faroe Islands have a capacity of 18.6 MW.
▶ The Sund power plant near Tórshavn: Four MAN 9L51/60 GenSets provide an output of 37 MW.
WINDY, BUT SQUEAKY-CLEAN
Part of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Faroe Islands lie
between Iceland and Norway. They have a thriving fishing industry renowned for its environmentally friendly processes and squeaky-clean fish. Surrounded by strong winds, rough seas and summers with almost 24 hours of light, the conditions seem ideal for generating electricity from re1 Whatever the weather, the remote communities of the Faroe Islands expect a constant electricity supply.
newable sources for the local population of 50,000. However, the islanders’ demands are constant, while the weather conditions are most definitely not. “There is no way for us to import electricity to balance a grid that runs on renewables,” explains Terji Nielsen, research and development manager at Elfelagið SEV, the
2 The local environment is crucial for the economy and maintains the fishing industry’s topnotch quality.
publicly owned main power producer on the islands. The company operates 13 thermal and hydroelectric power plants on the islands, as well as a number of wind farms. Currently, wind power covers 20% of the island’s electricity demand, hydro covers 40%, and 40% comes from hydro-
carbons. While the goal is to become more or less fossil-free by 2030, Nielsen explains that a secure back-up system will remain in place. “The wind-diesel hybrid grid provides the resiliency necessary to ensure the power is stable and available whenever it’s needed,” he says. When Nielsen started at the company in 1999, the islanders suffered ten to 15 blackouts a year on average. Now, it’s down to two. For the last eight years, Nielsen has been mainly in charge of preparing the electrical infrastructure so it can better cope with the more intermittent renewable sources on the islands. The aim is to have no blackouts at all, but in such a remote, isolated area that’s quite a feat. Very fast reaction times is one of the most essential demands the back-up has to fulfill. With ramp-up times of under five minutes, MAN’s four-stroke engines have proven to be an ideal solution, and are integral components in this stable grid. The Sund plant, the largest of three thermal plants, is currently being expanded to improve the back-up set-up. MAN Diesel & Turbo is to supply four MAN 9L51/60 GenSets fitted with the latest selective catalytic reduction system, significantly reducing levels of NOx. They make a crucial
As a power company, we cannot compromise on the security of the power supply for all our customers.”
Terji Nielsen, research and development manager at Elfelagið SEV, Faroe Islands
3 Terji Nielsen, research and development manager at Elfelagið SEV: Integration of renewable energy to the grid is his expertise. 4 Another first: a 2.3 MW lithium-ion battery, installed in 2016, will support the ambitious target of 75% wind penetration by 2020.
of electricity currently generated from renewables on the Faroe Islands
contribution to reducing the impact of the plant on the environment, and also to balancing the power. “Reliability is paramount,” explains Nielsen. “We cannot compromise on the security of the power supply for all our customers. We need to be very sure that the technology we install really can deliver.” And as government initiatives encourage islanders to replace oil heating with heat pumps, and gasoline or diesel cars with electric cars, demand is set to increase. Which is why SEV is interested not only in the here and now. Such a small, isolated energy system serves as an ideal kind of test lab. New technology can be tried out, because the impact is measured quickly and reliably. In 2016, Europe’s first wind-connected storage system, a 2.3 MW lithium-ion battery, was installed here, and will significantly contribute to reaching the target of 100% wind penetration by 2030. In the future, the company is looking into even more intelligent control systems that will accurately predict renewable power generation – whether wind, solar, hydro or tidal – for a 20-hour period, helping define which
thermal power plant is needed, and automatically choosing the cheapest source with the lowest marginal cost. “Engine power plants are definitely a bridging technology to green
PHOTOS: Ólavur Frederiksen (3)
generation,” Nielsen says. Yet their role has changed: “From ‘baseload back▶ Two smart islands on opposite ends of the North Atlantic are the real benchmark for communities around the world.
bone,’ the contribution of the engines has shifted toward ‘smart back-up,’” adds Tim Meyers, Sales Manager Caribbean, MAN Diesel & Turbo. “By the time we installed the
first engines on Bonaire in 2009, combining renewable and fossil generation was little more than an exotic niche.
PERCENT availability of engines and wind turbines
1 The pristine coastline is attractive for diving enthusiasts, but also an ideal location for a wind farm. 2 It doesnâ€™t get much more remote and isolated than this: Bonaire is dry, barren and windy most of the year. 3 Even in perfect weather conditions, three of the five MAN engines are constantly connected to the grid.
This has changed dramatically. With climate goals as ambitious as today’s, a sustainable energy supply can only be secured through the smart combination of renewables, storage and fossil back-up. The future is hybrid, and fully integrated hybrid plants as well as micro grid solutions have become part of the generation portfolio we offer to our customers.” At the far side of the Atlantic, over in the Caribbean, the conclusion is very similar.
DRY AND BARREN, BUT VERY GREEN
While Bonaire looks and feels very different from the
The MAN engines keep the reactive power in good shape and maintain a stable grid and frequency.”
Giorgio Narminio, Caribbean Assets COO at ContourGlobal
PHOTOS: Water- & Energiebedrijf Bonaire N.V, Elfelagið SEV, Ann Mosby/flickr.com
Faroe Islands, it’s not your typical Caribbean island. No lush, green, tropical landscape here. Part of the Netherlands An-
intermittent. “You have to bear in mind that in September
tilles, located in the Caribbean just 85 km off the coast of
and October on Bonaire, wind penetration is zero. There is
Venezuela, Bonaire is dry, hot and barren. With cacti. But
virtually no wind at all. It’s why an extension to the power
when it comes to green energy, it’s truly a pioneer. Much
plant could only include more diesel engines,” explains
like on the Faroe Islands, the local economy also depends on
Narminio. “Without the diesel back-up, the island wouldn’t
the environment. Some 50,000 tourists, predominantly on
have a stable supply of electricity.” It would be plunged tem-
diving trips off the pristine coastline, are important for the
porarily into darkness.
livelihoods of the 16,500 locals. But it’s mainly wind and diesel, not hydro or solar, that power this community.
As is the case on the Faroe Islands, the purpose of the engines is to support the stable and reliable grid. Thanks to
In 2013, ContourGlobal took over the operation of the
the continuous improvements by ContourGlobal, the last
world’s largest wind-diesel hybrid power plant of its kind. It’s
major outage was back in 2015. “We achieve over 97% avail-
the sole power generation facility on the island and a major
ability of the engines and the wind farm, providing the is-
engineering achievement in integrating wind and diesel
lands with a most reliable and stable system,” highlights
power. Giorgio Narminio, Caribbean Assets COO at Contour-
Narminio. “We have the technical, skilled people who have
Global, is convinced of the hybrid solution. It’s crucial not
made a difference to the service here.”
only for protecting the environment, but also for a reliable grid: “Integrating wind power saves an estimated 54,384 barrels of heavy fuel oil a year,” he highlights. “But even when
A FLEXIBLE, RESILIENT RESPONSE
In moving away from hydrocarbons toward more
the wind conditions are good, three engines are constantly
sustainable sources of power, smart islands need to be able
on the grid. The MAN engines keep the reactive power in
to meet the challenge of a fluctuating power supply from
good shape and maintain a stable grid and frequency.”
renewable sources and a fluctuating power demand from
The essential back-up that keeps the holiday resorts
the consumer side. It is this intermittency of renewables,
lit up and running, whatever the wind and weather, com-
particularly wind power, that demands a flexibility of re-
prises a fleet of five MAN 9L27/38 2.87 MW diesel engines,
sponse from other energy sources on the grid, says Meyers.
while 12 Enercon E-44 900 kW wind turbines provide the
“The MAN engines rapidly step in to supply power when
wind power. A 3 MW battery bank and a bespoke power
needed, and are throttled back when wind or solar condi-
management system complete the advanced set-up. It sup-
tions improve. This kind of system is able to adapt to the
plies the island, roughly 288 square km, with an output of
prevailing climatic conditions – instantaneously.”
up to 28 MW gross capacity of environmentally friendly energy, with 14 MW peak capacity. For 2017, it’s predicted to provide 110 GWh, 35 GWh of which will come from wind.
THE POWER OF THREE
Although these two smart island communities are in
Why five engines? They offer a more flexible and ef-
very different situations, it’s clear that three factors have
ficient option than one large one. Although Bonaire could,
played a role in moving toward more stable, climate-
in theory, produce up to 90% of their power with wind, the
neutral energy production: the culture of the society, the
grid would become too unstable. For this reason, wind pow-
natural environment and an innovative mix of technology.
er is capped at 70% to 75%. At least 30% of power always
Hybrid power plants are clearly a central growth technolo-
comes from the engine power plant. Bonaire is close to the
gy on this pathway. The result: sustainable micro grids that
equator, so fortunately it’s not affected by hurricanes. How-
are powering islands on opposite sides of the North Atlantic
ever, the winds can be extremely strong, and they are also
Ocean, providing role models for every community.
▲ The world’s largest transit point for car shipments.
FUELED FOR CHANGE
The world’s largest parking lot can be found in one of Germany’s oldest trade ports – Bremerhaven. Up to 95,000 cars find a space here, awaiting their turn to be transported to destinations all over the world. A total of over 2 million vehicles are shipped from Bremerhaven every year by all major German car manufacturers – Volkswagen (VW) among them. As the shipping of cars from one continent to the other contributes its share of emissions, VW – as one of the first OEMs – has decided to significantly improve the environmental balance of its marine transport fleet.
PHOTOS: gettyimages, VW press
From 2019 on, VW will ship their cars from Europe to North America using a new pair of carriers fueled by liquefied natural gas (LNG). Each of the ships, operated by Siem Car Carriers AS, will be capable of carrying 4,500 vehicles. Both ships will be equipped with a 3,000 m³ LNG tank installed below deck and will feature a 12,600 kW engine developed by MAN Diesel & Turbo. Each of the ships is estimated to cut CO2 emissions by up to 25%, NOx by up to 30%, particulate matters by up to 60% and SOx almost completely. With this new approach, VW is taking a step in cutting down emissions in the supply chain – from manufacturing to final delivery.
▲ A milestone on the way to eco-friendlier marine transport: LNG-powered freighters.
POWERED UP, ON PATROL AND MISSION READY The HNLMS Holland is designed, powered and crewed for counter-drug, anti-piracy and relief missions. A trip on board reveals the precise interplay of training, technology and teamwork in the Royal Dutch Navy.
The helicopter hovers precariously close to the deck of the HNLMS Holland. Holland. Rotor blades rhythmically whirring, the sea churning – the noise is absolutely deafening. One officer is winched down to the ship. He lands steadily, turns rapidly and pulls the rope taut so another officer can slide safely down to join him on board. Within minutes, they press rewind and return the same way, up the rope and back into the chopper. With a quick salute, cheeky wave and slight nose dip, they head off into the distance, the pulsating sound disappearing fast into the horizon. Quite an action-packed display of military precision and agile teamwork! It was not only a training exercise, but also an oppor-
tunity to test, practice and hone the skills of the crew on board the helicopter and on the HNLMS Holland, an offshore-patrol vessel from the Dutch Navy. This was all happening just outside the main naval base, in Den Helder, but it could equally have been a maneuver during any one of its international deployments. As the advanced technolinside, the team was just as coordinated, working together to exploit their skills, equipment and propulsion system to keep the ship perfectly in place – and the officers out of harm’s way. As the vessel is deployed for challenging security operations, such interplay of training, technology
PHOTOS: Julius Schrank
ogy and fine teamwork were on open display outside, on the
◀ Boarding the vessel from the NH-90 helicopter requires a steady hand and ship. On the lookout: ready for a rapid and coordinated response. ▼
We can achieve much more together than we can individually. It’s worth a lot to me that the team works well together.” Captain van Zanten, HNLMS Holland
we are on an actual mission, it’s even more important to promote the team spirit than it is right now,” says Captain Jeroen van Zanten, the commanding officer.
The crew’s advanced training is crucial for such ma-
neuvers, and also guarantees the flexibility needed on real missions, which include independent anti-piracy and counter-terrorism operations, but also deployments as a support vessel for the Dutch marines at sea or in sea-toshore operations. That agility is constantly put to the test. In September 2016, for instance, the HNLMS Holland set sail for the Caribbean, and was scheduled to pull into the Dutch naval base on Curaçao on a counter-drug deployment. As they were underway in the North Atlantic, Hurricane Matthew hit Haiti hard, causing major destruction across the
of cocaine seized off Curaçao in three months
island, which had already been devastated by an earth-
meant that we could make a difference fast.” Over 21 days,
quake only six years before. The islanders were in dire need
they brought in 450 metric tons of relief supplies to land.
of support. The ship was diverted to Haiti and played a ma-
On completing the humanitarian side of the mission, they
jor role in the initial relief efforts. Working in close collabo-
changed direction, continued to Curaçao and turned their
ration with non-governmental organizations, the local au-
focus to tackling illicit drugs. Within a mere three months,
thorities, the Dutch marines and the Dutch logistics sup-
they seized 3,000 kg of cocaine. From the stories the crew
port vessel HNLMS Pelikaan, the crew delivered supplies to
are eager to tell, it’s clear that the combination of drug-bust-
places that had been hit worst.
ing and aid relief made the last mission exhilarating, per-
“It was really important to do this in a structured way, otherwise it would have been just a survival of the fittest,” explained Executive Officer David Boom, who is second in command on the HNLMS Holland. “Our small boats
sonally rewarding and also very successful.
THE CARIBBEAN CORRIDOR
The bulk of work on the HNLMS Holland involves in-
and helicopter were crucial in getting aid to the villagers in
tercepting drug couriers passing from the Central Ameri-
the southwest of the island, as the roads were down and the
can coastline to the Netherlands Antilles, most commonly
harbors destroyed. The fact that we were so well trained
to Curaçao. It’s a route where hundreds of kilos of cocaine
1 No chance to escape: When the FRISC launches, the target is soon in sight. 2 Relief supplies at the ready: Supporting the islanders on Haiti was a rewarding mission for everyone on board.
PHOTOS: Julius Schrank, Nicky Bakker (3)
and teamwork is essential for success – and safety. “When
4 3 3 Safe and sound and back in the hull of the “HNLMS Holland”: Two FRISCs accompany each operation. 4 The day starts with a precise check of the MAN engines.
are regularly seized on a single day. What’s missed often makes its way to The Netherlands, usually by air to Amsterdam and by container ship or even private yachts to Rotterdam, the so-called drug gateways of Europe. The ship has the perfect design, technology and engines for such low-intensity, rapid-response security operations. Since the vessel is fitted with state-of-the-art sensor and communication technology, a Thales Integrated Mast IM-400 with high-level electronic and radar surveillance capabilities, the crew is able to detect and track both high- and low-altitude air targets, as well as sea targets, including the fast speedboats typically used for trafficking cocaine. They are usually no match, however, for the speed and agility of a Fast Raiding Interception and Special Forces Craft (FRISC) traveling at 45 knots, or the NH-90 helicopter, that both
We can take the engines from start to a maximum power of 1,000 rpm in just a few minutes.” Sergeant Major Marco Greene,
Chief Platform Systems, HNLMS Holland
have their home on board and can take up the high-speed chase within minutes. “The response has to be fast and coordinated, or it will have no chance of success,” the captain explains. Powered by two MAN 12V28/33D diesel engines, which have been specifically designed for navy ships, the HNLMS Holland has at its disposal 10% more power than similar engines that are fitted in ferries. With up to 1,032 rpm, they have an output of 6,000 kW. The chief engineer, Sergeant Major Marco Greene, Chief Platform Systems, highlights the capabilities that make a difference: “Once at working temperature, we can take the engines from start to a
1 maximum power of 1,000 rpm in just a few minutes, depending on the air humidity.” With this combination of high-speed equipment and reliable propulsion power, the crew on board is more likely to succeed, whatever the mission. Detect, pursue, intercept, board and confiscate. All are possible in rapid succession.
TEAM SPIRIT, STRONG CONNECTIONS
On the bridge, Captain van Zanten is clearly in charge,
but the atmosphere is relaxed and collegial. Together with Lieutenant Fraukje Kok, the Navigating Officer, they discuss procedures and maneuvers and are clearly attuned to each other. There is a lot of banter between crew members. And not just on the bridge. From the cook who plays an essential
1 All hands on deck: getting ready to moor under watchful eyes.
role in keeping the crew happily fed and healthy, to the engineers and technicians who ensure the smooth running of the equipment and engines on board, good humor shines
2 Important decisions are discussed: There’s a strong team spirit, not a rigid hierarchy.
through all around. It’s no doubt a quality that helps the crew cope with the mental and physical demands of the longer missions abroad, when they can be separated from their friends and families for months at a time. A sense of humor is clearly important on the ship, which supports the great
team spirit on board. The captain sees his responsibility mainly in creating an environment for such a spirit to thrive and to instill confidence in his crew. “The main message I try to get across is that you are part of the team and we will take care of you,” van Zanten says. “We can achieve much more together than
working on the smaller Holland-class ships. “We are a small-
we can individually. It’s worth a lot to me that the team
er, tighter team, we have much nicer accommodation, and
works well together. This seamless integration of the crew
far better technology on top,” he says.
get it all right. For us, for the navy, and for our country.” Kok backs up the captain. “It’s impossible to do some maneuvers
A FINAL WORD OF CONFIDENCE
Suddenly, the call “All hands on deck!” goes out. It’s
alone,” she adds. “We need to work as a team, especially with
time for a completely different kind of display on the heli-
the mooring. To be in control of the ship and to get it to
copter landing pad. One of tradition and recognition for the
safety, working closely with the bridge and the deck crew, is
sacrifices these men and women are prepared to make. Cap-
such an awesome feeling.”
tain van Zanten makes a short speech, there is more laugh-
Teamwork stretches across the whole ship, and every
ter and joking. Boom is awarded the Dutch Navy Medal, in
rank. All the crew members seem to instinctively know
recognition of his recent services in the Caribbean and for
where they need to be, and what they need to do. Whenever
having spent over 340 days at sea within a period of three
the ship is close to shore, two engineers are required to
years. The crew’s applause and celebratory cheers feel sin-
monitor the engines from the control room next to the
cere. From the moment the ship set sail, to the very person-
bridge. But normally the engineer on duty works on the
al ceremony at the end of the day, the impression was one
phone. “We carry portable devices with us that provide real-
of a close-knit team and true respect. Their training contin-
time diagnostics of the engines,” explains the chief engi-
ues and will get tougher and more rigid in the coming
neer Greene. This is enabled by the MAN SaCoSone control
months. They need to be prepared for their next deploy-
and monitoring system. Greene has been in the navy for 31
ment to the Caribbean, in February 2018. Whatever that
years, serving on many types of vessels, but much prefers
PHOTOS: Julius Schrank
with all the systems on board is hugely rewarding when we
To be in control of the ship and to get it to safety, working with the crew, is such an awesome feeling.” Lieutenant Fraukje Kok, Navigating Officer
3 3 A compact vessel: The “HNLMS Holland” is 108 meters long and 18 meters wide. 4 Safety first: The crew knows who’s in the engine room at all times. 5 A moment of pride for the whole crew: Executive Officer David Boom receiving the Dutch Navy Medal.
OFFSHORE TURBINES: UP AND TURNING Here’s some good news: There’s enough wind energy blowing across the oceans on our planet to power all of humanity. So say Anna Possner and Ken Caldeira of Stanford University, who authored “Geophysical potential for wind energy over the open oceans,” published in August 2017. The two academics are optimistic about the future of the offshore wind energy industry internationally, and in Europe specifically. “Even in the relative calm of summer, the upper geophysical limit on sustained wind power in the North Atlantic alone could be sufficient to supply all of Europe’s electricity,” they write. The offshore advantage is obvious: Wind is weakened on land by obstacles both natural and man-made, from mountains to skyscrapers, but the oceans present no such problems. They do, however, offer challenges that engineering, technology and logistics have to deal with.
The European offshore wind-turbine operations and maintenance market is expected to grow significantly as demand for renewable energy and zero-emission power increases. From ship to shore, advanced engineering and logistics is required to support the industry.
PHOTOS: Paul Langrock/Zenit/laif; maritimephoto.com
▶ First the construction: Specialist vessel the “Pacific Orca” handles this demanding task. ◀ The harsh offshore environment of the North Atlantic requires sustainable solutions.
THE CONSTRUCTION CHALLENGE: ERECTING THE TURBINES In the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, the critical elements for a sustainable fu-
ture in energy generation are being put in place using two supply ships driven by MAN engines. The names of the ships reflect the global nature of the industry: One is the Pacific Orca, the other the Pacific Osprey. Both undertake the complex offshore operations involved in the erection of wind turbines. “The vessels have a flexible diesel electric system that provides up to 24 MW of power,” says Christian Kamm, Sales Manager at MAN Diesel & Turbo, before outlining an array of impressive specs. “To handle these heaviest of wind offshore components, they are equipped with a 1,200-metric-ton and 1,425-metric-ton main crane capable of operations both above and below sea level,” says Kamm of the Orca and Osprey. “For working in a harsh offshore environment, they have 6-x-105-meter lattice legs, a fast, electric rack-and-pinion jacking system, and spudcans designed to handle a range of seabed conditions.”
We can move at very short notice and need four or five days to finish a job.” Stig Holm, Head of On-site Recovery, MAN PrimeServ Copenhagen
▲ Installed inside for absolute reliability: RENK gearboxes reduce operational costs.
THE CONVERSION CHALLENGE: FROM WIND TO ENERGY Jurik Kiewit, Branch Manager Wind at RENK, is very familiar with the offshore world. “The operational expenditure for offshore turbines is extremely high. If a gearbox fails onshore, it’s a pain to deal with, but having to change one out at sea is a real nightmare. In the industry, it’s really no secret that over 70% of gearbox failures are due to ordinary roller bearings. We reduce those failures with our slider bearing technology, and therefore also reduce operational costs.” RENK gearboxes were first installed in offshore wind turbines over 14 years ago – and they are still running reliably today. “The industry has only recently recognized that slide bearings provide a more reliable solution, and is now slowly shifting to this technology,” he adds. “We’re the only manufacturer with such a solid track record, with over 200 units successfully installed.”
▲ Holding her steady: Dynamic positioning and nerves of steel are prerequisites for the challenges at sea.
Fast, skilled and with a strong stomach for the North Atlantic: the service engineers climbing the turbine. ▼ ◀ A crucial task: Skilled personnel eliminate downtime with timely service and repairs.
THE SERVICE CHALLENGE: ELIMINATING DOWNTIME
The real horror scenario of any wind farm operator is downtime. Stig Holm, Head of On-site Recovery, MAN PrimeServ Copenhagen, is the go-to person when it comes to discussing the most common offshore turbine problems and the turnaround time in solving them. “Generator shaft repairs top the list of offshore turbine issues,” he says without hesitation. “We also polish brake discs. Rotating towers are equipped with braking systems analogous to those used in cars, and sometimes the surface of the disc gets worn and we polish it up to the previous surface state.” To eliminate downtime, it requires a head for heights in the harshest of environments at sea, a strong skillset in engineering and the ability to work flexibly under time pressure. Speed is always of the essence, as Holm confirms. “We can move at very short notice,” he says. “Altogether, from when we leave our company, until the job is completed, whether it is onshore or offshore, it is about four to five days total, for traveling, repair and returning.”
THE SAFETY CHALLENGE: TRANSPORTING THE CREW
▶ The Crew Transfer Vessel needs to provide a smooth and safe crossing.
When technicians are needed at sea, service vessels take center stage. “For short distances, smaller Crew Transfer Vessels are used; for longer trips, more specialized Wind Service Operation Vessels (WSOVs). These WSOVs are driven by several GenSets, providing diesel-electric power for more hotel load, crane capacities and dynamic positioning mode,” says MAN’s Christian Kamm. Crucial for the service engineers is also a comfortable ride, and a safe and secure transfer. Out in the middle of the ocean, this requires a vessel capable of precise maneuvering in precarious conditions. Recently, MAN has equipped a newly designed 83-meter WSOV PHOTOS: Areva, Jiri Rezac (4)
with variable medium-speed GenSets for Louis Dreyfus Armateurs, the French shipowner, for wind farms in the North Sea. The engines can be equipped with MAN’s own SCR system to reduce emissions and meet IMO Tier III standard. As the costs for setting up offshore turbines continue to decrease, and the 2020 deadline for achieving the European Union’s target of meeting 20% of its total energy needs with renewables approaches, such vessels are part of an array of sustainable solutions that will help meet the challenges of the forces of nature out at sea. ▪
PHOTO: Aker BP
SUBSEA TECHNOLOGY GOES TOPSIDE ◀ Breakthrough in offshore compression: The “Ivar Aasen” features MAN’s HOFIM™ system.
The 19th-century Norwegian philologist, lexicographer, playwright and poet Ivar Aasen can only be described as a true multitalent. Best known for the creation of Nynorsk – one of the two official written versions of the Norwegian language – he is also a fitting namesake to the new offshore production platform run by Aker BP in the Norwegian North Sea. The reason: The platform is the first to utilize MAN Diesel & Turbo’s HOFIM™ compressor (High-Speed, Oil-Free, Integrated Motor) – a multitalent within the turbomachinery world. Driven by an integrated electric motor, the compressor is highly adaptable to the varying demands of different modes of operation. The technology was initially developed for applications on land – in compressor stations for transporting gas, for example. Further development for subsea usage marked the next milestone. Different but equally harsh conditions make the robust and safe compression system a perfect fit for offshore, topside operations such as the Ivar Aasen, where it is used to export the produced gas from the platform to shore. The compact, hermetically sealed unit can easily be integrated into cramped environments. Technical highlights of the HOFIM™ include the use of a high-speed motor and active magnetic bearings provided by MECOS, an MAN company. The advantages that a technology originally designed for unmanned subsea operations offers topside applications is clear: It is designed to be virtually maintenance-free. 33
Preparing for operation: the FPSO “Cidade de Mangaratiba MV24.”
TAPPING THE TREASURES OF THE DEEP The vast hydrocarbon reserves off the coast of Brazil are attracting international organizations and a global pool of expertise.
◀ The FPSO “Cidade de Mangaratiba MV24” undergoing checks at the Brasfels shipyard in Angra dos Reis, Brazil. ▶ Fernando Coelho Filho, the Brazilian Minister of Mines and Energy, at an auction of the offshore concessions.
Brazil’s most prized treasures lie 450 km off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, far beneath the ocean floor, at a depth of around 2,400 m, trapped beneath thick 2,000-meter layers of salt. Cracking through the compound reveals a huge network of valuable hydrocarbon deposits. Discovered only recently, in 2007, they are known as the pre-salt fields. These giant deep-water offshore reserves in the Campos and Santos Basins are so vast that it requires strong partnerships, an immense pool of skills and advanced technology to exploit the area’s full potential. In an initiative to speed up oil and gas exploration in the area, the Brazilian government recently opened up the sector for international companies. The auctions are attracting interest from major players in the industry. “This is still one of the world’s most attractive oil fields,” says Jens Hueren, Managing Director at MAN Diesel & Turbo, Brazil. “Now that the regulatory changes are opening up the sector, it’s a promising area for major
PHOTOS: Hilaea Media/Dado Galdieri, gettyimages
oil companies to invest in. It is no longer the case that Petrobras, the state-owned energy company, has to hold a stake in all explorations in Brazil. Although Petrobras is a world-class player, and will remain the principal operator and producer in Brazil, the option to work together with other leaders in the industry will increase investments and therefore speed up the exploration process and enhance the area’s potential.” Petrobras still has the first right of refusal when it comes to the bidding process, but the decision to open up the market has given the Brazilian oil and gas industry a definite boost.
Reforming the market is regarded as an acceleration
construction is cost-efficient, as it is usually converted
of the recovery of Brazil’s oil and gas market after its long
from an existing vessel, and it can also store the produced
recession. Continuing to restrict exploration rights would
oil, reducing the usage of support vessels,” says Valdir Sim-
limit the development of the fields, the government con-
onetti, Head of MAN PrimeServ Sales & Contracts, MAN
cluded, particularly as the area requires specialist equip-
Diesel & Turbo, Brazil. FPSOs are the primary method for
ment and heavy investment to fully exploit the reserves.
many offshore oil and gas producing regions around the
Interest is high, which confirms that the strategy is right,
world. The great depths of pre-salt reserves, combined with
believes Fernando Coelho Filho, the Brazilian Minister of
their remoteness from the shore, mean that FPSO solutions
Mines and Energy: “This shows that by creating an environ-
are the technology of choice for the pre-salt deposits.
ment favorable to investment, foreign businesses are again
What’s more, the very global nature of the vessels shows
starting to think of Brazil as an option,” he said at an auc-
that opening up the oil fields and enabling industry leaders
tion in September 2017. The interest is also driven by the
to work closer together will spur international investment.
need for oil companies to continuously diversify. The reduction in conventional onshore reserves, fluctuating oil prices, and the rising demand for energy globally have pushed oil and gas exploration further afield.
UNTAPPED, BUT ULTRA-DEEP
THE LONGEST PARTNER AND JOURNEY
The unique nature of these vessels requires specialist
components and engineering that can only be sourced in global partnerships. When it comes to fundamental expertise in such vessels, MODEC is the forerunner. Headquar-
While unconventional onshore exploration, such as
tered in Japan and part of Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuild-
oil sands and shale oil, have become more popular recently,
ing Co., Ltd., the company is responsible for the engineer-
they are often costly to extract, and are limited in scope.
ing, procurement, construction and mobilization of 20
Opportunities lie in extensive, untapped, ultra-deep and
FPSOs currently in operation globally. Nine are in Brazil,
deep-water reserves. Although offshore exploration is cost-
three contain technology from MAN Diesel & Turbo. The
ly initially, the investment has a higher potential to pay off
company expects to increase the number to 12 within the
in the long run, as reserves tend to be vast. Brazil’s pre-salt
year, making them the leading FPSO provider and charterer
deposits hold estimated reserves of tens of billions of bar-
in the area.
rels of crude. Extraction is a question of the technology and know-how becoming real in a multinational surrounding.
At the heart of almost any big FPSO are the centrifugal and screw compressors. Essentially, they have two key
The complex production vessels needed are a prime
functions: exportation of hydrocarbons from the FPSO to
example for this: floating production storage and offload-
shore via pipelines, and injection of natural gas and CO2 to
ing vessel, or FPSO. On the deck, or topsides, the processing equipment is located, while the hydrocarbon storage is below, in the double hull. After processing, the oil or gas is offloaded via either shuttle tankers or pipelines. “The FPSO
“CIDADE DE MANGARATIBA MV24”: 150,000 barrels of oil per day
280 million standard cubic feet of gas per day 1,600,000 barrels storage capacity
◀ The process system is divided into topside modules on the FPSO, while oil is stored below in the double hull.
Espírito Santo Basin
Espírito Santo State
An attractive prospect
Discovered in 2007, the estimated reserves of tens of billions of barrels of crude lie around 450 km off the coast of Rio de Janeiro.
Rio de Janeiro State
São Paulo State São Paulo
Rio de Janeiro Guanabara Bay
Oil fields Pre-salt fields: Hydrocarbon deposits are located below a 2,000-meter layer of salt. Santos Basin
the wells to increase the pressure inside, and subsequently to increase oil production. The gas is recompressed and reinjected until as much oil as economically feasible has been produced from the oil field. While this sounds like a specification sheet for engineers, FPSO technology is very much a prerequisite for tapping the pre-salt fields that are so cru-
Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., which holds just over a 50% stake in MODEC, is a longstanding partner of MAN Diesel & Turbo. The relationship started in 1926, when the companies signed a license agreement for the production and sale of two-stroke, marine, diesel engines. Both companies are engaged globally in the production of various types of rotating machinery, such as compressors and turbines; EPC of various plants, including medium-sized power plants; and offshore equipment such as FPSO.
cial to the Brazilian oil industry. One concrete example – the conversion of a tanker, Sunrise J, into an FPSO, the Cidade de Mangaratiba MV24 –
took over a high-quality repair workshop in the area. “We
highlights the global nature of these vessels, and their con-
are the only local company who can provide this support to
struction. It involves a journey of expertise and compo-
this level of quality, so close to the pre-salt fields,” says Man-
nents from MAN Diesel & Turbo in Zurich, Switzerland,
aging Director Hueren. While bringing FPSO technology to
module construction with a partner in Singapore, and then
life is a truly international approach, servicing it is the op-
transferring the module to Brazil, where it was integrated
posite. Being local definitely pays off, Hueren continues:
onto the FPSO by MODEC.
“We are valued as a trusted partner, so much so that we are
PHOTOS: Hilaea Media/Dado Galdieri
FROM GLOBAL TO LOCAL
called on to service not only our own equipment, but also the compressors and miscellaneous rotating equipment
Once the FPSO is in operation – normally with char-
from third parties for MODEC. Our presence means that re-
ter contracts of 15–20 years – the focus zooms into the local
pairs are carried out locally, fast and without long transport
level of these global partnerships. Qualified field personnel
times overseas, resulting in huge savings.”
who are on hand are crucial to keeping the FPSO up and
By opening up the auctions of offshore concessions,
running. “Service has to be flexible, with fast reaction and
and by improving the business environment, the govern-
execution times,” explains Simonetti. “We must keep in
ment has taken a deliberate step toward rejuvenating the
mind that the average production of these FPSOs is around
Brazilian economy. Local capacity had hit a ceiling for the
150,000 barrels a day! Any downtime can influence the pro-
sophisticated type of equipment and technology needed to
duction and become very expensive.” In other words: Oil
adequately exploit the reserves, given the highly complex
and gas have to flow, so the pre-salt investments pay off for
vessels and infrastructure needed. As the international
Brazil, and also for each of the international partners.
presence in the area increases, it will ultimately contribute
In Brazil, expert support is provided by the MAN PrimeServ hub in Petrópolis. In 2012, MAN PrimeServ Brazil
to the transformation of the market. For the benefit and in the interests of everyone involved.
REBOOTING THE SILK ROAD
Along windy, dusty roads, the ancient Silk Road connected not just stations and goods, but also people, traditions and culture. Today, the Iron Silk Road provides a viable alternative for transporting modern technology and knowhow between the East and West.
The ancient Silk Road interlinked China to
This Iron Silk Road will basically con-
Europe, India and Persia, bringing spices and
sist of three rail corridors. Two are active al-
supplies as well as the finest of silk to new
ready, while the southerly route is currently
markets. From the third century, for over a
under negotiation and construction. Howev-
thousand years, this trail was a valuable
er, it’s the main central corridor that provides
source of commercial and cultural treasures.
the shortest, most efficient crossing from
Primarily about trade, it also provided a plat-
Western Europe to central China. Starting
form for the exchange of ideas, knowledge,
from Duisburg, a major transport hub in Ger-
traditions and belief systems. However, it
many, this particular corridor stretches over
wasn’t in fact a single pathway as the name
10,000 kilometers, across six diverse coun-
suggests, but a complex network of multiple
tries and vast unpopulated areas, all the way
transport routes, linking villages, towns, oa-
to the megacity of Chongqing, southwest Chi-
ses and cultures. It grew in a flexible, organic
na. As Duisburg is located only kilometers
way out of economic demand, necessity and
away from MAN Diesel & Turbo’s main pro-
opportunity. Today, around 1,000 years after
duction plant in Oberhausen, Germany, this
its heyday, such flexible complexity is pro-
particular corridor has opened up a quite di-
viding inspiration for a modern revival of the
rect train link to the company’s main pro-
Silk Road. Officially called “The Silk Road Eco-
duction site in China. One that provides an
nomic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime
interesting logistics option.
Silk Road,” this ambitious initiative goes more commonly by the name “One Belt, One
PHOTOS: James Hill/laif, ullstein bild /SPUTNIK, shutterstock
Road” (OBOR). Launched in 2013 by Chinese
“Sea freight is the cheapest mode to
President Xi Jinping, OBOR is not just about
bring goods to China, most flexible from size,
creating one route, but instead involves a
too. But often it’s too slow,” says Dirk Petzold,
huge investment in intercontinental infra-
Head of Logistics and Plant Services, MAN
structure that will create multiple trade cor-
Diesel & Turbo in Oberhausen. “Air freight is
ridors and hubs overland, maritime routes
fast, flexible time-wise, but very limited by
and ports, as well as oil and gas pipelines
size. And expensive. With air freight, we
across the Eurasian continent. Of all the
found that the additional costs were mostly
routes that are being expanded, however, it is
not in relation to our delivery requirements.
essentially the preferred mode of transport
We often don’t need such a speedy delivery.
from the 19th century that is making a com-
We needed something in between, and the
pelling comeback: rail.
Iron Silk Road offers a viable alternative.”
We used IoT technology to monitor position, shock and humidity.â€?
THE EUROPEAN GATEWAY
The main production site in Oberhausen is
Chinaâ€™s deep central region to Europe, on
just a short truck ride to Duisburg, where a
trains run by the state railways of China, Ka-
long train journey through the gateways of
zakhstan and Russia. As the railway gauges
China and on to Wuhan starts, followed by
are not yet harmonized along the route, con-
another, longer truck connection to Chang-
tainers have to be offloaded at the Russian
zhou, where the China plant and regional
borders, in Belarus, and again on arrival at
base for the Chinese market is located.
the Chinese border. Despite these short inter-
Taking this route, rail freight passes
ruptions, the train journey is otherwise di-
through Poland, Belarus, the Russian Steppe,
rect and seamless. The accelerating speed of
Kazakhstan, the Gobi Desert and connects
trains, upgraded infrastructure and seamless
Dirk Petzold, Head of Logistics and Plant Services, MAN Diesel & Turbo in Oberhausen
Day 5 40
ACROSS THE STEPPE
logistics coordination are expected to drive
logistic route,” highlights Stefan Hütten,
number of trains arriving at Duisburg from
further improvements in the future. It’s a
Authorized Officer at duisport agency, a lo-
China has increased from just one a week to
journey that now takes around 16 days. Just
gistics partner of MAN Diesel & Turbo and in-
about 30 a week. “Freight rail service between
ten years ago, it took more than 30. In com-
frastructure provider based out of Duisburg.
continents is completely new, and in some
parison, goods on the more circuitous route
“As part of the One Belt, One Road strategy,
ways still in the initial phase,” says
by sea from Shanghai on the Pacific Coast to
it’s an integral part of a complex supply chain
Hütten. “But we believe in OBOR.” As a hub-
Hamburg on the North Sea would cover more
pushed and powered by the Chinese gov-
and-spoke system, Duisburg is the most
than double the distance, around 25,000 km,
ernment. It offers a small, important niche
important point in Europe with regard to the
and still take at least four to six weeks.
between air and sea freight.” Since the inau-
OBOR strategy, which makes it an attractive
guration of the route four years ago, the
gateway for MAN Diesel & Turbo.
PHOTOS: Oliver Tjaden/laif, MAN, ullstein bild /SPUTNIK, shutterstock(2)
“The Iron Silk Road is more than just a
Kazakhstan TRANSSHIPMENT HUB
Day 11 41
Petzold had been monitoring the de-
velopment in freight opportunities from Europe to China for several years, before deciding to introduce it as an in-house logistics op-
Northern China -20 DEGREES CELSIUS
The Iron Silk Road is more than just a logistics route.”
Stefan Hütten, Authorized Officer at duisport agency
China less utilized. The decision to adopt rail
are significantly fewer connections still, and
cant economic growth along the whole net-
followed extensive real-world tests over a six-
rail cannot handle oversized shipments. “It is
work. Although mainly a stimulus campaign
month period, to learn about the hurdles and
a logistic solution with promising future,”
to modernize the Chinese national infra-
opportunities. “We used a new upcoming
says Chengke Shao, Head of Logistics and
structure, it is acting as a bridge for partner-
sensor tag based on IoT technology to moni-
Planning at the MAN Diesel & Turbo plant in
ships with other nations. The geographical
tor geographic position in near time, tem-
Changzhou. “For oversize goods, however, the
area that could potentially be involved is
perature, shock and humidity, so we could
maritime route remains unbeatable.” Bin
vast. Some estimates put close to 65 coun-
really gain an understanding of how the rail
Yuan, Head of Customs, MAN Diesel & Turbo
tries joining the grid, more than half of the
journey could affect our sophisticated, high-
China, agrees: “As it’s only suitable for stan-
world’s population, and around 30% of the
tech equipment,” says Petzold. “As the trains
dard container loads, it provides an option
global economy. Wang Yiwei, Director of the
cover vast distances, they endure drastic
mainly for certain components. But where it
China-Europe Academic Network of Renmin
fluctuations in temperatures along the way.
works, it has distinct advantages,” he says.
University of China, summarizes the vision
Components need to withstand drops in temperatures up to –25 degrees Celsius inside the
news agency: “China-Europe freight trains
Limitations will remain, but the advan-
not only promote the provincial and city-lev-
protection, but they are a more expensive op-
tages are sure to increase as the OBOR initia-
el cooperation between China and Europe
tion. It’s why the type of goods transported
tive evolves more rapidly. By improving con-
countries, but also stimulate the dynamism
by rail are restricted. “We understand the ad-
nectivity and trade between regions across
of China-EU trade and economic cooperation
vantages, but also the limitations,” he adds.
Asia, Europe and Africa, the strategy is ex-
with convenient logistics and information
On the whole, rail transportation is
pected to spur increased demand for Chinese
flows.” It appears the Iron Silk Road could be
smoother, compared with shipping. But there
goods and services, but also to drive signifi-
firmly on track to deliver.
container.” Insulated containers can provide
ON TRACK FOR CHANGE
in one report by Xinhua, the Chinese state
PHOTOS: Matthieu Paley/National Geographic Creative, Neil Noland, Imaginechina/laif
tion. Until fairly recently, trains returned to
UP TO +40 DEGREES CELSIUS
Chongqing LOGISTICS HUB
Day 16 43
DIALOGUE & OPINION
ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING: THE REAL REVOLUTION?
Disruption, revolution or evolution? How far can additive production processes truly change manufacturing? What are the realistic expectations of 3-D printing – and who stands to benefit? MAN Diesel & Turbo spoke to Professor Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum, the Head of Additive Manufacturing and Functional Layers at Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology and the Chair for Digital Additive Production at RWTH Aachen University.
Professor Schleifenbaum, you are a bridge
think outside of the classic assembly-line
to 30 years. We need to do more in schools
between academia, research and industry
production methods, such as bonding, join-
and universities, but also with seasoned en-
for the breakthrough technology of addi-
ing, fusing, milling or other conventional
gineers. It’s hard to tell someone to forget ev-
tive manufacturing, commonly known as
manufacturing techniques? We need to start
erything they’ve learned and been successful
3-D printing. Where do you see its real po-
with the requirements for the component,
with for years, that they have to start afresh.
tential? The roots to AM lie in rapid proto-
and then create a workspace that provides as
They need to discover this topic and acquire
typing, which first gave us the opportunity
much freedom as possible to design it. This is
the necessary new skills and knowhow.
to quickly create a model and grasp it in our
the real challenge. It’s not about a direct
The fact that this process is not yet tru-
hands, rather than just visualizing it. The
transfer of conventional components into
ly established is in itself a hurdle. The auto-
power this holds is often greatly underesti-
the additive manufacturing processes, as
mation technology for AM is not quite there
mated. In my opinion, the true beauty of AM
that would only result in making them more
yet. So far, we’ve been working on taking tra-
lies in being able to transfer creative design
expensive to make.
dition processes apart, now we have only just
and ideas into real components rapidly. And How do we change this mindset? Tradition-
materials to be used in AM. Most manufac-
possibilities. Instead of having to stick to the
al casting and foundry processes have been
turing materials were developed for melting
traditional design theories, where we were
around for thousands of years. AM just for 20
or milling. For AM, we need materials with
usually advised to stay sym-
completely different charac-
metrical, we can create bionic
teristics. For instance, we’re
structures or elements with sponge-like interiors and solid exteriors. This is where AM will take us. When we reach this stage, we can talk about revolutionizing manufacturing and not just about manufacturing evolving. And limitations? The main limitations are not in the technology, but in design. How do we get people to
made the first steps toward creating suitable
to open up completely new manufacturing
The true beauty of AM lies in being able to transfer creative design and ideas into real components rapidly.”
Professor Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum
now looking into optimizing steel materials or metallic glasses for this technique. Rapid prototyping is at its best when the same materials are used in designing as in the serial production. With AM, we star t f rom scratch and think in layering techniques; this is a whole new way to approach materials. But this layering, rather than casting, creates another
components and beyond to include services. Digital twinning is the keyword here, and AM is exactly that. The laser is the only tool that can work as fast as a computer can think, namely at the speed of light. This is a charming comparison. It gives us the possibility to incorporate customer feedback into the design of a component, import it into the CAD system, program the machinery and implement immediately. That’s one way that customers will benefit. How will AM change the mindset in servicing and maintenance? Will ships set sail with their own 3-D printer? It’s an open secret that the International Space Station has one on board. The real question is about the trade-off. When is it actually more costeffective to transport a part from A to B, than to transfer the data and to produce it in a more decentralized way? Where is the breakeven point? Not all ships will have 3-D printers on board within the next five to ten years, but they will be in more and more shipyards, and perhaps the first ships will have them by then. As AM is implemented more and more, will it help us on the road to decarbonization? That’s a difficult question to answer. In AM, it’s true that we have a more efficient use of materials, but – and it’s a big but – we also challenge, that of creep resistance. In such
The industry target is to integrate AM into
need to develop and manufacture the power
material, small crystals and grains form,
10% of production by 2020. Is this realistic?
for 3-D printing. On balance, since we will be
which means it is not able to withstand high-
It’s certainly within reach in the ’20s. Our
able to create more individualized and tai-
er temperatures. For this we need single-
close cooperation with MAN Diesel & Turbo,
lored solutions that the client actually needs,
crystal superalloys. In the lab, we can create
an early adopter of this technology, is an ex-
these AM components will most probably be
such materials – but it is a tough challenge to
ample of how science and industry can real-
used far longer. That’s a definite contribution
replicate this in the real world.
istically pursue this goal. Various companies
to decarbonization in manufacturing.
ILLUSTRATION: Sergio Ingravalle
have already made significant steps here. Not So, we haven’t quite reached a revolution-
all companies will be using AM in-house
How do you see the future? We have reached
ary status? No, it’s not a revolution yet. I pre-
themselves, but it will be a part of the supply
a point of no return. In the next few years
fer to use this term with caution. I don’t be-
chain for 10% of them.
and decades we will see that AM will play an even greater role in the design of new prod-
lieve we’ll ever be able to print whole cars, turbines or diesel engines. Conventional pro-
Will AM support the industry trend toward
ucts, in rapid prototyping and in manufac-
duction methods have a legitimate place in
digitalization? We call this seamless produc-
turing itself. But the real key to this develop-
manufacturing. But I strongly believe there is
tion. Industry 4.0 will be a success when we
ment lies with us humans. The ability to
huge potential in AM. And I think we are in
digitally incorporate and connect every step
think outside the box will become more im-
for some surprises in engineering.
on the supply-chain process, from design to
portant than ever before.
NEWS & FACTS
◀ Optimized throughout: combustion process, mechanical strength and eco-footprint.
1,300 kW per cylinder Maximum output of MAN’s new flagship engine series, the 45/60. Thanks to a combination of proven features with the latest innovations in diesel-engine technology, this engine achieves best-in-class fuel consumption and efficiency, illustrated by a power density of 1,300 kW output from each single cylinder.
The number of life-changing surgeries performed since 1978 on board the hospital vessels of the Mercy Ships charity. MAN Diesel & Turbo is a proud sponsor and a long-term partner of this international NGO.
The amount of renewable fuel, in metric tons, to be produced annually at La Mède biorefinery operated by Total, the French energy company. Facilitated by MAN compression technology, this world-class plant produces high-quality and renewable biodiesel from vegetable oils, wastes and residues.
Brazil: value-added service for Petrobras Brazilian oil major Petrobras has renewed its comprehensive operations and maintenance agreement with MAN PrimeServ. Under the contract, MAN will continue to service 20 gas turbines and compressors on four platforms located in the Atlantic Ocean’s Campos Basin. Based on an embedded engineer concept, Petrobras has entrusted MAN with the servicing of these turbomachines since 2002. Robin von Plettenberg, Senior Vice President and Head of MAN PrimeServ Turbo at MAN Diesel & Turbo, says, “We enable our customers to focus on their core business – while we provide necessary technology and ensure that it is efficiently available throughout the entire service life.” An aspect that is of special importance for equipment running in harsh and remote surroundings, such as offshore platforms.
◀ Whether offshore or on land: Comprehensive service packages are in demand.
264 MW for Indonesia Indonesia’s state-run electricity supplier, Perusahaan Listrik Negara, has contracted MAN Diesel & Turbo to deliver a total of 20 MAN 51/60DF engines. Ten engines, consisting of gensets together with alternators, are to power five new power plants, each with a capacity of 15 or 20 MW. They will be maintained by MAN PrimeServ for five years. The other ten will be installed in three new power plants, for which the Indonesian company Persero and MAN Diesel & Turbo will take EPC responsibility: two with a capacity of 50 MW on the island of Sumbawa, the third on the island of East Nusa Tenggara. “The Indonesian government wants to create 35 GW
PHOTOS: MAN, Hauke Dressler, fotolia
of new generation capacity by 2019,” says Martin Höhler, Head of Sales for power plants in the Asia-Pacific region at MAN Diesel & Turbo. “Closing the gap in the supply of electricity on over 900 inhabited islands can only be achieved by decentralized units. We offer the ideal solution for this.” With a population of around 255 million, a growth rate of almost 5% and a growing demand for energy, Indonesia is the largest economic area in Southeast Asia and the world’s largest island state.
▲ Time to light up more than just Jakarta: 900 Indonesian islands want a stable power supply too.
What Turns The World On? Transforming off-grid areas into megacities.
MAN built the first engine driven power plant. We have been successfully in business ever since
megawatts of power and heat are generated at MAN Diesel & Turbo plants
total efficiency in heat utilization with MAN gas engines
Power Technology IPP Utility Industry Mining Oil & Gas After Sales With decades of proven success in even the harshest environments, MAN Diesel & Turbo engines and turbines for decentralized power plants have become a synonym for reliability, efficiency and cost-effective operation. We offer a comprehensive range of solutions for applications up to 400 MW, using liquid fuel, gaseous fuel or a dual-fuel combination. From the remotest off-grid sites to the largest industrial complexes, our longstanding international customers trust our engines and our expertise in the power industry to keep the wheels of global business turning. Find out more at www.mandieselturbo.com
MAN Diesel & Turbo customer magazine. In this issue: Remote, smart islands - The benchmark for self-sustaining grids.