Mapping Stateless Indonesians in Mindanao

Page 1

Migrant’s initiative transforms community through technology and Tri-people empowerment

PASALI Philippines Foundation, Inc

Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao A Periodic Report to the United Nations High Commissioner on for Refugees _________________________________________________________________________________ 1

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PASALI Philippines Foundation conducted a preliminary survey early 2012 on communities of Indonesian migrants in southern Philippines as mandated on or behalf of UNHCR towards stateless persons. In the Philippines, one of the identified populations of possible stateless persons is people of Indonesian descent who live in Southern Mindanao, referred to by Filipinos as “Marori” or ‘Indo’ by their own account. PASALI conducted the survey from January 24 to February 10, 2012. Sample respondents and areas were selected to represent the population being studied. 11 Indonesian communities were visited in Sarangani, Sultan Kudarat, Davao del Sur and General Santos City where according to key informants and the Bureau of Immigration of Glan are high concentrations of Indonesian communities. Focus group discussions were held in 9 of these communities: one (1) in General Santos, another one (1) in Sultan Kudarat, five (5) are from Sarangani Province which three of those belong to Glan and two (2) in Davao del Sur particularly in Jose Abad Santos and Balut Island. Respectively, these communities are Sitio Quilantang of Barangay Calumpang, Purok Usman Ibrahim of Barangay Kalawag III, Sitio Punsad Barangay Burias, Sitio Laensasi of Barangay Gumasa, Brangay Cablalan, Barangay Kanalo (Maasim), Barangay Katubao (Kiamba), Barrio Bukid and Sitio Huai Barangay Batuganding. Key informants include 9 Panghobong, 5 government workers, one Indonesian navy, 2 Indonesian guide, 17 UCCP-ICC pastors and lay leaders and all the Indonesian community leaders of the 11 visited areas. Responses of 222 correspondents comprise the results of this survey. Respondents to focus group discussions and the individual questionnaires comprised of youth, women, elders, fisher folks, farmers, and rice mill workers. There are instances where respondents were grouped according to sector they belong such as women, farmers, and fisher folks to obtain more specific information on the issues and concerns they wanted to raise and also to get their recommendations. To further trace the location of other Indonesians, respondents were also asked where to find their fellow Indonesians living outside their communities. Two activities were undertaken to initiate social awareness activities preparatory to a larger scale mapping: one with the group of Indonesian pastors from UCCP-ICC and another is the stakeholders’ forum with government line agencies, Local Government Units of Glan, Sarangani Province. The results of the preliminary survey PASALI conducted in General Santos, provinces of Sultan Kudarat and Sarangani and the Davao del Sur area gives the calculation of the estimated population, descriptions of basic living conditions and their practical concerns. Ultimately, this report offers the context from which stakeholders can further determine the status of the Indonesians in Mindanao, and the appropriate response to the issues and concerns.

_________________________________________________________________________________ 2

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


Table of Contents I. ABOUT THIS PERIOD REPORT ......................................................................................................... 5 II. Mapping Statelessness in Mindanao......................................................................................... 6 1. Background ............................................................................................................................... 7 2. OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................................. 7 3. SCOPE ......................................................................................................................................... 8 4. METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................................................... 8 III. KEY FINDINGS AND RESULTS ...................................................................................................... 10 1. Population ................................................................................................................................. 10 2. Profile of the Communities .................................................................................................... 11 3. Selected Basic Demographic Information ........................................................................ 15 IV. ANNEX 1. Sites Visited and Details………………………………………………….……………..Annex I 2. Key Informants List……………………………………………………………………....Annex II 3. Focus Group Discussion Sites and Number………………………………………..Annex III 4. Research Team Members…………………………………………………………….Annex IV

_________________________________________________________________________________ 3

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


Definition of Terms The following terms, as used in this report, are understood as follows: ACR Alien

Alien Certificate of Registration Any person not a citizen of the Philippines

BI Brgy

Bureau of Immigration Short for barangay, term for congregation of people under a unit of government

Comelec

Commission on Elections

FGD

Focus Group Discussion

Identification

This refers to methods that can be used to “map” the situation of stateless persons and individuals at risk of statelessness.¹

Prevention

This refers to what can be done to avoid new cases of statelessness

Protection

This refers to what is needed to ensure that stateless persons enjoy their fundamental rights, pending a comprehensive solution to their situation.²

Reduction

This refers to measures that can be taken to resolve existing cases of statelessness.³

LCR

Local Civil Registrar.

Panghobong Indonesian community liaison officer Sangir

One of the ethno-linguistic group living in Sangir Islands in Indonesia. The Sangir are sometimes confused with the Sangil, a group who live on islands off the southern coast of Mindanao. The Sangil are a contemporary population of Philippine Muslims descended from Sangir who migrated to Mindanao in the seventeenth century. They are seen as a group now distinct from the Sangir and as Filipinos rather than Indonesians. The Sangil also have high incidence of non-registration of birth.5

Stateless

Person Under the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, a stateless person is “a person who is not considered a national by any state under the operation of its laws.”4

UCCP-ICC

United Church of Christ in the Philippines-Indonesian Church Congregation

UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees _______________________________

¹ Regional Expert Roundtable on Good Practices for the Identification, Prevention and Reduction of Statelessness and the Protection of Stateless Persons in South East Asia:Discussion Paper, 28-29 October 2010, Amari Watergate Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand ( Co-hosted by the National Human Rights Commission of Thailand and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees),p. 4. ² ld ³ ld

_________________________________________________________________________________ 4

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


4 Article 1 (1), 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Person 5 http://www.everyculture.com/East-Southeast-Asia/Sangir.html

I. ABOUT THIS PERIODIC REPORT 1. Title of the Project

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines

2. Proponent:

PASALI Philippines Foundation, Inc.

Address

Fil-Am Avenue (Airport Road) Prk. 11-C Block 1, Barangay Fatima, General Santos City, Philippines

Contact Person/Number

Maribeth N. Ty

3. Project Duration

January – February 2012

4. Project Location

Sarangani Province, Sultan Kudarat, Davao del Sur (Jose Abad Santos, Sarangani Municipality), General Santos area

5. Total Project Cost

PHP 311.850,00

(083) 552 1155

PASALI Philippines Foundation, 2012

_________________________________________________________________________________ 5

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


“The truth is that we are really confused. We must abide by two laws. What we are asking is that they should not make it too difficult for us. What is due to the people shall be given to the people. That is what we’re asking for .” - Madrudin Macpal Indonesian born in Mindanao

Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines Preliminary Mapping II. Mapping Statelessness in Mindanao On behalf of UNHCR and its mandate on the identification and protection of stateless persons and the prevention and reduction of statelessness globally, PASALI Philippines Foundation conducted a preliminary survey during the early part of 2012 of communities of Indonesian origin in selected locations in Mindanao, Philippines. PASALI found that nearly 5000 people of Indonesian descent live in the coastal areas of Mindanao. About 30% are not registered with the Indonesian consulate and 54% do not have proper staying permit papers issued by the Philippine government. Article 1(1) of the 1954 Convention relating to the status of Stateless Persons defines a stateless person as someone “who is not considered as a national by any State under the operation of its law”. Causes of statelessness internationally are varied and many: including conflict of laws between States, arbitrary deprivation of nationality, and discrimination between ethnic groups within a given State. Nearly all of the 6000 or so persons of Indonesian origin in Mindanao are born in the Philippines. Many of the 5000 live in dire conditions, below the poverty line. With no food security, clean water, proper shelter and difficulties accessing education and limited access to health care, they are extremely limited in exercising their basic human rights. The results of this preliminary survey in General Santos, provinces of Sultan Kudarat and Sarangani and the area of Davao del Sur are presented in this report. It gives an estimate of their population in areas covered by the survey, and a description of basic living conditions (including, practical concerns shared by the persons surveyed). In addition, since this study is a prelude to the mapping exercise of the UNHCR, recommendations of PASALI relating to the conduct of such an exercise are included. Thus, this report offers the context from which stakeholders can formulate and implement activities to further determine the status of persons of Indonesian origin in Mindanao, and the appropriate response to ensure their protection. _________________________________________________________________________________ 6

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


1. Background In the Philippines, one of the populations identified who may be at risk of statelessness are people of Indonesian origin who live in Southern Mindanao, referred to by Filipinos as “Marori” or “Indo” by their own account. Their history of migration dates back to the Spanish colonization period; there were Indonesians coming from islands of Indonesia close to Southern Mindanao. These people migrated and settled in the islands of Sarangani, Balut and the coastal areas of the provinces of Sarangani and Davao del Sur. Another ethno-linguistic group of Indonesians who migrated in Southern Mindanao before the Philippines gained independence from Spain on June 12, 1898 are the people called Sangir. Descendants of this Sangir who came early are now considered Filipino citizens. They also belong to the 13 Islamized or Moro tribes. Those who arrived before and after the Philippine Independence from American control on July 4, 1946, are considered aliens by the Philippine government. The exact number of Indonesians today in the Philippines is unknown. A government census in 2000 noted 43,871 Indonesians in the Philippines, making them the 5thlargest group of aliens in the Philippines. An estimated 7,200 of that national number is thought to be living without proper registration. The Philippine government’s survey and registration drive in 2003 and 2005 found out that there were 2,448 Philippineborn Indonesians. The same survey found the largest community of Indonesians in Sarangani province, with others in South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Davao City, Davao del Norte, Davao Oriental, and North Cotabato. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesians_in_the_Philippines)

2. Objectives The objectives of the study were the following: 1) To get a more accurate number of the population and gain insight into the basic living conditions of persons of Indonesian origin in Mindanao. 2) To identify issues and concerns which may relate to planning and formulation of the mapping of stateless persons in Mindanao; and 3) to initiate social preparation and awareness activities related to the survey and the envisioned mapping activity.

_________________________________________________________________________________ 7

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


3. Scope PASALI conducted the survey from January 24 to February 10, 2012. Sample respondents and areas were selected to represent the population being studied. Some 11 communities were visited in Sarangani, Sultan Kudarat, Davao del Sur and General Santos City. According to key informants and the BI of Glan, these are communities of high concentrations of persons of Indonesian origin. Focus group discussions were held in 9 of these communities. Key informants included 9 Panghobong, 5 government workers, one Indonesian navy, 17 UCCP-ICC pastors and lay leaders and all the community leaders who are persons of Indonesian origin in the 11 identified areas. Responses of 222 correspondents comprise the results of this survey. Places like North Cotabato and Davao City had reportedly fewer numbers of persons of Indonesian origin. They were not included in this survey. Only the target areas of the project location are given the full concentration. This survey involved 222 respondents: 55% were female, and 45% male. Their main sources of income are farming, fishing, and domestic work.

4. Methodology This survey utilized the following methods of data gathering: 1. Key Informants: the search for and interviews with persons who have knowledge related to the objectives of this study; 2. Focus group discussions with target population to be able to know and describe the basic living conditions of the population surveyed; and 3. Community appraisals to assess their number and status, and gather additional information on basic living conditions.

Community Preparation Pasali made a courtesy call to the Indonesian community liaison officer or “Panghobong� to schedule the conduction of FGDs in the nine communities. Pasali also has a link with ICC-UCCP Churches wherein they have the access to the Indonesian pastors. The panghobongs and some pastors serve as the key informants of the research. They are the one who sets the date or schedules of the group discussion and gather the Indo-community during the day of the interview. The panghobongs have the records of the number of Indonesian descent residing in its area of responsibility. Twice every month, they roam around their areas to monitor the population of Indo and report to the Indonesian Consulate quarterly. _________________________________________________________________________________ 8

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


Many Indonesians in southern Mindanao suffer from lack of running water for drinking and washing, very few have access to a village pump. “If only we could have clean water, even if we are not voting citizens.”

Key Informant Interviews and Focus Group Discussions Respondents in the focus group discussions and the individual questionnaires comprised of youth, women, elders, fisher folks, farmers, and rice mill workers. There were instances when respondents were grouped according to sector where they belong such as women, farmers, and fisher folks to obtain more specific information on the issues and concerns they wanted to raise. Respondents were also asked information needed to trace the locations of other persons of Indonesian origin, living outside their communities. Population of the Persons of Indonesian Descent The population numbers were collected from records and knowledge of community leaders, the Panghobong, and through ocular visits and focus group discussions. The figures were then verified and compared with numbers from the Bureau of Immigration Glan. Social Preparation Activities Two activities were undertaken to initiate social awareness preparatory to the survey and the envisioned mapping of UNHCR: one with the group of Indonesian pastors from UCCP-ICC and another at the stakeholders’ forum with government line agencies and officials from the Local Government Units of Glan, Sarangani Province.

_________________________________________________________________________________ 9

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


III. RESULTS 1. Population Respondents gave either estimated numbers of households or individuals of Indonesian origin in their respective areas of habitation and work. Table 1.1 shows these figures collated: Table 1.1

PLACE

HOUSEHOLD

Sarangani Province: Maitum Malapatan Malungon Alabel Maasim Kiamba Glan: Brgy Gumasa Brgy Burias Brgy Cablalan Brgy Baliton Brgy Small Margus Brgy Big Margus Davao del Sur: Sarangani Municipality Jose Abad Santos Sultan Kudarat: Tacurong Isulan Lambayong Esperanza Laguilayan Bo. Barras South Cotabato: Upper Valley (Nurallah, Surallah, Banga) Tupi Gen Santos City

POPULATION (INDIVIDUAL)

11 9 0 30 30 78 44 30 45 68 141 14

Number of Persons enumerated

17

490 (in these 3 brgys)

23 18 24

1,800 230

38 45

44 178 8 62 17 10

27

294 100 107

19

The Bureau of Immigration office in Glan, Sarangani has registered around 3,290 native-born Indonesians who had acquired Alien Certificate of Registration as of February 13, 2012. Their areas of coverage are Sarangani Province, Sarangani Island, Municipality of Sarangani (Balut), Jose Abad Santos and Sultan Kudarat. Majority of the population live in Sarangani, closest to Balut island- where their forefathers supposedly first came from Indonesia before crossing the mainland. Respondents are second and third generation Indonesian origin and most of them are born where they currently reside. Only a handful of the original migrants live today. Most of them are 60 years old and above. _________________________________________________________________________________ 10

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


2. Profile of the Communities All the information stated in the profiles of each areas and/or barangays are based on the research and interviews conducted by PASALI team during their visit and community assessment. 1. Sitio Quilantang, Brgy Calumpang, Gen. Santos City Quilantang is an urban community located in one of the coastal barangays of General Santos City. Majority of the persons of Indonesian descent in Quilantang work in big fishing companies owned by Filipino businessmen. These employers require them to have papers, and steps have been taken for them to have ACRs and work permits. Household income ranges from P3,000 to P7,000 monthly (with occasional peaks to P7,000 due to higher fish catch). Some housewives are engaged in laundry job in order to augment income for their family sustenance. Most of them rent houses owned by Filipinos. They have access to running water and electricity. Educational institutions are at close distance from Quilantang. Respondents enroll children in public elementary and secondary schools, which according to them, are mandated by law to accept even non-Filipino students. Public school tuition and fees are free. Of the 19 respondents interviewed, 9 have finished elementary school, 3 high school and 4 had a year or two in college. Medicine and medical assistance of health centers are within the reach of the constituents. Medical services of clinics and hospitals in Dadiangas can be availed of. Majority have membership in PhilHealth, the state-insurance service. Water sources come from the water district and pitcher pumps. Mothers could avail of pre-natal check up, some medicine, vaccination for their children, and health education from the health center for free. 2. Sitio Punsad, Brgy. Burias, Glan, Sarangani Province Burias is one of the far flung villages in Glan. Persons of Indonesian origin in the village earn their living by tending coconut plantation owned by Filipinos. Planting corn in vacant areas also provide them additional income. Their income bracket ranges from P1,000 to P3,000 every month. Others engaged in subsistence fishing use hook and line and small fishing nets. However, their catch are just enough for family consumption, considering the short range that their manually-paddled small fishing boat could reach. Thirteen of the 18 interviewees during the FGD said they have ACRs. Their water supply comes from a handful of spring and few pitcher pumps. In 2011, Burias was hit by a whirlwind which has caused the partial destruction of some houses including the UCCP Church where they congregate regularly. The local government and the Indonesian Consulate Office extended relief assistance to the affected families. Children of Indonesian origin avail of free elementary and secondary education from public schools which are at a walking distance from their residences. Their dwellings are made of light materials erected on lots owned by Filipinos where they are permitted to occupy.

_________________________________________________________________________________ 11

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


Housing: low incomes and lack of property rights have forced some persons of Indonesian origin in Sarangani, Sultan Kudarat and Davao del Sur to live in shacks such as these.

Majority do not have PhilHealth membership. Mothers could avail of pre-natal check up, vaccination for their children, and health education for free; but the medicine supply at the health center is limited (according to the group of mothers interviewed in Sitio Punsad). Glan has a municipal hospital that provides medical services for all its constituents regardless of citizenship but these services require fees. 3. Sitio Laensase, Brgy. Gumasa, Glan, Sarangani Province Brgy Gumasa is one of the tourist destinations in Sarangani Province because of its white sand beaches. Persons of Indonesian origin in this village mainly engage in tending coconut farm and producing banana (cardava). Others earn from fishing using their motorized boat while those with manually-paddled small boats have catch just enough for family consumption. Twenty of the 23 Indonesians participants of the FGD have ACRs. The income bracket of the farmers ranges from P1,000 to P3,000 monthly. Having no owned lots, most build their houses on lots owned by Filipinos where they are allowed to stay. Residents of Laensase get their water source from a spring which is 30 minutes away by foot from their homes. Although health services such as prenatal check-up, vaccination, and health education are availed of at the nearest health center, this center is more than two kilometers away. 4. Brgy Cablalan, Glan, Sarangani Province Indonesians in Cablalan are engaged in tending coconut plantations and producing other crops such as corn, banana and vegetables. Some fisher folks are engaged in fishing with their motorized boats. Their income ranges from P2,000 to P9,000 every month, says group of fishermen in Brgy. Cablalan. Houses are erected on Filipino-owned lots where they are allowed to dwell for free. Only 8 of the 24 participants of the FGD have ACRs. _________________________________________________________________________________ 12

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


5. Purok Usman, Ibrahim, Brgy Kalawag III, Isulan, Sultan Kudarat Brgy. Kalawag III is an agricultural area whose major produce is rice. Most persons of Indonesian origin here work as seasonal laborers in big rice mills owned by local businessmen, receiving P500 to P3,000 monthly. It is during harvest season that they have work but during land preparation and production, they have little to no work according to the women respondents in Brgy. Kalawag. Some of them therefore turn to backyard inland aquaculture, raising catfish and tilapia. Around 20 of the 27 participants of the FGD have ACRs. 6. Brgy Kanalo, Maasim, Sarangani Province Persons of Indonesian origin living in the coastal Brgy Kanalo work as laborers on coconut, banana and vegetable farms owned by Filipinos. Their monthly income ranges from P1,500 to P3,000. Others earn from fishing while women do laundry job to get additional income. Filipino land owners allow occupancy of their properties where Indonesians could build their houses. Only 3 of the 17 participants to the FGD have ACRs. There is a spring in Kanalo and a few pitcher pumps where the community gets their water from. Day care and elementary education can be availed of through nearby learning institutions. Majority of the adults of Indonesian origin in Kanalo have reached elementary level of education. Very few have PhilHealth membership while medical services in the barangays such as pre-natal check-up, vaccination, and health education are available for free from the barangay health center according to the respondents working in that center also. Maasim has its own municipal hospital that can be reached by a twenty- minute ride from Kanalo, but the respondents rarely go there for lack of funds. 7. Brgy Katubao, Kiamba, Sarangani Province Katubao is a coastal barangay producing copra and corn. Persons of Indonesian origin tend coconut, corn and banana farms, while others engage in fishing. Household income here ranges from P500 to P1,500 monthly. Just like other Indonesians in Sarangani, they are permitted by land owners to occupy some areas to build their houses. Services of the barangay health center like pre-natal check-up, vaccination and health education can be availed of for free. Very few have PhilHealth membership. According to the women family members of Panghobong in Kiamba, water sources are coming from spring and pitcher pumps. Elementary and secondary education is free from the nearby schools. Katubao has a Madrasa where Muslim Indonesian children acquire Islamic education and Arabic literacy.

_________________________________________________________________________________ 13

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


ACR: the fees, penalities and travel expenses to get ACRs are so unaffordable, many are forced to live undocumented. “We don’t even have money to buy rice, how can we afford the ACR?”

8. Barrio Bukid, Jose Abad Santos, Davao del Sur According to the records of the community leader residing in Barrio Bukid, Jose Abad Santos, there are 230 identified persons of Indonesian origin living in his area of responsibility. Barrio Bukid is known to have fierce waves which keep most of these persons working at coconut plantations rather than the sea. However, some have expressed wishes to fish further along the coast, but they would need motorized boats and other fishing equipment. Income bracket ranges from P300 to P2,000 every month. Only 11 of the 45 Indonesians who joined the FGD have ACRs. There are 3 pitcher pumps in the area for water. There is no electricity. They build their homes on rented lots. Only day care and elementary schools are accessible. Children must ride a boat to get to the elementary school. Secondary school and college are more than an hour away from their place. No one has access to health care, due to the distance and poor road conditions. In fact, one of the respondent in Barrio Bukid showed symptoms of Tuberculosis and cases of death due to zero hospitalization. Among the 45 correspondents interviewed in community meetings, only seven claimed to have PhilHealth insurance. 9. Sitio Huwaii, Brgy Batuganding, Sarangani Mun., Davao del Sur Most persons of Indonesian origin in Huai work in coconut plantations while few are fishing. Their income bracket ranges from P500 to P1,000. This minimal earning can be attributed to the system of sharing with the land owners wherein the expenses for the work in producing copra are deducted from the share of the tenants. Many men say they have the ability to fish but lack the equipment. Only 31 of the 38 participants of the FGD have ACRs. Water from a spring is more than an hour walk away by foot. They also collect and use rain water with bamboo gutters leading to containers. Most of the houses are temporary in nature and made of light materials. _________________________________________________________________________________ 14

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


Very few have membership with PhilHealth while health services from a barangay health center are not available. The day care and elementary school is an hour’s walk away.

3. Selected Basic Demographic Information 1. Registration ACR: 54% of the respondents do not and cannot renew their ACR “We don’t even have money to buy rice, how can we get the ACR?” lamented a respondent. About 51.36% of the respondents have an Alien Certificate of Registration while 52.72% have Birth Certificate issued by the Local Civil Registrar. Only thirty-seven respondents or 16.85% have an Indonesian passport. The Bureau of Immigration collects P410 for the ACR fee for new registrants who are 14 years old or older while P210 for people below 14 years old. For ACR renewal, Indonesians pay P160. According to the BI, this fee hass already been lowered specifically for Indonesians, since the real fee is P1,000. Table 1.2 Shows estimated expenses for ACR Renewal of a certain family living in Jose Abad Santos.

ACR Renewal Expenses Family of Cornelio Lansehe Particulars No. of Family Members Renewal Fee (160/head) Transportation (700/head) 12 (estimated fare per person from JAS to BI Glan (10 children + parents) and vice versa) Meals (100/head) Lodging (1000/day) TOTAL ACR Expenses Income of Cornelio Lansehe 1,000.00/mo. x 12 mos.

1,920.00 8,400.00

1,200.00 1,000.00 12, 520.00 12, 000.00

Mr. Lansehe expenses for his ACR renewal including his family will cost him more than his estimated income for one year. As a general rule, personal appearance is needed for ACR registration. However, someone may be allowed to register another person upon the issuance of a Special Power of Attorney authorizing him or her to do so. This process usually costs an additional P500. The penalty for those who have failed to renew their ACR is P200 per month. In this study, 54% of the respondents do not have or have not renewed their ACRs. With meager income, according to the respondents, most can only afford the renewal fee for one or two persons but not their entire family. Costs then continue to pile up as requirements such as Barangay and NBI clearances must be obtained. Then, there are travel costs and cost of board and lodging in the town where the BI is located. On top of that is the penalty fee for tardiness.

_________________________________________________________________________________ 15

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


In 2005, the Indonesian Consulate sponsored the registration fee of ACRs. Some 1,944 persons were newly registered in 2005, compared to 209 in 2004 and 261 in 2003. In 2006, only 512 were registered and 174 in 2007. There are cases of mixed marriages. Many of these families no longer register.

Figure 2: Respondents with and without ACRs Source: PASALI Philippines, Preliminary Survey of Indonesians in Mindanao, 2012

1. Basic living conditions: water, food, shelter & sanitation Six out of the nine communities visited in west-coast Sarangani, Sultan Kudarat and Davao del Sur struggle with the lack of proper water facilities. In some areas like Huai in Balut Island, people must walk an hour before reaching a spring. There are also reported cases of diarrhea in some communities surveyed like Sitio Huai, due to the absence of potable water. Toilets in many of these communities are rare. Food security is a major concern issue; a big slice of their income goes to buying food. Three far-flung communities (Cablalan, Bo. Bukid and Sitio Huai) have poor road condition and no electricity. 74% of the residents in the 3 far-flung areas lease land and build their own houses, usually combinations of light materials, such as bamboo, concrete and iron corrugated roofing. 2. Access to some basic state services: health and education Education Most (70%) of the respondents have some level of elementary education, some (10.7%) have some level of secondary education, and only a few (2.2%) have studied in college while the remaining portion (17.1%) is illiterate. Distance, poorinfrastructure, and poverty keep them from obtaining full elementary, high school education, and college. Public school tuition may be free, but transportation, school supplies, project materials, and food are not. For families who barely make enough to eat, the amount of these costs makes education inaccessible. There are 14 respondents who obtained a college degree had faced the situation of not being hired due to their immigration status. _________________________________________________________________________________ 16

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


Out-of-school youth rarely have access to vocational training offered by any institutions for technical skills to earn a living. Among these communities is Barrio Bukid with high out-of-school incidences, teenage marriage is prevalent. 13 of the 45 respondents on the FGD in Barrio Bukid, JAS have this case. Few institutions offer scholarship opportunities. In Davao City, there is an Indonesian school which provides free education to Indonesian citizens. The UCCP also sponsors one Indonesian scholar enrolled in college.

Figure 3: Educational attainment

Education & Health stipends Some respondents admitted to be beneficiaries of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps). The 4Ps is the Philippine government’s poverty alleviation program which incorporates a Conditional Cash Transfer scheme. This program offers the poorest families a stipend of about 17% of their income to be used for children’s needs, including food, school supplies. Health: access to health care services The persons of Indonesian origin living in urban areas like General Santos City have access to medical services of health centers and public hospitals. However, in far-flung barangays like Barrio Bukid and Barangay Batuganding with poor road conditions, health care access can be a challenge. In Barrio Bukid, Jose Abad Santos, Davao del Sur accessibility to hospital is very difficult. During emergency situation like risky childbirth, serious illness, a patient had to be ferried in a motorized boat to reach Glan municipal hospital. But this is only possible to those who can afford the cost of the travel where they have to rent motorized boat to transport the patient.

_________________________________________________________________________________ 17

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


Indonesian women in Barangay Cablalan, Glan, Sarangani speak with PASALI interviewers. Many families would like to have the right to participate in government programs, particularly education and health care for their children.

Health: state health insurance (Philhealth) Filipinos enjoy the benefits of PhilHealth like 30% to 40% deduction in hospital bills. At present, the monthly premium for PhilHealth self-employed members is only P100. Most Indonesians do not have PhilHealth membership. Being primary dependent of their Filipino spouses, some Indonesians avail of PhilHealth benefits. About 18.18% of the Indonesians who participated in this study have PhilHealth membership. Although it is intended for Filipinos, the processing of requirements is not so strict especially when election is coming. 3. Livelihoods and socio-economic issues

Figure 1: Main livelihoods of the survey sample Most of the Indonesians in Mindanao have no stable income and rely on seasonal work from the coconut plantations, rice and vegetable production, and fishing enterprises owned by Filipinos. It can be attributed to their low educational _________________________________________________________________________________ 18

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


attainment, less support from agencies for livelihood training skills, and no microfinancing opportunities. Living & Income: coconut plantations Majority in coastal areas are tenants of coconut plantations where they are receiving a P500-share as tresyador (receipient of one-third portion). Such amount is left from the tresya (one-third) share they get where other expenses are deducted during the production of copra. Coconut farm workers receive a varied wage rate of P100 to P200 per day. However, they only have jobs during harvest time which falls every three months. Although they are merely tenants, persons working in these plantations are the children of those who originally planted many of the trees currently on the plantation. Living & Income: rice production The persons of Indonesian origin also reached some parts of central Mindanao like Isulan which is known for rice production. Rice mills operate only whenever there is harvest. Persons who work in those establishments are called only when there are clients. Their income is P50 per day. Living & Income: fishing Those who can fish lack the motorized boats to reach wider fishing grounds for bigger catch. Having manually-paddled small boats allows them to catch fish near the shoreline which are only enough for their family’s consumption. During the peak of the tuna industry when the Philippine and Indonesian governments had a bilateral agreement allowing Filipino fishing vessels to enter Indonesian territory for fishing activities, persons of Indonesian origin were hired by big fishing companies who preferred Indonesians since they could communicate in Bahasa with their trade partners in Indonesia. However, when Indonesia restricted fishing in their territory a few years ago, the tuna industry declined and persons of Indonesian origin employed in big fishing companies lost their jobs. Having neither college degree nor technical education, many became jobless. Some survive now as seasonal laborers in construction firms. Land ownership and Tenancy Some are allowed to utilize the coconut farms for intercropping with corn as tenants. However, they may have problems with land ownership due to citizenship issues. The community in Balut Island recalled a land dispute where they were forced to sell at an unreasonably low price the property they customarily owned. It is customary ownership since they claim to be there prior to any Filipino national, but they have never processed documents proving ownership. In 1981, an Indonesian who tilled a12-hectare farm on Balut Island was compelled to sell his property for fear of deportation.

_________________________________________________________________________________ 19

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


Many Indonesians in Glan claim their fathers and grandfathers planted the coconut trees who now currently on many farms, yet are prohibited to own land. If the landowner turns them out, they have no place to go and are prohibited to work anywhere else. Therefore, says many, “it would be good to be allowed to work for the government and private companies�.

Job limitations Non-Filipino nationals must apply for a work permit. Majority reported to be unable to comply with the requirements for the issuance of a work permit. Those working for fishing companies in the Gensan area have managed to obtain work permits with the companies’ assistance. But others, particularly members of the younger generation of persons of Indonesian origin, suffer from not having the legal right to be hired by private companies because of their citizenship. (Source: FGD and Stakeholders Forum)

Social Security Only 8.2% are members of the Social Security System. SSS is a program of the government for the Filipinos which gives benefits that include pension, loan, mortuary, and disability assistance. 3. Safety, security and Exercise of civil and political rights The fear of repatriation The fear of being repatriated is greatly felt by most who have no ACR or failed to renew such document. Moreover, they worry of being evicted from the lots where their houses are built should the owner utilize such properties. This fear in turn increases the number of persons without proper documentation as they do not want to approach authorities involved with registration for fear of being deported _________________________________________________________________________________ 20

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


.

Detention There were reported cases of detention. In General Santos City, respondents reported an incident where three Indonesian youth were apprehended and accused as terrorists. They however denied the allegation. It is uncertain what became of them, whether they were released or held. At the forum on statelessness in Glan, organized by PASALI and UNHCR, speaker Elvira Ramos, a Filipino-American with an Indonesian husband, said that her husband was arrested by police officers in Davao without being given any reason therefore. Her husband was subsequently jailed for two months.

Political participation Although it was a requirement that those who will register as voters must present a birth certificate which confirms Filipino citizenship, 54% of the 220 respondents, or 119 were COMELEC registered and could vote during elections in the Philippines. COMELEC representative of Glan, Gertrudez Omania, present at the forum on statelessness for stakeholders, confirmed that “they indeed have received and accepted non-Filipino applicants”. Several respondents have expressed concerns over election-related harassments received. Other complaints that surfaced were that of local officials refusing to provide a water system to a community where some of them were not registered voters. One has revealed that he was refused medical assistance by a local government representative because of citizenship issues. Respondents in selected communities reported being able to vote in Indonesian elections due to a drive for absentee voting by the Indonesian Consulate. 4. Identity & Preferred citizenship Some 120 respondents (55%) wish to live in the Philippines permanently. Only 5% wants to live in Indonesia and the rest are undecided. A few 1st generation Indonesian-born seniors (ages 60 and up), wish to have dual citizenship. Most of the respondents prefer to acquire Filipino citizenship for they say they love the Philippines, their neighbors, and they would not want to leave their families here, particularly those in intermarriages. They would like the rights that go with this citizenship, including the right to avail of the services of the government and other opportunities enjoyed by Filipinos citizens. They see the difficulty in starting anew in Indonesia. To stay in Indonesia would mean adjusting to a new culture, people and having to face the heightened insecurity of procuring a means of living. Parallel to their wish to stay is the strong desire to retain their Indonesian background. They prefer to be called ‘Indo’ rather than ‘Marori’ which is the term that Filipinos had labelled them. The reasons for their strong attachment to their origins include the lack of means to fully integrate in Philippine society. _________________________________________________________________________________ 21

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


Figure 4: Preferred country of residence

_________________________________________________________________________________ 22

PASALI Philippines Foundation

Preliminary Mapping of Persons of Indonesian Descent in Mindanao, Philippines


Millions discover their favorite reads on issuu every month.

Give your content the digital home it deserves. Get it to any device in seconds.