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Copyright Š MCMXCVIII - MMXI by

315 West Fourth Street Davenport, Iowa 52801 (563) 323-6245 1-800-MANCOMM (626-2666) Fax: (563) 323-0804 Website: http://www.mancomm.com E-mail: safetyinfo@mancomm.com All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. This publication is intended for instructional and educational use only. This book is meant to provide a formatted and easy to understand tool for the reader to train and be trained pursuant to OSHA requirements for 10 and 30 hour Construction safety training. While these volumes meet and exceed the OSHA guidelines, please note that they are not an exhaustive overview of every OSHA topic or regulation. It does not alter or determine compliance responsibilities in Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations Parts 1903, 1904, 1910 and 1926 or the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Except as permitted under applicable law, no part of this publication may, by the person to whom it is first provided or by any other person(s), be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in any database or other retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. This publication is provided as training information in connection with a training course. Although the Federal Regulations published as promulgated are in the public domain, their formatting and sequencing, and other materials contained herein, are subject to copyright law. While best efforts have been made in order to ensure that the information contained herein is as accurate and as complete as possible at the time of printing, the frequency of changes to the regulations makes it impossible to guarantee the completeness and accuracy of the following information. Therefore MANCOMM and its subsidiaries shall under no circumstances be liable for any damages resulting from the use of or reliance upon this publication. In no event does MANCOMM or its subsidiaries express or imply any warranties or assume any liabilities whatsoever arising out of the use or inability to use this material. Furthermore, the mention or appearance of any products, services, companies, organizations, or individuals in no way implies endorsement or denouncement of same by MANCOMM or any of its subsidiaries. This publication is constructed in order to provide accurate information in regard to the material included. It is made with the understanding that the publisher is not involved in providing any accounting, legal, or other professional service(s). If legal consultation or other expert advice is required, the services of a professional person should be engaged.

Library of Congress Control Number: 2011934633 ISBN: 1-59959-284-3


Table of Contents Module One - Introduction to OSHA

Topic 1: Why Is OSHA Important to You?......................................................................... 1 Topic 2: What Rights Do You Have Under OSHA?........................................................... 3 Topic 3: What Responsibilities Does Your Employer Have Under OSHA?....................... 7 Topic 4: What Do the OSHA Standards Say?................................................................... 8 Topic 5: How Are OSHA Inspections Conducted?.......................................................... 10 Topic 6: Where Can You Go For Help?........................................................................... 11

Module Two - RegLogic®

Title 29 CFR 1926........................................................................................................... 15 “Shall” and “Should”........................................................................................................ 15 RegLogic®....................................................................................................................... 16

Module Three - General Safety and Health

Provisions....................................................................................................................... 18 Egress............................................................................................................................. 19 Employee Emergency Action Plans................................................................................ 19 Competent Person.......................................................................................................... 20 Qualified.......................................................................................................................... 20 Medical Services and First Aid........................................................................................ 20 Sanitation........................................................................................................................ 21

Module Four - Focus Four Topic 1 - Fall Protection

Falling Facts.................................................................................................................... 24 Scope.............................................................................................................................. 24 Training........................................................................................................................... 24 Fall Protection Systems.................................................................................................. 26 Fall Protection Hazards................................................................................................... 32 Hazards of Scaffolds....................................................................................................... 34 Are These Fall Hazards?................................................................................................ 40

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Module Five - Focus Four Topic 2 - Electrocution Hazards

What Is an Electrocution Hazard?.................................................................................. 45 What Are the Major Types of Electrocution Hazards in Construction?............................ 48 Contact with Overhead Power Lines............................................................................... 48 Contact with Energized Sources..................................................................................... 49 Improper Use of Extension and Flexible Cords.............................................................. 49 Staying Safe Around Electrocution Hazards................................................................... 50 Employer Requirements................................................................................................. 57 Hazard Recognition........................................................................................................ 58

Module Six - Focus Four Topic 3 - Caught-in or-Between Hazards

What Is a Caught-in or -Between Hazard?..................................................................... 61 Common Types of Caught-in or -Between Hazards........................................................ 64 Protection from Caught-in or -Between Hazards............................................................ 65 Employer Requirements................................................................................................. 68 Hazard Recognition........................................................................................................ 69 Hazard Recognition........................................................................................................ 70 Hazard Recognition........................................................................................................ 72

Module Seven - Focus Four Topic 4 - Struck-by Hazards

What Is a Struck-by Hazard?.......................................................................................... 73 Protection from Struck-by Hazards................................................................................. 76 Employer Requirements................................................................................................. 80 Hazard Recognition........................................................................................................ 81

Module Eight - Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

PPE - General Requirements......................................................................................... 86 Hazard Assessment........................................................................................................ 87 Safety Order of Operations ............................................................................................ 88 PPE - Training................................................................................................................. 88 Eye and Face Protection................................................................................................. 89 Head Protection.............................................................................................................. 91 Respiratory Protection.................................................................................................... 91 Foot Protection................................................................................................................ 98 Hand Protection.............................................................................................................. 99 Hearing Protectors.......................................................................................................... 99

Module Nine - Health Hazards in Construction

Heat Stress................................................................................................................... 101 Crystalline Silica............................................................................................................ 101 Asbestos....................................................................................................................... 103 Cadmium....................................................................................................................... 105 Lead.............................................................................................................................. 109

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Module Ten - HazCom

HazCom “The Right to Know”........................................................................................114 HazCom Written Program..............................................................................................115 Labeling Containers.......................................................................................................116 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)..............................................................................119 Employee Training........................................................................................................ 120 HazMat Labeling System.............................................................................................. 121

Module Eleven - Cranes and Derricks

Crane Types.................................................................................................................. 124 Crane Components....................................................................................................... 124 Crane Operation – Before You Start............................................................................. 125 Crane Operation – Training........................................................................................... 126 Crane Operation – Safe Practices................................................................................ 127 Crane Hazards – Power Lines...................................................................................... 132

Module Twelve - Excavations

Excavations and Trenches............................................................................................ 138 Site Evaluation and Planning........................................................................................ 138 Inspections.................................................................................................................... 139 Soil Classification.......................................................................................................... 139 Excavation Hazards and Protection.............................................................................. 140

Module Thirteen - Materials Handling and Storage

Manually Moving Materials........................................................................................... 146 Storing Materials........................................................................................................... 147 Stacking Materials......................................................................................................... 147 Earthmoving Equipment................................................................................................ 148 Lifting and Hauling Equipment...................................................................................... 148 Rigging Equipment........................................................................................................ 148 Disposal of Materials..................................................................................................... 151

Module Fourteen - Scaffolds

Scaffold Types............................................................................................................... 154 Hazards of Scaffolds..................................................................................................... 155 Training......................................................................................................................... 157 Case Studies................................................................................................................. 157

Module Fifteen - Stairways and Ladders

Training......................................................................................................................... 160 Stairways...................................................................................................................... 160 General Ladder Requirements...................................................................................... 163 Securing Ladders.......................................................................................................... 163 Portable Ladders........................................................................................................... 163 Double - Cleated Ladder............................................................................................... 164 Wood Ladders............................................................................................................... 164

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Tall Fixed Ladders......................................................................................................... 165 Crossbracing................................................................................................................. 166 Damaged or Defective Ladders.................................................................................... 166 Climbing the Ladder...................................................................................................... 166 Stairways and Ladders Case Studies........................................................................... 167

Module Sixteen - Tools

Tools.............................................................................................................................. 170 Hand Tools.................................................................................................................... 170 Power-Operated Hand Tools......................................................................................... 171 Abrasive Wheels and Tools........................................................................................... 173 Abrasive Wheel Machinery........................................................................................... 174 Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus................................................................. 175 Jacks............................................................................................................................. 176

Module Seventeen - Concrete and Masonry Construction

General Requirements.................................................................................................. 178 Cast-in-Place Concrete................................................................................................. 179 Precast Concrete.......................................................................................................... 183 Lift-Slab Operations...................................................................................................... 183 Masonry Construction................................................................................................... 185

Module Eighteen - Confined Space Entry

Confined Spaces........................................................................................................... 188 Permit-Required Confined Spaces............................................................................... 189 Training......................................................................................................................... 191 Rescue and Emergency Services................................................................................. 193 Alternate Procedures.................................................................................................... 194 Reclassifying a Permit Space....................................................................................... 194 Fatality Statistics and Cases......................................................................................... 197

Module Nineteen - Fire Protection and Prevention

Elements of Fire............................................................................................................ 200 Fire Protection............................................................................................................... 200 Fires and Fire Protection............................................................................................... 201 Fire Prevention.............................................................................................................. 202 Temporary Heating Devices.......................................................................................... 204

Photography Credits.......................................................................................................... 205 Index.................................................................................................................................. 205

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Fall Protection

Module Four

Fall Protection Subpart M, §1926.500(a); 1926.503

Fall Protection

Scope

§1926.500(a); §1926.501

Management Controls

§1926.502(k)

Alerts (postings, signs, markings) Records and Procedures Training

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§1926.502(i)(4)

§1926.502(k); 503(b) §1926.503

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Falling Facts Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in construction.

Bureau of Labor Satistics

Annually: Falls account for 34% of fatalities in construction. Falls account for 14% of fatalities in all industries.

Scope Fall protection is required when: ›› A worker could fall six feet or more. ›› A worker could fall from any height onto dangerous equipment.

§1926.500(a)(1), .501(b)(1), (8)

Fall protection is not required when inspecting, investigating, or assessing workplace conditions before the work has started or after it is finished. Employers are required to assess the working and walking surfaces. Employees are not permitted to work on these surfaces until it has been determined that these surfaces have the requisite strength and structural integrity.

§1926.501(a)(2)

1926.503(a)(1)

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Training Employers must provide a training program that enables each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards to: ›› Recognize falling hazards. ›› Follow the proper procedures to minimize falling hazards.

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Fall Protection

The employer shall assure that each employee has been trained, as necessary, by a competent person qualified in the following eight areas: 1. The nature of fall hazards in the work area. 2. The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling, and inspecting the fall protection systems to be used. 3. The use and operation of guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, safety net systems, warning line systems, safety monitoring systems, controlled access zones, and other protection to be used.

1926.503(a)(2)

4. The role of each employee in the safety monitoring system when this system is used. 5. The limitations on the use of mechanical equipment during the performance of roofing work on low-sloped roofs. 6. The correct procedures for the handling and storage of equipment and materials and the erection of overhead protection.

1926.503(a)(2)

7. The role of employees in fall protection plans. 8. The standards contained in Subpart M – Fall Protection. The employer must keep a written certification record of fall protection training. This certification training must contain the following: ›› Name of the employee trained ›› Date of training ›› Signature of the employer or trainer

1926.503(b)(1)

Retraining must be provided when: ›› Changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete.

›› Changes in the types of fall protection systems or equipment to be used render previous training obsolete.

›› Inadequacies in an affected employee's knowledge or use of fall

1926.503(c)

protection systems or equipment indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill.

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Fall Protection Systems Guardrails

§1926.502(b)(1), (3), (9)

Top Rail: ›› Shall be between 39 and 45 inches above the walking/working surface. ›› Shall be able to withstand 200 pounds of force.

›› Shall be at least ¼ inch in diameter or thickness.

§1926.502(b)(2)(i), (5), (9)

Midrail: ›› Shall be installed midway between the top rail and walking/working surface. ›› Shall be ¼ inch in diameter or thickness. ›› Shall be able to withstand a force of 150 pounds. ›› May also be screens, mesh, vertical members, or solid panels. Toeboard: ›› Shall be at least 3.5 inches high. ›› Shall be able to withstand a force of 50 pounds.

§1926.502(j)(2), (3)

Top Rails and Midrails: ›› May be pipe, rope, wood, structural steel, or wire rope. ›› Wire rope must be flagged at least every six feet with high-visibility material. ›› May not be steel banding or plastic banding.

Controlled Access Zone §1926.502(b)(8)-(9), Subpart M Appendix B

A Controlled Access Zone is an area in which certain work can be performed without the use of guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, or safety net systems. Access to this work area is restricted to those performing the work.

1926.500(b)

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Fall Protection

Controlled Access Zones are defined by control lines, which shall be: ›› Raised on stanchions between 39 and 45 inches above the walking/ working surface (including sag). ›› Erected between six and 25 feet from the unprotected edge (except for overhand bricklaying operations). ›› Marked at least every six feet with high high-visibility material (except for overhand bricklaying and precast concrete members). ›› Made out of ropes, wires, tapes, or equivalent materials that have of 200 pounds. ›› Connected on each side to a guardrail system or a wall.

§1926.502(g)(1)(i), (iv), (g)(3)

Safety Nets Install safety nets as close as practicable under the walking/working surface, but never more than 30 feet below the working level.

§1926.502(c)

Safety nets shall extend outward from the work surface according to the following table: Minimum required horizontal Vertical distance from distance of outer edge of net working level to horizontal from the edge of the working plane of net surface Up to 5 feet

8 feet

More than 5 feet up to 10 feet

10 feet

More than 10 feet

13 feet

§1926.502(c)(1)-(2)

Strength Border ropes must have a breaking strength of at least 5,000 pounds. The connections must be as strong as the net and must not be spaced more than six inches apart.

§1926.502(c)(7)-(9)

Openings in the net must not be larger than six inches.

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Index A

Aerial Lifts 37 Aerial Lifts - Falls 37 Alloy Steel Chains 149 Asbestos 103

C Cadmium 105 Caught-in or-Between 61 Employer Requirements 68 Examples 62 Excavation 67 Machine Guarding 66 Protection 65 Statistics 63 Competent Person 20 Concrete and Masonry Construction 177 Cast-In-Place Concrete 179 Formwork 179 Removal of Formwork 182 Shoring and Reshoring 180 General Requirements 178 Lift-Slab Operations 183 Personal Protective Equipment 179 Precast Concrete 183 Working Under Loads 179 Confined Spaces Entry 187 3 Conditions for a Confined Space 188 Alternate Procedures 194 Fatality Statistics and Cases 197 Rescue and Emergency Services 193 Training 191 Types 189 Contractor Requirements 18

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Controlled Access Zone 26 Covers 28 Cranes 123 Common Mechanical Failures / Damaged Equipment 135 Crane Components 124 Crane Operation 125 Before You Start 125, 126 Safe Practices 127 Crane Types 124 Hoisting Personnel 128 Load 133 Overturning , 134 Load Limiting Factors , 134 Signals Radio, Telephone, or other Electronic Transmission of Signals 129 Voice Signals 129 Swing Radius 133

D Drinking Water 21

E Earthmoving Equipment 148 Egress 19 Electrical Electrocution Hazards 45 Electrical shock 49 Electrocution Hazards 45 BE SAFE 45 Electrical shock 49 Examples 47 Improper Use of Extension and Flexible Cords 49 Lockout/Tagout 56 Power Lines 48 Power Tools 55 Statistics 47 Employee Emergency Action Plans 19 Index

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Excavations 137 Access/Egress 142 Ladders 142 Structural ramps 142 Excavation Hazards and Protection 140 Cave-Ins 140 Oxygen Deficiency/Toxic Fumes 142 Protective Systems 141 Shield System 141 Shoring 141 Sloping 141 Site Evaluation and Planning 138 Inspections 139 Soil Classification 139 Underground Utilities 144 Eye and Face Protection 89 Eye and Face Protector Selection Guide 90

F Fall Protection 23 Fall Protection Systems 26 Scope 24 Training 24 Fall Protection Systems 26 Controlled Access Zone 26 Covers 28 Guardrails 26 Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS) 28 Positioning Device Systems 30 Safety Monitoring System 31 Safety Nets 27 Warning Line Systems 31 Fire Extinguishers 200 Fire Protection and Prevention 199 Classes of Fire Extinguishers 201 Classes of Fires 201 Elements of Fire 200 Fire Extinguishers 200 Ignition hazards 202 Temporary Heating Devices 204 Clearance and mounting 204 Stability 204 Ventilation 204 Foot Protection 98

G General Safety and Health Provisions 17 Contractor Requirements 18 Egress 19 Employee Emergency Action Plans 19 Medical Services and First Aid 20 Sanitation 21 Training 18 208

Index

GFCI Outlets 52 Guardrails 26

H Hand Protection 99 Hazard Communications (HazCom) 113 Employee Training 120 Exemptions 114 Hazardous chemicals list 116 HazCom Written Program 115 Labeling Containers 116 NFPA Label 117 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 119 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) 115 “The Right to Know” 114 Head Protection 91 Health Hazards in Construction 101 Asbestos 103 Exposure 103 Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) 104 Safe Work Practices 105 Symptoms 104 Cadmium 105 Exposure 106 Exposure Limits 106 Safe Work Practices 107 Training 108 Crystalline Silica Exposure 102 Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) 103 Silicosis 101 Prevention 102 Lead 109 Exposure 109 Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) 109 Safe Work Practices 111 Hearing Protectors 99 Hoisting Personnel 128

I Inspections, Citations, and Penalties 10 Introduction to OSHA 1 300 Log 8 Filing an OSHA Complaint 12 Inspections, Citations, and Penalties 10 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) 4 OSH Act 2 OSHA Standards 9 Worker Rights 3

J Jacks 176

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L

Ladders 159 Angle 164 Climbing 166 Extension above surface 164 General Requirements 163 Portable Ladders 163 Securing 163 Ladders - Falls 32 Lead 109 Lifting and Hauling Equipment 148 Lockout/Tagout 56

M Manually Moving Materials 146 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 119 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) 4, 115 Materials Handling and Storage 145 Disposal of Materials 151 Earthmoving Equipment 148 Lifting and Hauling Equipment 148 Manually Moving Materials 146 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 146 Rigging Equipment 148 Stacking Materials 147 Storing Materials 147 Medical Services and First Aid 20

O OSH Act of 1970 2 OSHA Standards 9

P Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS) 28 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 85 Eye and Face Protection 89 Foot Protection 98 General Requirements 86 Hand Protection 99 Hazard Assessment 87 Head Protection 91 Hearing Protectors 99 Manually Moving Materials 146 Payment for PPE 86 Respiratory Protection 91 Struck-by Hazards 79 Training 88 Portable Ladders 163 Positioning Device Systems 30 Power Tools 55

Q Qualified 20

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R Recordkeeping Respiratory Protection 98 RegLogic 15 Residential Construction 38 Respiratory Protection 91 Care and Use of Respirators 97 Recordkeeping 98 Respirator Selection 94 Fit Test 96 Respiratory Protection Program 92 Training 97 Rigging Equipment 148 Slings 148 Wire Rope Slings 149

S Safety Monitoring System 31 Safety Nets 27 Scaffolds 34, 153 Aerial Lift 154 Fall Protection 155 Supported 154 Suspension 154 Training 157 Scaffolds - Falls 34 Silicosis 101 Slings 148 Soil Classification 139 Stacking Materials 147 Stairways 159 Handrails and Stairrails 161 Hazards 162 Landings 162 Platforms and Swing Doors 162 Points of Access 161 Storing Materials 147 Struck By 32 Struck-by Hazards 73 Definition 73 Employer Requirements 80 Examples 73 Falling Object 75 Flying Object 74 Protection from Struck-by Hazards General Safe Work Practices 78 Heavy Equipment 76 Motor Vehicles 76 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 79 Rolling Object 75 Statistics 74 Swinging Object 75 Suspension Trauma 29

Index

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T Temporary Heating Devices 204 Toilets at Construction Jobsites 21 Tools 169 Abrasive Wheels and Tools 173 Abrasive Wheel Machinery 174 Hand Tools 170 Jacks 176 Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus 175 Power Operated Hand Tools 171 Electric Tools 171 Fuel Powered Tools 172 Pneumatic Tools 171

210

Index

Powder-Actuated Tools 173 Training 18, 24 HazCom 120 Personal Protective Equipment 88 Respirators 97 Stairways and Ladders 160 Trenches 138

W Warning Line Systems 31 Wire Rope Slings 149 Worker Rights 3

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Essentials of Safety: Construction Training & Reference Guide Volume 1