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Report On

City On A B r i d g e An Architectural Thesis


Al-ḥamdu lillāh Praise be to Allah To My Parents


“Tiger got to hunt, bird got to fly; Man got to sit and wonder ‘why, why, why?’ Tiger got to sleep, bird got to land; Man got to tell himself he understand.” -Kurt Vonnegut, Cat’s Cradle


City On A Bridge A Conflation of Urban Fabric across the River banks. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN THESIS REPORT IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE (B.ARCH)

Submitted By Mohammed Mansoor 2009AR25

INTERNAL GUIDE: Ar. Deepa. M

UNIVERSITY OF MYSORE THE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DESIGN JUNE 2014

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

EXTERNAL GUIDE: Ar. Nelson Pais

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to thank My Parents for their support and care and all that they have given me and made me what I am today. I deeply thank Ar.Nelson Pais for being my Thesis Guide and supporting me throughout and also to the Faculty at The University School of Design especially Ar Deepa M without whom this Thesis would never have been possible. I also wish to acknowledge Ar. S G Srinivas, Ar. Anand Krishnamurthy and Ar Girish Dariyav Karnawat for their valuable support and guidance. I would like to thank Bindu Nair principal planner at HCP, Ar. Nikki Shah principal Urban Designer from HCP and to M S Swaminarayan principal Project Manager at HCP for their valuable inputs and guidance in understanding Ahmedabad Riverfront development project, I am indebted to Structural Engineer B L Manjunath for his valuable inputs and suggestions on the Structural development of the project. I wish to thank Santosh Thorat for the understanding and knowledge I gained by discussing with him during my time at Serie Architects, also to Neha Momaya for her endless guidance and discussion about architectural profession, and to Pranav Chande for being a friend and guiding me in various interests. I would also like to thank Ar. Kapil Gupta for giving me opportunity to work at Serie Architects. I would like to take this opportunity to thank My friends Vaishak V M, Hareesh, Ratheesh S, Emil Abraham, Sachin Gangadharan, Anjali, Abraham, Adhiti, Sagar, Nikki John, Shruti Singh, Namita Dinesh, Shilpa Menon, Greeshma Girish and Apoorva for their support and to my juniors Naufan, Edwin, Sachin Ravindran and Shama for encouraging me. Mohammed Mansoor June 2014


Table of Contents III

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

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DECLARATION

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Acknowledgment

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Table of Contents

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City on a Bridge A Conflation of Urban Fabric across the River banks. Existing Pedestrian Network

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The Project in a Nutshell Key Issues to be Solved

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Dynamics of Existences Alchemy Of Time Over Space

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Homotopic vs Heterotopic

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Cellular Automaton Ideas Worth Sharing

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Extracts and interpretation from Inspirational Essay Same Difference - Detlef Mertins

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Augmented Ecology Extract From My Dissertation

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Looking at the world Case studies - Introduction

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Helsinki in the Mind Urban Case study

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The Ponte Vecchio Case study - Florence

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The Ponte Rialto Case study - Venice

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Galata Bridge Case study - Istanbul

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Comparative Study Ponte Vecchio / Ponte Rialto / Galata Bridge

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Bridge School Case Study - Xiashi

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The Bay Line

A case study on the adaptive reuse of abandoned bridges for landscape and urbanism.

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Garden Bridge Case Study - London


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Wuxi Xidong Park Case Study - Wuxi

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Conclusion From Case Studies

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Going Back to Ahmedabad Sabarmati and the Growth of Ahmedabade

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Site Study

Axonometric View of the Sit 148

Master plan Proposal for a pedestrian connect at the CBD of Ahmedabad

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Module Development Process

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Program Zoning

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Site Plan Massing Development

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Exploded Axonometric View

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City on a Bridge growth 2018 and 2050

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Level Plans and Sections

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List Of References and Illustration Credits

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Entry Plaza

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“A human being is a part of the whole called by us universe, a part limited in time and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feeling as something separated from the rest, a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty.� - Albert Einstein


City on a Bridge It all started in Mumbai, a simple click on the camera and series of questions that followed, Millions of public funds is invested in building these bridges, whose purpose is either to cross over a water body or to shorten the travel time between the concrete jungle. Why can not we have functional spaces on the bridge?; Why should it serve only one purpose?; It is the irony of our time that we have over exasperated our city centers with over density of built and population. In the midset of our chaotic cities and our busy life, where do we find a space to stop over and talk to your fellow passerby?; Our footpaths which is either taken over by the hawkers or it is simply non existent, as a pedestrian where do we even walk?; Our Government spent over 1600 Crores in building the Bandra-Worli sea Link just to reduce the travel time from 60-90 min to 20-30 min, What has the government done to protect the 35000 (8.9% of total accident related deaths in 2012)1 pedestrians who are killed on our busy roads every year? 1.1 Image of Bandra-Worli Sealink 2013 Image Credit - Author

1. Statistics from the National Crime Records Bureau 2012 Report

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

A Conflation of Urban Fabric across the River banks.

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“The city historically constructed is no longer lived and is no longer understood practically. It is only an object of cultural consumption for tourists, for aestheticism, avid for spectacles and the picturesque. Even for those who seek to understand it with warmth, it is gone. Yet, the urban remains in a state of dispersed and alienated actuality, as kernel and virtuality. What the eyes and analysis perceive on the ground can at best pass for the shadow of the future object in the light of a rising sun. It is impossible to envisage the reconstitution of the old city, only the construction of a new one on new foundations, on another scale and in other conditions, in another society. The prescription is: there cannot be a going back (towards the traditional city), nor a headlong flight, towards a colossal and shapeless agglomeration. In other words, for what concerns the city the object of science is not given. The past, the present, the possible cannot be separated. What is being studied is a virtual object, which thought studies, which calls for new approaches.� -Henri Lefebvre (1968)


Architecture Of Relative Scale When I think of architecture, Images come to my mind, images of my childhood; images of places I have been to; images of worlds different from ours, world with in our own but not perceivable to us. I believe our world is a collection of overlapping worlds of different scale, we enter and exit these worlds on a daily basis but few of them are so small or large in scale that it becomes inconceivable to us, Like the space on a dragonfly flying just over the marshes; space between the complex matrix of a sponge; between the growth of branches on a tree; in the network of ant colonies; in between the riverine system of a large river; spaces in between the shreds of paper. Everything has a world of its own, even us, we have our own world built through our understanding of the world outside and what we are subjected throughout our life.

Looking Through My Glasses Cities are the greatest inventions of Human Civilization, because it is not a static object in space, but a living organism in time, always at flux; ever-changing and eternal. Historically man has built his cities along the rivers for ease of transportation and availability of resources; Over time he has found other ways to overpower the nature to build across the rivers and mainland to fulfill his requirement.

The World’s population has reached 7 billion and continues to grow, resulting in a steady migration from rural to urban areas. Increase in population and number of cities go hand in hand with a greater exploitation of the world’s limited resources.2 Our cities are in the process of reorganizing itself, redistributing densities of buildings, population and activities. Cities are growing day by day, as far as they can and as high as it can get while at the same time their centers are exacerbated with inadequate space and chaotic activity. Every year, more cities are feeling the devastating impacts of this situation. What are we to do? What means do we have as designers to address this challenging reality? 1.2 Mudflat Remains, Mexico, National Geographic 1.3 Below Neural Network 1.4 Lena Delta Wildlife Reserve 1.5 Tree silhouette, Credit: Author

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Ecological Urbanism, Mohsen Mostafavi | (pg 12-13) ISBN: 783037781890

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Issue

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The paucity of the current growth is the lack of pedestrian pathways and social interaction spaces. Which are completely neglected by Automobile centric development that our cities are undergoing. Where do we find spaces for recreation, when only available spaces for the pedestrian are the traffic islands. In order to address this issue, we need to re-look at Infrastructural development in our cities which addresses only to ease vehicular movement, they also need to rethink at the social development along our city roads. One of the key infrastructural development in our cities is the Bridges and flyovers. We have been through long process of evolution of bridge from the ancient times, the first bridges were made by nature itself — as simple as a log fallen across a stream or stones in the river. The first bridges made by humans were probably spans of cut wooden logs or planks and eventually stones, using a simple support and crossbeam arrangement. We Have come a long way. Towards the end of 20th century, we have built bridges spanning seas (The Lake Pontchartrain Causeway) but one of the short fall is that, it is always automobile centric. One of the earliest examples of bridge being the social condenser of our society can be found in China which is depicted in the masterpiece by ancient Chinese painter Zhang zeduan, in which he tries to depict the city scene of Song dynasty. Behind his proficient skills, the particular interest is the amiable atmosphere among people’s urban social life and the texture freely extends along riverside, and especially, those along the bridges.

1.6 Along the River During the Qingming Festival is a painting attributed to Song Dynasty artist Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145)

This gives a clear understanding of how bridges had social relevance in the historical city than it is today, where architecture turns into a part from the whole urban landscape, creating a vibrant social corridor between the river barrier. In 21st century, Climate change, Sustainable architecture,

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

The bridge plays a crucial role in the history of Chinese urban development . It not only serves the city via a special way but also incites the format development of river’s sources and ends. Although the bridge is a traffic structure, its role and responsibility have unwittingly beyond its proper function, which means at this time the bridge is functioning its own role in the name of Architecture. Thus, the dividing line between bridge and architecture has been blurred. From then on the architecture melts in the city.

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and Green technology have become increasingly a subject of architectural discourse, people are shifting focus from automobile centric cities to pedestrian centric sustainable cities, which is clearly manifested in projects like New York High line, Promenade Plantee in Paris. Where a disused railway line, part of which is on top of a viaduct, has been transformed—reused—as an urban park that traverses a variety of conditions and prospects. Given the undulating topography of the city, the promenade affords an ever-changing sectional relationship to its surroundings. As a result, the park produces a different experience of the city compared, for example, to that of the Persian boulevard. This is achieved though the discovery and construction of stark juxtapositions and contrast that include the experience of the city from different horizon line. Walking across the Indian cities, perceiving it through slow-motion of how the city changes as you walk from one end to another. Gave me an insight of the issues our cities face. Mumbai and Ahmedabad gave me a clear picture of the inefficiency in the typology of the bridge par se and how one looks at the issue of connectivity in cities spread across the rivers. Through out history these large structures have been associated with the more mono-functional programmes of urbanization. Without being re-looked as a multifunction efficient structure.

1.7 Top Row Promenade Plantee Paris 1.8 Lower Row New York High line 1.9 Sabarmati River in Ahmedabad City during Night 1.10 Ellis Bridge, Credit: Author 1.11 Ahmedabad City Map Credit: Google Earth

Ahmedabad was one of the most important of them all. The City boasts of an architectural legacy that spans the vernacular and the modern. Arguably the only city in the world to have four exquisite creations of Le Corbusier, works by Louis Kahn, great Indian Masters such as Charles Correa and B V Doshi and presently host to many contemporary Indian Architects works.; Also the sheer presence of the river Sabarmati; its physicality, divides the city 300 meters apart, connected only through 7 bridges, typical of a Fordian city; and the distinctive character of old and new city that exist on either side of the river, self-contained and independent of each other. If one has to walk from old city to new city it’s nearly impossible, due to monotonous character of the bridge; lack of diversity in function to attract any kind of activity and also the extreme climate of Ahmedabad prohibits for such possibility. This experience in ahmedabad followed by Internship in Mumbai and a dissertation in 8th semester give me an

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Why Ahmedabad? Why not any other City?

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insight on the issue. If I consider any other city like Pune, Delhi, Chennai or Hyderabad the river is completely neglected, if I consider to do anything on the river the riverfront needs to be cleaned up and intervened, which is a huge project in itself, even for a masters thesis program, and it is beyond my skills to take-up. As an Undergraduate architecture thesis project my scope is very limited to a Building typology. Ahmedabad is the only city were a riverfront development project is already taken up to make the river front accessible to public. The concern may not be evident at present but in the future, Let us consider next 20 years, the entire riverfront development project is built and every single opportunity that can be consumed on the riverfront is saturated, the city center becomes exacerbated. So the bridges become the instrument to tap the potential, an infrastructural mono-functional object is transformed in to multi-functional object to tap in the potentials whose function generate the revenue over time to tap in the investments.

Bridges intrigued me because of their conceptual load related to connection and separation. Then, I was compelled to look at the locations they relate which attribute them importance. As in the example of the Ellis Bridge, its History in Ahmedabad confers significance to it. Bridge connects locations. It is represented and remembered as such. This is not the only attribute that gives meaning and significance to bridges. Other layers of significance unfold as the materiality of a bridge is distinguished from its location. When the bridge is perceived as a separate entity independent of the sides, the physical existence and appearance of a bridge become significant on their own right. Some bridges also carry the property of inhabitation. I encountered images of inhabited bridges that have made impact in an urban setting with there multi-functional programmes like Ponte Vecchio with its gold Market running on the bridge, Rialto Bridge in Venice and Galata Bridge in Istambul,3 old London bridge in London which fascinated me because the bridge’s inhabitation adds ‘layers’ intrinsic to the materiality of the bridge4. It then begins to 1.12 City Montage of Bangalore, Ahmedabad and Mumbai.

3 The 1912 Galata Bridge As a Site of Collective Memory, Umut Sumnu | A Thesis Submitted To The Department Of Interior Architecture And Environmental Design And The Institute Of Fine Arts Of Bilkent University

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Why a Bridge?

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shelter and accommodate certain activities besides enabling passage over a chasm. It contains repose as well as allowing movement. It attends to dwellers in addition to passersby. This dual existence is conductive to raising questions about its perception at two levels. This Property of dual existence is deeply rooted to Indian architecture,5 the inhabited bridge thus becomes an inspiring object for relating exterior presence and interior essence.

Objective: With this thesis I would like to explore the possibility of a new kind of a bridge which addresses the issues of pedestrian mobility and connects the urban fabric on either side of the river, its impact on urban settings in terms of sociological and cultural implications. In order to achieve this, I need to evaluate the project in terms of two criterion; • The Bridge as a Subject • The Bridge as an Object

Bridge as a Subject: By looking at the bridge as a subject, we break down the project purely in terms of cultural manifestation i.e. looking at it in context to the surrounding and what it is subjected to in terms of; • Culture (cultural study of Ahmedabad, its peoples, spaces of celebration, festivals) • Architectural language - Past and Present (Architectural study of the surrounding from past to present, Study of Islamic architecture in the region and Adalaj Stepwell) • Urban fabric (Dynamics of spaces, Streets, pole houses, spaces in Indian architecture) • Adjacencies ( site conditions and surrounding)

4 Deleuze and the use of the genetic algorithm in architecture - Manual De landa first published in PHYLOGENESIS by FOA (pg 520-530) | ISBN: 9788495951472 1.13 Sketch of London Bridge During 15th Century

5 Concepts of Space in Traditional Indian Architecture | by Yatin Pandya | ISBN: 9781935677291

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

• Lifestyle

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-�If we divide a volume of matter into two equal halves we end up with two volumes, each half the extent of the original one. Intensive properties on the other hand are properties such as temperature or pressure, which cannot be so divided.� - Manual Delanda, Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy.


• History (Historical influences) • Geological conditions ( site conditions, Topography, Hydrology) • Economy (Commercial activity, Trade commerce)

Bridge as an object: By looking at bridge as an object, we break down the project purely in terms of scientific objectivity i.e. looking at it purely out of local context but in Universal Context as an object or an instrument and to analyses and understand the physical manifestation of the bridge in terms of; • Its Form ( natural selection among all the possible forms for the project, which require series of explorations on kinds of forms ) • Typology ( what kind of a bridge, functional requirements) • Its structural logic (Structural systems) • Material assembly ( Materials for construction, Constructibility based on structural performance) • Tectonic expression (Joineries, expression, Skin)

1.14 Artistic impression of Post Apocalyptic City

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

• Technology ( Possible ways of construction)

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Existing Pedestrian Network Clearly indicates disappearing sidewalks, which are near fatal to be used and are compromised in the process of road development.


The Project in a Nutshell Key Issues to be Solved Connecting Point A to B with social interactive spaces

Urban scale • Alternative Network for Pedestrian Mobility • Social interactive spaces along the Pedestrian Network • Integrating the Pedestrian Network with the Public Transport Network • Connecting the Fabric of the city across the river banks to suppress the existing cultural divide • Taking the Sabarmati River development Project as the existing Scenario. • Redistribution of Density and Activity

Architectural Scale • Developing A module that can accommodate universal functionality • Proposing a New Typology of Habitable Bridge • Proposing a structure that can evolve, Adopt and grow over the period of time • Adopting Mies van der Rohe Theory on Griding Spaces to accommodate changing Function • Defining modules for cellular structure which can accommodated various programs it is subjected to and also to accommodate change in function over the period.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

• Proposing a New Pixel Architecture that can animate its form over the period of time

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Manek Chowk

2.2 Morning 6:00 to 8:00am

2.3 Night 9:00 to 1:00 pm

2.1 Business hours 9:00 am to 8:00pm

“A civilization is a heritage of beliefs, customs, and knowledge slowly accumulated in the course of centuries, elements difficult at times to justify by logic, but justifying themselves as paths when they lead somewhere, since they open up for man his inner distance.� - Antoine de Saint-Exupery


Dynamics of Existences Alchemy Of Time Over Space

Duality Of Existence -World With In A World The Indian notion of existence rests on dualities, Atman. The infinitesimal building blocks of the human spirit,and Brahman. The overall schema of the universe, are the fundamental basis of any existence. This schema of dual existence simultaneously accepts the part as a whole and the whole as a part and gives rise to the concept of the ‘world within a world. The aspect of counterpoint is built into the Indian notion of existence as bipolar. Where opposites reinforce each other. May it be purusha and prakruti. Light and darkness or solid and void,they are the mutually defining aspects. One shapes and gives validity to the existence of the other hence apparent extremes coexist in India. As counterpoints they become mutual reference and an integral part of a self-balancing system ensuring continuum and endurance. This form a lateral understanding thus allows for apparent opposites to coexist.1 1

Concepts of Space in Traditional Indian Architecture | by Yatin Pandya

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Bipolarity Of Existence

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Homotopic vs Heterotopic Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Master of Modern architecture is a great inspiration for many, for his absolute simplicity and the intrinsic complexity his building performs, The critic Demitri Porphyrios portrayed Crown Hall, Mies Van der Rohe school of Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology, as an architecture of total control and discipline, He called it “homotopic,” requiring everything and everybody to confirm to grid of universal rationality, to the geometry that organized the building in to a unified totality. “ It was as if by griding space,” he wrote, “ one safeguards against all accidents or indiscreet intrusions, and establish instead an idealized filed of likeness.”1 Instead of Mies’s “Immaculate Homogeneity,” Porphyrios promoted Alvar Aalto’s work for what he called its “Heterotopic”ordering sensibility. The Alvar Aalto’s Wolfs burg Cultural Centre (1958) For instance, Has its Individual parts given their own differentiated form in relation 3.1 IIT School of Architecture, Crown Hall, Mies van der Rohe

1 Demitri Porphyrios, Sources of modern Eclectism: Studies on alver alto (London: Academy Edition/St. Martin’s Press,.1982), p 1

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Extracts and interpretation from Inspirational Essay Same Difference - Detlef Mertins

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3.2 Alvar Aalto wolfsburg cultural center 3.3 Mies Van der Rohe Drawing of Various projects in comparative Scale

In retrospect, Aalto’s ordering sensibility appears to have produced representations of difference rather than deterritorializations that enable difference to emerge. Fixed and inflexible, Aalto’s forms crystallized activities that were scripted in advance; an auditorium is an auditorium and an office is an office. In contrast, Foucault did not specify the form of heterotopia, bur rather described its effects. In this respect, it is worth recalling Mies’s critique of Hugo Haring’s organ -like functionalism in the 1920s. Where Haring wanted each part of his building to serve its intended function so precisely that a hallway would become narrower as it reached its end where fewer people would use it, Mies suggested that this limited the range of possible uses. Instead, he sought to achieve durability over time by making generous spaces that could server a range of functions, even ones unforeseen. “The purposes for which a building is used,” he contended, “are constantly changing and we cannot afford to tear down the building each time. That is why we have revised Sullivan’s formula, ‘form follows function’ and construct a practical and economical space into which we fit the functions.” Mies’s pursuit of universal space implies, not a narrow conception of function, but a generous and open-ended approach to living, albeit within the structuring logics of industrial production and mass society that he accepted as givens to be worked through. If we look not only at Mies’s forms but also at the ways of life that they engendered, his pursuit of the universal within the historical conditions of the modem epoch takes on the character of a relentlessly destabilizing strategy within the practice of architecture and even within his own work as well. Throughout his career, Mies set his architecture against the perpetuation of old habits and

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

to their functions, are arranged into assemblages whose unity was seen to be open and inclusive. According to Detlef Mertins, Porphyrios’ Interpretation was inspired by Michel Foucault’s Critique of the universalizing claims of humanism and his call instead for “ Heterotopias,” such as the incongruous taxonomy of animals that Borges recount from a Chinese Encyclopedia. Foucault explained that where utopias offer the dream of a common locus or structure beneath all things, the heteroclite disturbs by secretly undermining language, destroying the syntax that causes words and things to hold together. However, where Foucault emphasized the capacity of heterotopias to corrode sameness and promote difference, Porphyrios focused on the forms of Aalto‘s heterogeneous collage.

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in the service of emergent and experimental ways of doing things. In one occasion. Mies spoke of providing “a ground for the unfolding of life,” suggesting that the architect be a catalyst for the process of becoming.

3.4 IIT School of Architecture, Crown Hall, Mies van der Rohe 3.5 Interior of IIT School of Architecture, Crown Hall, Mies van der Rohe

Mies wanted every person, like every building, to be free to realize their own immanent identity; for him, the aim of order was to bring together self-generated individualities without impinging on that freedom. One of the building at IIT that deviated from the twenty-four foot campus grid. Which was based on the optimal size for a classroom. Perhaps the absence of classrooms in the architecture school suggested the deviation, but there were also no lecture halls or faculty offices. Instead, there was a single large room -120 feet by 220 feet by 18 feet high, raised above the g round, and enclosed entirely by glass walls, trans lucent below and transparent above. It is in this space that the life of the school continues to unfold, subdivided only minimally by a multi-purpose space in the center The open studio maximizes flexibi lity and the opportunity of shared experiences, enabling students to be aware of everything and participate fully. Focused inward yet extending out to the sky the building is a catalyst for community within and connectivity beyond. It provides a lightly structured field for quotidian life and special events, calm yet a live, its rhythm changing over the course of the day and over the year, unified yet open. The central space has served for formal lectures, exhibitions, and events, including the memorial service for Mies and, recently, a wedding. It is also used for informal gatherings, pinups of student work, mock ups of floor plans, construction of large models and simply hanging out. With rows of individual desks, the orderly regime of the studios is offset by an ad hoc manner of reaching and collaborative work Professors gather students informally around someone’s desk to talk about their work or wheel in chalkboards as needed with students sitting randomly on their boards or stools. Large models appear as needed and conversations erupt wherever drawings are pinned up or students work together. For the annual open house, as well as special occasions, the entire space is reconfigured into an exhibition ha ll. A few years ago, the centra l area was even carpeted with Kentucky blue grass. In 1958, a major concert by Duke Ellington turned Crown Hall - “the fish bowl of Tech - into a ballroom with colored spotlights for nine hundred “smiling faces.’· Recently, the experimental musical ensemble. MASS, transformed the building into a giant stringed instrument, with 24,000 feet of high-polish brass wire transferring vibra-


City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

tions directly into the steel structure. What makes Mies’s universal space universal is not the grid, after all, which is simply one of several ordering devices and only appears strongly in the rendered plan, but the singularity of the large and largely unstructured room - an architecture that Mics described as “almost nothing,” a void sandwiched between two uninterrupted horizontal planes in which anything, everything, and nothing can happen. Its relative emptiness trans fo1ms the iron cage of industrial rationality into an enabling device for emergent social formations and unforeseen events. Operating within but against the regime of the mass, Mies’s universal space staged the up rootedness so central to the experience of modernity, as both a crisis and an opp01tunity for self-fashioning. Like Walter Benjamin’s image of glass architecture as a milieu for a mode of dwelling that leaves no traces. Mies’s glass boxes provoke an existential approach to life, drawing the occupant back to the blankness and potentiality of new beginnings, aver and aver again, promoting self-determination within yet against the world while safeguarding alterity. But what of the uniformity and repetition of Mies’s work, building after building? To begin, Mies distinguished himself among the architectural avant-grades precisely by not projecting a total vision for a new utopian society or city. Nevertheless, his work especially in America shares in the dream of a common locus or structure beneath all things that Porphyrios associated with utopia. It is this dream that gives Mies’s work its consistency and rigor, a dream fueled by the scientific literature.

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Cellular Automaton Ideas Worth Sharing

A cellular automaton is a collection of “colored” cells on a grid of specified shape that evolves through a number of discrete time steps according to a set of rules based on the states of neighboring cells. The rules are then applied iteratively for as many time steps as desired. von Neumann was one of the first people to consider such a model, and incorporated a cellular model into his “universal constructor.” Cellular automata were studied in the early 1950s as a possible model for biological systems1. Comprehensive studies of cellular automata have been performed by S. Wolfram starting in the 1980s, and Wolfram’s fundamental research in the field culminated in the publication of his book A New Kind of Science (Wolfram 2002) in which Wolfram presents a gigantic collection of results concerning automata, among which are a number of groundbreaking new discoveries. 4.1 An illustration of Game of Life commonly used Cellular Automata in Game Design

1

New Kind of Science -by Stephen Wolfram | 2002 | p 48

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Introduction

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Game Of Life

The universe of the Game of Life is an infinite two-dimensional orthogonal grid of square cells, each of which is in one of two possible states, alive or dead. Every cell interacts with its eight neighbours, which are the cells that are horizontally, vertically, or diagonally adjacent. At each step in time, the following transitions occur: •

Any live cell with fewer than two live neighbours dies, as if caused by under-population.

Any live cell with two or three live neighbours lives on to the next generation.

Any live cell with more than three live neighbours dies, as if by overcrowding.

Any dead cell with exactly three live neighbours becomes a live cell, as if by reproduction.

The initial pattern constitutes the seed of the system. The first generation is created by applying the above rules simultaneously to every cell in the seed—births and deaths occur simultaneously, and the discrete moment at which this happens is sometimes called a tick (in other words, each generation is a pure function of the preceding one). The rules continue to be applied repeatedly to create further generations.


The number of colors (or distinct states) k a cellular automaton may assume must also be specified. This number is typically an integer, with k=2 (binary) being the simplest choice. For a binary automaton, color 0 is commonly called “white,” and color 1 is commonly called “black”. However, cellular automata having a continuous range of possible values may also be considered. In addition to the grid on which a cellular automaton lives and the colors its cells may assume, the neighborhood over which cells affect one another must also be specified. The simplest choice is “nearest neighbors,” in which only cells directly adjacent to a given cell may be affected at each time step. Two common neighborhoods in the case of a two-dimensional cellular automaton on a square grid are the so-called Moore neighborhood (a square neighborhood) The simplest type of cellular automaton is a binary, nearest-neighbor, one-dimensional automaton. Such automata were called “elementary cellular automata” by S. Wolfram, who has extensively studied their amazing properties2. There are 256 such automata, each of which can be indexed by a unique binary number whose decimal representation is known as the “rule” for the particular automaton.

4.2 An illustration of rule 30 is shown above together with the evolution it produces after 15 steps starting from a single black cell. 4.3 An illustration of 3D Cloud points based on Cellular Automata 4.4 Illustration Explaining J.H. Conway’s Game of Life

The theory of cellular automata is immensely rich, with simple rules and structures being capable of producing a great variety of unexpected behaviors. For example, there exist universal cellular automata that are capable of simulating the behavior of any other cellular automaton or Turing machine. It has even been proved by Gacs (2001) that there exist fault-tolerant universal cellular automata, whose ability to simulate other cellular automata is not hindered by random perturbations provided that such perturbations are sufficiently sparse. 2

New Kind of Science -by Stephen Wolfram | 2002 | p 57

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

In two dimensions, the best-known cellular automaton is Conway’s game of life, discovered by J. H. Conway in 1970 and popularized in Martin Gardner’s Scientific American columns. The game of life is a binary (k=2) totalistic cellular automaton with a Moore neighborhood of range r=1. Although the computation of successive game of life generations was originally done by hand, the computer revolution soon arrived and allowed more extensive patterns to be studied and propagated. An animation of the game of life construction known as a puffer train is illustrated above.

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Note To a friend Listen there are three things running in my mind....one the city on a bridge you know about it.. Which is a urban problem with architectural solution... Second just imagine how things change things become redundant... Typologies that are present in the past are redundant today... Like we have post office, tomorrow we may not need it.. Like the age of a building is no longer 100-200 years they have been reduced to like 20-30 years then the building becomes unusable of their function change where the new function is forced on to... So why not a universal typology a building that can take any form or change into any typology and dynamic building or a building always in the state of flux.. Today an expo tomorrow a marriage hall day after a art gallery in the night a home for the homeless. How this building can transform...Just imagine those pixels on screen how the change colour to give you a new picture and the more the resolution of the picture more versatile it gets.... Imagine a building like that made up of hundreds of pixel they move within the 3d matrix a grid.. And the take any form they want.. Like an auditorium.. Or an amphitheater.. Or a museum ... That is placed on this sabarmati river and the river becomes a Rail track in which this hyper structure moves. And the because of the Rivers physicality the structure becomes a accidental bridge connecting two ends of the city the bridge will move as it require today at the center tomorrow may be on the south end and up north day after...

Let's consider in next 20 years the entire riverfront development is consumed.. And they have consumed every single possibility that can be used on the river so the Centre becomes exacerbated so where do we tap potential so the bridges become the instrument to tap at an infrastructure that can be more than just a physical structure and the functions that are present there generate that revenues which is invested in next 10 years.. 4.5 Artistic impression of Cellular Space

-Mohammed Mansoor

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

And the third is a combination of the two... Partial bridge partial hyper structure but stays in one place and also nelson suggested if I have that second idea why then in Ahmedabad.. Then I can take Mysore exhibition ground and make an expo out of that where the expo and building are In constant state of flux...

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“A civilization is a heritage of beliefs, customs, and knowledge slowly accumulated in the course of centuries, elements difficult at times to justify by logic, but justifying themselves as paths when they lead somewhere, since they open up for man his inner distance.� - Antoine de Saint-Exupery


Augmented Ecology Extract From My Dissertation To embody in architecture, that which has never been architecture before. I hope to explore this possibility. Likely, this will mean tabula-raza methods of constructing architecture. In doing so, we might encounter the most unexpected world of another environment, never perceivable before.

It is a Biblical phrase to all architects ‘Make the world a better place to live’ but I totally disagree to the above statement. Would not it be better to rephrase it as “Make 5.1 Oil Sands Extraction Facility at Alberta- Canada

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

The augmented ecology is neither a Manifesto nor a Radical theory; it is a modus operandi which redefines the way one approaches to architectural solutions. It breaks away from the Modernist notion of Man’s superior to nature, Man the pioneer in technological advancement always trying to overpower nature but over time needed to be reminded “Man and Nature are not two different entities, but Man is part of Nature and his dependency is not Technology but Nature itself.”

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“We do not ask to be eternal beings. We only ask that things do not lose all their meaning.” - Antoine de Saint-Exupéry


better places to live in this world� I would be interesting to know, how many worlds do we really have? Do we really have an option? Technology is the cradle for all the solutions to the problems of the society, by playing the role of curator, it cannot fill in the gaps that have developed between the man and the nature over time, which can only be filled by technology playing the role of a mediator. In 21st century, Climate change, Sustainable architecture, and Green technology have become increasingly a subject of architectural discourse, this is transforming into a capitalist propaganda without delivering much of critical solutions for our environments immediate concerns. In order to response to these problems with grater integrity one has to approach ecologically, to heed an imaginative and practical methods for addressing existing as well as new architecture. So hence Augmentation of ecology with Architecture would give rise to multidimensional view towards all our existing problems that is fluid in scale and humanly focus, with the goal of providing a multi-layered, diverse, and nuanced understanding of ecology and architecture. In order to achieve this, one has to comprehend the complexity of the nature, systems that govern the functioning of the physical world, emergent behaviors, archaeology, anthropology and the evolution of human culture.

5.2 Ta Prohm Ruins

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

This understanding would effectively challenge the established cultural and architectural histories. It would expand the conventional world view by placing human development alongside ecological development. It is clear how humans have extensively modified the surface of the earth, the ecological systems that exist upon it. But it is time to understand how development can be carried out in the future without drastically modifying the surface of the world, which would result in a high density, Compact living systems resulting in ecological development along human development.

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As Friedrich Nietzsche points out in his essay “On Uses And Disadvantages Of History Of Life. ” There is always an element of the unhistorical in any act of creation.”


Looking at the world Case studies - Introduction

6.1 Painting Of Pont Notre Dame - Paris (NICOLAS RAGUENET, 1756) 6.2 Venice Bridge of Sighs 6.3 Bridging Units at the pole houses in Ahmedabad 6.4 ; 6.5; 6.6; 6.7; 6.8 Old London bridge

In a few rare cases a bridge is thought of a bit differently. It is built for more than its connective properties. These structures are given the ability to contribute more to the city than just a crossing or formal icon. They receive a dual purpose beyond the function of transport and become habitable. These bridges are thickened with program and layered with additional uses. Three examples of this are the Ponte Vecchio of Florence, the Ponte Rialto of Venice, and the Galata Bridge of Istanbul. All three meet the criteria of a thickened bridge, but each does so with a different

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

More often than not, a bridge is used solely as a method of crossing from point A to point B. Unsurprisingly, their formal articulation (a language of precision engineering) attempts no more than to mirror their strictly functional purpose. Occasionally, however, a bridge is imbued with more visual punch. Perhaps it sports a flamboyant structure or dramatic gravity-defying form. Yet most of these still follow the same bridge formula: movement from point A to point B.

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approach and different results. Comparing the three brings to light some of the issues pertaining to the function of waterfronts in a more general sense

London Bridge Constructed in London, England between 1176-1209, nearly 200 places of business lined both sides of the bridge with merchants living above—reaching up to 7 stories in height. The bridge also has a chapel and contained water wheels to power water pumps and grain mills. An Act of Parliament dated June 1756, permission was obtained to demolish all the shops and houses on London Bridge. Inhabited bridges, as engravings of Old London Bridge show, are alluring structures, yet they have proven to be tricky, tacky and downright annoying things that serve primarily to slow traffic over them to little more than a snail’s pace. It could take an hour to cross Old London Bridge, threading your way under gateways crowned with traitors’ heads and past rickety shops that had been built, thanks to King John, simply to pay for the cost of the bridge itself. As for surviving “inhabited” bridges, well, “tacky” is a polite word to describe the experience of crossing them. Florence’s Ponte Vecchio and Venice’s Rialto Bridge are exquisite structures, yet both are a kitsch nightmare today. The one thing both fail to do is to get people and goods across rivers in anything like a useful or enjoyable manner.

6.5 Winning proposal by Chetwood Architects for London Bridge design competition 6.6 Winning Student proposal by Ryszard Rychlicki, Poznan, Poland, London Bridge design competition

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

- Jonathan Glancey | The Guardian, Tuesday 5 May 2009

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Helsinki in the Mind Urban Case study Helsinki’s suburban neighborhood of Malmi, has a fascinating pedestrian network that had a profound impact on me, which I came across during a competition briefing. The interesting fact is the absolute segregation of pedestrian network from the road network and its integration with the public transport and commercial centers.

Finland

Helsinki

6.7 Ariel Photo of Helsinki Malmi Neighborhood 6.8 Map of Finland with Helsinki

The bus station is elevated over the train tracks and has a direct access to the metro station, the two parallel road along the metro tracks provide access to the building along it and the pedestrian bridge connects the two shopping complexes with the metro station by passing over the roads. The Context has been photo documented below.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

The site is epicenter with a Metro station, Bus terminal, Shopping complexes, Public Swimming pool and entertainment complex, educational institute and parking complexes

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Commercial Complex Parking Metro Station Bus Station Pedestrian Path Railway Track Road 6.9 Top View of the site 6.10 Site Plan With Context 6.11 Diagram Explaining the Scenario 6.12 Ariel View of the site from different angle


City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Ariel View Of the site

Picture of Bike Access

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Picture of Bus Station

Picture of train Station


City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Picture of Car Access

Picture of Pedestrian Access

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Florence Cathedral


The Ponte Vecchio Case study - Florence

Introduction

Florence

Built in Florence, Italy between 996-1345 by the architect Taddeo Gaddi. The bridge is Europe’s oldest wholly-stone, closed-spandrel segmental arch bridge. In order to connect the Palazzo Vecchio (Florence’s town hall) with the Palazzo Pitti, in 1565 Cosimo I de Medici had Giorgio Vasari build the famous Vasari Corridor above it. To enforce the prestige of the bridge, in 1593 the Medici Grand Dukes prohibited butchers from selling there; their place was immediately taken by several gold merchants. The corporative association of butchers had monopolized the shops on the bridge since 1442.

7.1 Satellite Map of Florence, Italy 7.2 Sketch of Ponte vecchio - Author 7.3 Map Of Italy

The bridge spans the Arno at its narrowest point where it is believed that a bridge was first built in Roman times, when the via Cassia crossed the river at this point. The Roman piers were of stone, the superstructure of wood. The bridge

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

The Ponte Vecchio Evolution

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7.4 Evolution of Florence through time 7.5 Evolution of Ponte Vecchio through time


The bridge consists of three segmental arches: the main arch has a span of 30 meters (98 ft) the two side arches each span 27 meters (88 ft). The rise of the arches is between 3.5 and 4.4 meters (11½ to 14½ feet), and the spanto-rise ratio 5:1. It has always hosted shops and merchants who displayed their goods on tables before their premises, after authorization of the Bargello (a sort of a lord mayor, a magistrate and a police authority). The back shops (retrobotteghe) that may be seen from upriver, were added in the seventeenth century. It is said that the economic concept of bankruptcy originated here: when a money-changer could not pay his debts, the table on which he sold his wares (the “banco”) was physically broken (“rotto”) by soldiers, and this practice was called “bancorotto” (broken table; possibly it can come from “banca rotta” which means “broken bank”). Not having a table anymore, the merchant was not able to sell anything. During World War II, the Ponte Vecchio was not destroyed by Germans during their retreat of August 4, 1944, unlike all other bridges in Florence. This was allegedly, according to many locals and tour guides, because of an express order by Hitler. Access to Ponte Vecchio was, however, obstructed by the destruction of the buildings at both ends, which have since been rebuilt using a combination of original and modern design.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Unidirectional

first appears in a document of 996. After being destroyed by a flood in 1117 it was reconstructed in stone but swept away again in 1333 save two of its central piers, as noted by Giovanni Villani in his Nuova Cronica. It was rebuilt in 1345, Giorgio Vasari recorded the tradition in his day, that attributed its design to Taddeo Gaddi, besides Giotto one of the few artistic names of the trecento still recalled two hundred years later. Modern historians present Neri di Fioravanti as a possible candidate. Sheltered in a little loggia at the central opening of the bridge is a weathered dedication stone. The Torre dei Mannelli was built at the southeast corner of the bridge to defend it.

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New Sense of Order Sets in

Vassari Corridor


Bridge As it is Today

View of the bridge

View of the bridge @ Night

7.6 Sequence of New order that was put forward in Florence in 1300 AD 7.7 Ponte Vecchio at present

View of the Street on the bridge

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

View of the Street on the bridge @ Night

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Plaza A B A’ B’

C Plaza

C’

Plan

8360

6290

Sight lines to Ponte vecchio

Section A_-A’

Crosses: Arno River Locale: Florence, Italy Design: closed-spandrels segmental stone arch bridge Width: 32 metres (105 ft) Longest span: 30 metres (98 ft)

Isometric View

4850

Vasari Corridor Sight lines from Ponte vecchio

N


Analysis & Conclusion Perhaps one of the most renowned bridge with functions in the world, is the Ponte Vecchio across the river Arno in Florence. According to Ruth Eaton, In his book ‘Living Bridges’, the Ponte Vecchio of 1345 constituted a bridge with three arches and forty - seven shops, which were completely constructed out of stone. The bridge was organised in four groups, split up at the empty space in the center and the road of the bridge. The shops were originally occupied by variety of traders, from butchers and grocers to blacksmith,s. In 1565 a new corridor was built along the bridge, which required three arches to be constructed in the center to support the load. The corridor provided the prince and his court men, with an exclusive path which connected their living and work place. It connected the two plazas on the either side of the riverbanks along one side of the Ponte Vecchio overlooking the river Arno. From 1593 onwards, the function of the shops on the bridge were replaced by luxury traders as Gold and Silver smiths and Money Changers and additions were built over the river.

Urban Structure The position of the Ponte Vecchio within the urban structure is one of the iconic quality. The bridge performs into the openness above the river, embraced by the densely occupied riverbanks, making its appearance in the urban structure. In particular, the view towards the Ponte Vecchio, Is defined by important Sight-lines from the riverbanks, surrounding bridges, and the river Arno.

7.8 Built vs open plan of the surrounding at Ponte Vecchio, Florence Italy 7.9 Sectional Relationship with the surrounding of Vassari Corridor 7.10 Isometric View of Ponte Vecchio

The bridge is organised in four groups, split up at the empty space in the center and the road of the bridge. This organisation creates a linear movement Pattern along the bridge, and the void in the center dilutes the movement. The center space acts as plaza on the bridge where people take a break to look from the bridge towards the river and the adjoining riverbanks; also becomes a space for congregation. This configuration also allows for multi-directional movement, the user has a choice to return back to the starting point by changing the course at the center.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Movement

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1920

12840

2970 3900

4410

6710

23710

22240

4430

Section B-B’

10960

3100

Section C-C’

2730

10050


Skyline/ Silhouette The silhouette of the Ponte Vecchio becomes recognisable through its horizontal orientation, perpendicular to the riverbanks. Specifically the horizontal roof line, of the Ponte Vecchio creates contrast in the skyline/Silhouette. In addition the three arches spanning the river, complete the silhouette while emphasizing the horizontal direction. As a result the recognition of the skyline/Silhouette is reinforced by the paths and contrast.

Proportions The Proportions of the Ponte Vecchio, in terms of its height and depth, are modest, because they tend to merge into the Urban Context. Meaning that they, do not emphasize visual difference with the surrounding. However, The Ponte Vecchio spans approximately 95 meters across the river Arno. The span of 95 meters make the bridge differentiate itself from the urban morphology. I must say that the horizontal roof line fulfills a crucial role in the quality, because its facade continues across the river creating unity and expressing horizontality.

Form Regarding form, the iconic quality is the result of the contrast between the bridges and function hovering above the water, and the surrounding buildings along the riverbank which are merged in to the soil. In the sense the thee arches, which support the functions and span the river, represents an important iconic quality to differentiate the form within its context. In terms of the physical appearance, the volume is well differentiated with in the structure as presented in the diagram ( volumetric massing ) the structure of the bridge and the buildings on it are well differentiated, the arches are exposed and the buildings are juxtaposed on top of it, with variations in volume to accommodate functions, also the corridor above it is a single mass giving it a identity to itself..

7.12 Sectional Detail of Ponte Vecchio

Technology

7.13 Sectional Relationship with the surrounding of Vassari Corridor

The three arches are the primary structure of the Ponte Vecchio. The middle arch spans 35 meters and the arches

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

7.11 Axial Relationship of Ponte Vecchio

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Front Elevation

Volumetric massing

View of the bridge

Built Structure Pedestrian Walkway


at the sides span 30 meters, making the total span of 95 meters. Despite the fact that the primary arch structure is exposed, I do not see it as technologically advanced In todays context and also unique to the region since numerous bridges in Florence across the river Arno are also constructed by arch Structure.

Material Despite the fact that the Ponte Vecchio is largely constructed from stone, the functions on the bridge is materialized differently than the primary bridge structure. The facades of the functions are plastered in different colours varying from gray, yellow, and brown. Additionally, the facade of the new corridor is materialized white. The primary structure, represented by the three arches, is made of stone. Remarkably, the materialization of the Ponte vecchio is completely absorbed by the surroundings on the riverbanks. Likewise the primary arch structure merges in to the stone constructed quays. Therefore I believe that materialization of ponte Vecchio rather seems to camouflage than distinguish itself with its surroundings.

Metaphor The Ponte Vecchio is renowned, throughout the world, for being a bridge with functions. This means that apart from its infrastructural function that bridge also incorporates additional functions for shops. That’s why I believe the Ponte Vecchio has become the metaphor for the bridge with functions.

7.15 Volumetric Variation of Ponte Vecchio 7.16 Elevation of Ponte Vecchio 7.17 Circulation Diagram of Ponte Vecchio

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

7.14 Programme Variation of Ponte Vecchio

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N

Carries: pedestrian bridge Crosses: Grand Canal Locale: Venice, Italy Design: stone arch bridge Width: 22.90 meters (75.1 ft) Height: 7.32 meters (24.0 ft) Longest span: 28.80 meters Construction begin: 1588 Construction end: 1591


The Ponte Rialto Case study - Venice The Rialto Bridge is one of the four bridges spanning the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy. It is the oldest bridge across the canal, and was the dividing line for the districts of San Marco and San Polo.

8.1 Satellite Map of Venice 8.2 Ariel Map of Ponte Rialto 8.3 Venice Location in Italy

The development and importance of the Rialto market on the eastern bank increased traffic on the floating bridge, so it was replaced in 1255 by a wooden bridge. This structure had two inclined ramps meeting at a movable central section, that could be raised to allow the passage of tall ships. The connection with the market eventually led to a change of name for the bridge. During the first half of the 15th century, two rows of shops were built along the sides of the bridge. The rents brought an income to the State Treasury, which helped maintain the bridge.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Venice

The first dry crossing of the Grand Canal was a pontoon bridge built in 1181 by Nicolò Barattieri. It was called the Ponte della Moneta, presumably because of the mint that stood near its eastern entrance.

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Built vs open


Maintenance was vital for the timber bridge. It was partly burnt in the revolt led by Bajamonte Tiepolo in 1310. In 1444, it collapsed under the weight of a crowd watching a boat parade and it collapsed again in 1524. The idea of rebuilding the bridge in stone was first proposed in 1503. Several projects were considered over the following decades. In 1551, the authorities requested proposals for the renewal of the Rialto Bridge, among other things. Plans were offered by famous architects, such as Jacopo Sansovino, Palladio and Vignola, but all involved a Classical approach with several arches, which was judged inappropriate to the situation. Michelangelo also was considered as designer of the bridge. The present stone bridge, a single span designed by Antonio da Ponte, was finally completed in 1591. It is similar to the wooden bridge it succeeded. Two inclined ramps lead up to a central portico. On either side of the portico, the covered ramps carry rows of shops. The engineering of the bridge was considered so audacious that architect Vincenzo Scamozzi predicted future ruin. The bridge has defied its critics to become one of the architectural icons of Venice

Analysis & Conclusion

8.4 Built Vs Open surrounding Ponte Rialto in Venice 8.5 View of Ponte Rialto from the Jetty 8.6 View of Pedestrian Path on Ponte Rialto.

Urban Structure The position of the Ponte Rialto within the urban structure is one of the iconic quality. The Ponte Rialto is one of the

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

One of the renowned bridge with functions in the world, is the Ponte Rialto across the Grand Canal in Venice. The Ponte Rialto is one of the four bridges spanning the Grand Canal, constituted a bridge with single arch and two rows of shops, which were completely constructed out of stone. It replaced a very similar bridge that was completely built out of wood. The bridge is organised in two parallel mass, split up by the inclined ramp in the center and also two parallel, smaller ramps facing the canal on the edges. The shops are doted with arched door mad of wood, which opens on both sides of the structure. The top most part of this inclined mass is a arched opening which allows for the movement between the ramps and the visual connection towards the canal. These shops mainly serve Novality and Souvenirs for the tourist.

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Elevation

Plan


most used bridge to cross the Grand Canal. The bridge performs into the openness above the canal, embraced by the highly dense occupied riverbanks, making its appearance in the urban structure. In particular, the view towards the Ponte Rialto, Is defined by important Sight-lines from the riverbanks, the Gondolas from the canal.

Movement The bridge is organised in two parallel mass, split up by the inclined ramp in the center and also two parallel, smaller ramps facing the canal on the edges. This organisation creates a linear movement Pattern along the bridge, and the opening in the center cross connects the ramps. The center space acts as pause point on the bridge where people take a break to look from the bridge towards the canal and the adjoining riverbanks. This configuration also allows for multi-directional movement, the user has a choice to return back to the starting point by changing the course at the center. Skyline/ Silhouette The silhouette of the Ponte Rialto becomes recognisable through its horizontally double inclined orientation, perpendicular to the riverbanks. Specifically the tapering roof line, of the Ponte Rialto creates contrast in the Silhouette. In addition the single arch spanning the river, complete the silhouette while emphasizing the double inclined massing. The maximum height reached by the bridge is on par with the neighboring building, as a result the bridge is not evident as a part of the skyline.

8.7 Elevation of Ponte Rialto 8.8 Plan of Ponte Rialto

The Proportions of the Ponte Rialto, in terms of its height and depth, are modest, because they tend to merge into the Urban Context. Meaning that they, do not emphasize visual difference with the surrounding. However, The Ponte Rialto spans approximately 28 meters across the canal. The span of 28 meters does not make the bridge differentiate itself from the urban morphology. I must say that the horizontal double inclined roof line fulfills a crucial role in the quality, because its facade discontinues across the river creating discontinuity and an expressive double inclined horizontal volume creates an identity to itself.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Proportions

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Isometric View


Form Regarding form, the iconic quality is the result of the contrast between the bridges and function hovering above the water, and the surrounding buildings along the riverbank which are merged in to the soil. In the sense the single arch, which support the functions and span the river, represents an important iconic quality to differentiate the form within its context. In terms of the physical appearance, the volume is non differentiated with in the structure. The structure of the bridge and the buildings on it are continues, creating a unified single mass.

Technology The single arch is the primary structure of the Ponte Rialto. Making the total length of the bridge 28 meters. Despite the fact that the primary arch structure is exposed, I do not see it as technologically advanced In todays context and also unique to the region since numerous bridges in Venice are also constructed by arch Structure.

Material Despite the fact that the Ponte Realto is largely constructed from stone, the functions on the bridge is materialized differently than the primary bridge structure. The facades of the shops are materialized white stone. The primary structure, represented by the single arch, is made of the same white stone making the arch structure merges in to the stone constructed shops. But the materialization of the surrounding is quite different from the bridge. Therefore I believe that materialization of Ponte Rialto rather seems to distinguish itself with its surroundings.

8.9 Isometric View Of Ponte Vecchio

The Ponte Rialto is renowned, throughout the world, for being a bridge with functions. This means that apart from its infrastructural function that bridge also incorporates additional functions for shops. That’s why I believe the Ponte Rialto has become the metaphor for the bridge with functions.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Metaphor

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Galata Bridge Case study - Istanbul

Introduction The Galata Bridge is a bridge that spans the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. From the end of the 19th century in particular, the bridge has featured in Turkish literature, theater, poetry and novels. The first recorded bridge over the Golden Horn in Istanbul was built during the reign of Justinian the Great in the 6th century, close to the area near the Theodosian Land Walls at the western end of the city.

9.1 Galata Bridge in 1930s 9.2 Galata Bridge in 2010 9.3 Map of Constantinople in the Byzantine era 9.4 Construction of First Galata bridge 1809 9.5 Between 1880-1893, the Galata Bridge and in the background the New Mosque, Istanbul.

This bridge was replaced by a second wooden bridge in 1863, built by Ethem Pertev Pasa on the orders of Sultan Abdßlaziz (1861–1876) during the infrastructure improvement works prior to the visit of Napoleon III to Istanbul.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

The second bridge

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The third bridge In 1870 a contract was signed with a French company, Forges et Chantiers de la Mediteranée for construction of a third bridge, but the outbreak of war between France and Germany delayed the project, which was given instead to a British firm G. Wells in 1872. This bridge, completed in 1875, was 480 m long and 14 m wide and rested on 24 pontoons. It was built at a cost of 105,000 gold liras. This was used until 1912, when it was pulled upstream to replace the now genuinely old Cisr-i Atik Bridge.

The fourth bridge The fourth Galata Bridge was built in 1912 by the German firm Hüttenwerk Oberhausen AG for 350,000 gold liras. This floating bridge was 466 m long and 25 m wide. It is the bridge, still familiar to many people today, that was badly damaged in a fire in 1992 and towed up the Golden Horn to make way for the modern bridge now in use.

The fifth (current) bridge.

9.6 Satellite image of Istanbul 9.7 Ship passing through Galata Bridge 9.8 Cross Section Explaining the Two decks of Galata bridge

The rest of the bridge including the market area in the first floor opened to common use in 2003.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

The fifth Galata bridge was built by the Turkish construction company STFA just a few meters away from the previous bridge, between Karaköy and Eminönü, and completed in December 1994. It was designed and supervised by GAMB (Göncer Ayalp Engineering Company). It is a bascule bridge, which is 490 m long with a main span of 80 m. The deck of the bridge is 42 m wide and has three vehicular lanes and one walkway in each direction. It has also recently had tram tracks re-added to it, allowing the Istanbul Tram to run from Zeytinburnu in the suburbs near Atatürk International Airport to Kabatas, a few blocks before Dolmabahçe Palace. This bridge along with Trowse Bridge in Norwich, Erasmus Bridge in Rotterdam, a number of bridges in Saint Petersburg in Russia, a number of railway bridges in the United States may be the only movable bridges in the world that also carry electrified rail tracks.

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Plan Lower Deck

Built Structure Pedestrian Walkway


Analysis & Conclusion The Galata Bridge is a bridge that spans the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. It was built by the Turkish construction company STFA just a few meters away from the previous bridge, between Karaköy and Eminönü, and completed in December 1994. It was designed and supervised by GAMB (Göncer Ayalp Engineering Company). It is a bascule bridge, which is 490 m long with a main span of 80 m. The deck of the bridge is 42 m wide and has three vehicular lanes and one walkway in each direction. It has also recently had tram tracks re-added to it, allowing the Istanbul Tram to run from Zeytinburnu in the suburbs near Atatürk International Airport to Kabatas, a few blocks before Dolmabahçe Palace. This bridge along with Trowse Bridge in Norwich, Erasmus Bridge in Rotterdam, a number of bridges in Saint Petersburg in Russia, a number of railway bridges in the United States may be the only movable bridges in the world that also carry electrified rail tracks. The rest of the bridge including the market area in the first floor opened to common use in 2003.

Urban Structure Bridges have the advantage to perform in the openness, hovering above the water, of the urban landscape. Likewise the Galata Bridge clarifies its presence across the river Golden Horn, connecting the Karakoy and Eminonu riverbank of Istanbul. Embracing its roadway users; the pedestrians and the tourist using the lower deck for the Restaurants and while being observed from the riverbanks of the Golden Horn. I believe that the urban structure helps the Galata Bridge to become a Landmark.

9.9 Cafe and Restaurant at lower deck of Galata bridge 9.10 Circulation And Built Diagram of lower deck in Galata bridge

The bridge is organised in two masses each with two levels, split up by the movable part in the center. This organisation creates a linear movement Pattern along the bridge, and the opening in the center allows for the ships to pass trough. The lower deck acts as market on the bridge, which people use it as retail and restaurant space, it is quite famous among tourists, it also acts as a break point to look from the bridge towards the canal, there are two cross connects in the lower deck used to connect the two paralle sides of the bridge and the upper deck provides motor access and the pedestrian path, it is mainly used by

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Movement

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Isometric view

Isometric view opened

Isometric view Exploded


public as a fishing spot. This configuration also allows for multi-directional movement, the user has a choice to return back to the starting point by changing the course at the center.

Skyline/ Silhouette The silhouette of the Galata Bridge does not become recognisable through its horizontal orientation, perpendicular to the riverbanks. Specifically the shallow horizontal mass, of the Galata Bridge does not create contrast in the skyline/Silhouette. In addition the two desk spanning the river, only the central movable part completes the silhouette while emphasizing the horizontal direction. The maximum height reached by the bridge is on lower than the neighboring building, as a result the bridge is not evident as a part of the skyline.

Proportions The Proportions of the Galata Bridge, in terms of its height and depth, are in-contrast, because they tend to stand out in the Urban Context. Meaning that they, emphasize visual difference with the surrounding. The Galata Bridge is 490 m long with a main span of 80 m across the river. The maximum height reached is 20 meters making the proportion small compared to the surrounding. The span of 490 meters makes the bridge differentiate itself from the urban morphology. I must say that the horizontal double decked massing and the movable part in the center fulfills a crucial role in the quality, because its mass discontinues at the center creating discontinuity which creates an identity to itself.

Form

9.11 Isometric View Of Galata Bridge 9.12 Isometric View of Galata Bridge with central part Opened 9.13 Exploded View of Galata Bridge

Technology The Galata Bridge is a floating bridge combined with a

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Regarding form, the bridge lacks quality when comes to form. It is a horizontal mass inclined towards the edges with out any significant element to distinguish itself from the rest of the bridges. It is a typical bascule bridge without much architectural expression.

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20 m

Elevation 490 m

45 m

Plan


bascule bridge (opening part). Within its urban context, the exposed technology contributes to its recognition. However aiming to distinguish the Galata Bridge from other bridges, I cannot imagine the technology as an iconic quality, because of the fact that the floating bridge type has been designed many times before.

Material The steel structure enhances the recognition of the bridge within the urban context. In particular, the colour of the shops at the lower deck unites the structural elements of the Galata Bridge clarifying its presence.

Metaphor

9.15 Elevation of Galata Bridge 9.16 Plan of Galata Bridge

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

9.14 Restaurants at lower deck in Galata Bridge

Among the inhabitants the Galata Bridge is being called as the barge, and therefore recalls a natural metaphor. In this sense the double decked floating bridge. I leave it an open question. The bridge also represent the metaphor motion, such as the repetition of the shops which creates a suggestion of motion. The opening part of the bridge, named bascule bridge, constitutes literally motion.

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PONTE VECCHIO (FLORENCE, ITALY)

PONTE RIALTO (VENICE, ITALY)

GALATA BRIDGE (ISTANBUL, TURKEY)

• Massing: lined sides, relief in center

• Massing: a pair of linear strips, sandwiched by paths

• Massing: central linear swath with occasional cut-through

• View: outward and inward • View: inward looking with occasional breaks (central path/ • Program: shopping (glass, jewshopping) elry, souvenirs) • Program: shopping (gold, jewel- • Levels: single (stepped, strictly ry, souvenirs) pedestrian) • Levels: single (pedestrian), unused upper level • Context: integrated into city through arcade, architectural style

• Context: integrated into city through necessity (major canal crossing) • Stature: iconic, but also necessary functional purpose

• Stature: iconic, benefits from the • Experience: looking out, or at novelty of history and waterfront • Experience: best from outside looking in (picturesque)

• View: outward looking (peripheral paths/linear seating/glass walls) • Program: restaurant below, fishing and traffic above • Levels: dual (street/tram above, pedestrian below) • Context: integrated into city through infrastructural connections • Stature: waterfront benefits from the functions of the bridge • Experience: unfolds through use (lower paths tucked away, sheltered)


Comparative Study Ponte Vecchio / Ponte Rialto / Galata Bridge

The Ponte Vecchio has a central path with its periphery lined with shops. Despite the windows at the rear of almost each shop, the focus of the bridge is kept inward.

10.1 Ariel View of Ponte Vecchio 10.2 Ariel View of Ponte Rialto 10.3 Ariel View of Galata Bridge

The Ponte Rialto takes a slightly different approach, but with a very different result. It has a central path lined with inward facing shops similar to the Ponte Vecchio, but it takes the next step and lines the exterior of the shops with additional paths as well. The result is two linear strips of

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

With the exception of the visual release at the center of the bridge, the Ponte Vecchio uses its massing no differently than any other street: visual interest ends at the storefront. However, its place in the world is radically different than almost every other street. Its massing strategy negates the possibility of taking advantage of this context throughout 80% of the bridge’s span. The Ponte Vecchio is happy to extend the streetscape over the water, with very little variation from the standard condition. Obviously, there is great novelty in this condition extending over the water, but an opportunity is missed nonetheless.

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PONTE VECCHIO (FLORENCE, ITALY)

PONTE RIALTO (VENICE, ITALY)

GALATA BRIDGE (ISTANBUL, TURKEY)

Massing The massing of these bridges probably plays the most significant role in how they operate internally for the pedestrian. The Ponte Vecchio and Ponte Rialto, for example, share many similarities, but each essentially inverts the massing strategy of the other.

Massing (Proportionally To Scale, Length In Feet)

Built Structure Pedestrian Walkway


shops sandwiched between foot paths. The outermost paths now have vision out to the city (unlike the Ponte Vecchio where this was reserved for an isolated moment in the center). The Ponte Rialto is careful not to allow its massing to interfere with the spectacle of the bridge. It is an extremely popular urban event both to look at and out from. Although a simple move, layering these paths on the exterior of the bridge changes the dynamic dramatically. The Galata Bridge takes a different approach entirely. Its massing strategy is played out in section as well as plan. The upper level is not very different than many other bridges: a central path for the subway (tram), lined with roads for automobiles, all sandwiched between sidewalks for pedestrians. Below, however, the bridge is stuffed with a central core of restaurants, lined by pedestrian walkways at the outer edges.

Spatial Syntax

Ponte Rialto

This setup maximizes the views outward and creates an active pedestrian corridor along the edge of the bridge at both levels. Also noteworthy is the continuous glass of the restaurant fronts, which allows ample views out, even from a layer back (inside). The Galata Bridge’s massing plays to the strengths of its waterfront context. View is given primacy in the pedestrian experience, reinforcing the unique sense of place the bridge offers.

Program

Galata Bridge

10.4 Top View of Ponte Vecchio 10.5 Top View of Ponte Rialto 10.6 Top View of Galata Bridge 10.7 Lower Deck Of The Galata Bridge

The various pedestrian programs of the Galata Bridge engender a layering of activity, all of which are able to turn their attention to the periphery and capture a view of the water. The bridge is able to successfully layer all its

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Ponte Vecchio

The Ponte Vecchio and Ponte Rialto have very similar commercial programs inhabiting their indoor spaces. Both cater overwhelmingly to tourists. The shops almost exclusively carry overpriced jewelry and souvenirs. This was not always the case, but the immense popularity of the bridges among visitors has all but sealed this fate. The Galata Bridge, too, has become a staple for tourists, but it manages a very different vibe. Its main program is restaurants, which invites activity that lingers, an interesting counterpoint to the continuous flow of cars and trams above. The bridge also serves as a central point for fishermen to gather, where they can be found at all hours of the day, casting off the edge of the upper deck.

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activities together without impeding any of them. It’s very easy to forget that this is a major work of infrastructure carrying a constant stream of cars, buses and trams. The pedestrian’s attention is successfully held elsewhere.

Urban Connections Perhaps the greatest criterion that a habitable bridge should be evaluated on is how it ties into the city to draw the public in. An important question becomes: what does the bridge rely on to attract people to it? Is it just a crossing that happens to have secondary program attached? Or is it something more cohesive? In the case of Ponte Rialto, the simple answer is probably the best. It has become incredibly popular due to necessity. The bridge remains one of only three to cross the Grand Canal, which is undeniably the backbone of Venice. In fact, it was once the only crossing. Its iconic status is almost assured. This does not negate the bridge’s positive qualities, but does constitute the main reason for its popularity. The Ponte Vecchio benefits from a similar situation, although less so. It is the main link between the popular Uffizi Gallery and Pitti Palace. However, swarms of people still flock to the bridge whether they feel the need to actually cross the river of not. The Ponte Vecchio has garnered it reputation largely from its unique history and picturesque grandeur. Perhaps the tourist would be better served to ogle it from the banks and pass on the opportunity to trek across. Interestingly, the Ponte Vecchio has an upper story (the Vasari Corridor) that physically links the Uffizi to the Palace. Although it’s no longer possible for the public to make use of, the raised corridor ties the bridge to its context both spatially and architecturally. The Ponte Vecchio is truly articulated as part of the city, while remaining an easily recognizable monument. On this front, the bridge is very successful. As a locus for differentiated urban activity that takes advantage of it unique place in the city, it falls short.


Neither the Ponte Vecchio nor the Ponte Rialto are particularly nice bridges to actually spend time on. Rather, they are lovely places to be near, or to stop and take in a view. They are unquestionably iconic, but the novelty of a visit is, however, short-lived. The Galata Bridge, on the other hand, tries to avoid this pitfall. It is a bridge of much larger scale and must tie into Istanbul’s infrastructure more holistically. It does this with underground paths used as road crossings and links to the tram line. The Galata Bridge also benefits from proximity to major urban squares, serving restaurant boats, ferry docks, major bus stops, and a fish market. The bridge is an important pedestrian link between the two European sides of the city. As a connector, the Galata Bridge plays a vital role for the city. It is a hub of activity and transportation, both public and private. The Galata Bridge weaves two important sides of the city together. Meanwhile, it exploits its waterfront position to focus attention outward, back into the cityscapes it is connecting. The Galata Bridge manages to play both the role of connector and destination, a feat that should not be underestimated in urban planning.

The Bridge and The City

10.8 Fishermen On The Galata Bridge 10.9 Upper Deck Of The Galata Bridge 10.10 Spatial Relationship with the bridge, Pedestrian and the River 10.11 Ponte Rialto ,Venice Italy 10.12 Ponte Vecchio ( Florence, Italy) 10.13 Galata Bridge (Istanbul, Turkey)

The Galata Bridge is not architecturally attention grabbing in the same manner as Ponte Vecchio and Ponte Rialto. It is not monumental in the same sense. Its great length necessitates a flatter proportion and the image of its top surface is dominated by car traffic. The action is tucked underneath or hidden behind a wall of cars. Yet, the Galata Bridge succeeds as a habitable bridge in a way that the two Italian bridges do not. It combines diverse and active programs in a thoughtful layering that brings out the best in each. This is the true opportunity of the urban waterfront: the chance to synthesize the complex needs and desires of the city in a coherent fashion. It is a chance to harmonize competing urban conditions in a prominent place. It is the armature for imageability.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Using the terms of Kevin Lynch, the Ponte Vecchio may be considered a monument (one placed between the two other monuments of the Uffizi Gallery and Pitti Palace). The Ponte Rialto might also be a monument (one that happens to span between two edges). The Galata Bridge, however, would probably be defined as a path (one that connects between large nodes).

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• • • • • • • • • • •

Xiashi, Fujian Province, China Architect: Li Xiaodong Atelier Client: Xiashi Village Built area 240 m² Site area 1,550 m² Building height 6.5 m Cost US$ 100,000 Commission 2007 Design 2008 Construction 2008 Occupancy 2008


Bridge School Case Study - Xiashi

11.1 Entry View of the Bridge School 11.2 Master Plan Of Bridge School

The “Bridge School” bridges the two parts of the small village of Xiashi that lie on either side of a small creek that runs through the village. The structure is created by two steel trusses that span the creek with the space between them housing the functions of the school. Suspended from the structure and running below it is a pedestrian bridge for the people of the village to use. Small and modern in design, with no reference to the area’s traditional building style, the school has nonetheless become the physical and spiritual centre of what was a declining village. Placed in such a way that it addresses its surroundings, the Bridge School connects the village together, providing a central, social space. The broader social aspect of the project was part of the brief, which was developed with the school principal and head of the village to answer community needs rather than simply those of a primary school. A public library separates the two classrooms and the ends of each classroom, or the two ends of the school

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Project Description

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can be opened up, creating open stages at either end of the building that are integrated with the public spaces outside. The stage at the northern end can be used for performances, with the toulou as a backdrop. The result is a project that has successfully invigorated the entire community, encapsulating social sustainability through architectural intervention. When architect Li Xiadong was asked to build a tiny school for a small village crossed by a river, he had the inspiration of placing it on a new bridge, near thespot where two ancient toulou - traditional fortress-like, circular structures - were erected on either side of the river. The very modern structure not only blends successfully into the landscape, it also succeeds in joining the bulky forms of the two historic structures through a linear lightweight sculpture that floats above the river. By placing the school on the bridge, underneath which the waters flow, the architect is giving the most important lesson a child can learn: life is transient, not one second of it similar to the next. The structure’s lightness and playfulness, and its naturalness, as though it had always existed in the landscape, appeals to the children, who use it as a big toy. These qualities, and the sense of security the children feel, all come from the excellence of the architecture, from the project’s concept to its smallest physical details. The Bridge School achieves unity at many levels: temporal unity between past and present, formal unity between traditional and modern, spatial unity between the two riverbanks, social unity between one-time rival communities-as well as unity with the future.

11.3 View of Small Pedestrian Bridge Under The School 11.4 View of the Class Rooms in the School

11.6 View of the Entry 11.7 Plan of the Bridge School 11.8 Section and Elevation of The Bridge School

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

11.5 View of the under bridge

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The Bay Line

12.1 The Bay Line Bridge

The Historic Bridges of the United States website lists 1,788 bridges that have been classified as “closed” to traffic and 321 classified as “abandoned”. According to the website, “with all of the Federal stimulus money sloshing around, it’s no surprise that bridge replacement projects are quite common this summer.” Many of the bridges that have been abandoned are largely former railroad bridges--a testament to the decline of rail as a means of freight and passenger transportation. As rail bridges, the structures have the capacity to support tremendous structural loads. This proposal seeks to repurpose abandoned and closed bridges as sites of potential for parks, cultural centers and housing. This proposal seeks to demonstrate the potential for re-purposing the historic American bridge infrastructure as possible sites for sustainable urban housing and linear parks. The eastern section of the historic James “Sunny Jim” Rolph Bridge, commonly known as the Bay Bridge, in San Francisco/Oakland, which is currently being re-

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

A case study on the adaptive reuse of abandoned bridges for landscape and urbanism.

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placed by a new concrete bridge structure, serves as a prototype for considering the potential of re-utilizing bridge infrastructure to create new social, housing and sustainable infrastructures. Rails-to-Trails Conservancy is a nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., whose mission it is to create a nationwide network of trails from former rail lines and connecting corridors to build healthier places for healthier people. As evidenced by the increasing interest to convert abandoned railways into linear parks, mostly in rural and suburban areas, there is also increasing interest to re-use this abandoned rail infrastructure in urban areas. This proposal goes a step further in suggesting the possibility for housing to be included in the re-thinking of abandoned bridges. The immense load capacity of rail bridges allows for the support of program beyond that of parks, suggesting the urbanization of bridges. While the current economic climate suggests a surplus of housing, the economic reality also suggests a push towards urbanization and often the “affordable” housing constructed in suburban environments, which encroaches on the rural is not what is needed. Instead, by using abandoned bridges in urban areas, we are creating opportunities for sustainable low-cost housing within the urban realm--creating the potential for creative speculation among housing developers by expounding upon the nascent potential of a layered housing-parkbridge typology. Imagine housing, recreational and cultural facilities connected to a continuous, lushly planted, green strip, floating above the water – an aerial garden, as the cities newest park through which you could walk and wander and enjoy the most spectacular views of the bay.

Case Study: The James “Sunny Jim” Rolph Bridge 12.2 San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Plan 12.3 Eastern span replacement with historic truss-bridge on right 12.4 The Bay Trail, a bicycle and pedestrian trail surrounding the Bay, would connect to the Bay Line creating a more direct trans-bay access. 12.5 The Promenade Plantee in Paris, also built upon an elevated rail, at 2.8 miles is 1 mile longer than the proposed Bay Line and twice as long as The High Line.

The James “Sunny Jim” Rolph Bridge and known locally as the Bay Bridge) is a complex of toll bridges in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, in the United States. Forming part of Interstate 80 and of the direct road route between San Francisco and Oakland, it carries approximately 270,000 vehicles per day. It has one of the longest spans in the world and has been called one of the seven engineering wonders of the modern world.


When the bridge first opened, the upper deck consisted of three lanes of traffic in each direction and was restricted to automobiles only. The lower deck carried three lanes of truck and auto traffic on the north side. Two railroad tracks were built on the south side of the lower deck for the electric commuter trains of the Southern Pacific, the Key System, and the Sacramento Northern. Rail service on the bridge ended in April 1958. In 1989, the powerful Loma Prieta earthquake collapsed a section of the east span of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. Although the bridge was quickly repaired, the event prompted Caltrans to pursue a replacement that would meet current seismic standards. The initial proposal for the eastern span involved the construction of substantial concrete pylons to replace or supplement the existing supports at a cost of $200 million. It was originally thought that a replacement bridge would be a less expensive alternative, costing only a few hundred million more, however the most recent estimates put the price tag on the current bridge replacement at $6.2 billion. The eastern span is scheduled for demolition in 2013.

The Bay Line Core Premise and Objectives

Viability The eastern span of The Bay Bridge can support a load of 1,400 lbs./Linear foot. This is equal to the weight of

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

The objective of The Bay Line is to, specifically, re-imagine the replaced eastern span of the Bay Bridge as a linear park with bicycle and pedestrian access, housing and cultural activities, such as theaters, commerce and museums, as well as 1.92 miles of bicycle lanes, sporting facilities, such as tennis courts, climbing walls, squash courts, and skate parks in addition to orchards, gardens and meadows, that are easily accessible and interconnected to the larger Bay Area. More broadly, we hope that this project is the genesis for creating a series of prefabricated prototypes and widely applicable concepts that can help others realize the potential in abandoned bridge infrastructure worldwide.

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Precedent Linear Park

37,041 3-bedroom modular homes. Seismic upgrade of the eastern span was completed after the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989 and almost 2 million vehicles cross the bridge each week. The Bay Bridge is a historic Icon that connects two major metropolitan areas by automobile, but does not accommodate bicycle and pedestrian traffic. Unsurpassed views coupled with a culture of health and fitness in the Bay Area would make the Bay Line a desirable destination. A continued demand for low-cost housing in the Bay Area, even during the housing crisis, is justification for the addition of housing. Park: Location: Highlights: Program: Date: Architect:

The Belt Line Atlanta, Georgia Combines greenspace, trails, transit, and new development along 22 miles of historic rail segments that encircle the urban core 1200 acres of new greenspace through a linear park alongside trails 1999-Present, ground-breaking in 2008 Ryan Gravel

Bridge: Location: Highlights: Program: Date: Architect:

Bloomingdale Trail Chicago, Illinois A 3-mile-long elevated linear park running through the heart of Chicago Park Unrealized Arup North America, Ltd.

Bridge: Location: Highlights: Program: Date: Architect:

Promenade PlantĂŠe Paris, France Constructed on an abandoned 19th-century railway viaduct, which connected the Bas tille area to the eastern suburbs of Paris Pedestrian and Bicycle Trail, Gardens, Park 1990 Jacques Vergely and Philippe Mathieux

Bridge: Location: Highlights: Program: Date: Architect:

The High Line New York, New York Linear Park though section of Manhattan Mosslands, meadows, wetlands, woodlands sundecks, plazas, concessions 2009 Diller, Scofidio + Renfro, James Corner


Bridge: Location: Highlights: Program: Date: Architect:

Reading Viaduct Project Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Park though Philadelphia Park through economically and culturally diverse communities, intended to provide a catalyst for the redevelopment of this section of North Philadelphia Unrealized Unknown

Chateau Chenonceau Located in the Loire Valley, France this castle, chapel and fortified mill bridge was constructed between 1515-1521 by the architect Thomas Bohier. The bridge was essential for travel and commerce during the French Revolution— one reason it was not destroyed. The chateau was used as a hospital during the first World War and during the second was a conduit for people escaping the occupied zone of France. One end of the gallery was in the occupied zone while the other end was in the Free Zone. Today the Chateau is a major tourist attraction.

Pulteney Bridge Crossing the River Avon, in Bath, England, it was completed in 1773 and closely follows Palladio’s rejected design for the Rialto in Venice.Pulteney Bridge stood for less than 20 years in the form that Adam created. In 1792 alterations to enlarge the shops marred the elegance of the façades. 19th-century shopkeepers altered windows, or cantilevered out over the river as the fancy took them. The western end pavilion on the south side was demolished in 1903 for road widening and its replacement was not an exact match. In 1936 the bridge became scheduled as a national monument.

12.6 Chateau Chenonceau 12.7 Pulteney Bridge 12.8 Skyscraper Bridges

Architect Raymond Hood was fascinated with the idea of residential skyscraper bridges, which he believed could both help solve the problems of traffic congestion and offer an ideal lifestyle on the waterfront. His first proposal appeared in an article in The New York Times Magazine in February 1925, illustrated with a drawing by Hugh Ferriss. Hood described a great bridge across the Hudson River ten thousand feet long, where the supporting pylons were

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Skyscraper Bridges

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1

Hotel rooms + outdoor amphitheater

2

Dormitories + climbing wall

3

Bungalow house + tennis courts

4

5

Row houses + gardens

6

Live / work lofts + orchards

Condos + swimming pool


apartment buildings of 50 or 60 stories. There would eventually be dozens of these luxury waterside communities for fifty thousand residents, he predicted. Hood reprised the proposal in a 1926 article in the magazine Liberty, describing the bridges as 20,000 feet long, with a center road beds as wide as Park Avenue and predicted that there would be a hundred of them.

Bridge of Houses Architect Steven Holl envisioned a series of varying housing typologies in 1981 to accommodate several demographics in a project for the elevated train line now known as The High Line in New York City. All proposed houses were to be built to align with the existing block front at the street walls, reinforcing the street pattern. The ornamental portions of the rail bridge which pass over the streets remain open and the spaces between provide elevated courtyards for the housing.

Bridge Housing Along The Lower Deck

12.7 Detailed Cross Section of The Bay line bridge 12.8 Bay line bridge Conceptual Elevation 12.9 Bridge Houses by Stevan Holl

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

12.6 Over All View of Bay line Bridge

The Bay Line proposal has many potential housing prototypes embedded in the design including 1. Hotel rooms and vacation rentals 2. Dormitory rooms 3. Bungalow houses with personal outdoor spaces 4. Vertical row houses 5. live / work loft dwellings 6. Condos and 7. House boats at the lowest portions of the bridge that may take advantage of dry storage in the bridge or be lowered via gantry to the water below. The different housing types would accommodate different demographics building a diverse community within the San Francisco County line. Each house type on the Bay Line would be prefabricated off site and hoisted into place, the housing units could also be installed on other bridges all across the country. The Bay Line will generate new sustainability practices for the Bay area in that each house along the Bay Line will be geothermally and radiantly heated and cooled by circulating water brought up from the San Francisco Bay. Additionally, water recycling from each house will be used as gray water to irrigate the gardens and orchards on the upper level.

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City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25


Ramped meadow above / bicycle rental below Bicycle path Pedestrian path Badminton courts Solar panels on south side Dry docked house boats Bicycle path below House boat being lowered to water below


Linear Park Along The Upper Deck The upper deck of the Bay Line will be re appropriated as an urban park. The park will include sports facilities that are often quite difficult to find in dense urban centers such as tennis courts, swimming pools and skate parks. It will include edible gardens and orchards as part of the urban agriculture network established in the Bay area by organizations such as the League of Urban Gardeners, there will also be gardens, meadows and woodlands for leisure activities and amphitheaters and museums to support local culture. A system of prefabricated terraces will be constructed to build the different programs and to smoothly allow one program to sequeway into the next. The recreational, cultural, leisure and agricultural programs will promote diverse user groups along the bridge. The continuous bicycle path that runs the length of the bridge will become a part of the growing bay trail which connects cities along the perimeter of the bay.

Community: Recreation and Sports Sports are inherently very social activities where networks between people with common interests are formed. These networks form social capital which is the underpinning and core fabric of communities. Social capital has a stream of benefits, including safety and security, friendship and community, a sense of civic identity and economic value. Over time, social capital builds what may be termed as social infrastructure which is key for any successful and healthy community.

Recently there has been a large movement to bring agriculture back into the city. The Bay Line has up to 15 acres of “land� that can potentially be used for edible gardens and orchards. These gardens may be incorporated by institutions such or non profit community organizations such as SLUG (San Francsico League of Urban Gardeners) who currently run 40 small gardens in the city that generate it’s $1.6 million dollar annual budget. The gardens not only provide food but they are economically self sustainable. Public Presence: Leisure and Culture Like the Golden Gate Park, the Bay Line would be a destination for tourist and locals alike. The Bay Line would be suitable

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Sustainability: Gardens and Agriculture

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for hotels, restaurants and museums as well as picnickers, walkers and kids in search of playgrounds.

Investment Strategies: • The two layers on the Bay Line combined equal approximately 1,306,800 SF therefore the costs associated with building this proposal would be: • 653,400 sf dedicated to park activities on upper deck @ $200/sf = $131 million • 980,100 sf dedicated to housing, commercial and buildings @ $400/sf = $392 million • Additional seismic reinforcement of the bay bridge = $200 million • Total Cost of Construction for Bay Line = $723 million • Consider a 6:1 ratio of Residential to Non-Residential on the lower deck, this would yield residential square footage of 717,600sf and non-residential square footage of 163,500sf. • The average sales price/sf for residential real estate in San Francisco is $513/sf if • 717,600 sf of residential real estate sold =$368 million • Total Construction Costs = $723 million • Total Residential Profit = $368 million • Balance = $355 million

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

• The balance could be recouped by commercial rental which at $4.50 a sf in San Francisco would be recovered in 40 years,or with tolls for cars using the new bridge for example.

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Garden Bridge Case Study - London

13.1 View Of Garden Bridge 13.2 Plan Of Garden Bridge

The revival of the South Bank over the past two decades has created a vibrant and artistic district attracting large number of visitors to its art galleries, theatres, music halls, restaurants and outdoor entertainment. However, visits to Temple and the north bank area east of Somerset House and Waterloo Bridge are far less frequent. The bridge will grow and nourish the connection between these distinct

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Following Transport for London’s (TfL) tender for proposals to improve pedestrian links across the river, Heatherwick Studio and actor and campaigner Joanna Lumley have developed an idea for a new pedestrian ‘Garden Bridge’ across the River Thames; a scheme to connect North and South London with a garden. As one of the greenest cities of its size in the world, this precious new piece of landscape will add to London’s rich and diverse horticultural heritage of heathlands, parks, squares, allotments and community gardens and support many indigenous river edge plant species.

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areas whilst providing new walking routes to and from Covent Garden and Soho. With a structure that widens and narrows across its span, the elevated garden will not only be a safe and easy way for London’s many commuters and visitors to cross the river, it will also make places along its length for pedestrians to stop and better enjoy the remarkable river setting and unparalleled views of the city. The addition of careful planting with variety in scale, openness and intimacy will create a new kind of public space in the city. The 367-meter bridge features two fluted pillars that support a split promenade between Temple Station and Southbank. Walkers will be able to enjoy a beautiful green environment made up of indigenous trees, shrubs and smaller plant species, stroll under the leaves and relax on benches next to the path. Tristram Carfrae, Project Director at Arup said of the project: “The idea is simple; we’re trying to create a bridge that looks beautiful, is durable, is efficient to construct and will support a garden spanning the River Thames. This is not an easy feat and we’re working closely with Heatherwick Studio to ensure that the design and engineering work seamlessly together to create an ingenious result.”

13.3 Views Of Garden Bridge

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

The Garden Bridge Trust has been created to drive the project forward and organize fundraising in advance of a planning application in 2014. Heatherwick Studio is famous for its redesign of London’s Routemaster buses, and it worked with actor-turned-campaigner Joanna Lumley and landscape designer Dan Pearson to respond to Transport for London’s (TfL) tender for proposals to improve pedestrian links across the river.

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A Possible shared surface on temple place

C E F Ramp to temple station roof Stairs and lift to bridge deck Trees highlighted in red may be removed

B Possible one-way carrageway at arundel street

D Trees highlighted in red may be removed


13.5 Conceptual plan of Garden Bridge 13.6Conceptual Section of the Garden Bridge 13.7 Physical Model of Garden Bridge

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

13.4 Diagrams Explaining the access points to Garden bridge across the banks

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14.1 Aristic Visualisation of Wuxi Park Bridge 14.2 Site Plan of The Wuxi Park Bridge


Wuxi Xidong Park Case Study - Wuxi

The important position, jutting out over the central water body, encouraged a dynamic design response. The design team has envisioned a signature iconic structure that is attractive, has a flowing modern form expressing the importance of Wuxi’s relationship with water and is functional in its connections to the island, foreshores and allowing boats to pass underneath its elevation.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

L&A Design Group has developed an exciting contemporary bridge design as an architectural highlight of Wuxi Xidong Park, located in Jiangsu province, China. The bridge is planned to be the main connection between the north and south foreshores of the parks lake and allows visitors access to a small island destination that commands views over the water as well as café facilities and pocket gardens. More images and architects’ description after the break.

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Designed as a whole volume, the bridge presents unique curves and a platform that widens as the bridge crosses the island. The platform creates a focus for the bridge maximizing views out across the lake under a shaded canopy, integrates ramp access to the island and forms an intimate space for the cafe underneath.

14.3 Diagram Explaining the Concept 14.4 Ariel View of the Bridge 14.5 Sections and Elevation of the bridge

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

To reduce the long linear scale of the bridge an “S” shape plan was created to provide closer vistas for people accessing the park from both sides of the lake. It is a bridge with a ‘twist’. As the bridge reaches its island destination the shape stimulates a dramatic interaction between architecture, landscape and water. Construction will utilize lightweight steel structures, light colored outer panel skins for a sleek look that can be elegantly lit up at night and polished timber detailing to tactile surfaces such as seating and railing.

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Under Construction


Conclusion From Case Studies Analyzing the Projects characteristics in terms of paths, contrast, likeness and their relationship to the surroundings, makes me aware about entities belonging to each quality. The qualities, which were selected and incorporated into the design of the City Port Bridge, are described in the text below. Each of the characteristics, used in the design for the City on a Bridge, reflects on the Dominant characteristic found in the studied project and the theories influenced me in my Architectural career. The urban structure helps the Ponte Vecchio to become an icon. The bridge with functions, which hovers, in the openness, above the river Arno, creates full contrast with the densely populated riverbanks, leading to beautiful sightliness from the riverbanks, water, and other bridge. Likewise, the urban structure will also help the City on a Bridge to become an icon. 14.3 Rendered View of Under development City on a Bridge

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Urban structure

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Silhouette The Garden Bridge, and its silhouette with trees is very powerful in the skyline of the city. I reinterpreted this quality and planned the roof of the City on a Bridge into Garden, which enhance its silhouette in the skyline of the city. In addition the organic lines of the silhouette creates full contrast with the linear silhouette of the surroundings.

Proportions Like the horizontal Galata Bridge, the City on a Bridge also aims to create contrast by its proportions. Therefore the City on a Bridge also emphasizes horizontality, which continues perpendicularly across the river Sabarmati. In order to obtain the contrast by proportion, the City on a Bridge needs to emphasize on unity which is represented by the form .

Form The surrounding morphology of the City on a Bridge seems to be dominated by Clustered geometry of pole Houses on eastern side (changing at Present) and Tall high-rises in the western side. I believe that the Pixelated form helps to differentiate the bridge from its surroundings in the future and still rooted to the past.

Technology Thinking about the Modular technology of the Bay line Project, I began to reinterpret this strategy. In the sense that, the entire bridge is made of pixels each contributing to the whole in terms of both spatial and structural requirement. As a result the structure of the bridge will remain to be Isomorphic whole.

Material Inspired by the full colour contrast, between the built and pathways, of the Ponte Vecchio, I decided incorporate it into the design of the City on a Bridge. In this sense the contrast also aims to differentiate the programmes, yet this should not affect the unity of the design.


Metaphor

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Evolution is the primary metaphor represented by the form of the City on a Bridge. Metaphorical the bridge is a living organism with cells functioning independently as well as contributing to the whole, with an ability to transform and rearrange as it evolves through time. I think, the pixelated form of the City on a Bridge refer to an organism, like a human body.

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Site

n

15.1 Satellite Map of Ahmedabad


Going Back to Ahmedabad Site Study

State District Area (City) Elevation : Languages • Official

:Gujarat :Ahmedabad :464 km2 53 m (72 ft) :Gujarati, Hindi and English

The city established itself as the home of a developing textile industry, which earned it the nickname "Manchester of the East". The city was at the forefront of the Indian independence movement in the first half of the 20th century and the center of many campaigns of civil disobedience to promote farmers' and workers' rights, and civil rights apart from political independence. The Times of India chose Ahmedabad as the best city to live in India.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Ahmedabad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat. The city is the administrative headquarters of Ahmedabad district and is the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court is located here. With a population of more than 5.8 million and an extended population of 6.3 million, it is the fifth largest city and seventh largest metropolitan area of India. It is also ranked third in Forbes' list of fastest growing cities of the decade. Ahmedabad is located on the banks of the River Sabarmati, 30 km (19 mi) from the state capital Gandhinagar.

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897

1000

2,634,716

2,935,869

Demographics

Population(2011) 55,70,585 Prevalent Wind Direction

Wind at 9 am

317,917

84.81%

93.96%

2,004,480

2,459,823

46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35

HUMIDITY (%)

Wind at 3 pm

RAINFALL (MM)

Climate

271,159


Ahmedabad and the Sabarmati - 1672

Sabarmati and the Growth of Ahmedabad

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Ahmedabad was established on Sabarmati in 1411

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Sabarmati has always been important to Ahmedabad

As a source for drinking water

As a place for recreation

As a place to gather

Gandhiji built his ashram on the bank of Sabarmati in Ahmedabad

As a place for the poor to build their hutments

As a place for washing and drying clothes

As a place for farming

As a place for holding the traditional ‘Sunday Market’

And yet, Sabarmati was abused and neglected


The city turned its back to the river

It became a place to dump garbage

Sewage from the slums flowed directly into the river The river became inaccessible to the public

Stormwater drains spewed untreated sewage into the river

Encroachments reduced the river’s flood carrying capacity

A few nalas brought sewage into the river

Haphazard and dull development came up along the The river became insignificant in the life of the city riverfront

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

The bridges were the only places from which the river could be enjoyed

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Proposal for Sabarmati Riverfront Development 1998

Physical Features of the River • River Hydraulics • Land Reclamation and Embankments • Land Ownerships • Water Retention • Ground Water Recharge • Land Use and Road Network • Infrastructure Services • Resettlement and Rehabilitation • Implementation Strategy • Project Costs and Revenue Potential • Financing , Structure of the SRFDCL • Development Management

Defined waterway

Reclaimed land

Defined Waterway – 275 m wide Total Reclamation area - 202 Hectares


A Multidimensional Environmental Improvement, Social Up-liftment and Urban Rejuvenation Project • Make the riverfront accessible to the public • Stop the flow of sewage, keep the river clean and pollution-free • Provide permanent housing for riverbed slum dwellers • Reduce risk of erosion and flooding in flood prone neighborhoods • Create riverfront parks, promenades and ghats to enjoy the water • Provide Ahmedabad with new cultural, trade and social amenities • Revitalize riverfront neighborhoods, rejuvenate Ahmedabad • Generate resources to pay for all of the foregoing • Stitch together East and West Ahmedabad • Create a memorable identity for Ahmedabad

679 m

275 m

329 m

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

275 m

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River Training and Land Reclamation

Lower Promenade

Park – Khanpur

The Heritage Park – Lal Darwaza

Retaining Wall

Earth Fill

SRFD Land Private


Planning Precincts

1. Paldi Residential Neighborhood 2. Cultural Mile 3. Health-care Hub 4. B J Park Institutional Precinct 5. Ashram road Business District 6. Ashram road Mixed Use Precinct 7. Gandhi Ashram Heritage Precinct 8. Sabarmati Residential Neighborhood 9. Sabarmati Redevelopment Precinct

10. Shahibagh Residential Neighborhood 11. Shahibagh Institutional Precinct 12. Dudeshwar Mixed Use Precinct 13. Khanpur Mile 14. Lal Darwaza Heritage Precinct 15. Fair and Market Precinct 16. Calico Redevelopment Precinct 17. Pirana Precinct 18. Lower Promenade

Lower Promenade – Narayan Ghat

Lower Promenade - Shahibaug

Gandhi Ashram

Lower Promenade – Narayan Ghat

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Lower Promenade – Ashram Road

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Cultural, Trade and Social Amenities

A Mile of Cultural Institutions and Museums

Hospital Facilities

Trade Fair Facilities

The Sabarmati Riverfront Project will help provide Ahmedabad with many new cultural trade and social institutions!

Informal Market at “Delite-Junction�

Open Air Market s

Boats and activities along the water will help tie East and West Ahmedabad . . .


Stitch together East and West Ahmedabad

Existing Bridges

N

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Proposed Bridges

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Soon, Amdavadis will be able to cross Sabarmati River without fear of being knocked down by speeding vehicles. Soon, Amdavadis will be able to cross Sabarmati River without fear of being knocked down by speeding vehicles. This is because a pedestrian bridge (connecting the east and west bank of Sabarmati) like the Millennium Bridge over the River Thames in London, is being planned by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC). Touted as first-of-its-kind in Gujarat, the pedestrian overpass is being planned between Nehru Bridge and Ellisbridge under the civic body's Sabarmati Riverfront Development Project. The motive behind the bridge is to facilitate better connectivity to the recreational space being planned on either banks of the river. “On the western bank, the kilometer-long stretch between NID and Ellisbridge is being planned as 'recreational mile' with different kinds of entertainments. Similarly, the stretch between Ellisbridge and Nehru Bridge on the eastern bank will be developed as Heritage Park. So at present if a citizen wants to visit the Heritage Park from the western bank of the river, they will have to cross Ellisbridge or Nehru Bridge and park vehicles at a safe place on the eastern bank before going to these places. But the pedestrian bridge will help avoid the same," said a senior AMC official. The AMC official said that they are also planning a few multi-storied parking lots along the 11 km stretch of the river under the riverfront project. Incidentally, the pedestrian viaduct will also improve access to AMC's proposed Bhadra Plaza — the pedestrian space from Teen Darwaja to Bhadra Fort. If sources in the AMC are to be believed, a similar bridge is also being planned behind the Gandhi Ashram near Chandra Bhaga Bridge. The civic body also has plans to start cable car and boating service across Sabarmati


Limitation of Site Study

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

By investigating the traffic volume of the city, it is found that most of the traffic from the suburban area through the CBD is taken by the Gandhi Bridge in the north, Sardar Patel Bridge in the South, Ashram Road in the West and Kalupur Station road in the East, Freeing up the CBD core and The Nehru and Ellis Bridges of additional Suburban Traffic. Hence limiting my study to the core of the CBD

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Tourist Map of Ahmedabad The future tourist map of Ahmedabad, is an Initiative taken up by the SRFDA( Sabarmati River Front Development Authority) as part of the River front development Project. It represents all types of developments, Land marks and the places of Interest in the future.


City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Tourist Map of Ahmedabad

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Teen Darwaja (Tran Darwaja, Three Gates) - it is composed of 3 arched entrances was built by Sultan Ahmad Shah to serve as a royal entrance to Maidan Shahi. Mughal emperor Jehangir and his wife Nur Jahan used to watch the Tazia procession of Muharam from over these gates.

Victoria Garden is a one of the most popular places in the city for people who desire to unwind and chill out. The Victoria Garden contains a statue of queen Victoria, which is a masterpiece in itself. Teen Darwaja

Victoria Garden

The Mosque Jama Masjid (meaning Friday mosque ) is the oldest and most splendid mosque of the city, built in 1424 during the reign of Ahmad Shah, lying in the old party of city, the Mosque is situated opposite to Mahatma Gandhi Road, on the eastern side of Teen Darwaza. Juma Masjid

A Pol (pronounced as pole) is a housing cluster which comprises many families of a particular group, linked by caste, profession, or religion. Pols are typical of urban centers in Gujarat especially of Ahmedabad. Pol houses

The Sidi Saiyyed Mosque, built in 1573, is one of the most famous Mosques of Ahmedabad. As attested by the marble stone tablet fixed on the wall of the Mosque, it was built by Sidi Saeed or Sidi Saiyyed an Abyssinian in the retinue of Bilal Jhajar Khan, general in the army of the last Sultan Shams-ud-din Muzaffar Shah iii of the Gujarat Sultanate The Sidi Saiyyed Mosque

Site Study Axonometric View of the Site

Constructed in the year 1411 A.D. During the rule of Marathas, it was established by Sultan Ahmad Shah, the founder of city.

Sultan Ahmad Shah Mosque in the City is a religious place for Muslims that is well known for its architectural designing. It was constructed in the year 1414 A.D. By Sultan Ahmad Shah, the founder of City. Thus, the mosque has been named after its founder, lying on the left side of the famous Bhadra fort, the mosque is very appealing to look at. It is one of the oldest Mosques of City Ahmed Shah Mosque

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Bhadra Fort

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Wind Direction and Sun path Diagram The prevalent wind direction in the site, is from south west. The Diagram indicates the sun movement on the longest day (21st June) and the shortest day (21 DEC) of each year. The shadow casted in June tends to fall behind when you are facing north and in December the shadow falls ahead.

Green Cover and Open Spaces Open Space

The western side (New City) is more greener than the Eastern old City. It is also noted that the density of buildings are spaced out in the western side than the eastern side. The four important public parks in the region are, on eastern-side; Lal Darwaza and Victoria park and on western side ; Law Garden and Bhikabhai Garden

Topography The upper promenade along the river edge is taken as the datum, from which the lower promenade is at - 7 meter and the lowest point on the river bed lies at -19meter. And the peak point on the land is +8 meter from the datum.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Gardens

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Population Density The Population-density of the region is in huge contrast between the west (10032/Sqkm) and the east (85456/ Sq-Km) of the City, The density is given by wards resulting in smaller wards in the old City and larger wards in the new City

Land Use The Land use Pattern of the region defines Ashram Road to be the most important road as it serves as the commercial hub for the region. It also indicates that, majority of the buildings in old City are Mixed land use (commercial and residential), because of the transformation from residential to commercial over the period of time.

Urban Grain The Urban Grain indicates that the eastern bank has a dense fabric, it is a result of high density Pol houses with less sun penetrability, as climate demands it and has reached the saturation point in terms of built spaces. In contrast the western bank is well spaced out but the green cover compensates to the lost density for climate response and also helps for the future expansion in the region.


Road Network The Road Network in the region, illustrate the most important road is the Ashram Road running from South to North on the western bank and the second most important is the Swamy Vivekananda Road along the Ellis Bridge running east to west. The junction intersected by this two roads is the busiest in the region followed by Mithakhali Junction, Intersecting S.P. Road and Netaji Road on Western Bank of the City

Traffic Movement

Site Proximity The Diagram Illustrates the Buildings proximity to the site at 500 meter and 1 km Radius

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

The Western part of the city has developed as a mainly residential area and the eastern part has the industrial estates. Because of this, the traffic flow is very heavy from west to east in the mornings and vice-versa in the evening, which causes serious traffic congestion and frequent traffic jams on the city roads during morning and evening peak periods. Lately, road widening of the major radial roads has been undertaken which has helped ease the traffic flow to some extent. The traffic intensity at junctions are indicated with this diagram.

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Traffic Volume Traffic volumes on major roads has been presented in the diagram. As may be observed, volumes far exceed capacities at many places. It is clear from the diagram that western side has majority of larger roads and Eastern side roads are narrower, hence few carry one way traffic.

Public Transport A bus rapid transit system has been implemented for the City. The plan upgraded about 60 kms of existing ROW completely such that middle two lanes are made exclusively for buses, lanes for bicycles and pedestrians are also provided along with lanes for private vehicles. This facility along with other complimentary measures is expected to improve the bus patronage in Ahmedabad from the present 7% to 40%. A Metro Rail transit system plan has been prepared for Ahmedabad. DPR is under advanced stage of preparation.

Urban Grain Topography The Diagram indicates the Average height of the Urban fabric illustrated in the form of mounds and swales.


Heritage Walks The best way to learn about a city is through friends who know the place, but here in Ahmedabad, you can get to know the city and its intricacies even as a stranger. You have at least four options for taking a guided Heritage Walk around the old city of Ahmedabad. One conducted by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, with guides who volunteer their precious time for this preservation effort. The tour begins at 8am at the Swaminarayan Mandir in Kalupur with a slideshow. It takes you through various pols, havelis, Hindu and Jain temples, various sites including the famous Manek Chowk, and ends at the soulful Jama Masjid at the center of the city at 10:30am. There are other Heritage Walks in the city one of them is a night Walk presented in the Diagram.

Building Proximity

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

The Diagram is illustrated by connecting a point on top of each building with its nearest building in the vicinity, which results in a triangulated mesh, the closer the polygon in the mesh the denser the fabric gets , creating a visual map of urban density.

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Site with Landmarks The Diagram indicates the Landmarks proximity to the site at 500 meter and 1 km Radius

Kevin lynch Analysis This diagram illustrates the analysis of the region based on Kevin Lynch’s methodology. The four types of land marks as presented are; one Visual landmark it is a Landmark based on physical presence or its visual identity; second is a Landmark with utility these are landmarks for there daily utility like corporation office; the third type is a landmark based on memory, the history behind the building; and the last type is the social landmarks, because of its social significance. The river is a prominent edge of the city dividing it in to two parts. In the wester side, the region is divided by the railway line, creating a distinct land use on either side, it also makes the region rite behind the railway line invisible to the common public. Similar case is found near the Eastern end of Ellis Bridge, the elevated Bridge completely shuts off the village and the park from the general public on th e either side. The Ashram road has a distinct character from the Ellis Bridge junction to up North and it loses it as we progress towards the south end.


A’/B’

C/D

C’/D’ A/B

Section C-C’

Section D-D’

Section B-B’

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Section A-A’

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Concept View

Eastern Side View


Western Side View

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Aerial View

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Opportunity and Constraint Analysis Constraint: The Railway line divides the region by two, the Residence on the interior side are cutoff from the main commercial district of Ashram road. Lack of road connectivity across the railway line make the districts inaccessible to common public.

Opportunity: The Railway station is the proposed Metro station, making it am important destination, and the Bridge could overpass the railway station connecting two districts, making it an important Transition space. The Bridge can connect the eastern side of the city with the proposed Metro Station.

Constraint: The Junction at the end of Nehru Bridge on the western side of the city is passive, as it terminates at the Railway station which serves very few trains in a day. The Ashram road is one of the busiest roads of Ahmedabad making it a pedestrians nightmare to cross over.

Opportunity: The proposed Metro station will activate the junction, making it very active in the future. The empty plot to the south west of the Junction is the ideal location to set up the Public Plaza to the Bridge because of its close proximity to landmarks and railway station and it can become the entry point to the proposed Bridge.

Constraint: The Riverfront on the wester edge is dotted with tall buildings of which few are visual landmarks like Patang Hotel, in order to open-up the edge to connect to the eastern riverbank one of the building needs to be relocated. So it is important to identify the building that doesn’t contribute to the urban fabric.

Opportunity: The building next to Narayan Chambers is only G+2 and its contribution to urban fabric is marginal, hence it could be rebuilt or integrated to the Bridge, diversifying the functions on the Bridge.

Constrains: The Lal Darwaza Garden is bordered by the Fort wall, due to lack of maintenance and accessibility it is unknown to the general public. The wall cuts off the river from the Garden and its neighborhood, restricting the interaction between the public and the river

Opportunity: The wall needs to be restored to its original glory, and the wall could be well integrated with the bridge and the upcoming heritage park on the stretch. It will add more social value to the river bank and the bridge. The bridge can be the connect to the rest of the region from the Heritage Park, as an active social corridor.


Constraint:

The Bridge is anchored close to the landmarks near by making it very accessible to the public an also its close proximity to the landmarks will add more value to the Bridge and the region.

The Lal Darwaja Garden is on of the important public parks of Ahmedabad, but lack of maintenance and accessibility has rendered it very passive space. The fort wall and the boundary wall of Lal darwaja bus terminus has made the Garden an introverted space.

Opportunity: By terminating the Bridge on lal darwaja garden, it opens up the garden to public use. Providing access from the Bridge to Bus terminus, renders the garden a complete active public space. Its proximity to important landmarks in the region renders it an ideal location to terminate the Bridge.

Constraint: The lal darwaja area is the busiest areas of Ahmedabad. The narrow streets without adequate pedestrian walkway. Resulted in people walking on the roads. In order provide a better pedestrian mobility on the historical precinct, the area in front of Bhadra fort has been completely pedestrianized.

Site proximity to adjacent Landmarks

Opportunity: Connecting the Bhadra Plaza with the pedestrian over Bridge to the new proposed Bridge would allow direct access to the historical monument from the Gandhi gram railway station and Lal Darwaza Bus Terminus. Making the entire Bridge an Urban social corridor.

Constraint: The eastern end of Ellis Bridge is subjected to high activity on the weekends because of the Sunday Market that happens under the Bridge, which draws large crowed to the area resulting in traffic congestion. The old Ellis Bridge which lies in between the new Ellis Bridge is in good condition but not advisable for motorist.

Opportunity: The Market can be shifted to the new Bridge adding value to the walk on the Bridge making it interactive and also freeing up the Ellis Bridge for the traffic. The old Ellis Bridge could be refurbished in to a public corridor adding more social value to the region.

Constraint: The Ellis Bridge is a historical monument and the old Bridge in the center is completely underutilized. The City lacks water based social activity because the river was unaccessible before.

Opportunity: The Ellis Bridge and the new Bridge could be connected on water, creating Islands of social and entertainment spaces in between the bridges, new breed of social activity on water enhancing the overall lifestyle of the people. The two gardens on the either side of the river banks can be connected by the Bridge as the third garden.

The Bridge is anchored close to the historical precinct by making it very accessible to the public an also its close proximity to the landmarks will make it more connected and activate the Social nature of the Bridge to the public Site proximity to adjacent Landmarks

Constraint:

Opportunity: It is important to construct a new Bridge dedicated to Pedestrians in between the two Bridges, to ease the flow of pedestrians across the riverbanks.

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

The Nehru Bridge is an important Bridge of the City, it carries less traffic compared to Ellis Bridge because of its connectivity. Because of the metro station both the Bridges traffic is expected to increase in the future, making it a nightmare for pedestrians to cross it.

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Master plan Proposal for a pedestrian connect at the CBD of Ahmedabad

Master Plan

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

For Detailing

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Conceptual View

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Conceptual Ariel View

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Module Development Process

12x12m Grid

1.53 Grid

33 Grid

9x9m Grid

63 Grid

93 Grid

Matrix Fractalization

6x6m Grid

3x3m Grid

123 Grid

1.5x1.5m Grid


Module Profiling

Module Variation

8x

12x

4x

4x

8x 4x

3x

6x

4x

3x 3x

8x

2x 6x 4x 1x

2x 2x

3x3x3 Cube

1.5x1.5x1.5 Cube

3x

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

0.5x

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Module Type Module Customization

Module concept


a

b

e

c

d

g

f

h

i

Customization Based On Individual Preferences

Cell as Market

Stairs 3m wide

Cell Base - Glass Partition

Cell Base - Bamboo Matt

Cell Base - Textile Canvas

Cell Base - Wood Panels

Cell Type 2

Cell Type 3

Cell Type 4

Cell as Pedestrian Path

Stairs 1.5m wide

Garden Cell

Tree Box Cell

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Cell Base - 3x3x3m

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Program in Plan Performance Plaza Library / Art Centre

Shopping or Informal market Chat Street

Performance Plaza

Program in Section Library / Art Centre

Performance Plaza

Exhibition Space

Shopping or Informal market

Chat Street

Pathway Vertical Circulation

Sectional Relationship with the context

Building

Road


Program Zoning Program based in adjacency Western Side is devoid of :

Eastern Side is devoid of :

• Khaav Gully

• Art Gallery

• Bazaar

• Performance area • Library

Plaza

Entry Plaza Performance Plaza

Library / Art Centre

Upper Deck of the Proposed Bridges

+15m lvl +11m lvl

+4m lvl

Market & Library

+13m lvl

Art Exhibition Space & Performance Plaza

Shopping or Informal market

Entry Plaza

+10m lvl Chat Street

+0m lvl

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Existing Bridges Lower Deck of the Proposed Bridges

+16m lvl

Chat Street

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Site Plan


Massing Development

Single Rectangular Mass is led across the river designing the bridge, 30m wide, 550m in length and 21m in height

Wider mass is created at the western edge of the bridge to accommodate performance platforms

Arced right of way is cut off from the base of the mass to allow Boats/ Ferry and visual continuity of the water

Entry Plaza Heritage Park

[Lal Darwaja Bur Terminus ]

[Workshop Spaces-Open Source Learners]

[Central Courtyard For Informal Activity ]

[Raised Platform creates and Invisible barrier between the Bus Stand and the Plaza ]

et

Stre

[Cutouts in the Fort wall for passage through to Heritage Park at lower level ]

[Access and circulation clearly indicates that there is frequent lateral connect at every junctions ]

[Lal Darwaja Garden

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

[Entry Plaza Fountain]

ng

ppi

Sho

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Exploded Axonometric View


City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

City on a Bridge growth 2018 and 2050

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Level Plans

Section Through Entry Plaza


City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Level Plans and Sections

161


Section Through Market

Section Through Library

Section Through Food Street

Section Through Performance Plaza


City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

Section Through Performance Plaza

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City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25


List of Reference and Illustration Credits

10

1.1 Image of Bandra-Worli Sealink 2013

10

Image Credit - Author

11

. Statistics from the National Crime Records Bureau 2012 Report

12

1.2 Mudflat Remains, Mexico, Credit: National Geographic

12

1.3 Below Neural Network, Source: http://freeassociationdesign.wordpress.com

12

1.4 Lena Delta Wildlife Reserve, Source: Wikipedia

12

1.5 Tree silhouette, Credit: Author

13

Ecological Urbanism, Mohsen Mostafavi | (pg 12-13) ISBN: 783037781890

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http://europeantrips.org/promenade-plantee-the-first-elevated-park-in-the-world.html

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http://img-fotki.yandex.ru/get/6425/137106206.238/0_a6514_53200e7f_orig

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http://ontheluce.com/2011/11/03/paris-promenade-plantee/

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http://designapplause.com/2011/the-highline-new-york-city-an-aerial-greenway/20758/

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1.9 Sabarmati River in Ahmedabad City during Night | Sources http://www.mudraa.com/trad ing/152123/0/river-front-sabarmati-lllllllllllllllllll-hemant-.html

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1.10 Ellis Bridge, Credit: Author

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1.11 Ahmedabad City Map Credit: Google Earth

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http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-_UkWolqPQy8/UBG9D8fETdI/AAAAAAAABRA/sSoZ4nko-TE/ s1600/6659_promenade-plantee_paris.jpg

16

http://www.drawingontheland.com/?p=450

19

The 1912 Galata Bridge As a Site of Collective Memory, Umut Sumnu | A Thesis Submitted To The Department Of Interior Architecture And Environmental Design And The Institute Of Fine Arts Of Bilkent University

21

Deleuze and the use of the genetic algorithm in architecture - Manual De landa first published in PHYLOGENESIS by FOA (pg 520-530) | ISBN: 9788495951472

21

Concepts of Space in Traditional Indian Architecture | by Yatin Pandya | ISBN: 9781935677291

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Concepts of Space in Traditional Indian Architecture | by Yatin Pandya

29

1 Demitri Porphyrios, Sources of modern Eclectism: Studies on alver alto (London: Academy Edi tion/St. Martin’s Press,.1982), p 1

33

3.5 Interior of IIT School of Architecture, Crown Hall, Mies van der Rohe

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| http://i2iart.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/20101101_0601-as-smart-object-2.jpg

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New Kind of Science -by Stephen Wolfram | 2002 | p 48

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4.2 An illustration of rule 30 is shown above together with the evolution it produces after 15 steps starting from a single black cell | Sources http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CellularAutomaton.html

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4.3 An illustration of 3D Cloud points based on Cellular Automata | Sources : http://mscacd.blog spot.in/2013/02/amiinas-game-of-life-2-cellular-automata.html

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4.4 Illustration Explaining J.H. Conway’s Game of Life | Source : Wikipedia

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New Kind of Science -by Stephen Wolfram | 2002 | p 57

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4.5 Artistic impression of Cellular Space | http://hqdesktop.net/cubes-white-and-black-wallpa per-72610/

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5.1 Oil Sands Extraction Facility at Alberta- Canada | source : http://www.garthlenz.com/#/industria l-landscape/oil-sands

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6.1 Painting Of Pont Notre Dame - Paris (NICOLAS RAGUENET, 1756)

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6.2 Venice Bridge of Sighs - Photo Credit - Wikipedia | User - Christian Bier

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6.3 Bridging Units at the pole houses in Ahmedabad - Photo Credit - Author


6.4 ; 6.5; 6.6; 6.7; 6.8 Old London bridge | Sources various blog posts | all credit to respective authors

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Galata Bridge Map | Source From Google Earth

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Image credits belong to their respective Authors | Sourced Through various Blog Sites

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Galata Bridge | http://en.wikipedia.org

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Image credits belong to their respective Authors | Sourced Through various Blog Sites

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Analysis From | http://urbanwaterfront.blogspot.in/2011/05/thickened-bridges.html

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Galata Bridge | http://en.wikipedia.org

80

Image credits belong to their respective Authors | Sourced Through various Blog Sites

80

Analysis From | http://urbanwaterfront.blogspot.in/2011/05/thickened-bridges.html

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Galata Bridge | http://en.wikipedia.org

82

Image credits belong to their respective Authors | Sourced Through various Blog Sites

82

Analysis From | http://urbanwaterfront.blogspot.in/2011/05/thickened-bridges.html

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13.1 Views Of Garden Bridge |Sourced from | Heatherwick Studio | The Garden Bridge Project | http://www. gardenbridgetrust.org/index.html

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13.2 Plan of Garden Bridge | Source : https://consultations.tfl.gov.uk/rivercrossings/garden-bridge

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13.3 Views Of Garden Bridge |Sourced from | Heatherwick Studio | The Garden Bridge Project | http://www. gardenbridgetrust.org/index.html | https://consultations.tfl.gov.uk/rivercrossings/garden-bridge

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14.3 Rendered View of Under development City on a Bridge | Source Credit -Author

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15.1 Satellite Map of Ahmedabad | Source Google Earth

City On A Bridge Architectural Thesis Mohammed Mansoor | 2009AR25

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Thank you

City on a Bridge Thesis Report  

Architectural Thesis Report