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Issue 2013

explore language & culture Where Mandarin study begins

Why Chinese is easy

Testimonials Read what Erik, Ay Lin, Nicolas, Saskia and Steven have to tell you Amazing Culture Terracotta Warriors Chinese Garden, Great Wall

Interview with the Managing Director

Mandalingua Insight Brand New Chinese textbooks What is best practise curriculum

Outstanding views Guilin, Lijiang, Hangzhou Longmen Grottoes

Language Programs Chinese Courses designed for you

The Chinese Language

Chinese is one of the oldest languages in the world and is also considered one of the oldest spoken languages. 10


History of Shanghai

Anyone who stands in front of the world-famous skyline of Pudong can hardly imagine that Shanghai has been a dazzling city for a long time. 18

Rice - more than just a corn

This food, in China called dàmǐ (大米), is not only a plant, but ‘daily bread’ for many people. 28

Reasons to Choose MandaLingua l Where Mandarin study begins 1 School * Teacher * CurriculumMANDALINGUA * Textbooks * Courses

Meet the world of

MandaLingua Are you ready for an unforgettable experience? Choose MandaLingua and we will show you how easy it is to learn Chinese - apply today!

66 Student’s life in Shanghai

Junior Program


About MandaLingua

Student’s life in Shanghai

Short introduction 5 10 Reasons to choose MandaLingua 6 Best practice curriculum 7 Our own textbooks 8 Certification 9

Sightseeing 14 Nightlife 15 Excursions with Mandalingua 22 Cuisine 26 MandaLingua Community 27 Cultural Activities 30 Accommodation 33


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

About MandaLingua

4 8 30


Our own Te

Chinese Language Program

Chinese Language Programs Chinese Course Programs Intensive Chinese Part time Chinese

Explore Language & Culture Issue 2013 / Volume 1


Published by MandaLingua Chinese Language School

Internship Programs Internship in China


Business Programs Business Courses Corporate Training


HSK Test Preparation


Junior Programs Longterm Course 16+ Travel & Study


700 East YanAn Road, 200001 Shanghai, China Tel: +86 21 5307 8210

Managing Director Editor-in-Chief

Fax: +86 21 5307 8190

Daniele Bardaro Marliese Herrmann

Copyright 2013, Mandalingua Chinese Language School. All rights reserved. No reproduction of any articles or photographs in this publication may be made in whole or in part without the written permission of the copyright holder and / or the publisher.


Message from the Managing Director Learning Chinese opens up a world of opportunities, whether you improve your career prospects, you are going to travel through China or want to discover the thousands of years old knowledge and wisdom of the Chinese society. Here at MandaLingua, we can help you achieve your goals. As the best provider of Chinese language education in China, we offer in Shanghai the most comprehensive range of programs in a modern and vibrant city. Along the way, you will meet like-minded students from all around the world, build lifelong friendships and have some amazing experiences. We will be there for you – and we look forward to welcoming you at our MandaLingua Chinese Language School. Yours sincerely Daniele Bardaro


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

霖满 阁达

Short introduction Leading Chinese Language School

MandaLingua School is a leading Chinese language school in Shanghai, offering overseas students, expatriates and young professionals practical and customized Chinese Language programs. MandaLingua Language School was established by a team of European and Chinese language experts their goal being to bring both cultures closer together.

Chinese language programs

The school provides highly customized programs such as intensive language classes, evening and weekend classes, or internship programs combined with language training and work experience at Chinese and international companies. Classes are taught by a team of experienced, certified Chinese language instructors.

Long-term experience

All our chinese teachers are native speakers and experienced in teaching Chinese as foreign language and are regularly trained in our MandaLingua Teacher Training Center (MTTC).

Best practice curriculum

We have been developing four new state of the art Chinese textbooks together with our core team of Chinese and European language professionals. The contents of the textbooks are fascinating, carefully structured and well thought-through, with the exacting core competencies of the language specially presented.

Great location in the city centre

Our school is located on People’s Square, in the heart of downtown Shanghai. Facilities include 13 classrooms and a coffee/lounge area with free internet access.

MandaLingua service

To ensure a pleasant stay in Shanghai, MandaLingua provides appropriate accommodation that offers ideal conditions for living and studying.

Exciting cultural activities

MandaLingua offers exciting cultural activities, like Tai Chi Chuan, tea ceremonies, playing Mahjong or city trips in and around Shanghai.

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


10 Reasons to choose MandaLingua by two Europenese Language School managed Chi ing lead y onl The : ool Sch 1. ching methods. ans who understand western tea cept with eloped teaching and learning con 2. Best curriculum: A well dev nese as foreign language. unique methods for teaching Chi nghai, at the is located in the center of Sha 3. Centrally located: The school Road and jing famous pedestrian street Nan well-known People’s Square. The d are also close by. the shopping street Huai Hai Roa

Chinese and rs have a university degree in 4. Teachers: All Chinese teache enhance s by MandaLingua to expand and take in-house education course erpersonal skills. their didactic, linguistic and int man, Swissmotivated team - including a Ger 5. Team: A friendly and highly Chinese and r who is also fluent in English german and Italian native speake helps you to settle in Shanghai. developed by textbooks, custom-designed and 6. Textbooks: We use our own an Frameope oriented to the Common Eur MandaLingua. The textbooks are ges (CEFR) and HSK. work of References for Langua levels according instructional and achievement 7. Levels: Clear and structured s for Lannce European Framework of Refere the standards of the Common guages (CEFR) and HSK. a variety of clean accommodations offering 8. Accommodations: A range of ate studio priv guest families, or in shared or living situations, such as with apartments. mer season what you pay for! In the sum 9. Price policy: You get exactly n fewer whe nor do we reduce course hours we do not increase our prices always last r for a group course. One lesson than three participants registe 50 minutes. such as a tea Alumni Groups, weekly activities 10. Community: Facebook and exciting cul, city trips and lots of other ceremony, dumplings, calligraphy tural activities.


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

With professional and highly qualified teachers, as well-structured board of directors and an innovative didactic material it becomes much easier to learn Mandarin! ” Jonatas Amaral, former MandaLingua Student

Best Practice Curriculum Differences between us and universities Compared to the outdated and academic language courses offered by many universities, MandaLingua take particular care to ensure that you have optimal learning conditions. Our lively, varied lesson plans contribute to maintaining high levels of motivation throughout the course. To optimize communicative exchange in the class, we keep group sizes particularly small and make your chinese courses to the best in China.

Our self developed Textbooks During the past 2 years we have been developing four new state of the art Chinese textbooks together with our core team of Chinese and European language professionals. All textbooks are exciting, carefully structured and easy to understand, with the exacting core competencies of the language especially presented. Today our four textbooks belong to the best and most popular language textbooks in China.

Self developed teaching curriculum After many internal workshops with famous language professionals, the MandaLingua language experts are aware of the challenges in the Chinese language. Therefore, we know exactly how to teach our students for best learning success. We are convinced with our self-developed teaching curriculum, you will improve your Chinese efficiently.

Experienced Education Departement Our education department consists in China’s best educated Mandarin instructors as well as European Language Professionals. We constantly improve and edit our teaching material and methodology, also by considering critical feedbacks from our international alumni star students. MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


“ Compare to other textbooks I had used before, with the MandaLingua textbooks I got a deeper insight to the chinese grammar and language so that I can understand more and more now. ” Björn Latzel, former MandaLingua Student

Mandalingua Textbooks self developed Textbooks, simple and understandable The Practical Chinese textbooks one to four have been carefully developed by ourself and are oriented to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and the Chinese proficiency test HSK. The books were written in cooperation with our specialized Chinese teachers and our European Managing Director. The contents of the textbooks are fascinating, carefully structured and well thought-through, with the exacting core competencies of the language specially presented.

All our books contain many vivid examples, explanations, or exercises to bring you a closer understanding of the language – not only orally, but also visually.

4 Books four Levels 8

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

A1 to B2




MANDALINGUA Quality Guarantee One - Bringing Confidence! The MandaLingua Language School guarantees you with the 5 point guaranty a securely booking and a professional course performance. You can trust in us. Two - 30 days money-back guarantee If you can not attend your course in any case of problems, you will get your money back within the first 30 days before course start. Three - Price guarantee At MandaLingua you get what you pay for. We do not reduce the duration of lessons from 50 to 30 minutes because of fewer participants. MandaLingua do not increase its fees during any season. You only pay the rates published on our website. Four - Secured payment Your payment is secured, even if the school business will fail. For your safeness MandaLingua has opened a special fund at a famous insurance company.

Five - Service guarantee MandaLingua guaranties a professional service, from your registration to your departure. We are available for you all the time. Six - Guaranty of qualified teachers All our Chinese teachers have a university degree in Chinese, which establishes their qualifications for teaching Chinese as a foreign language.

Bildungsurlaub The MandaLingua Language School in Shanghai has been certified by the German Government of Education for operating Bildungsurlaub seminars in Practical Chinese to German students. MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


The Chinese Language C

hinese is one of the oldest languages in the world and is also considered one of the oldest spoken languages. Therefore, the language plays a very important role in the progress and development of Chinese culture. And when you consider that the Chinese language is no harder to learn than any other language today, it has the potential to become the most widely spoken language in the world, in addition to its current status as leading mother tongue in the world. Liu Weipeng, Education Manager, MandaLingua Daniele Bardaro, Managing Director, MandaLingua

Standard Chinese and its Dialects Standard Chinese is based on the pronunciation of the Beijing Region, or 北方话 běifānghuà as the northern dialect. This dialect was the basis for the introduction and spread of grammatical standards. The general Chinese language includes not only Mandarin, but also the following six major local dialects: Wu Dialect 吴方言 wúfāngyán, mainly from Suzhou Gan Dialect 赣方言 gànfāngyán, from Nanchang xiang Dialect 湘方言 xiāngfāngyán, from Changsha Hakka Dialect 湘方言 xiāngfāngyán, from Guangdong Province / Mei county Yue Dialect 粤方言 yuèfāngyán, from Guangzhou Min Dialect 闽方言 mǐnfāngyán, originating in Fuzhou Mandarin Normally, people think of Mandarin when speaking about the Chinese language. In the Western world, Mandarin is often considered to be a synonym for the Chinese language. The origin is unclear, but it is generally believed that the term ‘Mandarin’ arose in the seventeenth century and is derived from the Portuguese word for ‘minister’ or ‘official’. The term Mandarin was then transferred to ancient China and used for high officials. As the former imperial state officials spoke the northern dialect of the Peking region, the term Mandarin also established itself to signify the language of these officials. Chinese In colloquial language, today’s Chinese is known as 中国话 zhōngguóhuà, 中文 zhōngwén, or the most frequently used word 汉语 hànyǔ, the language used by the Han Chinese. It is the main language of the Han Chinese, which are the largest ethnic minority in China. However, 普通话 pǔtōnghuà, literally means ‘the normal speech’ or ‘the common language’, thus, today’s official language or Standard Chinese, which is the official language of the People’s Republic of China. It is one of the leading mother tongues in the world.


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

The Pinyin System The ancient Chinese language had no phonetic transcriptions in order to give the exact pronunciation. So people resorted to an earlier method of mapping the corresponding phonetic sound to each character. This method has significant limitations. To more effectively bring the Chinese language into an international context, the Chinese language reform committee proposed to adapt to the style of the Latin alphabet languages, and from 1955 to 1957 devised a unique phonetic transcription, now known as Pinyin. The unique phonetic transcription is based on the Latin alphabet. So today, each character in Pinyin is assigned a syllable and a tone. With each entry in

Pinyin, the corresponding characters are selected. Many young Chinese people today write SMS or chat in the internet in this way. Pronunciation The pronunciation of the Chinese language can be learned relatively easily with a little practice. Many people who deal with the Chinese language find that it is not too difficult to find the right tone in colloquial language. The first tone is kept constant and high. The second tone climbs from the bottom to the top and the third sound rises from the lower level up. The fourth tone drops sharply from top to bottom. The Syllables In contrast to the Western languages, the Chinese language is a syllabic language and has a total of 398 syllables. Each syllable has a variety of different characters in addition to the four tones. For example, the syllable ‘ma’: In the first tone, 妈 mā means mother In the second tone, má 麻 means hemp In the third tone, mǎ 马 means horse In the fourth tone, mà 骂 means shame or guilt. In addition to the four emphases, there is also the toneless pronunciation, which in turn can lead to different meanings. Through one and two syllable words, many different word combinations can be created, as for example with the character 电 diàn for electricity. If 电 diàn is combined with 脑 nǎo (the brain), together they mean 电脑 diànnǎo, “computer.” If 电 diàn (electricity) and 话 huà (the talk, the speech) are combined, it means 电话 diànhuà, “telephone.” 电 diàn (electricity) and 视 shì (to watch) together mean电视 diànshì, “television.” 电 diàn (electricity) and 梯 tī (ladder) together mean 电梯 diàntī, “lift” or “elevator.” 电影 diànyǐng for “film,” and 电灯 diàndēng for “lamp” are other words that can be constructed with the syllables. Thus, all word combinations with 电 diàn have some connection to electricity. The Characters The Chinese writing system is over 3000 years old and, despite common opinion, is not a hieroglyphic system. Today there are only a few characters that were created by nature. Over the centuries, a treasury of around 50,000 characters has developed. However, many are now no longer found in everyday use. Despite the phonetic transcriptions, many non-Chinese people think that the Chinese characters are hard to learn because they are not based on an alphabet. But the identification of Chinese

characters is quite simple. The characters follow a few clear rules, which allow the user to quickly understand the characters. All characters are based on six basic strokes: 横 héng (horizontal line) 竖 shù (vertical line) 撇 piě (line from top to bottom left) 捺 nà (line from top to bottom right) 点 diǎn (small line from top left to bottom right) 提 tí (increasing stroke from bottom right to top left) knowing the Chinese characters makes it generally much easier to understand the Chinese language. To read a newspaper or other text today, you will need approximately 2000 to 3000 characters. To counter illiteracy, the simplification of Chinese characters known as 简体字 jiǎntǐzì was announced on 31 January 1956. The simplification of writing was based not only on reducing the number of strokes within a character, but also on the standardization and systematization of the manner of writing, standardized sounds, and the number of characters for everyday use. While today in the People’s Republic of China only the simplified writing is used, in Taiwan and Hong kong the traditional writing 繁体字 fántǐzì is still used.

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins



Leading the Pack by Michael Ardaiolo -

Daniele Bardaro, the Managing Director and owner of the Mandalingua Chinese Language School in Shanghai, has a pair of eyes that rarely rest. They are also slightly magnified by his glasses, which give them an enthusiastically animated quality. When he begins to talk about his language school, his body follows suit. He leans in, gestures in conductor-like strokes to emphasize his point, and then sits back decisively to show his approval. Language, and the acquisition of it, has a caffeinic affect on his personality. Since excitement is half the battle when it comes to learning a new language, Bardaro is a worthy general. In 2008, Bardaro came to Shanghai from Switzerland, where he had worked in HR training and recruitment. His story of assimilation is essential to Mandalingua’s ethos. And it is one that most – not least of all, myself – can relate to. It begins with the same question each of asks immediately after getting off the plane: what is the best way to learn Mandarin? After his arrival, Bardaro first enrolled in a private school teaching Mandarin. He was disappointed in his slow start, so he jumped to a more intensive university program. A year later, he was still struggling to learn the language. His refrain of “Why can’t I


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

pick up this language?” began to grate; the excitement began to wane. Luckily though, this was about the time he met a teacher with which he finally felt a significant connection. The Mandarin was still coming slowly, but at least now he had someone with whom to discuss his problems.

We need to develop our “ own books to pursue the idea of starting with the easy part of Chinese. Mandalingua was born.

They worked together to personalize Bardaro’s learning experience. By emphasizing questions like, “Where is Chinese easy?” strategies began to emerge. Yes, traditional introductory items like mastering the tones, memorizing short phrases or recognizing characters are important, but for Westerners with little-to-no exposure to the language, those can be lengthy, troublesome undertakings. On the other hand, Mandarin’s grammar is quite a bit easier to comprehend and digest. Unlike the Ro-

mance languages, Mandarin has no conjugations or complicated tenses or precise word phrasing. Why not start with the grammar then? Bardaro and his teacher sought out a book that began with this approach. They had no luck finding one. In fact, after assessing quite a few unsuccessful books, they noticed significant problems that were repeated time and again. It wasn’t long before they realized that they would need to develop their own books to pursue this idea. Mandalingua was born. That was in March 2010. Today, Mandalingua occupies a roomy office suite on the sixth floor of the Gang Tai Plaza just off People’s Square Park. There are thirteen glassed-in classrooms and multiple fulltime teachers. Bardaro and his two business partners are there, too. As students enter the suite, Bardaro instinctively sweeps in to say hello. He is bubbling with excitement, talkative and a notch beyond empathetic. It’s infectious. If entering students aren’t energized for their lesson when they step through the front door, they are heading in the right direction by the time they reach the classroom. The Mandalingua teaching method and accompanying texts book were built from the ground up. Bardaro and his teachers first aim to instill confidence in students, building a foundation of enthusiasm and aplomb in what can often be an embarrassing pursuit during the early days of mispronunciation and elementary sentences. They teach to students’ strengths, often beginning with easy grammar and expanding outwards. The books are also crafted to be foreigner-centric – they abide by the Common European framework of

references of languages – and they include plenty of reference signals so that one can move back and forth through the textbooks with ease. Being “foreignercentric,” however, is not a cure-all. An Australian with quite a bit of exposure to Chinese culture will learn very differently than a Greek trekking into the country for the first time. Student learning methods vary greatly, no matter where they are from. This is why Bardaro insists on tailor-made programs for each and every student. Those who like to work in groups, work in groups. Those who are more private are offered one-on-one lessons. Can you read Chinese characters rather well, but still struggle with writing them? Well then, they will craft a program emphasizing writing. The printed books may be stagnant, but that doesn’t mean you are locked into learning them from cover to cover.

Student learning methods “ vary greatly, no matter where they are from. This is why Bardaro insists on tailor-made programs for each and every student.

When building his school, Bardaro also established the Mandalingua Teaching Training Center. He decided to hire a slew of full-time teachers – with impressive benefit packages – instead of employing a rotating series of pay-per-lesson freelancers. Since they weren’t worrying about their next gig, his teachers would enliven the Mandalingua method, experimenting with different variations on each theme and evolving the process to better suit the students. They workshop new ideas, discuss how to better serve individuals and teach each other lessons they learned in the classroom. In essence, it’s a school’s school. The teachers are learning as much as the students. Besides, if the students are investing their time and money in the school to learn, then the teachers should be providing them with the highest returns possible. Near the end of our conversation, Bardaro leaned in and explained with a 2/4 stroke that landed between sentences, “We don’t teach Chinese in order to earn money. We teach Chinese is easy to learn.” Then, he sat back with a content gusto. Mandalingua is not only convinced they can teach you Mandarin, they truly believe it will be an easy and enjoyable process. It’s just up to you to take the first step.

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


Student’s life in Shanghai

SightSeeing The vibrant city of Shanghai has a lot to do and to see during the day and night. The landmark Shanghai’s is the world famous Bund with the amazing view of the fascinating skyline of the economical centre Pudong. Be astonished how the West meets the East and is manifesting in a booming economic power called Shanghai. When the weather is nice, you should definitely climb the Pearl Tower and take the chance to see Shanghai, the Pearl of the Orient, from above. Then, the East Nanjing Road and the People’s Park in the heart of the city are inviting you to stroll around and watch Shanghai’s street life. Shanghai also offers you a big variety of exceptional markets, like the Pearl Market, Pet Market, Electronic Market, Fabric Market, but also many different Fake Markets. Shanghai gives the impression, that there is nothing you cannot buy in the city and will make every shopper’s heart jump. Visit the Chinese acrobatic show at the Shanghai


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

Population 25 Million Area 6’340.5km2 Official Language Mandarin Chinese Local Dialect Shanghainese Phone Code (+86) 021 Time zone (UTC+8)

Circus World, where graceful contortionists meet crazy motorcycle stunts. Besides the many activity and entertainment possibilities, there are also many islands of tranquility, like the beautiful Yu Garden located very close to the East Nanjing Road.

NightLife Chinese people love to go out and therefore, it is not a surprise that there are plenty of Clubs, Bars and KTV’s in Shanghai. The vibrant nightlife is offering a big variety of entertainment possibilities, so everybody will find its perfect spot. Probably, the most famous and exclusive Club of Shanghai is “Mint”, which was built in a penthouse-style with huge windows overlooking the amazing skyline of the city. One of the most popular bars is definitely “Bar Rouge” situated right at Bund. From a big terrace you will have a breath taking view on Shanghai’s economical district Pudong. Of course there are much more fun places to go, like the entertainment districts Xintiandi, Hengshan Lu and Hongmei Lu.

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


Meaning of the name: Garden of Happiness Center piece: 3.3 m jade rock Location: Shanghai, China Construction: 1559, during the Dynasty 16Ming MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

蹍 园

Yuyuan Garden

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


History of Shanghai Anyone who stands in front of the world-famous skyline of Pudong can hardly imagine that Shanghai has been a dazzling and very dynamic city for a long time. Admittedly, this skyline with its impressive skyscrapers was only built in the last twenty years, but the city –also called the ‘Paris of the East’ – has had its cosmopolitan flair for over a hundred years. Daniele Bardaro, Manading Director, MandaLingua

city. With a new Hangzhou bridge in the south and the Shanghai Jangtse bridge in the north, the city is now charting its course for the future challenges of the twenty-first century.

Urban Development Early in the last century, numerous immigrants created the large waterfront district named ‘Bund’ across from Pudong by building splendid westernstyle trading houses, banks and hotels. These influences are still evident today – and the rare mix of western and Chinese styles characterizes the lives of today’s over 18 million official inhabitants. According to estimates, an additional two or three million unregistered workers live in the city. Two factors assure that the city still works remarkably well (in contrast to many other cities around the world) despite the many residents and the resulting challenges On the one hand, the government persistently pursues its dream of ‘Better City, Better Life’, a government program with many aspects. On the other hand, the direction of urban development was established already at the beginning of the twentieth century with three decisive steps. First, a bridge was built across the Suzhou River to better connect the southern and northern districts. Second, Pudong – formerly bleak and dreary - was developed into a new city district. An underwater tunnel and a new bridge linked Pudong with the Huangpu riverside district of Puxi. With a speed unimaginable by Europeans standards, Pudong developed with modern facilities and a global orientation to become a leading financial center. Third,the entire Yangtze River delta is being integrated into the


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

Pioneer and Role Model In this sense, Shanghai still sets the pace for China’s history. Already in the 1930s, Shanghai played an important role in furthering reform policies and the opening of China. From early on, couples strolled arm in arm on the large promenade – inconceivable for a country that imposed strict penalties just for public hand-holding. The impulses of the 1980s, when Shanghai’s industrial structure was reorganised, were also decisive for the whole country. Even if only 1 % of all Chinese live in Shanghai, and the city occupies only 0.06% of China’s total area, the importance of Shanghai for all of China today is indisputable. Shanghai alone contributes over 12% of state tax revenue. The importance of Shanghai for China and the world of finance is also reflected in other figures: today, there are over 690 local financial institutions, including over 170 with foreign participation. More than 220 multinational companies have their regional headquarters in Shanghai. The port of Shanghai, with an annual cargo turnover of more than 580 million tons, has been the largest port in the world for years. And in spending twice as much of its Gross National Product for research and development than do other urban areas, Shanghai remains a role model for other Chinese cities.

The Bund 1930

Population The city’s residents have played a significant role in this development. Back in the 1930s, many Europeans came to Shanghai. At that time, China was the only country in the world that welcomed Jewish refugees with no visa requirement. This open attitude is still reflected today in the young middle class. They are proud of how the city is developing, and themselves make a major contribution to its further progress through their educational efforts, a high priority for many families,. Through the 2010 World Expo, new developments in the service industries have been set in motion. Also to be noted is a strong impetus in industrial advancements on an even higher level than previously enjoyed.

the ‘Bund’ in the evening and look at the skyline, especially the 468m high Oriental Pearl Tower. The eleven balls in the tower symbolize a traditional verse of the poet Bay Juyi, which compares the sound of the classical plucked instrument pipa to pearl drops falling on a jade plate. So history and modernity are not insurmountable contradictions – Shanghai is the best example of this.

Future All these factors will allow Shanghai to grow over the next ten years to become a even stronger global financial center. And despite all the upheavals and developments in Shanghai, the city retains its dream of ‘Better City, Better Life’. Shanghai wants to avoid the mistakes of other large cities of the world. You will feel that this is possible when you stand along

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


Nanjing Road



MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

Most famous pedestrian and shopping road in the center of Shanghai with a lot of restaurants and attractions.

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


Excursionswith Mandalingua S

hanghai has plenty of sightseeing spots to offer. Get an impression how big the city of Shanghai is by having a look at the city model in the Urban Planning Exhibition Hall. After this you can observe the city from currently Shanghai’s highest two spots: Shanghai World Financial Center and Jin Mao Tower.

Shanghai World Financial Center & Jin Mao Tower 上海环球金融中心和金茂大厦

To escape from the busy life of Shanghai, the cities

Hangzhou, Suzhou, Xitang and other water town’s close by are offering the perfect time out. A walk with a picnic at the world famous Westlake in Hangzhou is inviting you to hang out and to relax. Then, a laid back boat ride through the canals of Xitang and the water towns is giving all the visitors an insight into the old China. Suzhou has plenty of beautiful gardens, which invite visitors for a peaceful walk far away from the busy city life. Or explore the rural side of Shanghai and go for a nice bycicle ride and enjoy Shanghai’s freshest air on Hengsha Island located in the river delta north of the city.


ut if you have a long weekend, then do not miss the amazing Yellow Mountains of China. When the first sun rays of a new day are breaking through the mist, then you will recognize the bizarre forms and the impressive size of this mountain massif. Chinese people say, who has seen the Yellow Mountains, does not need to visit any other mountains anymore. No wonder these mountains have become a popular UNESCO world heritage among Chinese and foreigners.


nother amazing trip is of course a visit in China’s world famous capital Beijing. Walk on the Great Wall, visit the impressive Forbidden city and the Tempel of Heaven. Did you know that Beijing was not always China’s capital? Visit Nanjing and discover another chapter of China’s history.


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

Hangzhou 杭州

Hengsha Island 横沙岛

Xitang 西塘 Huangshan 黄山

Suzhou 苏州

Beijing 北京

Urban Planning

Exhibition Hall


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins



MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

Jing An Temple Jing’an Temple is one of the most famous temples in Shanghai built in 247 AD, at the time of the Kingdom of Wu.

静 安 寺

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


Shanghai Cuisine Independent, Sweet and Delicious

In Shanghai you can eat everything you have always been craving for! This city has an impressive amount and variety of national and international cuisines. You will get the unique chance to enjoy different cuisines of China, Asia and also Western cuisines, even in one day. On you will always find new ideas for restaurants and their best deals, like Monday Burger Day or Sunday Brunch Day.


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

MandaLingua Join our MandaLingua Community and meet new friends from around the world! It is fun to study Chinese together and push each other to the maximum. Exchange your best study methods or collect new travelling tips for another amazing trip in China. With new friends in Shanghai it is also more fun to explore the vibrating city together, leave the city for an exciting travel in China or just to meet up and have a cup of coffee.

10.000 Fans

With more than , the MandaLingua Community is available on Facebook! Join the group and be up to date what is going on in and around the school. Check out our events, city trips, news of Shanghai and China, Grammar Corner, newest jokes or outstanding pictures. Become a member of our Facebook group and you get the unique chance to connect with an international community of like-minded people.

- our CommunitY Exchange, explore and be up to date

Where Mandarin study begins


霖满 阁达

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


Rice - more than just a corn

‘… And a sack of rice will burst in China…’ This phrase does not adequately reflect the importance of Rice in the Asia region. This food, in China called dàmǐ (大米), is not only a plant, but ‘daily bread’ for many people. Jürg Hornbostel, MandaLingua Representant Europe

Origin Rice is one of the oldest crops worldwide. Archaeological finds prove that 7000 years ago, first rice species have been domesticated in the Jangtse River area in China. And still the world’s largest growing areas are in China, India and in other parts of Southeast Asia. The spread to the rest of the world took place via Egypt; as early as 400 BC, rice was growing also in Mesopotamia (present-day border between Iraq and Iran). In the 10th Century, rice was introduced in Spain, and grown from 15th Century in the Po Valley in Italy (still the largest rice producer in Europe), before it became known in the U.S. from the 17th Century on. Rice is traded on the stock markets, as many commodities; for example on the Rice Stock Market in Vercelli (Piedmont/Italy). Cultivation The rice plan belongs to the annual grass species. Originally, the plant was grown in dry soil. Trough breeding, it became the marsh plant, now grown to 80% of so-called wet-rice. Under ideal climatic conditions like in a hot, humid tropical climate, up to three


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crops per year are possible. From each plant, 50 to 300 grains of rice can be harvested. The terraced fields in China and Thailand are characteristic. Rice is still mostly planted and harvested by hand in this regions. After sowing, the terraces are flooded to reach the flowering and drained before the harvest. Diversity The variety of rice is enormous. Not only the growing areas are different for wet rice and dry rice, but also by the species. The most common varieties are now the long grain and short grain rice. There are many varieties: Arborio, Jasmine rice, Basmati rice, Brown rice, Sweet rice, Japanese rice, Green rice and many more. The different types are used for a variety of dishes. For example, Brown rice is not suitable for Risotto, Green rice is completely inappropriate for a course with Dry rice. The White rice is polished, which means the germs and the silver skin of the rice grain are removed. They are still present in Brown rice, here the rice is just threshed out of the case. This adds even more vitamins and fat, it requires more water during cooking and the cooking

time is extended accordingly. A shorter cooking time results in parboiled rice. This rice has been soaked in hot water, steamed under pressure and then dried again. With this shorter cooking time, the rice is less sticky. In the term of aromatic rice, varieties like Basmati rice and Jasmine rice are known. Wild rice (Brown rice) The wild rice is strictly speaking not a type of rice. Although it is also a grass plant, but originally from North America and has not much in common with the rice species from Asia. Wild rice was very popular among the Indians of North America and led to some tribal fighting for the best growing areas. Above all, the tribe of Anishinawbe Indians were using Wild rice as staple food. His name was Manomin, which means roughly ‘treat gift from Manitou’. Besides the now familiar red Camargue rice, most Wild rice species are offered in conjunction with normal rice as a mixture. Harvest and use Rice is a staple food – more than half of world’s population eats rice daily. In some countries, rice accounts for about 4/5 from the whole meal. So it is not surprising that in 2009 the world production was 678.7 millions tons. Almost 50% of which were harvested in China and India.

all the rice at the Chinese restaurant, never put the chopsticks upright in the rice. This is a sign of mourning. Just a quick note: Rice should always be rinsed with cold water before cooking. In addition, rice should not be stirred while cooking, so it sticks less. This is in contrast to Italian risotto rice – if the rice is not constantly stirred, you will not be awarded with a creamy risotto (‘little rice’). Or do as most people in Asia: Save the trouble and get an automatic rice cooker. Millions of people can not be wrong! And if you even drive a Japanese car, rice is closer to you as you may think: Honda is translated with ‘the main rice field’ and Toyota means nothing else than ‘rich rice field’. And finally an old Chinese saying: If you want to be happy for one hour, get drunk; If you want to be happy for three days, get married, If you want to have a happy life, eat rice every day.

The importance of rice in China is also reflected in language use. For example, eat’ is equated with ‘rice’. Chinese eat on average twice as much rice as the Japanese. Rice is used to 92% of the total harvest for food. In addition to rice as grains, it is also known as rice wine, rice vinegar, rice milk and rice beer. Further, there are also rice flour which is also used for cooking, or even rice paper. The success of this plant is also in the nutritional value. With a carbohydrate content of 78.6 out of 100 grams, this small grain outstripped the nutritional value of pasta, potatoes and corn. However, important substances such as vitamin B1 were missing in early days. By new varieties, the content of vitamin B1 increased and is complemented by other minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, niacin and amino acids. More than just a small grain By the way – Rice is a symbol of fertility. So, if you want to become a godmother or godfather, don’t forget to throw a lot of rice on the bride and the groom at the next wedding! And if you are not able to eat

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Cultural Activities @ MandaLingua

Calligraphy - 書法 shūf ǎ We will lead you to the more than 7.500 years old art of writing by using hand, paint brush and ink. We will focus on a consistent writing method and an aesthetic composition of the Chinese characters. Tai Chi Chuan - 太极拳 tàijíquán The thousands of years old chinese movement system Tai Chi Chuan, also known as shadow boxing, is used as a form of relaxing of the musculature. Additionally it should improve your concentration and coordination. The slow and concentrate movements will help you for a better sense of well being. Today Tai Chi Chuan is a popular morning open air exercise in China. Qi Gong - 气功 qìgōng Together we will experience the main exercises of the Qi Gong. These Chinese exercises of medita-


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tion and concentration will improve your vital physical strength and will balance your mind and soul. It will help you to relax and brings new energy into your body.

Tea Ceremony - 茶道 chádào China is the home country of tea culture. Patricipate in a traditional chinese tea ceremony and experience the creation of enjoying drinking tea. The chinese classical art of drinking and enjoying tea (茶藝 cháyì) takes place in specific rules, therefore the Chinese use a various range of different species of tea. Tea in former times has been used as medicine, today the tea has rather a social standing. Guests will be entertained with tea to show valuation and appreciation. MahJongg - 麻将 májiàng The chinese parlour game MahJongg (麻将 májiàng), originally from the 19th century, became also generally known in America and Europe in the early 20th century. To play it in a most enjoying way you should arrange at least 4 people. In 1998 MahJongg has been accepted officially as a chinese sport. MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


“Shanghai is an open and international city with a lot people from different nations. Local people are also open to meet other people. And Shanghai is also a city with Chinese tradition. In the city you can experience a lot Chinese culture. I liked my time learning Chinese at Mandalingua. The teachers are very professional. They gave me very useful advice what I can learn by myself after I finished my course. If you want to study Chinese,

I strongly recommend Mandalingua.”

Nicolas Perrinjaquet, Switzerland

“The Western management did a perfect job writing books in a Western way helping to understand the Chinese language. In the past I had a lot of Chinese teachers but the language didn’t make sense to me. Now with the Chinese Teacher here at Mandalingua makes the language sense.

I am glad I joined MandaLingua!” Ay lin kho, netherlands


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Single Studio Apartment Our single studio apartments welcome participants who would like to live and study in a private, quiet and comfortable environment. The apartments all have a selection of shops nearby. The apartments are convenient to reach via the public transportation system (buses or subways) and just 20-30 minutes away from our school. shared apartment The shared apartment is ideal for participants who would like to share their accommodation with other international students. This is a good chance to make friends and get together with people from different countries and varied cultures. The apartments are convenient to reach via the public transportation system and just 20-30 minutes away from our school.

homehotel A homehotel is a shared apartment together with one or two Chinese roommates. This offers a good chance for you to improve your Chinese language skills and to learn more about Chinese culture. All the apartments are convenient to reach via the public transportation system (buses or subways) and just 20-30 minutes away from our school. The apartments all have a selection of shops nearby. chinese host family In a Chinese family you will experience daily life in Shanghai first hand. Your host family lives 20-30 minutes away from our school and is convenient to reach via the public transportation system (bus or subway). All host family locations have a selection of shops nearby.

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Lijiang is a city with 800 years of history, located in the northwest of Yunnan province. Lijiang is fairy land known for its fresh air, clear streams, breathtaking snow mountains and friendly people. Lijiang is the main region inhabited by Naxi Group, one of china’s 56 ethnic groups. Dongba Culture has absorbed aspects of culture of Tibet and original Naxi culture. There are a number of tour destinations to enhance the tour in Lijiang. First is the old town, which is the best preserved ancient town in China with peaceful surroundings. In the old town, do not miss Mu Palace (木府 Mùfǔ). The splendid natural spots will also astonish you, such as Jade Dragon snow mountain (玉龙雪山 Yùlóngxuě Shān) and Black Dragon pool (黑龙潭 Hēilóngtán). The best way to go to Lijiang is by air or by bus. When you are in Lijiang,do not forget to visit the souvenir shops and taste local dishes and snacks.


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins



Warriors chance. In March 1974, when Chinese farmers in Xiyang, near the ancient imperial city of Xi’an, decided to dig a well, they come upon a layer of hard clay. They found arms and legs made of clay and bronze arrowheads. Upon further examination of the life-size finds by archaeologists, it was recognized that the findings dated to the Qin dynasty and were extremely valuable. After additional excavations, it turned out that there were thousands of life-size warriors and horses made of clay and that they belonged to the funerary monument of the emperor Qin Shi Huang Di. The grave mound itself is still intact. Chinese archaeologists will open it once the previously excavated material has been fully investigated.

Imo Homfeld, Marketing Manager, MandaLingua

If they had not felt the need to dig for water in a Chinese village in 1974, the secret of the terracotta army probably would never have been discovered and a historical sensation would have been kept from us.

Background Qin Shi Huang Di, the first emperor of China, was made king of the Qin State at the age of only 13 (246 B.C.). Twenty-five years later (in 221 B.C.) he conquered six neighboring countries and united China for the first time in history. Shortly after his accession he began with the construction of his tomb, which would be protected by an army of life-sized clay soldiers in order to defend him after his death: the terracotta army. More than 700,000 forced laborers were exploited during the thirty-six years needed to construct the tomb and to produce more than 7,000 soldiers made for the terracotta army. Among the achievements of the famous and important emperor Qin Shi Huang Di were the standardization of the Chinese characters, and the standardization of the currency and measurement system. He also prompted agricultural reforms and started building defensive fortifications along the country’s northern border, known as the first Great Wall. Discovery & Exvacation of the Terracotta Warriors More than 2000 years would pass, however, before the terracotta warriors were discovered purely by


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A Monumental Tomb The tomb complex is situated in Lingtong, near Xi’an in Shaanxi Province. The emperor had chosen this site for his tomb because it was close to rich deposits of gold and jade. The whole complex occupies an area of 56 square kilometers and has been on the the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1987. Historical records show that the emperor had transport convoys available with fifty-four wagons. Today, it is assumed that in the vicinity of the grave, a whole convoy of eighty-one wagons might be present underground. Thus, the excavation of the emperor’s funerary temple remains a major task for the archaeologists. According to early sources, one can hope for unexpected finds here: in 100 B.C., the chronicle of the historian Sima Qian described that the funerary hall is a temple complex with untold treasures, as well as an underground replica of the world with lakes and rivers of flowing mercury! The Terracotta Army The Terracotta Army dating to the Qin Dynasty consists of 7,278 life-size mounted and foot soldiers, as well as horses, chariots, and weapons. In addition, offerings in the form of deer antlers and animal bones were found, which were to promote a victory. Impressively, all the clay figures are life size, and each was designed and detailed with individual facial features. It remains unclear whether the figures were freely invented, or whether they were modeled after living soldiers of the period. Today’s scholars theorize that such an exact representation of the figures would only have been possible with real people at that time.

Production of the Terracotta Warriors Studies have shown that most of the clay components were produced in an extensive casting process, with a high degree of craftsmanship, which clearly demonstrates the high technological level already achieved at that time. The pieces were put on sturdy legs, so they could be manufactured freestanding. Hollow heads, arms and legs from charred earth were set on the stable legs with plaster strips. After that, the basic model was covered with a fine layer of plaster and the face was scratched into the plaster mass. The armor of the warriors was made separately and added. After the figure was fired at a high temperature, in the last step it was treated with a chromium salt solution to protect it from degradation. Development of the Research The fact that the clay soldiers were already treated at that time with a chromium salt solution is a proof that this technique was already known in China 2000 years ago. Nevertheless, the fired clay figures gradually lost their original colour over time because the paint suffered badly under the damp earth. In 2004, German scientists developed a method by which the paint can be preserved for at least another 100 years.

In addition, the bronze wagon teams found at the grave provide valuable material for further art historical research. Because until now only a quarter of the funerary complex has been excavated, the Chinese archaeologists are working to excavate the remaining terracotta soldiers and restore them. In a few years, when the exact site is located, the tomb mound will be opened. The historian Sima Qian described the grave hall as a replica world made of mercury, bronze, and other precious materials. Studies have indeed shown a high concentration of mercury in this area and so the archaeologists believe that they will find the grave of the Emperor soon. A Historical Sensation! The Terracotta Army from the tomb of Emperor Qin Shi Huang DI, discovered in 1974 near Xi’an, is now considered one of the most significant archaeological excavations and cultural discoveries of the twentieth century. In contrast to the tomb of the Emperor, the Terracotta Army was not mentioned in any historical record for over 2000 years. Thus, this unique discovery was a sensational find even for scholars.

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Longmen Grott The Longmen Grottoes (龙门石窟, lóngmén shíkū) are one of the finest examples of Chinese Buddhist art. Housing thousands of statues of Buddha and his disciples, they are located 12 kilometres south of Luoyang in Henan province. It’s an outstanding manifestation of human artistic creativity.


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins



MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


HANGZHOU Hangzhou is capital city of Zhejiang Province and it’s about 120km to Shanghai. It has been one of the most renowned and prosperous cities of China for More than 1000 years. It is listed as on if seven Ancient Capitals if China. It’s also the southern end of China’s Grand Canal. Hangzhou is one of the most beautiful and most scenic cities in China because of its historic relics and Natural beauty. The West lake is the most popular sights in Hangzhou, and the whole West Lake cultural Landscape covers an areas of 33 km2 including Jingci Temple (静兹寺), Linyin Temple (灵隐寺), baochu Pagoda (保俶塔), Leifeng Pagoda (雷峰塔) and Yuewang Temple (岳王庙). During September, the world’s largest tidal bore races up the Qiangtang River making it another tourist spot in Hangzhou. Along the river, Liuhe Pagoda (六和塔) is another sight of Hangzhou. Besides in the city, drinking the most famous green tea-longjing Tea in Longjing Village makes your trip more comfortable.


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杭 州

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


Chinese Language Programs

Business Pro


Chinese Course Programs Intensive Chinese Part time Chinese Internship Programs Internship in China Business Programs Business Courses Corporate Training HSK Test Preparation Junior Programs Teenager 16+ Travel & Study


hip Pro


Junior Programs


urse Progra

Chinese Co


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every Day

Conversational 20

Mandalingua have developed and designed this Practical Chinese course especially for you students to enrich your Mandarin Chinese and to promote your oral language skills in a lively and interactive group setting every morning from Monday to Friday. You will learn practical applications of the Chinese language in a fascinating manner, so that you can communicate securely and confidently in various situations of daily life. You will be placed in a small group class according to your level and you will benefit from group class interaction, while getting the full attention from your teacher. Fun and pleasure during the class will be guaranteed. Course Details ✓ 20 Lessons per week in Speaking & Listening Monday to Friday 9:00 - 12:30 ✓ Course 1 - 30 Weeks ✓ Course starts every Monday ✓ Topics about daily life situations ✓ Class size max. 8 students ✓ One lesson lasts 50min

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every Day

Conversational 24 Plus

Every morning from Monday to Friday our students practise through listening and speaking in Chinese to communicate about interesting topics of daily life. With dialogues and conversations in a group setting you train your Chinese skills practically and efficiently. In addition, for two afternoons every week, you practice your language skills with a total of four interactive group lessons weekly in oral comprehension; two lessons weekly in speaking Chinese and two lesson weekly in listening Chinese. Course Details ✓ 20 Lessons per week in Speaking & Listening Monday to Friday 9:00 - 12:30 ✓ 4 lessons per Week in Speaking & Listening Tuesday and Thursday 13:30 - 15:20 ✓ Course starts every Monday ✓ Focus on daily life situations ✓ Class size max. 8 students ✓ One lesson lasts 50min


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


every Day

Speaking and Writing 26

With our special developed teaching and learning instructions to study both, speaking and writing Chinese, every morning, you first learn through listening and speaking Chinese to communicate about interesting topics. With dialogues and conversations in a group setting about everyday life you train your oral skills in Chinese practically and efficiently. With 2 additional lessons in writing and reading Chinese characters every Monday, Wednesday and Friday afternoon you will be surprised how quick you will improve your Chinese language ability. Course Details ✓ 20 Lessons per week in Speaking & Listening Monday to Friday 9:00 - 12:30 ✓ 6 lessons per Week in Writing & Reading Monday, Wednesday and Friday 13:30 - 15:20 ✓ Course starts every Monday ✓ Focus on daily life situations ✓ Class size max. 8 students ✓ One lesson lasts 50min

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every Day

Comprehensive 30

Every morning you will learn Mandarin in a group setting to communicate about interesting everyday topics in Chinese language through listening and speaking. With dialogues and conversations from everyday life you train your Chinese skills practically and efficiently, thereby constantly practicing your oral comprehension. With 10 additional lessons per week (every afternoon 2 lessons) you enhance your language skills in speaking & listening and reading & writing Chinese characters.

Course Details ✓ 20 Lessons per week in Speaking & Listening Monday to Friday 9:00 - 12:30 ✓ 6 lessons per Week in Writing & Reading Monday, Wednesday and Friday 13:30 - 15:20 ✓ 4 lessons per Week in Speaking & Listening Tuesday and Thursday 13:30 - 15:20 ✓ Course starts every Monday ✓ Focus on daily life situations ✓ Class size max. 8 students


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every Day

Private Intensive

You want to decide topic and time for chinese learning? You can do it now! You can extend or enhance your language skills with a private teacher according to your personal learning needs. Its advantage is that you can freely determine the course contents and the times, what and when you would like to learn and practice. This course is offered for 1 to 5 people (maximum). Thus you can choose between individual private instruction or group private instruction.

Course Details ✓ 15, 20 or 25 Lessons per week Speaking & Listening and/or Reading & Writing Monday to Friday morning, or afternoon ✓ Course starts every Monday ✓ Focus on your request ✓ Class size 1 - 5 person(s) ✓ One lesson lasts 50min

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“I especially like that the European management speaks my native tongue, so that if any issues arise, I am able to communicate and resolve them in my own language. The things I’ve learned in class have been an enormous help, both at work and in daily life situations.

We have lots of fun in class, so learning comes easily.”

Nicole Kliche, Germany 48

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Evening &


Part time Courses

Evening courses No time for learning Chinese at daytime? You can change it now! You can learn Mandarin in Shanghai 2 or 3 times a week in the evening. weekend courses Learning Chinese on Saturday morning? You are busy on daytime and evening and you would like to learn Chinese at Saturday morning in 4 lessons? Yes, you can! In a group setting you will learn practical applications of the Chinese language in a fascinating manner so that you can then communicate securely and confidently in various situations of daily life.

Course Details ✓ 4 or 6 Lessons per week in Speaking & Listening Tuesday & Thursday 19.00 - 20:40 or Monday, Wednesday and Friday 19:00 - 20:40 ✓ Focus on daily life situations ✓ Course starts every Monday ✓ Course levels A1 - C2 ✓ Class size max. 8 students ✓ One lesson lasts 50 min

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Suzhou 苏州

Suzhou is in the south of Jiangsu Province with Shanghai to the east. As 42% area of the city is covered by water, Suzhou is praised as the Oriental Venice. Taihu lake, the fourth largest fresh water lake in China,is also on the west of the city surrounded by East Hill and West Hill. Gardens in Suzhou considered to be the best ones in the world. These gardens attain their high reputation with their vast numbers as well as their charming natural beauty and harmonious construction. There are more than 60 gardens in the city, among them the most famous are Humble Adminstrator’s Gadern (Zhuōzhèng Yuán, 拙政园), the Lingering Garden (Liúyuán 留园), the Garden of Master of Nets (Wǎngshī Yuán 网师园), Great Wave Pavilion (Cānglàng Tíng 沧浪亭), Lion Grove Garden (Shīzi Lín 狮子林) and Taiger Hill (Hǔqiu 虎丘). Besides gardens, there are also some famous temples such as Hanshan Temple (寒山寺), Xiyuan Temple (西园寺), Xuanmiao Temple (玄妙寺). Suzhou is the best place for a day trip when you are in Shanghai.


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


Chinese Garden One of the great achievements of Chinese culture are the gardens. Each one who has ever visited a real Chinese garden will be amazed at the variety of design features and the poetry in many details. Daniele Bardaro, Managing Director, MandaLingua

Aesthetics A great achievement of China’s horticultural lies in bringing together many different ideas and styles from different sources. To bring them together into was a big challenge, however the result was that the gardens are very harmonious, despite their wealth of design. Other key issues are:

Significance There are some rules that make a classical Chinese garden, but they are always reinterpreted and have been evolved over the centuries. The Chinese gardens were always much more then just a collection of plants, trees and landscapes. Originally a symbol of wealth, the gardens have developed in the philosophy between Tao and Qi and are now seen as an expression of deep poetry. In contrast to gardens in the Western world, the Chinese gardens are more private, fenced and quiet. Construction The traditional design of the gardens was always determined by the interplay and harmony between architecture and environment. The creation of the gardens can be tracked back to two sources: ‘Yuanyou’ and ‘lingtai’. Yuanyou was a sort of hunting ground for Chinese emperors, each divided into natural and cultivated part. There has been often built a ‘lingtai’ on these places, which is a brick platform that should lead the emperor closer to heaven and the gods. This basic pattern was always carefully developed. The rules were first written by the poet Bai Juyi (772846) from the Yang Dynasty, and some of the rules are still the same:


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Architecture: Chinese gardens always include buildings. Whether large or small plants, mostly between 20 and 30% of the area are covered with buildings. Important is the so-called Tingtang, originated from ting and tang. Ting means a place to discuss and tang a bright, sunny, great place. This usually drawn very strict, but sometimes very richly decorated type is usually placed in exposed position at first, preferably in the middle of an open surface. In front of that, a ‘xuan’ is placed, to create a kind of terrace in front of the building to enjoy the view on the rest of the garden. Another ‘Ting’ can be used as a resting place, and somehow is reminds often on a classic Chinese pavillon. Another important element is ‘Langzi’, a kind of covered walkway that leads through the garden. Paths are generally an indispensable part of a garden in China. Stones: Designing with stones is another important element. Natural stones can be piled into a small hill, just built walls, sculptured shaped areas or even isolated small caves and valleys or bridges could be built. There a numerous possibilities. Water: Water is the soul of all gardens. Water reflects the sky, the trees, flowers and houses and lead to an illusion of a larger garden. It is home of Lotus plants and fish and create its own atmosphere by various sounds like flowing, splashing or dripping. Ponds, lakes, wells and small rivers are therefore essential. In small gardens, a waterfall is often encountered. By the sound and the cascade of falling water, the importance of water is increased even in a small scale. Plants: They represent the original nature by their life, vitality and growth. It could take years to assemble the plants into a big picture in terms of the builder. The colours and the flowers of the plants can also symbolize the seasons.

Some examples of outstanding gardens in China The Lingering Garden in Suzhou. Originally built by a minister of the Ming Dynasty. Was rebuilt during the reign of Emperor Jiaqing (17961820) and received a temporary name, the ‘cold green village’. Now renamed back to Lingering, because this name sounds like the first name of the Owner Liu in Chinese. Covering an area of 2 acres, all the details of a classical Chinese garden architecture can be seen here. The Lion Grove Garden in Suzhou. Covers an area of 1,1 acres, originally built by Tianru, a prominent monk from the Yuan dynasty, around 650 years ago. Received its name from stone structures that look like crouching lions. It is also the home of the Pei family, the second largest land owners in Shanghai at the beginning of the last century. The rock garden with 9 winding paths and 21 caves reminds to a small maze. Emperor Qianlong of the Qing dynasty was so impressed about his garden that he planted two identical gardens in the Forbidden City in Beijing and at his summer house. The Surging Waves (Canglang) Pavilion in South Suzhou. The Chinese word for garden has many different meanings, among other things also ‘Pavilion’. And in this garden, the importance of the pavilion shows very clearly. Originally built in the Song Dynasty, some changes and rebuilds took place over the centuries. Nevertheless, the garden is clearly one of the biggest attractions in this area and is one of the few gardens where you can explore all the areas on footpaths and marvel over 20 species of bamboo.

Beihai Park in Beijing. A distinctive example of an urban garden and probably unique because of its bright white Tibetan pagoda. The garden was considered by many emperors as a retreat by the river to escape the perceived tightness of the Forbidden City. Only the royal family of the Qing dynasty used the garden no more, preferring to take refuge from the summer heat in Beijing. With a size of 7 acres, Beihai Park is one of the biggest parks in Beijing and shows the idea of paradise of the Chinese by its many playful details. The Geyuan Garden in Yangzhou. A small garden of 0,6 acres, built in the early 19th century, showing the styles of North and South China. The name comes from Zhu, Chinese for bamboo. And bamboo is one of the main design elements in this garden. In addition, the garden is famous for the rock garden with beautifully arranged prospects. By the successful composition, a visit is highly recommended all year round. Visit and Philosophy Take your time when visiting a Chinese garden. Although an overall view of the whole garden seems very impressive – only the many seemingly small details that you discover during a tour show you what really represents a Chinese garden. Enjoy the moment at a water course or in a tea house overlooking the garden. The philosophy of Chinese gardens is that the so-called ‘seven things’ are designed to serve man. They are soil, stones, plants, sky, paths, water and buildings. And man, as the eight member, may find perfect harmony by and with the seven things.

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins



Chinese Language

Training Courses

Pronunciation Course The correct pronunciation with its four tones is a very important element of the Chinese language. With the Pronunciation Training Course you will review and extend your understanding of Chinese pronunciation. Together with the teacher you read simple texts and thus get easy pronunciation practice with in-depth attention to the important phonetics. These Training Courses take place in groups and are announced in advance in the language school.Through increased practice of the spoken language you learn to skillfully use the subtleties of Chinese pronunciation. Grammar Course With the Grammar Training Course, particular critical topics relating to grammar and sentence structure will be specifically explained and practiced again. You review the important points and thus enhance your understanding of both Chinese grammar and the Chinese language. The teacher explains the grammar points to be practiced in an easy manner with vivid examples. He shows you


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how these can be used in sentence structures and then practices using these combinations with you in realistic situations. The Grammar Training Course takes place as a group course, and details will be announced on site at the school. The Grammar Training Course can also be conducted individually. Language Exchange A language should be learned for the long term. Regular practice speaking the language is the best method to maintain and improve your skills. With the Language Exchange course we give you the opportunity to participate in open, guided discussions at our language school together with a moderator. Our moderators lead varied discussions between foreign participants who want to learn Chinese, and Chinese participants who wish to practice their English. The number of participants consists of approximately 10 people discussing a selected topic together, alternately 45 minutes in Chinese and 45 minutes in English.

Communication Course Learning a language means speaking and listening a lot. Among other reasons, this is also important in order to learn a language for long-term use. For this purpose it is beneficial to practice the material already mastered as much as possible, and regularly use your vocabulary. With the Communication Course we want to give you the opportunity to converse in a group on a subject in Chinese. The group is accompanied by a teacher and the topic is announced prior to the course. The courses will be offered according to the different language levels and regularly organized after previous announcement at the language school. This course offers an additional platform to practice and enhance your language skills.

Outdoor Training Practicing a language in daily life and daily situations is extremely important. We are aware of this and have thus developed the Outdoor Training Course. This method of learning offers a great chance to practice speaking and listening in Chinese. With this course you will be able to practice your language skills and extant vocabulary in selected restaurants, tea houses, shops, and clothing stores. Staff members at these establishments are informed about the course and will speak with you according to your current language level. You will be accompanied and coached by a teacher in order to support the learning process, answer any questions, or clarify situations when neccessary.

“On moving to Shanghai, I began learning Chinese on my own. Though I made some progress independently, MandaLingua was recommended to me by a coworker, and I’m extremely pleased with the instruction I’ve received. The courses are well structured and professionally run and provide the fundamentals necessary to learn a language as complex as Mandarin.

I recommend MandaLingua both as a foreign language enthusiast and as a working professional looking to make the most of experiences abroad.”

sTEVEN Hoesli, USA MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins



your Career

Internship in China


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

Do you want to enrich your curriculum? With our Work & Study Program you can! This program is a combination of language course and internship in China and allows the students to enrich their language knowledge and learn more about the culture and ways of working in China. It is aimed at younger participants who, by means of an internship, would like to gain professional insights into selected domestic and international companies in Shanghai. They will obtain practical experience that builds upon their academic background and makes a positive impact on their CV or Resume. First you take a four-, six-, eight- or ten-week-long language course at our school, and then you begin your internship in Shanghai. Language Course To promote your oral language skills on a daily basis in a group setting, the Conversational 20 is specially designed to focus on speaking and listening to Chinese. Every morning you learn practical applications of the Chinese language in fascinating lessons, so that you can then communicate securely and confidently in various situations of daily life. The group course takes place Mondays through Fridays with four lesson units daily. Internship The unpaid (or sometime paid) internship allows you to enrich your language knowledge. Beyond this, it is the best way to learn more about the culture and ways of working in China. Based on your qualifications and training we will arrange an appropriate internship for you. package information

✓ 20 Lessons per week in Speaking & Listening ✓ Monday to Friday 9.00 - 12:30 ✓ Monday to Friday 9.00 - 12:30 ✓ 14-20 weeks internship ✓ Course starts every Monday ✓ Class size max. 8 students ✓ International student mix (min. 16 years old) ✓ one lesson lasts 50min ✓ We will not reduce course hours in case of less than

Requirements You are at least 20 years old and have completed (or are still completing) a specialized higher education, such as a university degree or similar qualification.

three participants

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


“The teachers are really professional and are also friendly and patient, they would share their experience with us and vice versa (just like a conversation between friends) and they teach me patiently and always give us good and simple explanations to make me understand quickly. I hope I can study Chinese longer here, and after I graduated from the university, I have a plan to come back to MandaLingua because their services are more than satisfying.

MandaLingua is the best! Hope MandaLingua will always be successful!” Eric Tonata, Indonisia

“I have never regret the decision choosing MandaLingua, not one second! The entire Mandalingua team is very cordial, motivated and flexible. From the first moment I felt welcomed and I got a very nice teacher, who understood to challenge me, but he also knew how to teach me in a fun and easy way. Mandalingua is the perfect school for the ones who like to study Chinese in a well organized environment, by nice Europeans.” 58

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

Saskia RiDDer, Germany

Oriental Pearl Tower

东 方 明 珠

Type: Communication, Hotel, Observation, Restaurant Location: Shanghai, China Construction: 1994 Top floor: 350 m Total Height: 468.0 m

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


桂 林


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


Guilin is a city in northeast of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in south China. Guilin is considered to be the pearl of China because of its natural beauty and historic treasures. The stunning landscape gives Guilin a crown that it’s the best scenery among all under heaven. There are two rivers and four lakes in Guilin. Li River Cruise is a must to do in Guilin. The small boat goes slowing through truly spectacular views along the river. All the way down, you can see Elephant Trunk Hill, Pagoda Hill, Daxu Town, Crown Cave, Half-side Fery, Yellow Cloth Shoal, traditional fisherman and cormorants birds, till you arrive at the old town of Yangshuo. Rice Noodles (米粉 mifen) from Guilin are well-known all study begins 61 over the country. When travelling inMANDALINGUA Guilin, do notl Where forgetMandarin to try them.

Evening &


Business Courses

Evening Courses You live and work in Shanghai, or you participate in our Work & Study program and you would like to learn Business Chinese two or three times a week on the side in the evening. To promote your oral language skills in the group, the Business Chinese Evening Course is specially oriented toward speaking Chinese and oral comprehension of Chinese. You learn practical applications of the Chinese language so that you can then communicate securely and confidently in various daily job situations. private individual This course is ideal for participants who would like to learn and use the Chinese language for professional reasons. You can extend or enhance your language skills together with a private teacher according to your


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

own learning needs. Its advantage is that you can freely determine the course contents and the times, what and when you would like to learn and practice. You can book packages of course hours from 1 to 120 hours for a specific number of people. Group Size This course is offered for 1 to 5 people (maximum). Thus you can choose between individual private instruction or group private instruction. Instruction units generally consist of 50 minutes. Course Content Course contents as well as course meeting times can be individually arranged with your teacher. You can decide if you would like to learn topics from our Continuation Course Business Chinese Course, or if you would prefer to have instruction in other individualized topics relating to business and economics.



Corporate Training

Corporate Group Class In a group setting by your company or at our school, you will learn practical applications of the Chinese language in a fascinating manner so that you can then communicate securely and confidently in various situations of daily business. The course is individually structured and will give you the opportunity to enrich and extend your language skills. VIP Corporate Individual This course for our VIP corporate clients is customized to your individual requirements. The course is offered for 1 up to 5 people (maximum). Thus you can choose between individual private instruction or group private instruction. Everything will be flexible and convenient for you. You decide which topic, related to your business, we will work on together with you, it will be individualized to your needs. We can also create a individually designed program ac

cording to your Chinese language needs and goals. Beside this you can flexible arrange your schedule and the location for studying. Cultural Seminar and Workshop for Business & Life No matter if you just arrived in Shanghai, for team building exercises or if you are generally want to learn about business etiquette, MandaLingua provides various workshops for you and your employees. If it is about basics like behavior in greetings, communication style, personal space + touching, eye contact, gender issues, or if you want to know about the right business dress, titles & business cards, meetings, negotiations or gift giving, we will show you how our cultural workshops can benefit your company.

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


“My experience at MandaLingua was from the beginning very positive. My class was multicultural and very dynamic thanks to the excellent work of my teacher. She was responsible with her daily work and cared a lot about her students and their study progresses. The management of the school was friendly, attentive and offered their help at any time.

I am looking forward to come back and study Chinese with Mandalingua again.” aMAiA uRIBARREN, Spain


is the most amazing city I

have ever seen. The MandaLingua School is great and I’m having a unique experience here! With professional and highly qualified teachers, as well-structured board of directors and an innovative didactic material it becomes much easier to learn Mandarin! Thank you very much MandaLingua for giving me this great opportunity in China.

I’m having a unique experience here! ” JONATAS AMARAL, BRAZIL


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


passing Test

HSK Test Preparation Courses

HSK stands for Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi which is a standardized international Chinese proficiency test for non-native speakers. HSK is the best way to get to know and test your Chinese level and also a key for applying an academic study in Chinese universities and/or companies. Mandalingua Chinese Language School is aware of the test and thereto especially designed for you a 1 to 1 curriculum based on HSK official guidelines. 1 to 1 course with your private teacher is the best and efficient way to ensure you pass the test with a high score. Our qualified and experienced teachers will prepare you for the test in reading, writing, speaking and listening. Our HSK course includes also practice grammar points, enhance your vocabulary and discuss some strategies how taking the exam. Last but not least we will make a preexam (written and oral) to give you secureness for the test in advance. Mandalingua cover the complete HSK preparation for all 6 Levels. We guarantee you passing the HSK Test with us! If not, you will get free lessons until you will pass the HSK Test. MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


Kids &


Junior Programs

Junior Program The Junior Program is a course for children between 3 and 16 years. We provide professional chinese language teachers who are experienced in teaching chinese lessons to children. Travel & Study It’s an awesome experience, to learn about language and culture. Travelling and learning should bring culture and language closer together. Explore our travel destination with us and you will get to know about China highlights and you will learn about the Chinese language practically. Longterm course 16+ This course is especially created for teenager who want to prepare them for a university entry or their future career. In this course you will learn about Speaking, Listening, Reading and Writing.


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

Kids courses The scientific community agrees: according to studies by the Collaborative Research Centre at the University of Hamburg, learning a foreign language should start as early as possible. All our courses have been developed in-house with careful attention to lessons appropriate for the children’s ages and skill levels. We also use appropriate instructional materials in order to make language learning interesting and lively. Whether for the youngest or somewhat older children, the early development of language skills pays off in any case. Learning Chinese as a second language is not only fun, but also a huge opportunity for their future. Take this opportunity and get in touch with us today. Our services - Age-appropriate and homogenous small groups - Regular classes 1 to 3 times a week - Duration of course: one semester - Age-appropriate learning - Lesson concepts with educational materials suitable for children - Highly trained native-speaker teachers Winniepooh (3 to 5 years) In this group for children aged 3 to 5 years we do not use specific textbooks. However, the specially trained teacher for young children teaches the kids new words in a fun way. We sing together in the group, tell stories, build simple sentences and repeat them, etc. We motivate the children to speak a lot and participate in class. Of course, mothers or fathers can also participate in the lesson to help encourage and motivate the child.

Pinocchio (6 to 9 years) At this age, your child learns Chinese with our selected children’s books. With beautiful illustrations appealing to children, the various steps of the Chinese language are explained. Watching simple animated films, singing, or telling stories are also part of the teaching program. In addition, your child will learn to write some Chinese characters in an artful manner. The teachers ensure that the children remain motivated.

Course Details

Course Details

✓ 1 Lesson per Week ✓ Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday ✓ Age-appropriate and homogenous small group ✓ Lesson concepts with educational materials suitable for children ✓ Highly trained native-speaker teachers

✓ 2 Lesson per Week ✓ Tuesday and Thursday ✓ Monday and Wednesay ✓ Age-appropriate and homogenous small group ✓ Lesson concepts with educational materials suitable for children ✓ Highly trained native-speaker teachers

Peter Pan (10 to 12 years) In this course, the children learn to tell about themselves in Chinese: what they do during the day, what they are learning at school or what they want to do professionally in the future, etc. The teacher encourages your child to speak Chinese as much as possible, and also gives some first simple grammatical explanations. In addition, your child will learn to write and read Chinese characters in order to round out their comprehensive language skills.

Harry Potter (13 to 15 years) This course gradually teaches adolescents about everyday subjects in Chinese so that they may articulate themselves in the language with more variety. To become more familiar with the language, our trained teacher will explain key grammatical concepts to your teenager in a simple, accessible manner. The childrens also learn to write and read in Chinese, which is important for strengthening their language skills.

Course Details ✓ 2 to 3 Lesson per Week ✓ Tuesday and Thurday (total 2 Lesson) ✓ Monday and Wednesday (total 2 Lesson) or Saturday (total 3 Lesson) ✓ Age-appropriate and homogenous small group ✓ Lesson concepts with educational materials suitable for children ✓ Highly trained native-speaker teachers

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


Kids &


Travel & Study

Have you always wanted to explore the fascination of China, but also to learn something about the country? This course will offer you the perfect combination of exploring the amazing beauty of China and to learn about the thousands of years of history and language at the same time. The exciting classes will be held flexibly on the spot, on the way and in class rooms and will be optimally integrated into schedule of the day, in order to achieve an ideal balance of study and travel. Your expedition will take you to the cities of Beijing, Xian, Guilin as well as Shanghai and will always be guided by an experienced teacher of the MandaLingua language school and by a local tour guide. Thus, you will learn in class about the history and culture of these cities and afterwards you get the chance to explore them in person. We will design your Study Trip according to your wishes, in order to guarantee a good mix of fun and learning on your trip. Exciting Experience in China Explore and learn about the fascination of China in our company and get lots of unforgettable memories. For further information please contact our language school.


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

package information

✓ For Teenagers 16+years, students, adults ✓ Customized education holidays in the following cities: Beijing, Xian, Guilin, Shanghai

✓ 15 lessons per week in chinese language and culture ✓ Topics about the local tourism attractions, language and culture

✓ Class size max 10 students ✓ Course duration min 1 week or according to agreement

龙 华 寺

GENERAL INFORMATION Meaning of the name: Lustre of the Dragon Temple Religion: Buddhism Location: Shanghai, China Construction: 242 AD, during the three Kingdoms Period

Long hua Temple MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


BEIJING 北京 Beijing is the capital of China, literally means Northern capital. It’s the country’s political, cultural and educational center. With a history of more than 3000 years, Beijing has been an integral part of China’s history. Beijing is one of the four great ancient capitals of China, offering China’s most wonderful array of attractions. The great wall is one of the 7 wonders of the world, which attracts millions of people to visit. The Forbidden City is at the heart of Beijing. It is the largest palace complex in the world and it’s the emperors’ palace of Ming and Qing Dynasties. Besides these, there are plenty of must see places in Beijing, like Summer Palace, Temple of heaven, Tiananmen Square, Beihai Park. Beijing Roasted Duck is the most famous dish from Beijing, but beside it, do not forget to try those small snacks in Hutong ,for example Savory pancakes (煎饼果子 Jiānbĭng guŏzi), Lamb kebabs (羊肉串儿 yángròu chuànr), candied haw berries (冰糖葫芦 bīngtáng húlu).


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


The Forbidden City

For anyone who wants to experience Chinese history, a visit to the Forbidden City in Beijing is a must. The site is one of the best preserved medieval building complexes in the world and belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage. Welcome to the home of the last emperor , the ruler of 10,000 years…. Jürg Hornbostel, MandaLingua Representative Europe

History In 1406, the construction of the Forbidden City began (also known as the Forbidden Purple City or in Chinese 故宫 Gùgōng ‘the Emperor’s palace’). The complex was commissioned by the third Ming emperor, Yongle, and built by the architect Chen Gui. According to tradition, at times more than 100,000 artisans and a total of up to a million workers were involved in the construction. This incredibly large number of workers allowed the building to be completed in only 14 years. The Forbidden City was the home of twenty-four emperors during 491 years, from 1420 to 1911. After the abdication of the last emperor in 1911, he and his family lived at the ‘Fasting Palace’ inside the complex up to 1924. Then they had to leave the Forbidden City and the site was opened to the public. Dimensions The whole site covers an area of 720,000 square meters. All 890 buildings together provide a builtup area of 150,000 square meters, with a peripheral


MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

wall 3428 meters long. The palaces officially contain a total of 9999.5 rooms. According to legend, the emperor was allowed to have only this maximum number of rooms on earth - only the ‘palace in the sky’, as the paradise in heaven was called, could have 10,000 rooms. Studies conducted by experts in historic buildings have made clear, however, that there is a total of only 8707 rooms in all palaces, halls and pavillons in the Forbidden City. But even this number is uniquely large worldwide for a so-called ‘private residence’ of an emperor. Construction of the buildings swallowed up vast amounts of wood. This was mainly obtained from the Zhejing, Jiangxi, Hunan and Hubei provinces in southern China and was brought to Beijing via waterways. Special roof tiles were also made: the ‘golden tiles’ or ‘yellow tiles’ were named after the colour of the emperor. These tiles were very hard, polished with tung oil to shine, and give a clear ringing sound when tapped on. The tiles were made in Sozhou and also brought via waterways to the Forbidden City. Even today, the roofs of the palaces or pavillons are covered

with these tiles. They are still made according a traditional formula, since they must withstand extreme temperature variations and long winters. Industrially produced materials do not meet the strict requirements of the government. Rooms The Forbidden City consists of an outer court and an inner court. Only the imperial family and their servants had access to the inner court. The most important hall in the outer court and in the entire complex is the Hall of Supreme Harmony (Tai He Dian). It was built in 1420, covers an area of 2400 square meters, and with 36.57 meters is the highest palace in the complex. No building in Beijing could be higher during the reign of the emperor. In this palace one also finds the dragon throne, the throne of the emperor, supported by two elephants symbolizing peace. For centuries, this hall was the place where the Chinese emperors ascended the throne and where all the important ceremonies like the emperor’s birthday und New Year celebrations were held. The imperial family lived in the inner court, the socalled Neiting. It consists of three palaces: The Quanqinggong (Palace of Heavenly Purity), the Jiaotaidian (the Hall of Union) and the Kunninggong (the Palace of Earthly Tranquility). Others residents in the household were hundreds of court ladies and

palace eunuchs. In addition, there were many other palaces, pavilions and smaller courtyards with special areas for the Empress and the concubines. Two more palaces were reserved for the emperor himself: the Fasting Palace and the Yangxindian, the Hall of Mental Cultivation. It was the private place for the emperor when he wanted to be alone.

There are 13,844 dragon “images in the Forbidden City.” The city has four main gates. Today’s entrance for visitors is the eight-meter-high Meridian Gate (Wumen). The Shenwuman, the ‘Gate of Divine Might’ is the northernmost gate of the entire imperial palace. There used to be a drum and a bell in the upper part of the gate tower that announced the time for the residents. In front of the Palace of Supreme Harmony, there is a stone slab called the Imperial Way or the Yunlong Slab. This slab covers an area of more than fifty square meters and has a weight of 239 tons! This largest stone slab in China came from outside of Beijing, about 50 km from the Forbidden City. But how was such a large and heavy load transported? The Chinese builders devised something special: they waited for the winter, dug a well every 500 meters, and with the well water created an ice road for the transport. With this slippery surface, the stone could be moved within twenty-eight days. But 20,000 workers were still needed to move the slab along this track. Geometry The dimensions in the Forbidden City follow certain rules, as for example with the pyramids in Egypt. The length and width of the ‘Hall of Supreme Harmony’ or the ‘Hall of Mental Cultivation’ are in a certain ratio, in this case nine to five. These figures were particularly important in ancient Chinese architecture. The odd and even numbers fall into the categories of Yin and Yang, the opposing elements system. Among the odd numbers, nine is the highest number less then ten, and the middle of ten is five. And these numbers symbolized imperial power. Furthermore, many distances are designed with the exact value of the socalled golden section, which has a ratio of 0.618. Interesting facts There are 13,844 dragon images in the Forbidden City. All the doors have 81 nails, that is 9 rows of 9 nails each—except for the Donghua Gate, which only has 8 rows. Since coffins were also carried through this gate, the number of nails needed to be an even number, also known as a Yin number.

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


The Forbidden City has 9 million visitors annually. Beginning with the Qing Dynasty there was a law that in certain areas of the Forbidden City, no ‘real men’ were allowed to remain after sunset. This explains the former presence of up to 3000 eunuchs. Those looking for old toilets will be disappointed: there was not a single toilet in the Forbidden City. Instead, metal or wooden bed pans were used, with designs ranging from simple to very elegant depending on the user’s rank or affiliation. After use, they were covered with ashes and cleaned by the eunuchs. During the Qing Dynasty, the smoking of tobacco and opium was widespread. A silk bag with a small pipe and tobacco was a typical gift for a child’s eighth birthday.


Becoming a concubine was not easy. Not only did they have to conform to very specific height and weight guidelines – including toes, nose, length of arms, etc. – but they also had to be trained in various skills. But most important: they had to smell good, and this without any aids. The court ladies made the inspection. It was a great disgrace not to pass this test. In this sense, today’s beauty contests could be considered very superficial!

A silk bag with a small pipe “and tobacco was a typical gift

for a child’s eighth birthday.

The many bronze vats in the Forbidden City were not just for decoration – they were also waters tanks in case of fire. In winter, they were even heated from below to prevent the water from freezing.

It can be very cold in Beijing. Did people used to freeze in the winter? Absolutely not. In winter, the Forbidden City could be heated effectively. Socalled hollow walls were connected to pipes leading to ovens outside of the rooms. Even beds were heated this way. For little walks in the city the court ladies even had small pocket warmers. These were small vessels of bronze, filled with coal.

Opera performances were very popular in the Forbidden City. But the performers lived dangerously: since most operas were stories about the emperors, every word had to be carefully considered. Some emperors were very strict in the interpretation of what was funny or not. Therefore, the consequences for the composers and performers could be quite drastic…

The emperor was able to select from forty different dishes for breakfast. Not served from a menu, but already cooked and served in a palace. To guarantee the emperor’s safety, all the dishes were tasted by a servant first. Every dish also bore a silver spoon, which would have indicated various poisons by discoloration.

The golden lions in front of the imperial palace both had thirteen curls on their head. This was the highest number, reserved only for the emperor. Other highranking politicians and dignitaries differed in the number of curls specified for the heads of the lions that they placed in front of their homes. With less then seven curls it was even forbidden to have a lion at the gate.

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins

MandaLingua Service & Application Visa application For the visa application you can choose between several types of visa. We suggest you to apply for a visa at the Chinese embassy in your home country before entering China. - Tourist visa is the L-Visa - Business visa is the F-Visa Tourist visa (L-Visa) The L-Visa is the easiest and fastest way to get a visa. The visa is valid between 30 days to one year. It is different between the international countries. Business visa (F-Visa) The F-Visa is normally valid from 60 up to 180 days. If you have booked the Study & Work Program with us, a business visa is needed. Therefore, an invitation letter is essential. The invitation letter is usually issued by your host company where you will attend your internship. If necessary, MandaLingua will issue a “letter of acceptance� for you, which allows you to enter China. We recommend you to ask the Chinese Embassy in your home country in a timely manner which kinds of documents are necessary for the VISA application. For the tourist visa usually an application form, ID picture and your international passport are required.

aIRPORT PICK UP SERVICE Our school provides an airport pick up service from Shanghai Pudong International Airport to your accommodation. We appreciate to pick you up and help you to arrive in your new home town. If you would like to use this service, please provide your arrival details on your application form or inform us in a timely manner. The price of the airport pick up service is 350 RMB.

MANDALINGUA l Where Mandarin study begins


Where Mandarin study begins Address MandaLingua Chinese Language School 700 East YanAn Road Gang Tai Plaza Room 608 200001 Shanghai, China

中国,上海市黄浦区延安东路700号 港泰广场608室, 邮政编码200001 Telephone: +86- 21-5307-8210 Fax: +86-21-5307-8190

Price 零售价:35.00元

MandaLingua Magazine 2013 Volume 1  

MandaLingua Magazine "Explore Language & Culture" Volume 1

MandaLingua Magazine 2013 Volume 1  

MandaLingua Magazine "Explore Language & Culture" Volume 1