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SUSTAINABLE URBAN HOME Aalborg University MSc02 Arc 2, 2015

Andreas Falk Sheye Mateusz Szymon Płoszaj-Mazurek Natalia Ewa Okolus Peter Christensen Peter Nordestgaard Rønnest


ABSTRACT This report concerns the design of a Zero Energy housing complex in the center of Aalborg. The complex addresses the clash between the ‘lowopen’ (Ærø, 2002) housing typology of Hasseris and ‘high-dense’ typology of the City Center by merging key qualities of both typologies. The result is a dense typology that contains a high amount of green areas and greenery to provide qualities that the residents would otherwise only find in a suburban context. The roads that are running to the site has been continued through the site to create a flow that provides for pedestrians and cyclists that wish to avoid travelling next to Vesterbro. By doing so the complex has been divided into three parts; two for residences, each with an office tower submerging in the corner where the housing blocks meets, and one part which houses offices and public functions with a few residences on top. The two housing blocks forms courtyards which have been programmed with wildly growing greenery to minimize maintenance, but also to accommodate for the ‘Green-Blue Structure’ of Aalborg Municipality, which shows a green

highland-programmed wedge running to the site. The courtyard formed by the last block has been designed as an urban plaza to provide for public activities. The complex contains various sizes of apartments which allow it to accommodate a broad mix of residents; from students to elderly people.


TITLE PAGE Title: Theme: Project: Period:

Sustainable Urban Home Sustainable Architecture A&D MSc02 ARC 16/03/2015 to 27/05/2015

Group: Main supervisor: Technical supervisor: Number of copies: Number of pages:

2 Anne Kirkegaard Bejder Olena Kalyanova Larsen 9 169

Andreas Falk Sheye

Mateusz Szymon PĹ‚oszaj-Mazurek

Natalia Ewa Okolus

Peter Christensen

Peter Nordestgaard Rønnest


PROLOGUE This project is developed by group 2, MSc02ARC 2015 of Architecture & Design at Aalborg University. The topic of the project module is Sustainable Architecture and the task is to design a housing complex in the city centre of Aalborg, Denmark with a floor area ratio somewhere between 100% and 200%. The complex should primarily provide residences, but 20% of the FAR is allowed to be substituted for public functions. The purpose of the design is to create a building complex that embraces the sustainable values in terms of both environmental and social sustainability and hereby reinvents the way of designing attractive housing complexes. By analyzing relevant premises for designing a sustainable housing complex, that conforms with the above values, a vision and a concept has been developed.


GUIDE OF READING This report contains the presentation of the final design proposal for a building complex situated in the center of Aalborg. It includes the vision and concept of the design as well as both the analyses and design process. After the introduction the final design is being presented from the outside and in, starting with the master plan. Afterwards the analyses used are being presented and the results explained and concluded upon. The design process is then unfolded in order to clarify the process that has led to the final proposal. Following is the epilogue, which includes the final conclusion and a reflection upon the project.The references are registered using the Harvard System and inside the text the references are shown as the surname of the author and the year of publish. The complete reference with all its details is summarized in the literature list, which can be found in the Epilogue. If the specific page number is not available, the topic of the given literature will be added in its stead. The illustrations of the report are provided with a title and a number and the full details are available in the illustrations list of the Epilogue.


TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 08  09  11 

AIMS METHODOLOGY SUSTAINABILITY

PRESENTATION 15  16  17  18  20  24  27  30  32  33  41  43 

VISION CONCEPT MASTER PLAN URBAN SECTIONS PLAZA COURTYARDS ACCESS TERRACES DISTRIBUTION APARTMENTS CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

61  63  64  65  68  69 

BUILDING HEIGHTS & TERRAIN IDENTITY WORTH PRESERVING CLIMATE DISTRICT & MUNICIPAL PLAN SITE ANALYSIS CONCLUSION

STUDIES 75  76  81  85 

SOCIAL SUSTAINABILTY MATERIAL SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLE OF ENERGY STUDIES CONCLUSION

DESIGN CRITERIA 89 

DESIGN CRITERIA

CONCEPT 95 

SUBURBAN BLOCK

SITE ANALYSIS

DESIGN PROCESS

55  56  57  59 

99  104  108  126 

LOCATION VEGETATION INFRASTRUCTURE LOCAL FUNCTIONS & DISTANCES

MASTERPLAN ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION FLATS AND ACCESS URBAN PROGRAMMING

EPILOGUE 131  133  135  140  143 

CONCLUSION REFLECTION REFERENCES ILLUSTRATION LIST TABLE LIST

APPENDIX 147  149  154  158  163  164  165  168  169 

FAMILY APARTMENT PLANS DAYLIGHT INDOOR AIR QUALITY BSIM ANALYSIS FAR BE10 PV CALCULATIONS FIRE ROUTE & ACCESS PARKING


INTRODUCTION


INTRODUCTION

AIMS We aim to design a sustainable mixed-use zero energy housing complex in the center of Aalborg City. The sustainable aspects of the complex should be integrated within the architectural aspects so that both aspects correlates and we aim to utilize the Integrated Design Process to do so. We aim to design a building that conforms with both social and environmental sustainability parameters. We aim to provide the city of Aalborg with an alternative choice of dwelling for the people currently living in the suburbs. We aim to do so by creating an urban block containing some of the qualities of the suburbs while also providing a sense of community to the residents.

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INTRODUCTION

METHODOLOGY A complex architectural task, such as designing a sustainable housing complex, needs a holistic approach. Intuitive considerations should be merged with scientific research. The integrated Design Process, (Hansen & Knudstrup, 2005) which is based on the five iterative phases described below, is used to achieve a design proposal that correlates with the three points of the Vitruvian Triangle; venustas – beauty, stating that architecture should be beautiful, firmitas – firmness, stating that architecture should be structurally sound and utilitas – usability, stating that architecture should have a practical function. The intension is to design a complex that covers all of the above criteria while also regarding the very important contemporary criteria of sustainability. The first phase is The Problem Phase; in this phase the problem is being described and clarified. The problem then forms the basis for the design and its further progression. The second phase is The Analysis Phase; in this phase most of the knowledge needed to solve

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the problem is being obtained. Relevant subjects are being analyzed and concluded upon and the conclusions form the basis for the concept of the design and its further development. Tools like mappings and diagrams have been used to analyze the site and its context in order to provide an overview of which qualities the site holds and also which shortcomings needs to be addressed and developed. Studies have been made to analyze additional aspects such as social and material sustainability and principles of energy. The results of the analyses form the design criteria which can be used as a guideline to follow throughout the design process. The third phase is The Sketching Phase and like the name implies this is the phase where different propositions for the concept is sketched and investigated. In the early stages of this phase most of the iterations are done by hand sketching or through analogue models and as the process develops, and the concept gradually becomes more refined, the toolset shifts from analogue to digital 3D modeling. Both architectural and technical knowledge attained in the

previous phase is used to develop the project regarding its user profile and sustainability. The fourth phase is The Synthesis Phase; in this phase all the material that has been produced and gathered through the previous phases is merged into one holistic mass which forms a synthesis of the attained knowledge and the further detailing of the project. The fifth and final phase is The Presentation Phase where the final material for the presentation of the project is being produced. The Integrated Design Process is an iterative process which means that the process is not chronologic, but consists of numerous loops between each phase of the process. By having the phases influence one another, the process is constantly moving between architectural and technical aspects which will ultimately create a design that is a synthesis between aesthetical and technical parameters.


Problem

Analysis

Sketching

Synthesis

Presentation

UTILITAS USABILITY

PROBLEM

ANALYSIS

SKETCHING

SYNTHESIS

PRESENTATION

Ill. 01 - The Integrated Design Process

VENUSTAS BEAUTY

Ill. 02 - Vitruvian Triangle

FIRMITAS DURABILITY

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INTRODUCTION

SUSTAINABILITY The environment plays a big part in the contemporary political debate regarding the changing cliamte. (OECD, 2015) To comply with this the politicians have been setting various goals for bringing down the human impact on the environment and Europe have the vision of becoming CO2 neutral by 2050. (Climate Minds, 2012) The architects and the building industry each has a big responsibility in this and by changing the way architects think of architecture, the energy consumption of future buildings could be significantly reduced. In Denmark the energy consumed through the construction and usage of a building will have to be reduced by 75% from 2006 to 2020 to comply with the goal. (RA, 2014) The above initiatives have really forced us to think about how we use the environment we live in and what actions we can take to ensure the survival of the planet as it is. Looking up the word ‘sustainability’ in a dictionary it is defined as: capable of being sustained or capable of being continued with minimal

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long-term effect on the environment. (The Free Dictionary, 2015) Furthermore there are other aspects to sustainability such as social sustainability or economic sustainability, although neither has as big an impact on the environment. In terms of environmental sustainability, the word maintained is important and the maintenance of a building should always be an integral part of a holistic design approach. Depletion in the stratospheric ozone layer is caused by excessive CO2 emission. (Le DrĂŠau, 2015) This depletion makes the planet more exposed to the UV-radiation of the sun, which slowly increases the average temperature of the globe. Bringing down the CO2 level is of high priority and can done in different ways. Simply reducing the energy consumed through the construction and usage of a building, reduces the amount of coal burned which in turn reduces the CO2 emission. Another important consideration when regarding sustainability is how the material is processed, from extraction to production and how the material is being transported to the site.

Durability is also an important step, as this will reduce the rate at which the material decays and thus reduce its need for maintenance or replacement. This chain of steps are important to review whenever a material is chosen for a building. An example could be that wood is often perceived as one of the most sustainable materials available, but if it is not being logged in a sustainable manner it quickly becomes an unsustainable choice, which results in rapid deforestation and changing microclimates. And if the trucks carrying the logs are not supplied with a proper carbon reducing filter, the material cannot be perceived as sustainable, even if the forest is being logged following all the guidelines of sustainable forest management. The depletion of raw materials is another serious matter when regarding environmental sustainability. Luckily global organizations like PEFC (PEFC, 2015) and FSC are doing their best to avoid this by supplying sustainable contractors with a label to show, ensuring that the timber is not being logged faster than it can reproduce. (Verdens Skove, 2015)


PRESENTATION


The new residential complex in the City Centre of Aalborg is a symbiosis of qualities extracted from the suburban housing and the dense urban block. Two typologies have been merged together to create a hybrid - the ‘Suburban Block’. This typology mixes the suburban qualities of private gardens and diversity with the urban qualities of social diversity and density. Additionally the complex merges environmental, social and economic sustainability parameters and integrates them in the design.


PRESENTATION

VISION The vision for the project is to create a residential housing complex that accommodates a wide variety of users in an urban context. The design will provide an alternative dwelling typology aimed at the inhabitants of the suburbs by combining the qualities of the suburban housing with the qualities of the urban block, forming a lively district in the midst of the dense City Centre of Aalborg. The complex will aim to address important aspects of environmental and social sustainability through its design. Environmentally, the 2020 demands for the energy consumption of a building, stated by the Danish Building Regulations, will be met through the application of passive means and active measures will be applied to reach the NetZEB definition. The active measures will be an integrated part of the design to embrace the important architectural parameter of aesthetics.

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PRESENTATION

CONCEPT URBAN BLOCK

Ill. 03 - Concept

SUBURBAN HOUSING

SUBURBAN BLOCK 16


PRESENTATION

MASTER PLAN La

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rds

gaLa dede g

ård

sga

n Ste

nga

ro rb Ve

ste

Ve

ste

rb ro

de

en

ige

Gå se pig

sep

en

Gå se pig

ns Ur

ba

Ur

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Ill. 04 - Master plan

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After having carefully considered and estimated the resulting ambience of the ‘Gåsepigen’ square, through perspective views, the building in the northeastern corner of the site proved to be out of scale compared to the suburban block and the building was chosen to be demolished to create a larger public plaza. The shape of the resulting building complex is derived from the continuation of the existing urban lines of the context. Two green courtyard garden areas and a public urban plaza have been created. The urban plaza is surrounded by commercial ventures and offices and the courtyards are designed as a more natural environment with fluent, natural shapes, opposing the rest of the design which consists mainly of straight and sharp lines. The eastern part of the plot, between the building adjacent to ‘Vesterbro’ and the new building, has been utilized for underground parking and the ground above the parking has been slightly elevated as a way of connecting the existing urban block with the new complex. The southern part of the plot is occupied by bike sheds unto which solar panels have been incorporated.

50M


urban section

urban se

PRESENTATION

URBAN SECTIONS The section on illustration 05 shows the relationship between the existing urban block, adjacent to ‘Vesterbro’, and the new building complex. It also shows the underground parking between the two buildings and the green courtyard. The section on illustration 06 shows the section through the plaza and the gardens of the access, showing the relationship between the spaces. It also shows the connection to the existing architecture on ‘Ladegårdsgade’

section with underground

Ill. 05 - Urban section 1:500 urban section

section with underground

plaza render

urban section

section with commerce

18 Ill. 06 - Urban section 1:500

se

access


Ill. 07 - Plaza

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PRESENTATION

urban section

urban section

plaza rendering

garden rende

PLAZA Entering the site from ‘Stengade’, the greenery extrudes through the pavement contributing to the atmosphere of the plaza and creating a vivid pattern that defines the spatial hierarchy of the shops and cafés on the plaza. The diverse planning offers multiple opportunities for outdoor stay, defined by several raised beds and benches. On the plaza visitors can enjoy refreshments or partake in occasional social events. Walking along the plaza, a change in pavement defines the shared space of the ‘no-cars zone’.

section with underground

section with commerce

access section

20


urban section

urban section

plaza rendering

garden rendering

close up

URBAN FACADE 12.54

section with underground 18.20

12.54 12.24

9.48 9.18

6.42 6.12

3.36 3.06

0.00 -0.72

Ill. 08 - Urban facade 1:200

21

section with commerce

access section

urban elevation

garden elevati


urban section

plaza render

urban section

PLAZA HOUSING FACADE The building presents its urban facade to the visitors from the north and east sides. A gray brick has been selected for the envelopes cladding in relation to the surroundings. The facade stands out as a punctured ‘filter’, through which the inside of the building, the wooden finish of the access and the greenery is revealed. The windows have been arranged in a regular pattern, to achieve an aesthetical look that also relates to the functionality of the interior. The ground level apartments have been elevated slightly to achieve more privacy, having its entrance elevated above the ground floor.

18.2

section with underground

section with commerce

12.24

9.18

6.12

SECTION The building is connected to the plaza on the ground floor. It is the perfect location for small commercial ventures. The section presents different apartment types. The first and second floor shows two couple apartments and the top floor shows a spacious family apartment with two levels of terraces.

18.35

5.87

3.12

3.06

2.54

-0.92

-0.72 -1.03

Ill. 09 - Section of plaza housing 1:200

22

access


Ill. 10 - Courtyard

23


PRESENTATION

urban section

urban section

plaza rendering

garden rendering

close up

COURTYARDS The green courtyard, with its wild and hilly landscape of tall grasses and trees is the epitome of a sustainable enhancement to an urban block typology. Rainwater is lead into the reservoirs which provides the area with biodiversity and atmosphere. The wildness of the urban plan is enhanced through its pathways, bending and winding through the landscape in a vivid pattern that creates diverse places of stay. The suburban block encircles the courtyard with its pitched rooftops and rhythmic cut-outs, generating a vibrant atmosphere resembling that of a suburban life in a dense city context. section with underground

section with commerce

access section

urban elevation

24


urban section

urban section

plaza rendering

garden rendering

close up

COURTYARD FACADE 17.91

section with commerce

section with underground

access section

urban elevation

garden elevation

18.20 17.61

15.30

12.54 12.24

12.54 12.24

9.48

9.48 9.18

9.18

6.32

6.42

6.12

6.12

3.06

3.06

0.00

0.00

-0.72

-0.72

3.36

Ill. 11 - Courtyard facade 1:200

25


urban section

urban se

COURTYARD HOUSING FACADE The courtyards showcase the garden side of the complex and the façade facing the courtyard has been punctured much more vigorously showing the access’s common area, the balcony’s and the terraces of the top floor apartments. This creates an open elevation, where people entering the courtyard will be able to easily locate the access area, with its integrated greenery, and the different levels of terraces.

section with underground

18.2

12.24

SECTION The section shows how the building is opening towards the courtyards and the diversity of the different flat types. The ground level flat utilizes the height difference of the garden and the underground car park to separate the private functions of the apartment from the remaining functions, and also exploits this height difference to create well lit common areas. The first floor shows the placement of two student apartments. The next floor shows a couple apartment, opening towards the green area with a balcony and the top floor shows a two level family apartment with its different terrace levels and double high room.

10.35

9.24

9.18

6.18

6.12

5.56

3.40 3.06

2.81

2.54

0.00 -0.80

-0.11

-0.72 -0.67

Ill. 12 - Section of courtyard housing 1:200 -3.07

se


urban section

PRESENTATION urban section

plaza rendering

garden rendering

close up

ACCESS Approaching the access from the courtyard, the scenery of the diverse green foliage is what first meets the eye. The access splits the brick facade and reveals the warmth of the wood underneath, contrasting the more consistent appearance of the gray bricks. The relation to the front gardens of the suburbs is present in the warmer spatial design of the common access areas, where the residents themselves choose the desired programming. The opportunity to add a personal touch to the ‘entrance’ of your own apartment embraces the diversity in the population of the suburbs, and enhances the socially sustainable aspect of the complex.

section with underground

Ill. 13 - Access from the courtyard

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section with commerce

access section

urban elevation

garden elevation


urban section

urban section

plaza rendering

garden rendering

STAIRWAY SECTION The access section shows the different sizes of the landings incorporated to create different spaces for greenery and stay. The landings have also been designed according to the different flats layout – to enhance the privacy. The access is constructed around the elevator shaft and the elevator has been designed to open in two directions – allowing disabled people to enter from both the urban and the courtyard side of the complex. The access areas will gain identity over time as the residents program them to fit to their user behavior with furniture, sports equipment, parasols and so forth.

section with commerce

section with underground

access section

12.57 11.78

9.18

6.12

3.06

0.00

-1.03

-1.03

-1.13

Ill. 14 - Access section 1:200

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Ill. 15 - Terraces

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PRESENTATION

urban section

urban section

plaza rendering

garden rendering

close up

Terraces

TERRACES The difference in the terrace levels creates a vivid landscape and the greenery and small trees creates an atmosphere ressembling that of the suburban garden. The architectural expression of the complex tries to replicate the different types of spaces, commonly found in the suburbian areas. The different levels of privacy in the front – and back gardens and the different relationships between the roads, pathways and alleys have been translated into the architectural language through the cutouts and elevations. The terraces are architecturally connected with the access, where the architecture becomes a scenery of different daily activities. To diminish the noise nuissance, all the terraces facing the access have been supplied with a retractable wall which can also provide more privacy to the residents.

section with underground

section with commerce

access section

urban elevation

garden elevation

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GROUND FLOOR FAMILY APARTMENTS - 85M2 middle apartments FAMILY family APARTMENTS - 140M2 top family apartments- 11 5M2 FAMILY APARTMENTS top family apartments- 2130M2 FAMILY APARTMENTS student STUDENTapartments APARTMENTS - 45M2 couple COUPLEapartments APARTMENTS - 80M2 common COMMON rooms ROOMS offices OFFICES commerce COMMERCE ground floor family apartments

Ill. 16 - Distribution of apartments

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PRESENTATION

DISTRIBUTION Illustration 16 shows how the different apartment types have been distributed in the final design. The two southernmost buildings have family apartments at the ground level, providing them with the possibility to access the courtyards directly. The east wings of both buildings accommodate a mix of couple - and student apartments and the north wings accommodate a mix of couple - and family apartments. This provides optimal scenarios for natural ventilation in the student apartments and good daylight conditions for the terraces of the family apartments.

The northernmost part of the complex surrounds a plaza. To interact with the plaza, commerce has been added along the ground floor. The three corners of each complex contains ‘office-towers’. This provides the offices with minimal façade exposed to the southern sun which in turn reduces the solar heat gain during office hours. The bottom of the towers accommodates commerce and the top contains common rooms, which can be used by the residents of the complex.

The topmost part of the two buildings contains a mix of two types of family apartments. One type with its gable facing the courtyard and another with its gable facing the neighboring apartment. This is done so that the complex will display a diversity similar to that of the suburban village.

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APARTMENTS

Ill. 17 - Family apartment 115m2

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PRESENTATION

TWO STOREY FAMILY APARTMENTS

VENT.

WASH.

REF.

REF.

The spatial qualities of the family modules are displayed in the sociable kitchen which creates a spatial coherence between the living room and the kitchen. This results in a much more open apartment where the kids can play while taking part in the daily activities of the apartment. The ceilings have been painted white to reflect the light and get a more even distribution through the apartments. The upper floor is reached by a staircase which has the same material consistency as the structural modules. Keeping the treatment of the CLT surface to a minimum, by only treating it with a white pigmented transparent finish, makes the natural appearance of the spruce stand out with its characteristic grain structure.

2ND LEVEL

VENT.

1ST LEVEL

The plans for the 130m2 and 140m2 family apartments can be found under Family Apartments Plans in the Appendix.

Ill. 18 - Family apartment 115m2 - 1st floor 1:200

Ill. 19 - Family apartment 115m2 - 2nd floor 1:200

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Ill. 20 - Ground floor family apartment


PRESENTATION

GROUND FLOOR FAMILY APARTMENT

WASH.

The single storey family apartment has a multifunctional living room with a close connection to the adjacent garden, from which the family can enjoy the outdoors. The sociable kitchen and the living room interconnect and becomes the area where the inhabitants will spend most of their time. A small staircase divides the most private parts of the dwelling from the rest. The common area is lit by the tall windows facing the lush courtyard, illuminating what can be perceived as the heart of the family module.

VENT.

Ill. 21 - Single storey family 1:200

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REF.


Ill. 22 - Couple apartment


PRESENTATION

COUPLE APARTMENTS TYPE 1

WASH.

WASH.

In the couple apartment the close connection between the multifunctional living room, the balcony and the kitchen provides the inhabitants with the possibility to extend numerous activities to the balcony whenever the weather allows it. The office space in the bedroom can easily be transformed into an additional room, should the couple decide to have a child. The sociable kitchen provides the couple apartment with spatial quality and an open floor plan, creating much transparency in the layout.

TYPE 2

VENT.

REF.

VENT.

Ill. 23 - Couple terrace, offward access 1:200

Ill. 24 - Couple terrace, toward access 1:200

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REF.


Ill. 25 - Student apartment


PRESENTATION

STUDENT APARTMENT The student apartment provides a calm atmosphere for the student to immerse himself in his studies and the depth of the windowsills implement alternatives for places to sit. The exposed CLT gives much warmth to the somewhat confined space. The ceiling has been painted white and the flooring treated with a white pigmented finish to increase the reflectance of the incoming light, making the space appear larger. The student can socialise with the neighbouring students or the other residents in the common area provided by the access.

Ill. 26 - Student 1:200

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REF.

VENT.

REF.

VENT.


PRESENTATION

CONSTRUCTION CLADDING The cladding of a complex plays an important part in shielding the construction from rain and wind as well as being responsible for the overall thermal performance of the building by providing either more or less thermal resistance. The advantages of wood are that it is a renewable source of material that has the potential of being carbon neutral if sourced properly. It can be reused depending on the condition of the wood otherwise it can be burned and used as fuel for other processes. The disadvantages of wood are that despite being quite durable, it requires regular maintenance to withstand the impact of the weather. The advantages of brick are that it is very durable which results in a high lifespan expectancy. It is made from an abundant natural material, which is a renewable source in the subsoil. Bricks can be reused as they are or can otherwise be recycled as gravel of different coarseness usable as aggregate in concrete or for tennis courts.

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The disadvantages of brick is that is has a high embodied energy from its process of kiln firing and the transportation due to its high density, depending on where it is sourced and produced. Because the construction system of the complex consists of a load bearing CLT structure with insulation attached to the exterior side, the choice of cladding was left very open. The intention was to somehow have the faรงade showing the rather unorthodox choice of a wooden structure even though the structure itself would be completely covered by insulation. However, choosing to clad the entire complex in wood would require too much regular maintenance which was conflicting with the intention of providing a sustainable cladding. Looking at the traditional urban context of Aalborg the obvious alternative would be a brick faรงade which would also provide a more durable type of cladding. The choice fell upon a masonry veneer wall, attached to the wooden structure with wall ties.

Ill. 01 - Construction principle of the facade


CONSTRUCTION PRINCIPLE The construction principle of the suburban block is a principle that unifies the strength of the special properties of the cross-laminated veneer in the cross-laminated timber plate. The properties of the plate allows for the modules to be stacked on top of each other as shown in illustration 28. This way the stacking system can be used in a modular system which greatly simplifies the construction method by allowing each module to be perceived as an individual structural unit, see illustration 29. This method allows for a fast assembly on site, but also demands that careful considerations are taken on how the individual modules should be fed with power supply etc. Choosing a centre for each of the predefined modules and adding a shaft into which such installations can be integrated proved to be a valid solution. The structural elements of the cross-laminated timber have been exposed in the interior surfaces of the apartments to utilise the architectural qualities of the CLT as well as the structural. Ill. 28 - Construction principle of the joint

Ill. 29 - Construction principle of the unit

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PRESENTATION

DETAIL #1 The choice of using Low-E windows from Pilkington with a U-value of 0.724W/m2K meant that the transmission losses through the windows could be kept low. Comparing the value to the U-value of the wall construction of 0.09W/ m2K, the choice of window is a significant one to make when trying to bring down the transmission losses of the building. Furthermore the use of Leca-Term in the foundation made it possible to reduce the transmission losses while also reducing the amount of concrete used, thus being more sustainable.

#1 Parquet Flooring 22mm

1.1

Heat Distribuation Plate 1mm Aluminium

1.2

22mm Floor Heating Particleboard 28mm

1.3 1.4

Rockwool Styrolit 30 mm

1.5

Pilkington Optiterm s3 Low-E

1.6

Window Ledge in Brick

1.7 1.8 1.9

Moisture Barrier 1mm Bitumen Suporting Mortar

Plaster 10mm

1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13

Cross Laminated Timber

1.14

300mm Molding Firm Styrolit

1.15

Grey Brick RandersTegl 15mm Airgap Drip Cap 1mm Aluminium

Reinforced Concrete Slab

1.16

Capillary Break Layer 8-16mm & 16-32mm

1.17

LecaTerm 490mm

1.18

0.4 mmm. Sandpillow

1.19

Reinforced Conrete

1.20

Soil

1.21

Ill. 30 - Connection to terrain in courtyard 1:25

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-0.72 -1.26


PRESENTATION

DETAIL #2 When solving the joining of the window in the wall, an automatic solar shading device was incorporated into the back of the reinforced brickwork. The mounting of the windows is done using 90° angle brackets, connected to the CLT horizontally. Brick has been chosen for the exterior windowsill and above the windows to keep the consistency in the materials. The constructive protection of the window structure is Pilkington’s own system of having a protective aluminium cape covering the wood.

#2 Moisture Barrier 0.20mm

2.1

Jointfiller in Drip cap

2.2

Window Ledge in Brick

2.3

Moisture Barrier 1mm Bitumen

2.4

Suporting Mortar

2.5

Airgap 15mm

2.6

Solar Shading

2.7

Gutter For Precipitation

2.8

Reinforced Brick

2.9

30mm Sill in Laminated Spruce

2.10

Moisture Barrier

2.11

CLT

2.12

Moisture Barrier

2.11

Moisture Barrier

2.11

Moisture Barrier

2.11

3.40

Ill. 31 - Connection of window in wall 1:25

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PRESENTATION

PRESENTATION

DETAIL #3

DETAIL #4

The joint between the CLT flooring elements and the CLT wall elements benefits from CLTs characteristic strength of having two grain directions. In the joining of the balcony the use of RockwoolTM’s Hardrock and Hardrock Wedge, has been used to lead water to the drainage. The system is suitable for mounting asphalt roofing, which is used as the water barrier underneath the wooden boards of the balcony. In order to hinder transmission losses, additional insulation is added in a suspended ceiling system still keeping the minimum height of 2.5m.

The detail shows how the solar panels are mounted using a system with asphalt roofing underneath to dispose of water. The insulation is hard and is suitable for mounting asphalt roofing. The internal gutter is integrated into the construction with RockwoolTM’s RockPanel, a sustainable façade cladding. The construction of the roof is designed to achieve a U-value of 0.09W/m2K, having CLT elements as its integral part, exposed in the interior to allow for the CLT finish to be the architectural expression of the interior design.

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30

#4 20

0

12 5

8.82

4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12

8.29

#3 Zink Covering

0

Window Sill 30mm Pilkington Optiterm s3 Low-e

69

7.29

CLT 125mm Solar Shading

30

Rockwool Rockpanel

0

Zink Gutter

10

Zink Covering

15

Roofing Asphalt

5

230mm x 55mm Beam 357mm RockWool HardRock

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

50

Bearing for PVs 15 mm Photovoltaic Panels

3.1

Support Rafter

3.2

Wooden Cladding

3.3

C-Iron with vertical wodden posts

3.4

Bitumen 2 layer 2x2mm

3.7

Zink Gutter

3.8

Moisture Barrier PVC Foil 2mm

3.9

Hardrock Rockwool & Hardrock Wedge 380mm

3.10

150mm Cross Laminated Timber

3.11

350mm FLEXIBATTS Rockwool

3.12

125mm Cross Laminated Timber

3.13

Ill. 32 - Connection of the balcony and roof 1:25

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6.12

145

2% slope

620

3.6

6.19

300

3.5

Steel Bracket Leveler

5.86

108

Wooden planks 30 mm

10 30

6.18

5.56


PRESENTATION

PRESENTATION

DETAIL #5

DETAIL #6

The north-east and north-west facing roofs are the least suitable surface for solar panels. Therefore the roof has been clad with a metal sheeting roof construction to mimic the patterns of the solar panels. The exterior framework of the roof is built traditionally from beams, rafters and battens with a ventilated air gap above the insulation to prevent any condensation. The ridge cap is provided with outlets for the ventilated gap. Other materials have been considered for the cladding of the roof to select the material with the least amount of embodied energy. A close contender was shale because of its low amount of embodied energy; however the shale would have to be shipped from Spain which would impact the embodied energy a lot.

The detail shows how the gutter is integrated into the construction of the brick wall. The diffusion open membrane is glued to the zinc covering with grout before it enters the gutter, making the transition water proof. The construction of the roof is designed to achieve a U-value of 0.09W/m2K, having CLT elements as its integral part, exposed in the interior to allow for the CLT finish to be the architectural expression of the interior design.

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12.08

#5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Ridge Covering Airgap Diffusion-Open Membrane Metal Sheeting panels Batten 30mm x 30mm Rafter

#6

8.82

6.1

Metal Sheeting panels

6.2

Batten 30mm x 30mm

6.3

357mm RockWool HardRock

6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15

Diffusion-Open Membrane Rafters 30mm x 70mm Zinc Covering Zinc Covering Zinc Gutter Grey Brick RandersTegl 350mm Rockwool Flexibatts Airgap 15mm Moisture Barrier 0.20mm Solar Shading Reinforced Brick Pilkington Optiterm s3 Low-E

Ill. 33 - The metal roof meets the brick wall 1:25

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PRESENTATION

PRESENTATION

DETAIL #7

DETAIL #8

The detail shows how the suspended ceiling contains the ducts for the mechanical ventilation system. The system being used is GyprocTM suspensions brackets, which have been mounted in the above CLT flooring elements. The insulation of the suspended system and the gypsum cladding reduces the noise created by the ducts. The detail also shows how the lowered windows add architectural qualities by providing the opportunity to use the windowsill for additional seating area.

The detail shows the concrete slab of the foundation in the underground car park. In the above apartment the height is changing with a 3-step staircase that separates the private functions from the remaining functions of the apartment and creates spatial qualities in the floor plan. The window detail shows how Pilkington blind panels have been used to maintain a consistency in the facade.

3.40

521

150

30

28

28

3.06

22mm Laths Moisture Barrier Insulation 250mm Suspencion Brackets Gyproc 50mm Insulation Nilair Heatrecovery system

Ill. 34 - Suspended ceiling 1:25

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7

13

Gypsym 12.5

22 75

175

#7

2.54


0.94 #8

0.29

3

-0.11 3

350mm Rockwool Flexibatts/Vertical Rafters

8.3

Moisture barrier 10 mm

8.4 8.5

15 Ventilation Gap

8.6

Grey Brick Rander Tegl

12mm Grout

8.7

100mm Styrolit

8.8

125mm Cross Laminated Timber

8.9

CLT Bracket

8.10

Concrete Slab 200mm

250 250

1441

200

150

5

150

150

30

28

3 25

200

5

40

5 100

Pilkington Ventilated Window Panels

8.2

7 557

666

303

275

30 28 25

0.00

8.1

8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16

Capillary Break Layer 8-16mm Capillary Break Layer 16-32mm Sandpillow, 0.4mm Styrolit 160mm Conrete Wall 250mm Foundation Reinforced Concrete 400mm

-2.40 Ill. 35 - Parking 1:25

50


“There is a paradigmatic shift in our understanding of architecture and humanity’s place within the environment rather than apart from it.” Thomas Schröpfer, 2012: Ecological Urban Architecture


SITE ANALYSIS


The site is studied from different perspectives to achieve an understanding of potentials and shortcomings associated with this site and its surroundings. Studies have been made concerning vegetation, infrastructure, functions, climate and municipal plans for the site and the surroundings. The conclusion from the analyses forms the basis for the future design criteria.


SITE ANALYSIS

LOCATION Studying the city of Aalborg leads to an enhanced knowledge of the city and its transformation through time. This knowledge will prove useful when designing in the context of the city.

LOCATION The first information about Aalborg originates from the 8th century. The city is strategically placed next to Limfjorden, which provided the city with much influence and trade power. It is often said that Aalborg is undergoing a transformation from an industrial city to a knowledge based society (Wikipedia, 2015, Aalborg) and at its contemporary state Aalborg is very much a merge of both. The perimeter of the site is outlined by Ladegårdsgade, Vesterbro and the railway and the site acts as a meeting point between the vegetation of the ‘Drasstrup Kilen’, the low-open housing typology of Hasseris and high-dense typology of Aalborg City Centre. Official statistics from 2014 informs that there are 109092 people living in the city of Aalborg and 205809 living in ‘Aalborg Kommune’. This makes it the fourth

55

largest city in Denmark when considering the number of inhabitants and the current housing statistics shows that the majority of the population is living in one or two person apartments. (Aalborg Kommune, 2014)

RAILWAY

VESTERBRO Ill. 36 - Site location

Plot area


SITE ANALYSIS

VEGETATION Analyzing the vegetation of the area provides an understanding of how the flora is scattered in locally and also what kind of flora can be found in the vicinity of the site. ‘Drasstrup Kilen’ – a green wedge that connects the outskirts of Aalborg with the city centre, ends right at the periphery of the site. The wedge is a part of a much bigger communal strategy labeled the ‘Green-Blue Structure’, which revolves around an interconnection between the city and the nature, achieved by having these green wedges penetrating the city. (Aalborg Kommune, 2010) ‘Drasstrup Kilen’ is just one of many wedges that penetrate the city centre. These wedges are categorized into two groups; the ones originating in the highlands, characterized by a hilly terrain which is high above the sea-level and the ones that originates in the lowlands, characterized by a more flat terrain that is closer to the sea-level. ‘Drasstrup Kilen’ has its origin in the highlands. (Aalborg Kommune, 2010)

Taking a closer look at the local context of the site the highland nature seems to have been mellowed down to the regular, straight nature of the graveyard with its flat grass, bushes and trees.

DRASSTRUP KILEN

Green spaces

Ill. 37 - Green-Blue Structure

Green sp

Green spaces create the Aalborg center to

Ill. 38 - Green areas

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SITE ANALYSIS LA

DE

SA TJ NK

E

DE

The site currently functions as a parking lot, providing the community with roughly 275 parking lots and observations show that most of them are occupied during working hours. Changing the functionality of the site from a parking lot to a residential complex will reduce the amount of area available for parking and most of the HASSERlots provided will be reserved for the resparking ISGAD E idents.

ERB RO

GA

AY

ILW

RA

SA

DE

NK

G

AR D

GE

ØR

TJ

SG

AD

E

NS

STENGAD

VE ST

ERB

DE

RO

GA

E

RA ILW JER

D GA NS SE

NB A

NE

IN PR

GA

DE

AY

E

HASSER

ISGADE

DAN

MAR

PR E AD

SG

EN

S IN

Ill. 39 - Roads hierarchy

MAIN ROADS

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AD

STENGADE

NS

LA

TRAFFIC NETWORK The site is directly connected to ‘Vesterbro’, which is one of the main streets of Aalborg because of its connection to ‘Nørresundby’ via ‘Limfjordsbroen’. ‘Vesterbro’ is a very busy street, subject to a lot of cars, bicycles and pedestrians. The northern side of the plot is outlined by streets with much less traffic volume and to the west the plot is bordered by the railway, which also happens to be the physical border between the City Centre and ‘Vestbyen’ on the site. Despite being surrounded by streets, the site feels disconnected, like a blank space in the City Centre.

GE

The infrastructure of the site and its surroundings has been analyzed to determine how traffic is moving in and around the site and how the site is connected to the surrounding context. This knowledge is used to develop the flow lines through the site and how to best connect the site with its surroundings in order to best accommodate the needs of the inhabitants.

AR D

SG

ØR

PARKING

G

VE ST

INFRASTRUCTURE

SECONDARY ROADS TERTIARY ROADS RAILWAY

Roads’ structure:

KSG

ADE

MAIN ROADS MAIN ROADS SECONDARY ROADS SECONDARY ROADS TERTIARY ROADS TERTIARY ROADS RAILWAY RAILWAY

Roads’ structure: The plot is located in direct connection with Vesterbro which i it leads to the Limfjordsbroen - the main bridge of Aalborg city which is a subject to a lot of car, bicycle and people traffic. Fr ded by the streets with less traffic volume. From the west the s


Nois

Train a on hei

NOISE The noise pollution on site is mainly produced by the railway to the south and ‘Vesterbro’ to the east. During the day the noise from ‘Vesterbro’ can reach levels of up to 75dB and the noise from the train can reach levels of up to 70dB, both values measured in a height of 1.5m. However the noise registered on the site only ranges from 55dB to 65dB due to the trench that the railway is placed in and the buildings that shields the site from the busy street of ‘Vesterbro’. These values correspond with the maximum permissible values from the Danish Building Regulations of 58dB from roads and 64dB from railways. (Bygningsreglementet, 2014, 6.4.2)

Informati http://mi

Noise map

Train and road noise, day on height 1,5m

70-75DB 70-75 dB 65-70DB 65-70 dB 60-65DB 60-65 dB 55-60 dB 55-60DB

Ill. 40 - Noise pollution

Information source: http://miljoegis.mim.dk/spatialmap?&profile=noise

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SITE ANALYSIS

LOCAL FUNCTIONS & DISTANCES The local area is mapped to get an overview of the nearby functions. This is done to determine possible shortages of certain functions in the vicinity of the site and the resulting information can be used to decide which functions could be added to the new complex to increase its value for the new residents and the residents of the surroundings. The mapping is shown in illustration 41.

CULTURE The ‘Aalborg Historiske Museum’ and the theatre of Aalborg are available within a walking distance of 5 minutes. The churches of ‘Budolfi Kirke’, ‘Angars Kirken’, ‘Sct. Mariæ Kirke’ and ‘Vor Frelsers Kirke’ can be reached from a 10 minute walk. Walking for 10 minutes, it is also possible to reach ‘Aalborg Kongres og Kultur Center’ and ‘Utzon Center’, ‘Nordkraft’ and ‘Musikkens Hus’ can be reached by a 10 minute bicycle trip.

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TRANSIT

COMMUNAL

A study of which functions are reachable within walking – or bicycling distances, shows that walking for less than 15 minutes or bicycling for less than 5 minutes takes you to either of the two train stations of ‘Aalborg Vestby Station’ and ‘Aalborg Station’, which connects to the rest of Denmark. Several bus stops, servicing numerous bus lines, is also available within a 5 minute walking distance and three car parks, along with numerous parking spots that are scattered throughout the city, can be reached by walking for less than 10 minutes.

Due to the central location of the site, several communal functions are available within walking and bicycling distances. Reaching ‘Sygehus Nord’ or the cathedral school of Aalborg takes only 5 minutes and by adding 5 more minutes several other educational facilities and kindergartens can be reached including the cemetery, ‘Almen Kirkegård’. It is possible to reach all of the aforementioned destinations including even more kindergartens and educational facilities with a bicycle trip of 5 minutes.


LEISURE Numerous cafés and restaurants can be reached from a 5 minute walk to ‘Reberbansgade’. By walking for 10 minutes, ‘Nytorv’ and ‘Ved Stranden’ can be reached and both locations provides a multitude of different restaurants and places to dine. In regards to shopping possibilities, the main shopping streets of ‘Bispensgade’ and ‘Algade’ can be reached by walking for less than 10 minutes. There are lots of opportunities for grocery shopping nearby, offering a large variety of options when it comes to quality and price range. This provides the different social classes with an array of choices and accommodates a social diversity in the area.

Ill. 41 - Local functions and distances

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SITE ANALYSIS

BUILDING HEIGHTS & TERRAIN TERRAIN

Analyzing the elevations of the site and the The plot is located in a relatively flat terrain with 5-6 storey heights of the surrounding buildings reveals the height differ¬ences ranging within 0.5m to 1m. 3-4 storey slope thewith terrain and explores height dif-0,5-1 m. Generally the terrain slopes down in a northward d in relatively flat of area differences in terrainthe heights within In 2 storey scape is going a littleofbit down towards the north. The importmajor landscape ferences the context which are both direction, but the only major change in1storey the landh located in the southern part of the plot. It is an element which was artifiant parameters for choosing where to build and scape is the trench located in the southern part a man and it a location of a railway. The trench is separated from the plot not to. ofup the plot which is artificially made and is used fference inwhere the height comparing to the average height of the plot is a terrain modification decrease a negative impact of the railway. for Itthe railway tracks to lower the noise levels. ise level on the site. On the other hand, on the east border of the site the BUILDING HEIGHTS The terbro street is placed relatively higher than the plot. The highest point of height difference from the plot to the boted in the area of the small bridge over the rails. Overall the area is quite homogenous when tom of the trench is 3.5m. On the opposite side considering the heights of the buildings. The of the trench the terrain height is nearly identical homogenous in buildings' height. Main building along Vesterbro have building that is adjacent to ‘Vesterbro’ is bethat of the plot. ‘Vesterbro’ is on a higher leveys. Lower buildings are located in the north-western part of the plot.to The he area is tween a hospital building but it high. is not Lower placedbuildings in a direct neighbour6 and 7 storeys are el than the plot with its highest point being the located north-west of the plot and the tallest bridge that crosses the railway, 2m above the building in the vicinity is ‘Sygehus Nord’ with its terrain height of the plot. 15 storeys, although not directly adjacent to the Terrain and buildings’ height site.

A

ngs’ height

The plot is located in relatively flat area with differences in terrain heights within 0,5-1 m. In general, the landscape is going a little bit down towards the north. The major landscape change is a trench located in the southern part of the plot. It is an element which was artificially created by a man and it a location of a railway. The trench is separated from the plot by a slope. The difference in the height comparing to the average height of the plot is up to 3,5 m. Such a terrain modification decrease a negative impact of the railway. It decreases the noise level on the site. On the other hand, on the east border of the site the terrain raises. Vesterbro street is placed relatively higher than the plot. The highest point of the street is located in the area of the small bridge over the rails.

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The area is quite homogenous in buildings' height. Main building along Vesterbro have between 6-7 storeys. Lower buildings are located in the north-western part of the plot. The highest point in the area is a hospital building but it is not placed in a+0,4 direct neighbourhood.

B

B

6-5 STOREY 3-4 STOREY 22storey STOREY 1storey 1 STOREY

N

SECTION A SCALE: 1:4000

5-6 storey

A

3-4 storey

B

Ill. 42 - Building heights +34,0

+18,5

+21,5

0,00

+0,2

PLOT AREA

+2,0 -3.2

B

N

SECTION A SCALE: 1:4000


ain modification decrease a negative of highest the railway. It street is placed relatively higher than theimpact plot. The point of el on theofsite. thebridge other hand, on rails. the east border of the site the he area theOn small over the street is placed relatively higher than the plot. The highest point of he area of small bridge thebuilding rails. genous in the buildings' height.over Main along Vesterbro have wer buildings are located in the north-western part of the plot. The genous in buildings' height. Vesterbro have a is a hospital building but it Main is notbuilding placed along in a direct neighbourwer buildings are located in the north-western part of the plot. The a is a hospital building but it is not placed in a direct neighbour-

B B

N N

SECTION A SCALE: 1:4000 SECTION A SCALE: 1:4000

+34,0 +34,0 +18,5 +18,5

+21,5 +21,5

+0,4

+0,2

0,00

+2,0

+0,4

+0,2

0,00

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-3.2 -3.2

PLOT PLOTAREA AREA

Ill. 43 - Terrain section AA

PLOT AREA

SECTION A SCALE: 1:1000 SECTION A SCALE: 1:1000

+18,5 +18,5 +0,9

+0,5

0,00

+0,9

+0,5

0,00

-3.2 -3.2

PLOT AREA Ill. 44 - Terrain section BB

PLOT AREA PLOT AREA

SECTION B SCALE: 1:1000 SECTION B SCALE: 1:1000 62


SITE ANALYSIS

IDENTITY MATERIALS A study is made to get an idea of the contemporary identity of the site and what experiences the visitors may undergo when arriving to the site. This information will be considered and redeveloped through the design process.

ARRIVAL Illustration 45 provides different views when entering and leaving the site and clearly shows how different ‘Vesterbro’ is from ‘Ladegårdsgade’ and ‘Urbansgade’. Where ‘Vesterbro’ is a four-lane main road, outlined by six storey buildings and wide walkways, ‘Ladegårdsgade’ and ‘Urbansgade’ are both small two-lane roads, outlined by two or three storey buildings with adjacent trees planted next to the road. Upon entering from ‘Vesterbro’ you are met with the statue of ‘Gåsepigen’, a well-known statue and landmark to the residents of Aalborg, and when standing next to the statue you are able to get a glimpse of the site. Entering the site from Ladegårdsgade you are met by a large urban art piece, painted on the gable of a building, which makes the area of the entrance stand out by providing it with artistic quality.

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Studying the materials of the surrounding buildings it becomes clear that bricks are the material of choice and that both red and yellow bricks are what creates the dominant color palette. Some of the buildings are plastered on the ground level and the plaster has then been painted in different colors which helps break the repetitiveness. The site itself is mainly covered in asphalt due to its contemporary function and the asphalt is only interrupted by occasional curbs around bushes. The pavement of the square at ‘Gåsepigen’ is cobblestones, laid in a pattern that compliments the square and its ambience. The northern part of the site is currently dominated by the concrete buildings of the hospital. These buildings are clad with coffered elements made out of concrete, which due to their shape looks really worn out even though the construction itself is not weakened. Ill. 45 - Identity


SITE ANALYSIS

WORTH PRESERVING The project description and the municipal plan both states which buildings are to be considered as worthy of preservation and which buildings are not. Combined with a general observation of the characteristics of the site a diagram has been formed, showing which buildings are to be preserved in accordance with the project description and the municipal plan, which buildings are to be considered further and which buildings are to be demolished on the site.

ther because they create a background to the ‘Gåsepigen’ statue and demolishing these buildings could unfavorably destroy the scale and quality of the square.

Illustration 46 shows that the buildings worthy of preservation are the ones facing ‘Vesterbro’ and these are marked green. All the buildings on the northern part of the plot will be demolished due to the bad condition of the facade and the lack of architectural value furthermore the buildings are also being demolished to produce BUILDINGS TO BE DESTROYED The buildings which should be preserved are these which face Vesterbro street. We decided to destroy all the buildings in the northern part of the plot as they are in architectural value. We also left for further considerations the preservation of the buildings in north-eastern part of the plot. As they create a frontage of Gåspigen sq BUILDINGS FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS sufficient space for the new residential complex. destroy them. BUILDINGS TO BE PRESERVED On the diagram these buildings are marked red. The buildings that require further considerations Ill. 46 - Buildings worth preserving arewhich theshould buildings that are are marked with yellow The buildings be preserved these which face Vesterbro street. We decided to destroy all the buildings in the northern part of the plot as they are in bad condition and they don’t present a high architectural value. We also left for further considerations the preservation of the buildings in north-eastern part of the plot. As they create a frontage of Gåspigen square it could be unfavourable for the area to and this are the buildings on the northeastern destroy them. part of the plot. They are to be considered fur-

BUILDI

BUILDI

TO BE DESTROYED TO BE CONSIDERED TO BE PRESERVED

BUILDI

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SITE ANALYSIS

CLIMATE SHADOWS An analysis of the sun, temperature, precipitation and wind is made in order to evaluate the climate conditions of the site. The studies will reveal the behavior of the sun in different seasons and guide the design by estimating the most optimal orientation of the apartments in regard to heat gains and daylight. Furthermore the wind, temperature and precipitation studies will provide information on how to design favorable outdoor spaces and where to place them.

A study has been made using Google Skethcup to show the shadows casted on the ground level of the site by nearby buildings. The study is made for the days that has the most (summer 21/6), the least (winter - 21/12) and an average (spring/fall - 21/3 and 21/9) amount of daylight hours and are made for a morning scenario at 08:00, a noon scenario at 12:00 and an afternoon scenario at 16:00 when people are arriving home from their daytime jobs. N

SUN The sun rises at about 04:30 on the longest day of the year (21/06) and sets at about 19:30. The steepest angle of the sun on this day is roughly 57°. On the shortest day of the year (21/12) the sun rises at 07:15 and sets at 16:30. The steepest angle of the sun on this day is roughly 10°. In the spring the sun rises at 06:00 and sets at 18:10 and in the autumn it rises at 05:40 and sets at 18:00. The steepest angle of the sun during these periods is about 30°.

330°

300°

W

19

60°

8

18 240°

E

9 17

16

210°

Ill. 47 - Sun position

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30°

10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90°

15

14

13

S

12

11

10

150°

120°

Illustration 48 shows the scenario with the highest amount of daylight which reveals that the majority of the site is not being influenced by the shadows cast by the surrounding buildings and that the site is only really affected in the morning due to the tall building adjacent to ‘Vesterbro’. Illustration 49 shows the scenario with the lowest amount of daylight. In this scenario the conditions for direct sun on the ground level is quite poor and the study reveals that the site is overshadowed in the morning and in the afternoon, with only a small amount of direct sun occurring at noon. The day with the average amount of daylight is displayed in illustration 50 which shows that the site will be overshadowed in the morning due to the building adjacent to ‘Vesterbro’. At noon only minor parts will be overshadowed and in the afternoon the site is almost free from any shade caused by the surroundings.


21/6

21/12

21/3(9)

08:00

TEMPERATURE Looking at the annual temperatures of the area they normally range between -2°C and 21°C. In the winter period the temperatures rarely drops below -10°C and in the summer period they only occasionally rise above 26°C. Illustration 51 shows that the cold season spans from November 20th to March 22nd with a daily average temperature below 6°C and the coldest day being February 16th. The warm season spans from June 2nd to September 7th with a daily average temperature of 17°C and the hottest day of the year being August 2nd. (WeatherSpark, 2015)

12:00

COLD

WARM

COLD

25°C JUN 2 17°C

20°C

SEP 7 17°C

15°C 10°C

16:00

10°C

9°C

NOV 20 6°C

FEB 12 2°C

5°C 0°C

2°C

-2°C

-5°C -10°C

Ill. 48 - Shadows 21/6

Ill. 49 - Shadows 21/12

Ill. 50 - Shadows 21/3(9)

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

Ill. 51 - Average temperature

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

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PRECIPITATION

WIND

Throughout the year at least 50% of the days will have precipitation and through the specific months of December and January 75% of the days will have precipitation. Due to the temperature conditions approximately 35% of the precipitation will fall as snow and about 50% will fall as ‘moderate rain’. (WeatherSpark, 2015)

The dominant wind direction on site is west-southwest, estimated to happen 33.5% of the year. The second most common wind direction is east-southeast, estimated to happen 21.4% of the year, but the building adjacent to ‘Vesterbro’ will shield most of the site from the east-southeastern winds. (Windfinder, 2015)

Illustration 52 shows that the majority of the snow will be falling in the period between December and March, but that snowfall can also occur as early as November and as late as April and these values also correlated with the results of the temperature analysis.

Taking a look at the velocity of the wind, illustration 54 shows general velocities varying from 1m/s to 8m/s and that it will rarely exceed 14m/s. The highest average wind velocity measured is 6m/s, marked with a black line. This occurs around January the 13th where the average daily maximum wind velocity is measured to be around 8m/s, marked by the green line. The lowest average velocity is measured to be 4m/s and occurs on August the 1st, where the daily maximum is measured to be 7m/s. (WeatherSpark, 2015)

DEC 22 75%

80% JAN 1 75% OCT 1 65%

70% 60%

JUL 2 54%

MAY 7 50%

50%

LIGHT RAIN (11%)

40% 30% 20%

LIGHT SNOW (11%)

MODERATE RAIN(48%)

MODERATE SNOW (26%)

NNE

14 12

NW

NE

10 8 6 4 2

WNW

ENE

W

E

WSW

ESE

SW

SE SSW

Ill. 53 - Average wind direction

SSE

S

14 m/s 12 m/s 10 m/s DAILY MAX JAN 13 8 m/s 8 m/s

DAILY MAX AUG 1 7 m/s

DAILY MEAN 6 m/s 6 m/s

DAILY MEAN 4 m/s

2 m/s

THUNDERSTORMS (10%) JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

Ill. 52 - Average precipitation

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N

NNW

4 m/s

10% 0%

WIND DIRECTION DISTRIBUTION IN (%) YEAR

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

0 m/s

JAN

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MAR

APR

MAY

Ill. 54 - Average wind speed

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC


SITE ANALYSIS

DISTRICT & MUNICIPAL PLAN BUILDING POSSIBILITIES Reviewing the district and municipal plan for the site achieves understanding of the visions for the site as presented by ‘Aalborg Kommune’. Important aspects have then been picked out and mentioned below.

WISHES FOR THE SITE - Keep the mixed urban programming - Preserve building and historical values in the area - Strengthen the residential area of Aalborg City Centre, putting emphasis on architecture, lighting and public areas - Parking facilities should be improved o Public areas is ranked higher than parking area o Public and parking areas should be ‘green’

- Floor area ratio to be no higher than 235% - Building no higher than 6.5 storeys - Maximum depth of buildings to be between 8m and 10m in order to fit the context - Connection to the district heating is obligatory

To sum up, ‘Aalborg Kommune’ would like the site to have two main functions, the one being a parking lot and the second being an addition to the urban program of the city. Complying with most of the above points will provide a more realistic final design.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT - The area is effected by noise and vibration from the railway tracks - Adding new buildings should strengthen the architectural expression

TRAFFIC - A focus should be put on good connections to public transportation - Already established paths should be preserved

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SITE ANALYSIS

SITE ANALYSIS CONCLUSION Because of its ongoing transformation from an industrial city to a knowledge based society, Aalborg has seen a rise in demands for housing facilities for students and young couples. (Boligen, 2011) Keeping up with this demand will help to further expedite the transformation and ensure that the apartments of the residential complex can provide attractive tenancies for its future residents. The site is located on the border between the suburban ‘low-open’ housing typology of Hasseris and the ‘high-dense’ housing typology of the City Centre. This clash can be explored further in the design process and possibly allow the complex to become a hybrid between the two. The ‘Green-Blue Structure’-plan of Aalborg continues the vegetation far into the city context by several green wedges. However the highland nature of ‘Drasstrup Kilen’ seems to have been mellowed down with the very flat nature of the cemetery. Creating a building on the end of one of the green wedges should somehow relate to its nature and in the design the wedge

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with its highland nature is sought continued onto the site to expose and highlight its end point. Despite it being surrounded by roads of different proportions, the site feels like a disconnected and blank space in the City Centre. Designing a flow through the site will provide transit and connect the site to the surroundings. The noise pollution from ‘Vesterbro’ is negligible for most parts of the site and the noise pollution from the railway should only be considered when building very close to it. Ultimately the noise levels of the site will have a small impact on the design.

CONTINUATION OF THE GREEN WEDGE

The plot lays between city center and suburbs (Vestbyen) with greenery. Ill. 55 - Green wedge

Because of the very central location of the site, a large array of functions can be reached by just walking for 5 or 10 minutes. Changing the mode of transportation from walking to bicycling allows everything to be in reach within 10 minutes.

JOINT BETWEEN SUBURB AND DENSE CITY

We would like to connect the plot with the city and in the same time create a connection with green areas Ill. 56 - Joint


Whereas the terrain height is proven to not have a very big impact on the design, the building heights are quite important to consider so that the design becomes an addition to the City Centre.

CLASH BETWEEN LOW OPEN & HIGH DENSE The plot lays between city center and suburbs (Vestbyen) with greenery.

Ill. 57 - Typologies

OPTIMAL DAYLIGHT CONDITIONS

The arrival is important to consider and the current scenario already provide great qualities, making it important to consider how to provide similar or improved qualities for the new arrival. The material choice of the context provides a very similar looking color palette which leaves considerations of either standing out by using a different color palette or relating to the current palette.

The sun path analysis and the study of the shadows casted onto the site show lots of potential for the development of a residential complex. The railway running to the south provides distance between the site and the closest buildings in the southward direction, which makes for greatly lit, south facing outdoor areas. To counteract the high chance of precipitation, rain water reservoirs could be integrated into these outdoor areas to collect the rain water and prevent any risk of flooding. With this knowledge four diagrams have been made to sum up the results.

The majority of the buildings that are not worthy of preservation is being demolished to provide sufficient space for the new complex. However there are a few buildings that require further considerations because they provide certain qualities when regarding the entrance to the site.

The height of the coplex can be adjusted to light conditions on the site Ill. 58 - Daylight

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“European cities are growing, and today 4/5 of the European population live in urbanised areas. These areas have spread into the countryside forming larger regional networks that can be described as cities without limits. For several years, the European Comission and their experts on the urban development have warned about the related problems of urban sprawl and the resource consumption, and suggested more compact urban development as a potential solutionâ€? Poul BĂŚk Pedersen, 2009: Sustainable Compact City


STUDIES


To acquire knowledge regarding sustainability in all its different forms, studies have been made concerning social sustainability and environmental sustainability in the form of passive and active principles of energy and life cycle assessments.


STUDIES

SOCIAL SUSTAINABILTY SOCIAL ANALYSIS

HOUSING

Most people in Denmark live in nuclear families and according to the statistics there are 1.7 children per family. Despite that, there are also a large number of adults living without a partner that still has children, but the situation is changing and marriage is slowly stopping to be a prerequisite for a family. As a direct response to this change, the demographics of Denmark shows that the need for apartments for single people, living alone, is rising. The economic status of these groups are not the same and neither are the spatial features needed. The establishment of the welfare state is one of the reasons for the shifting demographic situation. Women have a much easier time entering the job market and are often occupying high-position jobs resulting in a relatively high average birth age of 29 years old. There is a great increase in individualism and single style of life which means that not only one solution will fit the needs of all user groups. Making different apartment typologies should therefore serve the social sustainability. (Index Mundi, 2014)

Looking at the current housing situation in Aalborg Municipality shows that the majority of residents reside in one-person or two-person apartments. However these types of apartments can also be regarded as the less sustainable ones because the amount of installations required per apartment does not scale linearly with the amount of inhabitants. This will have to taken into account when choosing the distribution of the different apartment types, by trying to combine the larger, more sustainable apartments with the smaller and less sustainable ones. This could be achieved by combining the small apartments with the big apartments in the staircases and thus making them share the installations to establish a sustainable average output of the apartments.

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HOUSING KOMMUNE HOUSINGSITUATION SITUATION ININ AALBORG AALBORG KOMMUNE NUMBER OF PERSONS

NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS

AVERAGE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS

1x

40,929

40,929

1

2x

63,866

31,933

2

3x

30,921

10,307

3

4x

39,620

9,905

4

5x

15,415

3,083

5

6x

3,816

636

6

7x

1,099

157

7

8x

672

84

8

9x

252

28

9

10+

836

39

21,4

TOTAL

197,426

97,101

2,0

AVERAGE

Ill. 59 - Housing situation Information source: Aalborg Kommune 2010 http://apps.aalborgkommune.dk/statistik/webaarbog/Folketal2010/struktur/Hele_Kommunen/indexlevel1/HeleKommunenHusstande.html


STUDIES

MATERIAL SUSTAINABILITY When designing sustainable architecture the choosing of materials deviates from the traditional choice, usually based on aesthetics and economy. With regards to sustainability the environmental impact of the materials becomes much more important and should play a significant part in the choice, which should of course still address the importance of aesthetics and economy.

RAW MATERIAL EXTRACTION

When considering the environmental impact of the different materials there are multiple parameters that come into play, some questions that should be considered when choosing a material are: - How is it manufactured? - How much energy is required to manufacture it? - How much energy is used to transport the material from producer to site? - How easy is it to maintain and dismantle? - What happens at the end of the materials’ service life?

MATERIAL PRODUCTION MANUFACTURING

RECYCLING UTILIZATION

DISPOSAL Ill. 60 - Life cycle assessment

END OF LIFE 76


BRICK Brick as a material is very durable and for that very reason it has also frequently been used throughout history. The steady focus shift from durability to sustainability has however forces the brick contractors to come up with alternatives methods for harvesting the material and producing bricks in order to compete with other materials that are naturally more sustainable. The following embodied energy analysis is made by the brick manufacturer Boral Bricks Inc. which of course makes it subjective, but it exemplifies how a brick manufacturer could argue that bricks are the most sustainable choice. The brick contains more embodied energy per ton than wood due to the process it has to undergo from extracting the raw materials and manufacturing the brick to transporting the bricks to the construction site and assembling the structure. However the brick wins when it comes to the estimated additional energy requirements for maintenance, where brick is close to maintenance free compared to wood which has to be surface treated repeatedly during its lifetime. This also reflects on the lifetime of the products

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where brick is estimated to 100 years compared to 25 years for wood, although if passive wood preservation techniques are used, the maintenance can be drastically reduced and the life time increased proven by the stave churches of Norway, some of which has been standing for hundreds of years. The comparison of the durability of the materials becomes very important in this case seeing as when the embodied energy is divided over the life span of the material, the brick becomes the favorable choice. Using efficient manufacturing practices for mining the clay and firing the bricks in the kilns can reduce the embodied energy of the bricks and have a positive impact on the environmental footprint. The environmental impact can further be reduced by using alternative non-fossil energy sources such as burning methane collected from landfills, sawdust and agricultural waste products. By ensuring an efficient transportation between the quarry and the production site and between the production site and the construction

sites will impact the environmental footprint. It is also possible to further reduce the energy used for transportation by developing light-weight products, for instance replacing some of the clay with shale or wood fibers. Bricks can be made from otherwise unwanted materials such as mine tailings, which are the materials left over from separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction. Like stated previously waste products, such as sawdust, can be incorporated into the brick to create a product that is lighter but just as durable. A minimal amount of waste is produced in manufacturing and building with bricks. One kilogram of clay yields almost one kilogram of brick once water is extracted and any materials that are left over from a batch can be remixed into the next batch. On the construction site any brick debris can be recycled by either reusing remaining bricks in other projects or by crushing the material and using it as aggregate when producing concrete. (Boral Brick Inc., 2009)


Table 01 - Embodied energy

Ill. 61 - Bricks

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CLT Using Cross laminated timber as the structural system for the urban block raise the question of how sustainable it is, both in comparison to other materials but also in the context of fabrication and handling of the materials in the manufacturing process. Cross-laminated timber is traditionally made out of spruce, (StoraEnso, 2012) which is the most common wood species used by the wood industry. StoraEnso CLT, an Austrian company that has specialized in the process of cross lamination, does the manufacturing of the elements which are laminated using adhesive free glue that puts no strain on the environment. The company is certified with the PEFC label, which is an international non-profit and non-governmental organization, dedicated to promoting sustainable forest management. (PEFC, 2015) One of their beliefs is that you should “Think Global act Local�. This quote covers the very heart of sustainable thinking by stating that companies buying wood across borders should care for their own environment by only purchasing PEFC

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labelled wood and through that encourage a broader use of sustainable wood. Concerning the finish of the surface, CLT has just as many benefits as concrete. It can be left untreated on walls and ceilings, but it will have to be treated with a finish if used for flooring, due to the softness of the spruce. (InventarDesign, 2008) Using CLT as a facade element will expose the material to weathering and over time decompose it, making it an unsuitable solution for an exposed structural element as it relies upon a protective layer to withstand disintegration. The benefit of using wood as the structural system, compared to other materials like steel or concrete, is that the embodied carbon footprint is much lower. CLT panels are much faster to produce compared to concrete panels and has a much shorter assembly time on site which makes the entire building process up to 50% faster. (ScienceDirect, 2013) A thing to consider however, is that the production of the CLT elements is much more expensive than the production

of concrete or steel with a cost of up to 200% more, but when adding the faster production and assembly time, reduced site planning and less workforce needed, the cost is significantly reduced to only being 3-5% more expensive when comparing to concrete. (Low2No, 2011) It is evident that CLT benefits from various qualities such as having a very low impact on the environment, fast production and assembly times and so forth, but as with any other material it can be hard to directly translate the pros and cons between two materials. Often other important matters can be left out such as perceiving the CLT production method as a regular contender to the concrete industry. If all panel industries where to shift to wood, the global impact of such a huge change in supply and demand would significantly increase forest depletion, causing long-term complications and destroying eco climates. Such a scenario is almost unthinkable today, thanks to the work of organisations like PEFC and FCS. In relation to market trading and the


possible extensive growth expectancy of CLT production for future high rise buildings, like the planned skyscrapers in Stockholm and Vancouver (International Business Times, 2014), it becomes evident that the major CLT contractors should start expanding by constructing facilities for local-scale production of CLT from local produce.

Ill. 62 - Forest

Ill. 63 - CLT elements

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STUDIES

PRINCIPLE OF ENERGY ACTIVE STRATEGIES The goal is to achieve NetZEB standards by utilizing as many passive strategies as possible before active strategies are applied. The energy frame for 2020, stated in the Danish Building Regulation, is to be reached using only passive strategies. The NetZEB definition states that the annual energy used to run the building, including the energy usage for lighting and appliances, should balance itself out over the year. (K. Bejder, 2015, Part 1) (V. Winther, 2015)

Photovoltaic panels Adding photovoltaic panels to the roof(s) of the complex in order to produce energy from solar radiation, the most optimal angle for the PV’s would be 45° and the optimal direction would be facing directly south, however they can be directed ±30° from south without the output suffering significantly. (Slupinski, 2015) The PV’s can also be added to the façade at the cost of come efficiency. Geothermal heat pump The principle of a heat pump is that by supplying it with 1kWh of electric energy it will take 2kWh of heat energy from the source and supply the building with 3kWh. (K. Bejder, 2015, Part 2) Using a geothermal heat pump, the energy produced by the temperature difference between the steady and the varying earth temperature is exploited. This energy is then transformed into heated air, using a small amount of electricity and if the electricity source is environmentally friendly, the heat produced is regarded as a sustainable source.

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The geothermal heat pump can be used for heating the domestic hot water but also for heating the air in the ventilation system. The geothermal heat pump is generally installed horizontally in a depth of 0.8m – 1.2m and it is typically using up 15-20m2 of space per annual MWh of heat produced. If the space is limited, the geothermal heat pump can be installed vertically instead, with pipes dug down as deep as 200m which dramatically increases the cost of the installation procedure. (K. Bejder, 2015, Part 2) Heat recovery Providing the ventilation unit with a heat recovery system will exploit the temperature of the already heated outlet air in order to preheat the inlet air and thus saving energy that would otherwise be used to heat the inlet air from the outside air temperature. The efficiency of a heat recovery system is typically between 2.5 - 5kWh which translates to it outputting 2.5 - 5kWh of heat energy when supplied with 1kWh of electric energy. (De Store Bygningers Økologi, 2008)


The system can be integrated into the construction with a minimal impact on the design. NilAIR has developed a ‘one duct only’ system which splits the required air flow rate into smaller tubes placed together, making them easy to hide under a modestly suspended ceiling. Windmills Windmills produce electric energy by exploiting the speed of the wind. Because of its flat terrain Denmark is a pretty windy country, so windmills are a great source of sustainable energy. Adding a small windmill on the plot will provide the complex with electric energy, but the noise generated by a windmill rotating at high speeds can become a nuisance for the residents. (Husstandsvindmøller, 2013)

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PASSIVE STRATEGIES Building envelope Adding more insulation reduces the transmission loss through the envelope and will lower the amount of heating needed to keep the thermal indoor climate at a comfortable level. Increasing the air-tightness Increasing the air-tightness of the complex limits the infiltration that would usually take place at joints in the construction. Reducing this value will likewise lower the amount of required heating. Overhang Introducing an overhang above the windows will reduce the area of which the windows are exposed to the sun radiation and by that reduce the chance of overheating. The overhang can be integrated as a balcony, which would also increase the accessible outdoor area for the inhabitants. The effectiveness of the overhang greatly depends on its direction and location. An overhang that shelters from the southern sun is much more effective than an overhang that shelters from the eastern or western sun because of its steeper angle.

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Low emission windows Low emission windows reflects some of the infrared rays on the outside layer while at the same time reflecting the heat rays back into the room on the interior layer. This results in the heat having a harder time getting in, but also having a harder time getting out once it is inside. This contributes to a better indoor climate with a more stable thermal climate and the transmission losses are kept low due to the low U-value. Weather porch Having a weather porch in the individual apartments or the complex avoids draught by stopping sudden increases in airflow when someone enters the apartments/complex. It also has the spatial quality of a welcoming area and provides possibilities for storing shows and outerwear.

Winter garden A winter garden provides high amount of solar gains which will contribute to a lower energy requirement for heating. However it can just as easily increase the demand for cooling in a summer scenario or the demand for heating in a winter scenario, depending on the design of it. Therefore it is important to consider the placement and direction of the winter garden - eastern or western directions are typically preferred to a southern direction. To properly utilize the effect of a winter garden it has to be designed as a buffer zone that can figuratively be switched on or off. Therefore the successful use of a winter garden depends heavily on the individual user. The user has to be aware of the consequences it can have if the winter garden is being used in the wrong way.


1

2 3 4

5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7

SOLAR PANELS CROSS VENTILATION OVERHANGS REGUALTING THE SOLAR RADIATION SOLAR SHADING REGULATING THE SOLAR RADIATION SINGLE SIDED VENTILATION WITH THERMAL BUOYANCY WATER RESERVOIR COLLECTING RAIN WATER DECENTRALIZED MECHANICAL VENTILATION UNIT WITH HEAT RECOVERY

7

6

Ill. 64 - Active and passive strategies

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STUDIES

STUDIES CONCLUSION The studies that have been made regarding various approaches to sustainability and possible principles of energy have provided important background knowledge for the future process. Considering social sustainability it is important to design a complex that accommodates different user groups, both in terms of social class and age. Doing so will create a diverse community of inhabitants and provide a more vivid architectural expression. Another study is made to research some of the available principles of energy, both passive and active, that can be applied to reduce the energy demand of the complex. A healthy approach is to prevent the energy use as much as possible, using passive strategies, before adding active energy producing strategies. The complex will have to be insulated properly and the line losses kept at a minimum to reduce the transmission losses as much as possible. The windows will have to be energy efficient and the air-tightness should be optimized. Overhangs as well as shades should be integrated to reduce

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the solar radiation and prevent overheating. Renewable energy sources can then be added in the form of photovoltaics, heat pumps – either geothermal or air-source - and heat recovery on the mechanical ventilation system. A study has also been made to determine the sustainable values for two material choices; bricks and CLT which are just two material options out of many. It is hard to get a very accurate picture of which materials are the most sustainable choice in terms of their environmental footprint. The manufacturer of the different materials often promise that their materials and cladding systems are the greenest solution available and base it on life-cycle assessments; however the results often differ from producer to producer. For instance a brick producer may argue that bricks are more sustainable than wood and fiber cement whereas a wood producer might argue the exact opposite. Both parties can be right, it all depends on by which parameters the materials and their production practices are compared. Some might be advertised

as biodegradable or contain a high quantity of recycled material, but this does not address the other concerns of energy consumption when it is manufactured or the emissions omitted by the material and its production. To summarize; it is important to think about a cladding’s environmental impact, but it is equally important to consider durability, thermal performance and aesthetics.


DESIGN CRITERIA


The knowledge attained from the previous faces is boiled down to a number of design criteria which are to be used for further developing the concept. The criteria will define guidelines to work within so that the final product will fulfill the initial vision.


DESIGN CRITERIA

DESIGN CRITERIA MIXING RESIDENTS

OUTDOOR QUALITIES

DAYLIGHT CONDITIONS

Sustainability is sometimes mistakenly only considered to be the environmental issues and how actions can be taken to prevent them. But sustainability also includes the social aspects of economy, social classes and other social grouping that can occur based on age. The social aspect of sustainability is an important parameter in this project and it has been approached with a complex that is not only housing one type of residents, but a mixed-use complex that can accommodate families, couples, elderly and students. This will create a diverse and lively community, where different activities suited to the individual residents can take place.

Considering that the site is located right at the very of the ‘Drasstrup Kilen’ and that many of the residents will be families with one or more kids, the implementation of green outdoor areas will provide great quality in the shape of recreational areas for the residents as well as providing a coherency with the context by extending the green wedge a little further. Integrating some of the qualities of the suburban context creates a hybrid between the urban block and the suburban villa.

Examining the results of the sun and shadows analysis it becomes evident that the site holds potentials for good light conditions, both for the interior and exterior. Following the simple guideline of not making the apartments much deeper than 10m, provided that they are lit from both sides, it is assumed that an average daylight factor of 2% should be realistic for the common areas. By taking advantage of the effect of daylight, smaller spaces can be manipulated to be perceived as larger spaces, an important feature in a residential complex. Likewise, if manipulated properly, daylight conditions can affect the mood of the inhabitants. Regarding the outdoor areas, a south-westward direction will be the least prone to shade and therefore provide the most optimal scenario for outdoor stay in regards to daylight. With this orientation the usage of the outdoor spaces will be optimal from around noon and until the sun sets during spring, summer and fall. The minimal required average daylight factor for common areas is stated by the Danish Building Regulations to be 2%. (Bygningsreglementet, 2014, 6.5.2)

The rough distribution of the different apartment types have been considered to be the following: Family: 50% Couple: 30% Student: 20%

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To realize this goal, a minimum of private outdoor area has been assigned for the family and couples apartment. Family: Couple:

20m2 8m2


INTEGRATED SUSTAINABILITY

NO CARS

SHORTCUT

To reach the goals of a Zero Energy Building, sustainable strategies have to be implemented. The semester brief states that the energy demand of the building, only using passive strategies, should not exceed 20kWh/m2 pr. year, complying with the low energy class 2020, and that active strategies like photovoltaics, solar heat collectors and/or heat pumps etc. should be added to further reduce the energy demand of the building to ZEB standards. The different strategies should be integrated as much as possible into the complex.

To uphold the vision of the site as stated by Aalborg municipality, the site should ‘look green’. To achieve this all cars and parking spots have been removed from sight, allowing more space for the soft traffic users and for green areas. This can be done by making underground car parks, placed below either buildings or plazas, where it can act as a part of the foundation. Limiting the traffic on the site to only pedestrians and cyclists will bring down the pace of the traffic and allow for the paved areas to be used for more than just transit.

Physically connecting the green area to the west, with the dense city to the east via the site will not only continue the green wedge of ‘Drasstup Kilen’, but also provide a shortcut for pedestrians and cyclists through the site. This forms a flow through the site, created by soft traffic users travelling from the city to the suburbs or vice versa. Such a flow will generate possibilities of providing public functions on the site and thus enhance its qualities and will also invite the residents of the complex to either walk or cycle.

To ensure that no cars will be parked in a visible spot, at least 0.5 parking lot pr. apartment is required for the underground car park.

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“The solution to this problem is not driven purely by the reduction of numbers and statistics. The act of architecture, by its very nature, uses matter and energy, transforming them into the architectural manifestation and continued operation; and consequently the question is about the total impact of a work – how it engages itself as part of a greater (eco)system.” Thomas Schröpfer, 2012: Ecological Urban Architecture

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CONCEPT


The following pages develops and defines the concept through text and diagrams. The concept will define the initial design of the complex.


CONCEPT

SUBURBAN BLOCK The concept originates from the idea of transferring suburban qualities to the urban context - reinventing the contemporary urban dwelling situation, by forming a hybrid between the traditional urban block and the suburban house creating a suburban block. One of the great draws of the suburban house is that it often holds a private back garden, in which the kids can unfold themselves, and a semi-private front garden. The gardens can be programmed in whatever way the owner may wish, which is a great advantage to most homeowners while it also creates a diverse ambience in the area. Providing this quality to the residents of the new suburban block will greatly improve their incentive to stay in the city instead of moving to the suburbs. Furthermore it will create a vivid diversity in the building by providing the residents with opportunities to leave their own mark on the complex.

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Ill. 65 - Suburban house

Ill. 66 - Suburban block


DESIGN PROCESS


This section explains the process leading up to the final design, from investigations regarding the general shape of the complex to detailing the specific parts of it. Despite the process being presented chronologically, the design is the results of an iterative process with continuous loops between the different phases.


DESIGN PROCESS

MASTERPLAN MAIN ENTRANCE

FREE SHAPING

The site analysis made it clear that there are two entrances to the site; one via ‘Stengade’ passing next to the statue of ‘Gåsepigen’ and one from ‘Langegårdsgade’, the first entrance being the most commonly used one due to the infrastructure. The views created by the two different entrances are important to consider as they will define the arrival to the site.

The early phase of designing the master plan started with a workshop concerning climate, volume, orientation and access. The workshop initiated many different aspects and a great variety of solutions were considered, where both aesthetical and practical values were continuously reflected upon. Illustrations 68-71 shows some of the proposal from this phase, which are mainly with focused on the shape of the complex. The shape shown in illustration 69 was the most appealing one when considering the layout and aesthetical language of a future apartment complex.

Ill. 67 - Main entrance to the site

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Ill. 68 - Amorph

Ill. 69 - Zig zag

Ill. 70 - Ribbon

Ill. 71 - Twisted


DAYLIGHT & HOUSING TYPOLOGIES The placement of the volumes and their orientation was considered in regards to the optimization of daylight conditions. The different solutions are initially formed so that they shade as little as possible onto one another. Different housing typologies were explored and a typology that mixed the ‘high-dense’ with the ‘low-open’, see illustration 75, was the most appealing because of its open spaces at ground level and minimized heights when compared to the ‘highopen’ typology.

Ill. 72 - Turning tower

Ill. 74 - Large urban block

Ill. 73 - Dense point blocks

Ill. 75 - Open point blocks

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MAIN FLOW LINES Returning to the starting point concerning the entrances to the site, a flow line was created through the site by extending ‘Stengade’ and connecting it to the opposite side of the railway, see illustrations 76-80. This opened up the site for the public and to encourage visitors even further, two flow-lines were created through the site by also extending the initial access road of ‘Urbangade’, see illustration 78. Where the two flow lines meet in the center of the site, they create conditions for a possible urban plaza with shops and cafés.

Ill. 76 - Divided buildings

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Ill. 77 - Curved V-shapes

Ill. 78 - L- and I-shapes

Ill. 79 - Sharp V-shape

Ill. 80 - Urban blocks


BASIC LAYOUT The flow lines divide the plot into three separate parts and iterations were made regarding this new change, see illustration 81-85. An investigation of how the building blocks could line up with the roads were made and revealed that this simultaneously created great outdoor spaces, which were closed off towards the streets and opened up towards the south-west, see illustration 82 and 83. A similar approach was to turn the V-shape that previously defined the plaza so that is the area would become merged with the square at ‘Gåsepigen’. However this procured a long space that would be completely out of scale, so the proposal shown in illustration 83 was chosen for the further design.

Ill. 81 - V-shapes and big public space

Ill. 82 - Courtyards towards southwest

Ill. 84 - Courtyards towards suburb and city

Ill. 83 - Three V-shapes

Ill. 85 - Merged square with ‘Gåsepigen’ square

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REFINING LAYOUT With the main layout of the master plan being defined, the shape of the three volumes could be further investigated. Multiple proposals were tested, some with holes piercing through the volumes, see illustration 87, and others with a terraced slope that provides green areas, see illustration 86, 88 and 89. Both typologies proved interesting and a combination between the two were chosen for the further process.

Ill. 86 - Shifting heights

Ill. 87 - Displaced stacking

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Ill. 88 - Gable terraces

Ill. 89 - Continuous terracing


DESIGN PROCESS

ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION TERRACED BUILDINGS To elaborate further on the models shown in the last section, proposals were made on how to integrate green terraces in the design, see illustrations 90-95. Adding private or semi-private terraces will allow the residents to have their own green areas, unoccupied by the other residents. In addition the terraced shape also benefits the daylight conditions and helps prevent the buildings from overshadowing the courtyards.

Ill. 90 - Terraced wing

Ill. 92 - Terraced hill

Ill. 91 - Terraced landscaping

Ill. 94 - Daylight conditions

Ill. 93 - Terraced V-shape

Ill. 95 - Bended terraces

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GREENERY

FINAL EXPRESSION

An important step in combining urban and suburban qualities into one housing typology is to provide ample access to green areas. The terraces are considered the mean to do so and different iterations have been tested. Along this process came the idea of having a ‘green’ access to every apartment, which is best illustrated in illustration 98. Here the building mass is divided to allow for a transparent, outdoor access – providing the residents with a green area to enter before entering their apartments. Another proposal was to have private terraces on the slopes of the buildings and then add an elevated green area, which could house parking facilities or shops undernearth while creating a semi-private outdoor area for the residents, see illustration 97.

Having worked with the complex through all of the previous phases, a final concept for the design started to take shape. The concept is illustrated through sketches and models shown in illustrations 99-105, where different considerations have been reflected upon. Illustrations 100 and 103 shows the scale and proportions of the complex when perceived at eye level and illustration 100 also shows how the irregular suburban roofs have been added to the traditional urban block. Illustration 102 shows the added greenery of the terraces and the access and illustration 101 shows how the ends of the building is lowered to allow for better daylight conditions. The initial thought on how the final complex could look is shown in illustration 99, 104 and 105. The illustrations show the differentiation between the courtyard façade and the urban façade and how the diversity provided by the suburban inspired roof tops really add character to the building.

Ill. 96 - Vertical green access

Ill. 97 - Raised green courtyard

Ill. 98 - Added greenery

105


Ill. 99 - Sloped roof and greenery

Ill. 100 - Hilly courtyard with brick walls

Ill. 101 - Optimizing daylight conditions

Ill. 102 - Peaks of vegetation

Ill. 103 - Urban facade

Ill. 105 - Courtyard facade

Ill. 104 - Urban facade

106


INTEGRATED SUSTAINABILITY In order to properly integrate the active strategies for reaching the ZEB definition, possible solutions for doing so have been considered in the design process. Illustrations 109 shows how photovoltaics can be integrated on the sloped roofs and illustration 107 shows how different sustainable strategies, such as photovoltaics, rain water collection and geothermal heatpumps, can be combined in the building.

Ill. 107 - Multiple sustainable technologies

Ill. 106 - Windmills

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Ill. 108 - Photovoltaics on bike sheds

Ill. 109 - Photovoltaics


DESIGN PROCESS

FLATS AND ACCESS USER PROFILES An analysis of the needs for the different user groups is made to ensure that the different apartment types are designed properly. Student apartment In the student apartments the plan design should include 1 bedroom, a living room and a bathroom. The living room should provide several functions such as kitchen, dining room, a room for study and an area to relax in. Couples apartment In the couples apartments the plan design should include 1 bedroom, a kitchen, a living room, a bathroom and an office. The apartment should also have a direct or indirect access to a balcony. The apartments should be designed to accommodate for an increase in the inhabitants, should the couple decide to have a baby. The kitchen should have the possibility of being an extension to the living room to serve as a kitchen-dining area.

Family apartment, one child In this apartment the plan design should include 2 bedrooms, a kitchen, a living room, a bathroom, an office and, if possible, a balcony or terrace. The kitchen should have the possibility of being an extension to the living room to serve as a kitchen-dining area. Family apartment, two children 0-12 In this apartment the plan design should include 3 bedrooms, a kitchen, a living room, 2 bathrooms, an office and, if possible, a balcony or terrace. The kitchen should have the possibility of being an extension to the living room to serve as a kitchen-dining area, which should provide a well-planned space for all 4. The 3 bedrooms should preferably be in connection to each other or at the very least be on the same level to ease the parents’ need to attend to their toddlers. This is especially for families with kids at the age of 1-3.

Family apartment, two children 13-19 In this apartment the plan design should include 3 bedrooms, a kitchen, a living room, 2 bathrooms, an office and, if possible, a balcony or terrace. The kitchen should have the possibility of being an extension to the living room to serve as a kitchen-dining area, which should provide a well-planned space for all 4. The 3 bedrooms should not be in connection to one another as the master bedroom should be more private.

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STACKING MODULES Following the design criteria of mixing the residents, it became apparent that the different users would also have different needs, something that had to be considered. Developing a module system where each module would have the exact same dimensions, but could be stacked or split to accommodate for this change in required space, allowed for a diverse distribution of the different user groups and enabled the addition a stairway that would serve a mixed user group.

ACCESS

10M

75M2

7.5M

VIEW TO STREET

Ill. 111 - Principle of apartment plot

Ill. 110 - Apartment modules

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VIEW TO COURTYARD

Ill. 112 - Stacking of different apartment types

ACCESS


ACCESS Considering the access to the complex, different types have been reviewed. The first iterations examined the possibilities of hiding the access within the building and provide the residents with an either horizontal or vertical flow, see illustration 113 and 115. This design greatly reduced the total amount of access areas needed by increasing the amount of apartments connected to each stairway. However other implications arose with regards to the daylight conditions and spatial qualities of the apartments, which resulted in an examination of access balconies, see iteration 117. This type of access did not fit with our concept and also presented implications when considering its effect on the privacy of the apartments. So instead the choice fell upon an outdoor access based on its ability to integrate vegetation in the complex.

Ill. 113 - Centralized horizontal access

Ill. 114 - Garden access perspective

Ill. 115 - Four doors access

Ill. 117 - Access balcony

Ill. 116 - Garden access elevation

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SHAFT Utilizing a stacked module system comes with certain benefits, but also presents a few complications, one of them being the placement of the shaft for the waste pipe. The shaft needs to be placed at the exact same location for every apartment type and this can prove tricky when some of the apartments are rotated, split or mirrored. This is exemplified in illustration 118, showing that the student apartment is only half the size of the couples apartment. A concept of having the apartments revolve around the shaft was created in order to solve this problem. Placing the shaft in the center of the apartment also allows for an open plan design, which gives the inhabitants a greater sense of freedom. The only restrictions to the open plan, is that the kitchen, toilet and bathrooms will have to stay next to the shaft so that they can be connected to the waste pipe. The concept not only provided the means to solve a problem, but also added great quality to the plan design by making it flexible. Numerous iterations were made on different plan proposals and some of them are shown in illustration 118-122. The final plan solutions are shown in the presentation section.

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Ill. 118 - Students to the left - Couple to the right

Ill. 119 - Ground floor of apartment

Ill. 121 - Two storey family apartment

Ill. 120 - Couple apartment

Ill. 122 - Couple apartment with terrace


ORIENTATION

TERRACES

To provide sufficient daylight to every apartment, some of the apartments had to have a certain orientation. Most of the apartments are lit from both sides, but the student apartments are only lit from one side because one ‘student-module’ contains two student apartments. Because of this, the student apartments have been placed in the parts of the complex that has facades facing east and west and not north and south, see illustration 123 and 124. Furthermore the family apartments all have their private terraces orientated towards the courtyards to provide them with ample daylight, see illustration 125.

The terraces of the top floor family apartments were initially thought as one big terrace, see illustration 126, but because of their close connection to the access and the entrances of the other apartments, they seemed to sometimes lack the quality of a private back garden. To solve this, half of the terrace has been elevated to provide the family with a terrace on the 1st level, acting as a front garden, and another terrace on the 2nd level, acting as their own private back garden, see illustration 127.

N ONLY ONE STUDENT FLAT GETS DIRECT SUNLIGHT

Ill. 123 - North/south orientated

N

ON GETS MORNING SUN AND THE OTHER GETS EVENING SUN

Ill. 124 - East/west orientated

SEMI-PRIVATE TERRACE

Ill. 126 - One terrace

N

GARDENS ARE ORIENTATED SOUTH FOR MOST DIRECT SUNLIGHT

Ill. 125 - Gardens towards south

PRIVATE + SEMI-PRIVATE TERRACE

Ill. 127 - Two terraces

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NATURAL VENTILATION Natural ventilation plays an important role in fulfilling the indoor environment and energy consumption requirements. Considerations of the different driving forces will have to be considered at an early stage of the process of designing the apartments to properly exploit the natural ventilation. To ensure that natural ventilation can be utilized in every apartment, they are designed with a cross ventilation principle, see illustration 128. This principle exploits the pressure differences at the openings placed adjacent to or opposite of the ‘inlet opening’, see illustration 129. In the apartments with more than one level, the cross

FLAT DESIGNED FOR ALLOWING CROSS VENTILATION

Ill. 128 - Cross ventilation

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ventilation is further enhanced by the thermal buoyancy principle by providing openings at different heights and thus exploiting the pressure difference between the hot and the cold air, as shown on illustration 133.

CROSS VENTILATION + THERMAL BUOYANCY CROSS VENTILATION + THERMAL BUOYANCY

SINGLE SIDED 2-LEVEL SINGLE SIDED VENTILATION

Ill. 129 - Different ventilation strategies

Ill. 130 - Different ventilation strategies


In the rooms where cross ventilation cannot be achieved, for instance in the bedrooms, single sided ventilation can be used. This is done by exploiting the thermal buoyancy by having the air move in and out of the same window, with an opening at the top and the bottom, shown in illustration 130. The site analysis revealed that the dominant wind direction is south-west and because of this, every family apartment has been designed with a void towards north of east. By doing this the thermal buoyancy can be combined with the cross ventilation to achieve higher ventilation rates. An inlet will be placed on the 1st floor and an outlet on the 2nd floor, see illustration 133. Should the wind speed become too low or come from an unfavorable direction, there will not be enough of a pressure difference to induce cross ventilation and thus the thermal buoyancy will be used instead, shown in illustration 134.

N

N

DOMINANT WIND DIRECTION

α = 34°

VOID

FAMILY APARTMENT AMPLIFIES THE CROSS VENTILATION FROM DOMINANT WIND DIRECTIONS BY THERMAL BUOYANCY

Ill. 133 - Thermal buoyancy

Ill. 131 - Dominant wind direction and orientation

DIFFERENT WINDOW OPENINGS FOR DIFFERENT SITUATIONS

Ill. 132 - Different window solutions

WHEN THE WIND DIRECTION IS BAD, THE APARTMENT CAN BE VENTILATED BY THE THERMAL BUOYANCY

Ill. 134 - Thermal buoyancy

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DAYLIGHT Making sure that an apartment is properly lit is an important aspect when designing a residential complex. To assure this, the daylight conditions of the apartments has continuously been tested and from the results the final size and amount of windows have been found. Illustrations 136 and 137 shows two iterations made with different window sizes for the same apartment. The results shows that by changing the bottom left window to a wider one, the daylight factor changes significantly. Previously the required daylight factor of 2% is not being reached in the dining room, but with the new window the dining room has a daylight factor of 3%. The daylight results for the remaining apartments can be found under Daylight in the Epilogue.

DAYLIGHT FACTOR % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Ill. 135 - Daylight factor scale

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Ill. 136 - Daylight iteration 1

Ill. 137 - Daylight iteration 2

N


BSIM The building simulation program of BSim has been used to ensure a proper indoor climate of the building. Two different apartments, with different conditions have been chosen for the analysis. The two apartments were selected to check how different features like sun exposure, orientation, wind direction etc. influenced the indoor climate The chosen apartments are: - Student apartment (red), with windows directed south-west – this apartment has a lot of sun exposure, but could also potentially have problems with natural ventilation in certain wind conditions due to its low position in the building - Family apartment (blue), which is placed on the top, having even more sun exposure, but also better natural ventilation possibilities.

Both apartments vary greatly in size and position. The results from the analysis should give us insights of how to improve the indoor climate. The results of the BSim analyses provided us with important knowledge of how to shade the building in accordance with the indoor climate of the apartments. The iterations have been run, considering different solutions and testing them in the model. The final results show that both apartments achieve optimal values for thermal comfort and indoor climate. The natural ventilation has primarily been used to rid the apartments of surplus heat, and the mechanical ventilation has been used to ventilate for sensory pollution and carbon dioxide. The appendix shows the elaborated process of the BSim analyses.

Ill. 138 - Apartments chosen for BSim

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BE10 The Be10 software has primarily been used to determine the energy consumption of the complex during the design process. As stated previously the goal is for the building to reach a maximum energy consumption of 20kWh/m2 per year, which is the value set by the Danish Building Regulation for 2020, by only exploiting passive strategies. The final energy consumption concerning the design of the complex is reached through iterations concerning both quantitative and qualitative aspects for designing a NetZEB housing complex. The building envelope has a major influence on both the appearance of the final design as well as its key number. Iterations have been run to find the correct thickness of insulation for the walls to reduce the transmission losses. The U-values of the envelope have been calculated and extracted through Rockwool Energy Design, where each layer of the construction has been defined. The thickness of the walls will influence the net area of the apartments and through that the aesthetical and spatial qualities will also

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change. Iterations of different insulation thicknesses have been made in Be10 to determine the impact of the U-values in relation to the thickness and the insulation thicknesses chosen are defined by the values from BR10, BR15 and BR20.(GreenMatch, 2014)

Table 02 shows that adding more insulation to the structure reduces the heat demand and the transmission losses and that the values are decreasing exponentially, which implies that at a certain point the disadvantages will start outweighing the advantages.

The different solutions have been analyzed in the same model with the same external constructions, windows, doors and ventilation.

Because of the lower heat demand and transmission less, the wall structure with a total thickness of 598mm is chosen. Spatially the windowsill will become deeper which can be exploited as a seating area if placed at a suitable height.

Total thickness

Insulation

U-value

Heating demand

[W/m2K]

[MWh per year]

thickness [mm]

Transmission & ventilation loss

[mm]

[MWh per year]

BR10

448

200

0.15

243

685

BR15

528

280

0.11

178

601

BR-2020

598

350

0.09

148

559

Table 02 - Insulation thicknesses


(MWh per year) 500 450 400

Another big impact on the key number is the type of windows. Iterations have been made with different window types under the same conditions as mentioned previously. The windows chosen are two types of heat insulating windows called OptithermTM and one type of sun screening window called SuncoolTM, all produced by Pilkington. The U-values, light transmittance and g-values of the different windows are (MWh per year) using Pilkington Spectrum. In BSim calculated (MWh per year) these data are then combined with the same (MWh 500 per year) window frame and the resulting values are input 500 500 in Be10. 450

450 450 400 The results show that using the thickest Optither400 mTM lowers the heat demands and transmission 400 350 losses and increases the solar heat gains in com350 parison to the SuncoolTM. This means lower de350 300 mand of heating during the winter period due 300 to the solar gains and the reduced transmission, 300 250 but also a higher chance of overheating in the 250 250 summer. The thinner type of OptithermTM was pri200 200 marily tested to review the relation between the 200 150 thickness of the window and its performance to 150 150 100 100 100 50

weigh whether a less thick window could provide better spatial results without affecting the energy frame too much. The results are shown in table 03. For the final design, the Pilkington OptithermTM S3, with the thickness of 138mm, was chosen. Looking at the key number, the benefits of reducing the heat demand for the cold months outweighed the benefit of reducing the cooling demands in the summer months on an annual basis.

(MWh 350 per year) 500 300 450 250

200mm insula

200 400

280mm insula

150 350

350mm insula

300 100

200mm insula

250 50 200 150

100

200

300

400

500

(mm)

100

200

300

400

500

(mm)

280mm insula

350mm insula

100 50

Ill. 139 - Heat demand (MWh per year) 1000 900 800 (MWh 700 per year) 1000 600

200mm insulation 200mm insulation 200mm insulation 200MM INSULATION 280mm insulation 280mm insulation 280MM INSULTATION 280mm insulation 350MM INSULTATION 350mm insulation 350mm insulation 350mm insulation

900 500

200mm insula

400 800

280mm insula

300 700

350mm insula

600 200

200mm insula

500 100 400 300

100

200

300

400

500

(mm)

100

200

300

400

500

(mm)

Ill. 140 - Transmission and ventilations loss

280mm insula

350mm insula

200 100

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Total thickness

U-value

LT

g-value

Solar heat gains

Heat demand

Trans. & vent. loss

Key number 2020

[mm]

[W/m2K]

[%]

[%]

[MWh per year]

[MWh per year]

[MWh per year]

[kWh/m2 per year]

PilkingtonOptiterm

TM

138

0,7

71

55

372

148

559

11.0

136

0,8

27

21

142

246

577

16.9

108

1,2

80

68

460

200

670

16.4

S3

4S(3)-18Ar-418Ar-S(3)4 PilkingtonSuncoolTM 30/17 6C(30)-16Ar-416Ar-S(3)4 PilkingtonOptitermTM S3 4-10Kr-S(3)4 Table 03 - Window types

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ACCESS OUTDOOR AREA Having an outdoor area in close connection to the access resembles the liveliness and diversity of the suburban garden. In the suburbs many of the houses have a small front garden that the inhabitants will have to pass through before entering the house. This small gesture is sought repeated in the access by providing the inhabitants with a flexible system, designed to fit the outdoor areas - created for and by the residents. The design consists of modules that fit together to create numerous designs, inspired by the module structure of the apartments. The system consists of 1, 2 and 3-person benches, which can be combined with plant containers of the same dimensions to create a wide array of different designs. The modules can create smaller, enclosed outdoor areas, defined by the inhabitants. Planting smaller fruit trees, like apple trees, or herbs in the shared plant containers, would supply the residents with a small amount of local produce, while at the same time contributing to the ambience of the area. The higher plant

containers will offer possibilities for shelter and backrest when placed behind the benches. To reduce the possibility of draught in the access, the urban facade is provided with slidable windows that can be used to close off the access when strong draughts take place. Proposed layouts are shown on the next pages.

0.5M

1.0M

1.5M

1.0M

0.5M

0.5M

0.5M

0.45M

0.5M

Ill. 141 - Catalogue

120


The layout shown in proposal 1 is designed to have both private and social functions, defined by the direction of the benches. This type of arrangement surrounds a central area, making it ideal for bigger groups of people.

Ill. 142 - Layout proposal 1

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The layout shown in proposal 2 is designed to perform as a small herbal garden, where herbs can be grown in the raised beds. The variation in heights contributes to the spatial atmosphere and creates diversity with every access. Small beds could also be places next to the front doors of the apartments to designate a bed for each inhabitant.

Ill. 143 - Layout proposal 2

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SHADOW HOURS ON FACADES A shadow analysis has been made to inform the design of potential implications with existing buildings overshadowing the complex and vice versa. The first simulation is made from east in the interval between 08:00 and 12:00 on June 21st. The simulation is prepared to review the shade on the eastern facing facades as well as the urban area between the existing building adjacent to ‘Vesterbro’ and the complex. The results of the analysis show no immediate implications, with most of the facades being shadeless and the urban area having between 1 and 4 hours of shade.

Ill. 144 - East simulation

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The second simulation is made from west in the interval between 12:00 and 20:00 on June 21st. The area of concern is mainly the access areas and the northernmost courtyard or plaza. The results show that the access areas are the subject to shade between 2 and 5 hours a day depending on the direction. The assumption is that the access areas will be used mainly during the summer months, making this amount of shade acceptable in accordance to the movement of the sun. The most critical access area, in terms of shade, is in the joint corner where the two blocks connect; consistently showing 5 hours of shade. An additional analysis is made to test this part of the complex further.

Ill. 145 - West simulation

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The third and last simulation is made from west in the interval between 12:00 and 20:00 on June 21st. The results show that the area is in shade between 3 and 6 hours in the period of interest. This will be taken into considerations when planning the outdoor area of the access where the seating area should be placed in the area with the least shade. No area of the access seem to be in consistent shade however.

Ill. 146 - West simulation of access

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DESIGN PROCESS

URBAN PROGRAMMING COURTYARDS The main design criteria for designing the green courtyards of the complex were to provide the residents with a recreation area where they could casually meet each other across the different accesses. At the same time the goal was to have the courtyards be as maintenance free as possible to ensure that no gardener would have to be hired to keep it functional. Some different design criteria for the design of the courtyards is presented in the diagrams illustrated in illustration 147-152. Illustration 148 shows the intention of mimicking the highland typography of the ‘Drasstrup Kilen’ which results in an outdoor space that becomes harder to read at first glance; providing the residents with more privacy. Illustration 151 shows the environmentally sustainable aspect of applying rain water reservoirs to the hilly terrain.

SOUTH / WEST ORIENTATED TERRACES

Ill. 149 -

Ill. 150 -

Ill. 147 - Courtyard Ill. 151 -

The aesthetic value of the courtyard is very important to consider as it defines one half of the view from the apartments. Ill. 148 -

MIMIC THE HIGHLAND TYPOGRAPHY

Ill. 152 -

PATHS CUTTING THROUGH HILLS

RAIN WATER RESERVOIRS

NARROW BENDED PATHS 126


PLAZA The main idea for how the plaza should be programmed is based on its function as a merging point between the two flow lines and the green wedge penetrating the site from the south. The goal is to create a gradient by combining the traditional hard pavement of the City Centre, with the soft suburban vegetation.

The hard pavement of the plaza allows for a multipurpose area. During the weekdays the shops or cafĂŠs can have tables and chairs set up and on special occasions the plaza can be completely emptied and a stage can be assembled to host smaller events like markets, concerts or speeches, in which the residents, as well as the public, can partake.

Adding spots of vegetation to the hard surface will act as natural water drainage, limiting the required amount of connections to the sewage system and at the same time utilizing the clean rain water for watering the vegetation planted on the plaza. The vegetation will furthermore divide the plaza into smaller squares and by that make the plaza more appealable to the human scale.

Ill. 153 - Plaza

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Ill. 155 - Perspective of plaza module

Ill. 154 - Plaza

Ill. 156 - Section of pavement and drainage


EPILOGUE


The following section concludes on the vision of the project and reflects upon some of the choices made.


EPILOGUE

CONCLUSION The traditional urban block of the context has been reinterpreted with the creation of the suburban block. This new typology is a hybrid, featuring the qualities of the suburban house mixed with the qualities of the dense urban block. Mixing the two housing typologies of ‘open-low’ and ‘high-dense’ contributes to the social sustainability of the suburban block by mixing the residents to a greater extend while providing them with more area for socializing in the adjacent green surroundings of the common access areas. The outdoor access areas provide the residents with a choice of how to program their ‘front garden’. Here they will be able to grow their own fruits, vegetables or herbs. They also provide possibilities for hosting social gatherings like barbecues or cocktail parties among the residents. To allow for a high possibility of freedom, the ‘furniture’ of the access area has been developed as movable modules, which can be arranged freely to fit different needs. In many ways, the

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access areas are the pivotal point of the interaction between the apartments, making them the link that binds the housing modules together.

system during cloudbursts. Simultaneously they will be providing a biodiversity and ambience to the area.

Choosing the environmentally sustainable approach of using CLT as the structural elements of the complex lowers the strain on the environment. The suburban block is made from CLT modules, which contributes to an easier and faster assembly method. The modules can be stacked on top of each other and can be orientated freely to one another. The structural integrity of the system is achieved through the plate alone, due to its properties of having two grain directions thanks to the laminated veneer. The characteristic grain structure of the spruce in the CLT modules is kept visible in throughout most parts of the interior, as an honest display of the structural system.

The architectural expression of the complex is achieved through a very consequent separation of the two main materials used. The solid brick facade acts as a curtain masonry veneer wall, shielding the modules from the weather and creating a scenario that draws parallels to the old towns of the Wild West. This separation of the structure and the cladding is revealed whenever a cut-out in a module is made, exposing the warmth of the wood underneath. And the effect is underlined even further with the creation of small shade producing recesses whenever the brick meets the wood.

The rainwater reservoirs of the courtyards will divert and collect extensive rainwater and hereby relieve some of the pressure on the drainage


Ill. 157 - Collage

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EPILOGUE

REFLECTION SOLAR CELLS - OBSTACLE OR MIRACLE? The energy consumption of the complex is brought to the NetZEB definition through the usage of solar cells, which are mounted on all the suitable rooftops of the suburban block. But is that really a sustainable solution in all of its essence? And is the usage of solar panels really a requirement for a zero energy building?

ally be considered as an integrated part of the design process and as such must be considered a mean justifiable by the end. Some other solution could of course have been to implement other active strategies such as wind mills, which would boost the production, but also cause a lot of noise.

Integrating the sizeable amount of square meters needed into the project proved difficult and caused some changes in the design along the way. When designing in a ‘high-dense’ typology the ratio of heated floor area to surface area suitable for solar panels is quite low when compared to the ‘open-low’ typology. This basically means that there is less roof surface per person and because of this we had to come up with alternative ways to procure more roof area. This led to the design of the bike sheds which helped us gain the sufficient amount of surface area while they simultaneously provided bicycle parking facilities as well as shelter and privacy for the resident. Even though the sheds managed to integrate multiple functions they cannot re-

Another question closely related to the first one is how to properly integrate the solar panels in an aesthetic way. Not having complete freedom of the orientation of the panels, caused the already sparse surface area to be diminished even further and the aesthetically chosen orientation of the pitched roof tops only allowed for one of its surfaces to be used for solar panels. This change in the materiality of the roofs, although being more or less unnoticeable from the street, does not correlate well with the principles of the Vitruvian Triangle in regards to venustas. This could be avoided by adding ‘fake’ solar panels, which would have kept a similar materiality across the roofs, but also cause dishonesty to the principle of utilitas; proving that

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compromises will sometimes have to be made when creating Zero Energy Buildings. This is of course just our opinion and keeping the same materiality across all the roof tops could have been a strong factor in an iconic building, where fewer changes in materiality often compliments the shape better.


SUBURBAN BLOCK VS. URBAN BLOCK The concept of bringing suburban qualities into a traditional urban block was a key parameter for the design process. The goal of reinventing the urban block was to provide the people currently inhabiting the suburbs, with an alternative choice of dwelling within the boundaries of Aalborg city. The result is a block that offers suburban qualities while housing a wide variety of user groups. Those initiatives led to the implementation of a common area within the access of the complex. The goal of the common area was to provide the residents with a self-programmable area that would create communities interconnected by the stairway. In comparison to the traditional urban block, where the staircases are the only ‘meeting point’ between the neighbours, this design will enhance the social sustainability aspects of the design and create spaces where the neighbours can mingle across the storeys. In many ways, the essence of the suburban block is that the design allows for a wide variety of user groups to be present on a relatively small area in the dense

context of the city, compared to the distance between the adjacent houses of the suburbs. When having such a widely mixed user group it becomes important to consider the interaction between them. How will the students interact with the families? And could there be any problems connected with having the two user groups close to each other? In the traditional urban block, the residents know each other by either face or name, but in many cases no more than that. In the suburbs the sociality of neighbourliness is often much more defined. The residents are often more aware of what happens around them and also puts a greater effort into maintaining their homes because of the value of being an owner and not a tenant.

on the outdoor access area. Another problem could occur with the maintenance of the common areas in terms of who should be in charge of keeping the area functional and well-kept. If everybody is given a responsibility in the matter it often comes down to the differences in opinions of the residents. An example could be the urban blocks of ‘Aalborg Øst’, managed by ‘Himmerland Boligforening’. In this case they have been forced to hire people from outside the housing association to clean the staircases because of internal disagreements among the resident of whose task it is. (Himmerland Boligforening, 2015) Despite these considerations, the suburban block offers the advantages of providing the residents with better possibilities to interact and socialize, which have been considered more important in this project.

Reflecting on these considerations, some problems can be foreseen with the design of a suburban block. Loud noise from partying student could potentially be affecting more neighbours if the students should chose to have the party

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EPILOGUE

REFERENCES WEBSITES Aalborg Kommune, AK, 2010. Grøn-Blå Struktur. Grøn-Blå Struktur - Referater - Aalborg Kommune, [Online]. 62, 1-62. Available at: http://referater. aalborgkommune.dk/Pdf.aspx?pdfnavn=16355770.PDF&type=bilag&id=3312 [Accessed 21 March 2015]. Aalborg Kommune. 2014. Hele Kommunen. [ONLINE] Available at: http://apps.aalborgkommune.dk/statistik/webaarbog/Boliger/Struktur/Hele_ Kommunen/indexlevel1/HeleKommunenAntalBoliger.html. [Accessed 21 March 15]. Boligen. 2011. Aalborg bygger ungdomsboliger i tusindvis. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.blboligen.dk/artikelarkiv/2011/januar/aalborg-byggerungdomsboliger-i-tusindvis. [Accessed 21 May 15]. Boral Bricks Inc., 2009. A White Paper on Performance Benefits of One of Man’s Oldest Building Materials. Building with Brick: Sustainable and Energy Efficient A White Paper on Performance Benefits of One of Man’s Oldest Building Materials, [Online]. 1, 7. Available at: http://www.boralna.com/bricks/ pdf/News-12-09-White-Paper-Building-with-Sustainable-Brick.pdf [Accessed 19 May 2015]. Bygningsreglementet. 2014. 2.2.1 Bebyggelsesprocent. [ONLINE] Available at: http://bygningsreglementet.dk/br10_04_id231/0/42/2. [Accessed 25 May 15]. Bygningsreglementet. 2014. 5.6.1 Adgangs- og tilkørselsmulighed. [ONLINE] Available at: http://bygningsreglementet.dk/br10_05_id87/0/42. [Accessed 25 May 15]. Bygningsreglementet. 2014. 6.4.2 Boliger og lignende bygninger benyttet til overnatning. [ONLINE] Available at: http://bygningsreglementet.dk/br10_05_ id98/0/42. [Accessed 20 May 15]. Bygningsreglementet. 2014. 6.5.2 Dagslys. [ONLINE] Available at: http://bygningsreglementet.dk/br10_05_id102/0/42. [Accessed 25 May 15].

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Climate Minds. 2012. Danmarks energi-mål frem til 2020. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.climateminds.dk/index.php?id=850. [Accessed 20 May 15]. Dansk Standard, 2001. Ventilation i bygninger - Projekteringskriterier for indeklimaet. DS/CEN/CR 1752:2001 - Ventilation i bygninger - Projekteringskriterier for indeklimaet, [Online]. 1, 147. Available at: http://sd.ds.dk.zorac.aub.aau.dk/Viewer?ProjectNr=23965&Status=60.60&VariantID=&Page=0 [Accessed 20 May 2015]. De Store Bygningers Økologi. 2008. VARMEGENVINDING. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.dsbo.dk/Home/area1/Leksikon/Varmegenvinding/ tabid/477/Default.aspx. [Accessed 21 May 15]. GreenMatch. 2014. Her er de vigtigste krav til isolering: BR10, 2015, 2020 og Passivhuse. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.greenmatch.dk/blog/2014/04/ her-er-de-vigtigste-krav-til-isolering-br10,-2015,-2020-og-passivhuse. [Accessed 22 May 15]. Hansen & Knudstrup, H&K, 2005. A more holistic approach to sustainable architecture. The Integrated Design Process (IDP) – a more holistic approach to sustainable architecture, [Online]. 1, 8. Available at: http://vbn.aau.dk/files/1624830/The_Integrated_Design_Process__IDP____A_more_holistic_ approach_to_sustainable_architecture [Accessed 23 March 2015]. Himmerland Boligforening. 2015. Nyheder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://afd9052.abhim.dk/default.aspx?m=3&i=1. [Accessed 25 May 15]. Husstandsvindmøller. 2013. Guiden til private vindmøller. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.husstandsvindmoeller.dk/. [Accessed 21 May 15]. Index Mundi. 2014. Denmark Demographics Profile 2014. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.indexmundi.com/denmark/demographics_profile.html. [Accessed 04 May 15].

136


International Business Times. 2014. How Wood High-Rises Could Save the Planet. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ibtimes.com/how-wood-high-risescould-save-planet-1575562. [Accessed 21 May 15]. InventarDesign. 2008. Træs hårdhed målt efter Janka-metoden. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.inventardesign.dk/materialer_og_farver/wood/treshardhed-malt-efter-janka-metoden. [Accessed 21 May 15]. Low2No. 2011. Timber construction growing in Finland. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.low2no.org/lists/tags/timber+&cd=10&hl=pl&ct=clnk. [Accessed 21 May 15]. OECD. 2015. We must change faster than the climate. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.oecd.org/forum/oecdyearbook/change-faster-than-theclimate.htm. [Accessed 20 May 15]. PEFC. 2015. About PEFC. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.pefc.org/about-pefc/overview. [Accessed 20 May 15]. Randers Arkitekten, RA, 2014. KLIMAFORVIRRING. ENERGY STUDY HOUSES # KLIMAFORVIRRING, [Online]. 1, 72. Available at: http://randersarkitekten.dk/ upload/files/Energy%20Study-House%20Bog.pdf [Accessed 20 May 2015]. ScieneDirect. 2013. Sustainable Cities and Society. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221067071200056X. [Accessed 21 May 15]. StoraEnso, 2012. freedom of design and architecture. CLT – Cross Laminated Timber freedom of design and architecture, [Online]. 1, 4. Available at: http://www.clt.info/es/wp-content/uploads/sites/9/2013/10/02-CLT-Cross-‘Laminated-Timber-Das-Massivholzbausystem-8-Seiter-EN.pdf [Accessed 20 May 2015].

137


The Free Dictionary. 2015. Sustainability. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/sustainability. [Accessed 25 May 15]. Verdens Skove. 2015. FSC mærker bæredygtigt træ. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.verdensskove.org/fsc. [Accessed 20 May 15]. WeatherSpark. 2015. Average Weather For Aalborg, Denmark. [ONLINE] Available at: https://weatherspark.com/averages/28838/Aalborg-NordjyllandDenmark. [Accessed 04 May 15]. Wikipedia. 2015. Aalborg. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aalborg. [Accessed 21 March 15]. Wikipedia. 2015. Deforestation in Borneo. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deforestation_in_Borneo. [Accessed 21 May 15]. WindFinder. 2015. Wind & weather statistics Aalborg Lufthavn. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/aalborg. [Accessed 04 May 15]. Ærø, TÆ, 2002. Ph.d-afhandling. Boligpræferencer, boligvalg og livsstil, Ph.d-afhandling, [Online]. 1, 181. Available at: http://www.sbi.dk/boligforhold/ generelt/boligpreferencer-boligvalg-og-livsstil/2006-01-12.7421759440/at_download/file [Accessed 20 May 2015].

138


LECTURES A. Slupinski. (2015) Zero Energy Buildings – Photovoltaics and Architecture [Online] Photovoltaics and Architecture. Available from: https://www.moodle. aau.dk/pluginfile.php/388945/mod_folder/content/0/L05%20-%20pvArturSlupinski2015.pdf?forcedownload=1 [Accessed: 21 May 15] K. Bejder, A. (2015) Design Principles – designing holistic Zero Energy Buildings Part 1 [Online] designing holistic Zero Energy Buildings. p. 16. Available from: https://www.moodle.aau.dk/pluginfile.php/388937/mod_folder/content/0/Designing%20Holistic%20Zero%20Energy%20Buildings_Part%201_03-022015.pdf?forcedownload=1 [Accessed: 23 March 15]. K. Bejder, A. (2015) Design Principles – designing holistic Zero Energy Buildings Part 2 [Online] designing holistic Zero Energy Buildings. Available from: https://www.moodle.aau.dk/pluginfile.php/388969/mod_folder/content/0/Designing%20Holistic%20Zero%20Energy%20Buildings_Part%202_04-02-2015. pdf?forcedownload=1 [Accessed: 23 March 15]. Le Dréau, J. (2015) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Of Buildings [Online] Life Cycle Assessment. p. 1-67. Available from: https://www.moodle.aau.dk/ pluginfile.php/399381/mod_folder/content/0/IDSA%2011%20-%20Environmental%20assessment%20of%20buildings.pdf?forcedownload=1 [Accessed: 23 March 15]. V. Winther, F. (2015) Dynamic facades – basics, benefits, potential and detail [Online] Dynamic facades. p. 22. Available from: https://www.moodle.aau. dk/pluginfile.php/388951/mod_folder/content/0/L08%20%28extra%29%20-%20Dynamic%20facades.pdf?forcedownload=1 [Accessed: 23 March 15].

139


EPILOGUE

ILLUSTRATION LIST Ill. 01-36 - Own illustration Ill. 37 - Aalborg Kommune, (2010), Grøn-Blå Vision [ONLINE]. Available at: http://referater.aalborgkommune.dk/Pdf.aspx?pdfnavn=16355770.PDF&type=bilag&id=3312 [Accessed 26 May 15]. Ill. 38-39 Own illustration Ill. 40 - Miljøministeriet, (2015), MiljøGIS [ONLINE]. Available at: http://miljoegis.mim.dk/spatialmap?&pro%20file=noise [Accessed 26 May 15]. Ill. 41-46 – Own illustration Ill. 47 - SunEarthTools, (2015), Sun Position [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.sunearthtools.com/dp/tools/pos_sun.php [Accessed 26 May 15]. Ill. 48-50 – Own illustration Ill. 51 - 52 - WeatherSpark, (2015), Average Weather For Aalborg, Denmark [ONLINE]. Available at: https://weatherspark.com/averages/28838/Aalborg-Nordjylland-Denmark [Accessed 26 May 15]. Ill. 53 - WindFinder, (2015), Wind & weather statistics Aalborg Lufthavn [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/aalborg [Accessed 26 May 15]. Ill. 54 - WeatherSpark, (2015), Average Weather For Aalborg, Denmark [ONLINE]. Available at: https://weatherspark.com/averages/28838/Aalborg-Nordjylland-Denmark [Accessed 26 May 15]. Ill. 55-58 – Own illustration

140


Ill. 59 - Aalborg Kommune, (2010), Antal husstande og beboere i Aalborg Kommune 2010 [ONLINE]. Available at: http://apps.aalborgkommune.dk/statistik/webaarbog/Folketal2010/struktur/Hele_Kommunen/indexlevel1/HeleKommunenHusstande.html[Accessed 26 May 15]. Ill. 60 - Life Cycle Engineering, (2015), Life Cycle Assessment [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.lbp-gabi.de/46-1-Life-Cycle-Assessment-and-Life-CycleEngineering.html [Accessed 26 May 15]. Ill. 61 - CivilBlog, (2015), How to check quality of bricks on site? [ONLINE]. Available at: http://civilblog.org/2015/02/07/how-to-check-quality-of-bricks-onsite/ [Accessed 26 May 15]. Ill. 62 - StoraEnso, (2013), Origin [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.clt.info/en/produkt/bauen-mit-massivholz/okologieumwelt/ [Accessed 26 May 15]. Ill. 63 - StoraEnso, (2013), Building with CLT massive wood [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.clt.info/en/produkt/bauen-mit-massivholz/ [Accessed 26 May 15]. Ill. 64-71 - Own illustration Ill. 72-75 - Own photography Ill. 76-79 - Own illustration Ill. 80 - Own photography Ill. 81-82 - Own illustration

141


Ill. 83 - Own photography Ill. 84-86 - Own illustration Ill. 88-89 - Own photography Ill. 90-98 - Own illustration Ill. 99 - Own photography Ill. 100-135 Own illustration Ill. 136-137 VELUX Daylight Vizualizer Ill. 138-143 - Own illustration Ill. 144-146 - Google Sketchup Ill. 147-161 - Own illustration Ill. 162-168 - VELUX Daylight Vizualizer Ill. 169-182 - Own illustration

142


EPILOGUE

TABLE LIST Table 01 - Boral Bricks Inc., 2009. A White Paper on Performance Benefits of One of Man’s Oldest Building Materials. Building with Brick: Sustainable and Energy Efficient A White Paper on Performance Benefits of One of Man’s Oldest Building Materials, [Online]. 1, 7. Available at: http://www.boralna.com/ bricks/pdf/News-12-09-White-Paper-Building-with-Sustainable-Brick.pdf[Accessed 19 May 2015]. Table 02-24 - Own table

143


APPENDIX


The appendix contains additional calculations and analyses and elaborates on specific technical parts of the project


APPENDIX

FAMILY APARTMENT PLANS 140M2 1ST LEVEL

2ND LEVEL

VENT. CAB.

CAB.

Ill. 158 - Family apartment 140m2 - 1st floor 1:200

147

Ill. 159 - Family apartment 140m2 - 2nd floor 1:200

WASH.

WASH.

VENT.

REF.


130M2 1ST LEVEL

2ND LEVEL

REF.

WASH.

VENT.

WASH.

Ill. 160 - Family apartment 130m2 - 1st floor 1:200

Ill. 161 - Family apartment 130m2 - 2nd floor 1:200

148


APPENDIX

DAYLIGHT 1ST LEVEL

VELUX Daylight Visualizer 2 has been used to perform quantitative measurements of the daylight factor for each apartment type. Common for every type of apartment is that the working spaces are placed closest to the windows to ensure a daylight factor of at least 2%.

2ND LEVEL

FAMILY 130M2 Illustration 162 shows that the quantitative requirement stated in the design criteria have been fulfilled. All the common rooms are having daylight factors of 2% or more. The corridors achieve slightly lower values which is acceptable.

DAYLIGHT FACTOR %

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Ill. 162 - Daylight family130m2

149

N


FAMILY 115M2

1ST LEVEL

Illustration 163 shows the measurement of daylight factor in the other type of family apartment placed on the top floor. All the common rooms are achieving sufficient daylight factors of 2% with the exception of the dining area. However the open plan of the apartment will allow the inhabitants to move around the furniture if they wish.

DAYLIGHT FACTOR %

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Ill. 163 - Daylight family 115m2

2ND LEVEL

N 150


FAMILY 140M2

1ST LEVEL

Illustration 164 shows the daylight scenario of the family apartment placed in the middle of the complex, the daylight conditions are sufficient for the common rooms and only the corridors and a very small part of the dining area is achieving daylight factors less than 2%.

DAYLIGHT FACTOR %

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Ill. 164 - Daylight family 140m2

151

2ND LEVEL

N


FAMILY GROUND FLOOR Illustration 165 shows the results for the family apartment at ground level. The daylight conditions are really good, and only the corridor has a daylight factor of less than 2%. The high amount of daylight achieved in the common area is due to the higher windows placed towards the south-western facing courtyard, which naturally allows more daylight into the apartment.

STUDENT Illustration 166 shows the scenario for the student apartment. Seeing as each student apartment is only lit from one side, an additional window has been placed facing the access. This allows for the kitchen to achieve the required daylight factor of 2% even though it is placed in the back of the apartments.

DAYLIGHT FACTOR %

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Ill. 165 - Daylight family ground floor

Ill. 166 - Daylight student

N 152


COUPLE 1 Illustration 166 shows the scenario for the one type of couple apartment having its terrace towards the access. The result shows that the daylight requirement is met for all the common rooms.

COUPLE 2 Illustration 167 shows the scenario for the second type of couple apartment having its terrace away from the access. The result once again shows that every common room achieves the required daylight factor of 2%.

DAYLIGHT FACTOR %

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Ill. 167 - Daylight couple 1

153

Ill. 168 - Daylight couple 2

N


APPENDIX

INDOOR AIR QUALITY To ensure a satisfying indoor air quality in the apartments the CO2 and sensory pollution for the student and family apartments have been calculated. The results are then used to calculate the required ventilation rates for the apartments and the required ventilation rates are compared with the requirements states in the Danish Building Regulations, to make sure that the rates complies with the minimum values of the regulation. Currently there are no requirements for the indoor environment of residential building so the requirements for offices have been used as a guideline.

Category

CO2 above outdoor [ppm]

A (I)

350

B (II)

500

C (III)

800

D (IIII)

< 800

Table 04 - Categories

Apartment

Area

Roomheight

Residents

Required ventilation rate

[m ]

[m]

[persons]

[l/s]

2

Student Family

[m3/h]

[h-1]

45

2.7

1

10.56

38

0.31

115

2.7

4

42.22

152

0.49

Table 05 - Required ventilation rates

CO2

In our case Indoor Category B is chosen, see table 04. This category defines that the CO2 concentration should not rise more than 500 ppm above the outdoor level of 350ppm. Using this information the ventilation rates have been calculated in table 05.

Inputs CO2 load pr. person in l/h

19 l/h

An average person exhales 19 l/h of air assuming a MET of 1,2 (Dansk Standard, 2001) Outdoor CO2 level

350 ppm

Table 06 - Inputs

154


SENSORY Next the ventilation rates are calculated concerning sensory pollution. Category B is once again chosen which states that the maximum amount of dissatisfied persons that can occur is 20% and that the correlating perceived air quality is 1.4dp, see table 07.

Category

Percentage dissatisfied (PD)

Perceived air quality (PD)

[%]

[%]

A

15

1

B

20

1.4

C

30

2.5

Table 07 - Categories

Apartment

Area

Roomheight

Residents

Required ventilation rate

[m2]

[m]

[persons]

[m2/h]

Student Family

[h-1]

45

2.7

1

10

2.19

115

2.7

4

27

2.32

Table 08 - Required ventilation rates

Inputs Loads from people Loads from building materials Outdoor air quality Table 09 - Inputs

155

1 olf pr. person 0.2 olf pr. m2 0.05 olf


REQUIRED VENTILATION RATE To make sure that the ventilation is high enough to keep both the CO2 and sensory pollution at comfortable levels the highest values have been chosen for both apartments. Table 10 shows that the calculation for sensory pollution is the dominating factor. However the results should still be checked with the BSim simulation because the program offers higher precision in regards to the shape and orientation of the apartments.

Apartment

Olf RVR

CO2 RVR

Requried ventialtion rate

[h ]

[h ]

[h-1]

-1

-1

Student

2.19

0.31

2.19

Family

2.32

0.49

2.32

Table 10 - Required ventilation rate

Apartment

Area

Roomheight

Required ventilation rate

[m ]

[m]

[m3]

2

Student Family

[h-1]

[m3/s]

45

2.7

121.5

2.19

0.07

115

2.7

310.5

2.32

0.20

Table 11 - Required ventilation rate

156


BUILDING REGULATIONS To ensure that the calculated ventilation rates comply with the Danish Building Regulation, the ventilation rate for each room is calculated with the constants given in the regulations. This is done for the student apartment in table 12 and the family apartment in table 13. Reviewing the tables shows that the demands issued by the building regulation sometimes exceeds the calculated ventilation demand for CO2. The ventilation rate is decided by the sensory calculations, giving a total air flow rate of 0.075m3/s for the student apartment and 0.2m3/s for the family apartment. The BSim simulations showed that these values keep the CO2 level very low and maintained a good air quality.

Student Living room

[m2]

Constants [l/s] [l/s pr. m2]

21.9

20

Bathroom

15

Bedroom

6.1

0.3

Highest value 6.57

0.3

1.83

Total

[m3/s]

20

0.02000

15

0.01500

1.83

0.00183

36.83

0.03683

Table 12 - Required ventilation rate

Family Bedroom

[m2]

Constants [l/s] [l/s pr. m2]

[l/s]

Highest value

[m3/s]

11.7

0.3

3.51

3.51

0,00351

Bedroom 2

8.4

0.3

2.52

2.52

0,00252

Bedroom 3

6.1

0.3

1.83

1.83

0,00183

Bathroom

15

15

0,01500

Bathroom 2

15

15

0,01500

Living room / kitchen

37

Corridor

9.3

Total Table 13 - Required ventilation rate

157

[l/s]

20

0.3

11.10

20

0,02000

0.3

2.79

2.79

0,00279

60.65

0,06065


APPENDIX

BSIM ANALYSIS PRINCIPLE OF ENERGY The building simulation program of BSim has been used to ensure a proper indoor climate of the building. Two different apartments, with different conditions have been chosen for the analysis. The two apartments were selected to check how different features like sun exposure, orientation, wind direction etc. influenced the indoor climate The chosen apartments are: - Student apartment (red), with windows directed south-west â&#x20AC;&#x201C; this apartment has a lot of sun exposure, but could also potentially have problems with natural ventilation in certain wind conditions due to its low position in the building - Family apartment (blue), which is placed on the top, having even more sun exposure, but also better natural ventilation possibilities. Both apartments vary greatly in size and position. The results from the analysis should give us insights of how to improve the indoor climate.

Ill. 169 - Apartments chosen for BSim

A contemporary sustainable building has to adapt to smart strategies for the usage of the natural and mechanical ventilation methods. The balance between each of those methods is not a simple decision. One have to consider many different factors â&#x20AC;&#x201C; thermal comfort, sensory calculations, CO2 levels, but also proper usage and the ability of people to be able to control these factors. The mechanical ventilation is running constantly. The natural ventilation however is being used in the warmer periods of the year and this ensures that the dwellings do not get too much of cold air inside. The natural ventilation helps the mechanical ventilation when it is needed most â&#x20AC;&#x201C; when there is a risk of overheating. The dimensioning of the mechanical ventilation is dependant on the sensory and CO2 polution. The higher value from those two calculations is that defines the required ventilation rate, used to design the ventilation system.

158


NATURAL VENTILATION The natural ventilation is designed to enhance thermal comfort in the apartments, while also ventilating for olf and CO2. The flats have been designed to enhance the natural ventilation in different ways. The dominant wind direction of south-west was one of the factors when designing the apartments. Taking this into consideration, a double high room, placed on either the northern or eastern side of the building, have been provided in the bigger apartments so that the cross ventilation will be enhanced by thermal buoyancy. This void space also has opening on the same walls at different height so the thermal buoyancy can be exploited when the direction of the wind is unfavorable for cross ventilation. The smaller rooms of the apartments are using single-sided ventilation by specially designed rotating windows that promotes thermal buoyancy by providing two separate opening at different height. The larger, single level spaces are shaped to benefit from openings towards the access â&#x20AC;&#x201C; to create cross ventilation.

159

The natural ventilation strategy is deeply dependant on the user behavior. The BSim simulation considers some typical behavioral patterns of opening and closing the windows at specific temperature levels.

FAMILY APARTMENT AMPLIFIES THE CROSS VENTILATION FROM DOMINANT WIND DIRECTIONS BY THERMAL BUOYANCY

Ill. 170 - Thermal buoyancy

The calculations of the possible airflow rate in the dwellings assure that the occupants can get the required natural ventilation rate. Excel sheets have been used to calculate the necessary values for the sizes of the openings â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and they show that with a proper design, big air change rates can be achieved with small openings.

WHEN THE WIND DIRECTION IS BAD, THE APARTMENT CAN BE VENTILATED BY THE THERMAL BUOYANCY

Ill. 171 - Thermal buoyancy

DIFFERENT WINDOW OPENINGS FOR DIFFERENT SITUATIONS Ill. 172 - Different window solutions


THERMAL COMFORT

STUDENT APARTMENT

The thermal comfort of the dwellings has been considered. The dwellings have been simulated for the temperature levels, which resulted in conclusion that the dwellings are in danger of overheating. Different strategies have been considered. After consecutive simulations solar shading unit have been selected as the best working one. It helped to reduce the number of hours above 26°C and 27°C to almost 0.

Student apartment have been analyzed during the design process. The apartment showed big problems with overheating. Different measures have been proposed to solve the problems. The earliest version showed 835 hours over 26°C (Case B). The apartment lacked proper ventilation strategies. Cross ventilation strategy, and single sided thermal buoyancy ventilation have been designed to achieve better thermal comfort .

A - Allowed hours B - No shading, partial venting C - No shading, venting D - Partial shading, venting E - Final design Table 14 - Process

Using high insulation level increases the demands on anti-overheating strategies. Some of the strategies used in the project to fight the overheating problems are specific window and glazing type, slight recessing of the window into the envelope, overhangs over strategic areas. Low emission windows contribute to the reduction of the overheating. Low g factor is preferred in this situation as one can lower the solar gains this way. Materials like PCM boards helped to reduce the overheating, but the effect was too low compared to the price, to use it in the project. Ill. 173 - Hours over 26°C and 27°C

160


FAMILY APARTMENT Next analyses showed, that natural ventilation is not enough to achieve thermal comfort (Case C). New measures have been designed to lower sun effect on the internal temperature. Different shading devices have been tested – but some of them showed that they do not provide enough shading for very good thermal comfort (Case D). Finally, textile, retractable shading device, that can be controlled depending on the current temperature and sun radiance have been selected. Apartment has 0 hours over 26°C and 27°C, and below 21°C in all thermal zones (Case E).

At the same time we were checking, if the apartment has proper ventilation for atmoshperic comfort.

Ill. 174 - Average temperature

Ill. 175 - CO2 levels

161

CO2 levels have been a bit high at first. One have to dimension properly mechanical ventilation to be able to ventilate for olf and CO2. The most problematic are the bedrooms, where people stay at night, when typically natural ventilation do not help. The maximum level of CO2 not being higher than 850ppm was the primary condition. Final case shows that it has been achieved.

Designing the family apartment was very complicated. The apartment is much bigger than the student apartment, and it also had much more problems. First problem was high heating demand. We realized, that trying to minimize the window openings to the south, we actually minimized them too much. The apartment has been getting too low passive solar gains to operate well in the colder period (Case A). The next step was enlarging the windows to achieve more solar gains. This helped in the colder period, but also caused overheating in the summer.

Ill. 176 - Heating and sun radiation


The next case had to be redesigned, due to overheating. Shading devices have been designed, according to similar analysis as in student apartment. Natural ventilation has been improved by creating in every room either cross ventilation, or thermal buoyancy by using specially designed window (Case C). We have been still working on achievieng better thermal comfort by tweaking optimal ventilation rates, solar shading and vindow openings. Finally the Case D showed very good thermal comfort properties.

The last part was checking the CO2 levels. The CO2 maximum level has risen over the maximum allowed value (850ppm) in some of the rooms (Bathroom, Toilet, Double Bedroom). We had to optimize mechanical ventilation to the changes, we have made in pevious step. Finally we have achieved good atmospheric comfort.

Ill. 177 - Case B

A - Starting point, partial shading and venting B - Added more windows to south C - Improved venting D - Thermal comfort E - Final design, CO2 ventilation

Table 15 - Process

Ill. 178 - Case D

Ill. 179 - CO2 levels

162


APPENDIX

FAR The floor area ratio is calculated in accordance with the Danish Building Regulation (Bygningsreglementet, 2014, 2.2.1) reaching a total 117% for the site.

163

Gross area

Amount

Total

[m ]

[m2]

2

Ground floor apart.

87

24

2088

Family apart. middle

141

14

1974

Family apart. top 1

115

15

1725

Family apart. top 2

130

14

1820

Couple apart. 1

79

18

1422

Couple apart. 2

79

19

1342

Student

45

30

1350

Common rooms

-

-

2309

Offices

-

-

415

Commerce

-

-

322

Building area

18646

Plot area

15900

FAR

117%


APPENDIX

Energy frame in BR 2010

BE10

Without supplement

Supplement for special conditions 52.6

Total energy frame 0.0

52.6

Total energy requirement

17.5

Using the Be10 software concurrently with the design helps figuring out what parts of the energy frame needs improvements, and will provide the final key number for the complex in the end.

Energy frame low energy buildings 2015

The goal is to provide the Zero Energy Building with an energy frame consistent to a key number of no higher than 20kWh/m2 through passive means.

Energy frame Buildings 2020

Table 16 shows the resulting key number of the entire complex, before adding any active renewable strategies, to be 11.0kWh/m2 per year for the 2020 energy frame.

Contribution to energy requirement

Without supplement

Supplement for special conditions 30.1

Total energy frame 0.0

30.1

Total energy requirement

14.9

Without supplement

Supplement for special conditions 20.0

Total energy frame 0

Total energy requirement

Heat

20.0 11.0

Net requirement Room heating

12.6

El. For operation of building

12.8 1.9

Domestic hot water

11.0

Excessive in rooms

0.0

Cooling

Selected electricity requirements

0.0

Heat loss from installations

Lighting

0.0

Room heating

0.1

Heating of rooms

0.0

Domestic hot water

0.0

Heating of DHW

0.0

Heat pump

0.0

Output from special sources

Ventialtion

1.9

Solar heat

0.0

Pumps

0.0

Heat pump

0.0

Cooling

0.0

Solar cells

0.0

16.8

Wind mills

0.0

Total el. Consumption Table 16 - Key numbers [kWh/m2 per year]

164


APPENDIX

PV CALCULATIONS The initial step is to calculate the total energy frame of the complex, accounting for the energy used to run the building and the energy used by the residents for lighting and appliances.

The Electric Energy will have to be converted to Primary Energy by multiplying with a 1.8 factor. 1725 kWh/year per apartment (Electric Energy) * 1.8 = 3105 kWh/year per apartment (Primary Energy)

Total heated area of the building: 11722m2 Energy used to run the building, using the key number of the Be10:

Corresponding to the total energy consumption for the entire complex of: (3105 kWh/year per apartment * 132 apartments) + 128942 kWh/year = 538802 kWh/year

11kWh/m2 per year * 11722m2 = 128942kWh/year (Primary Energy)

Energy used by the residents for lighting and appliances: According to the regulations for energy neutrality (ZEB) the energy usage for appliances and lighting should not exceed 1725 kWh/year per apartment (Electric Energy).

165

A is the total area of modules [m2] B is the efficiency of the separate modules [%] D is the system factor which takes into account the temperature, different output, losses through cables etc. E is the radiation of the sun relative to its position and angle [kWh/m2] Illustration 173 shows the distribution of the PVs on the roof surfaces of the complex. The outputs of the different solar panels have been calculated in the tables on the next pages.

This means that we have to supply the building with 538802 kWh/year to attain energy neutrality (ZEB). Calculating the annual output of the solar panels is done using the following equation (Slupinski, 2015) Yearly output = C * D * E * 1.8 Where: C is the output of the solar cells in direct sunlight not obstructed by anything, calculated as: (A*B)/100 [kWpeak]

Ill. 180 - Distribution of PVs


Roofs with 95-100% efficiency, -30° direction, 45° angle

Roofs with 75-80% efficiency, -75° direction, 45° angle

Bike sheds with 85-90% efficiency, 60° direction, 30° angle

A [m2]

A [m2]

78

A [m2]

18

B [%]

830

B [%]

18

C [kWpeak] D

149.40 0.8

E [kWh/m ] 2

Total output

1134 243964.20kWh

Table 17 - Outputs

B [%] C [kWpeak] D E [kWh/m ] 2

Total output

14.04

312.9 18

C [kWpeak]

0.8

D

983

E [kWh/m ]

19873.90 kWh

Table 19 - Outputs

56.32 0.85

2

Total output

1050 90481.29 kWh

Table 21 - Outputs

Roofs with 85-90% efficiency, -60° direction, 45° angle

Big gables facing the railway, 70-75% efficiency, 30° direction, 90° angle

Vertical part of bike sheds with 60-65% efficiency, 60° direction, 90° angle

A [m2]

A [m2]

A [m2]

380

B [%]

18

C [kWpeak] D

68.40 0.8

E [kWh/m ] 2

Total output Table 18 - Outputs

1045 102928.30 kWh

227

B [%]

18

C [kWpeak] D E [kWh/m ] 2

Total output Table 20 - Outputs

40.86

75.9

B [%]

18

C [kWpeak]

0.8

D

867

E [kWh/m ]

51012.89 kWh

13.66 0.85

2

Total output

785 16408.75 kWh

Table 22 - Outputs

166


Bike sheds with 90-95% efficiency, -45째 direction, 30째 angle A [m2]

52.2

B [%]

18

C [kWpeak]

9.39

D

0.85

E [kWh/m ] 2

Total output

1060 15223.84 kWh

Table 23 - Outputs

Vertical part of bike sheds with 65-70% efficiency, -45째 direction, 90째 angle A [m2]

12.65

B [%]

18

C [kWpeak]

2.28

D

0.85

E [kWh/m ] 2

Total output Table 24 - Outputs

167

795 2769.63 kWh

Total amount produced Total amount needed

542662.8 kWh 538802 kWh


APPENDIX

FIRE ROUTE & ACCESS The fire routes to the building complex have been designed according to the directives of the Danish Building Regulations section 5.6.1 and they are shown in illustration 181. The directive states that all fire routes needs to be 2.8m wide to be able to accommodate heavy traffic. Additionally there should not be more than 40m from the fire route to the entrance of the access of the building complex. (Bygningsreglementet, 2014, 5.6.1)

La

de

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ga

pig en

Ste

nga

se

de

Ur b

an

sg

ad

e

de

Ve s

te rb

ro

The entire complex can be reached via the roads of ‘Urbangade’, ‘Ladegårdsgade’ and ‘Stengade’, apart from the southeastern wing, which will have to be reached by driving through the southeastern courtyard on the provided path, widened with reinforced grass.

Ill. 181 - Fire route

168


APPENDIX

PARKING

169

parking or on the border of the plot. Because of this, the ramp leading to the underground parking is located near the main entrance of the complex. bicycle parking

Ma 10

%

in e

1 2 3 4

43

5

44

42

6

45 41

46

40

47

39

7

48

38

8

49

37

9

50 51

10

36

11

52

35

12

53

34

33

54

32

55

31

13

56

30

14

57

29

15

58 59

16

28

25

62

24

63

23

19

64

22

20

65

21

66 67 68 69

Ill. 182 - Car parking

rb

61

ro

60

27 26

ste

17 18

Ve

The number of parking lots is based on the demands from the project description, stating that there needs to be atleast ½ lot per housing unit. The housing units contains 132 apartments which means that the minimum amount of parking lots is 66. Because the complex accomodates both dwellings, commerce and offices, we decided to provide more parking lots. The majority of the parking is located in an underground car park, lowered 2.04m beneath the ground level, between the block adjacent to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Vesterbroâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and the block of the new complex. The car park creates an elevated semi-private space which can be used by the residents of both blocks. The underground car park contains 69 parking lots including two designed for disabled people. It is accessible from Stengade by the ramp and it is connected to the building by four staircases, equipped with elevators. Moreover, additional parking spaces have been added on the ground level on the northern border of the site. As it was stated in the program, the complex is not accessible by car which means that the cars should be left behind, either in the underground

ntr

an

ce


12.57 11.78

9.18

6.12

3.06

0.00

-1.03

-1.03

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

-1.13

ACCESS SECTION SUSTAINABLE PART: 5 - 1 MADE BY: URBAN HOME DATE: 27-05-2015 SCALE:

GROUP 2 1:100


12.08

Detail #5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Diffusion-Open Membrane Metal Sheeting panels Batten 30mm x 30mm Rafter

Detail #6

30

Detail #4

Ridge Covering Airgap

20

Zink Covering

3.1 3.2

Wooden Cladding

3.3

C-Iron with vertical wodden posts

3.4

6.19

Zink Gutter

3.8

Moisture Barrier PVC Foil 2mm

3.9

Hardrock Rockwool & Hardrock Wedge 380mm

3.10

150mm Cross Laminated Timber

3.11

350mm FLEXIBATTS Rockwool

3.12

125mm Cross Laminated Timber

3.13

2.2 2.3

Moisture Barrier 1mm Bitumen

2.4

Suporting Mortar

2.5

Diffusion-Open Membrane Rafters 30mm x 70mm Zinc Covering Zinc Covering Zinc Gutter Grey Brick RandersTegl 350mm Rockwool Flexibatts Airgap 15mm Moisture Barrier 0.20mm Solar Shading Reinforced Brick Pilkington Optiterm s3 Low-E

249

5.23 3.40

3.40 3.06

2.7

Gutter For Precipitation

2.8

Reinforced Brick

2.9

30mm Sill in Laminated Spruce

2.10

Insulation 250mm

Moisture Barrier

2.11

Suspencion Brackets Gyproc

Gypsym 12.5 22mm Laths Moisture Barrier

CLT

2.12

50mm Insulation

Moisture Barrier

2.11

Nilair Heatrecovery system

Moisture Barrier

2.11

Moisture Barrier

2.11

175

2.6

Solar Shading

22 75 13

Detail #7

Airgap 15mm

521

150

30

28

28

Jointfiller in Drip cap

6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15

5.56

2.1

Window Ledge in Brick

357mm RockWool HardRock

5.86

Detail #2 Moisture Barrier 0.20mm

6.3

30

28

28

3.7

145

Bitumen 2 layer 2x2mm

2% slope

Batten 30mm x 30mm

300

3.6

6.2

6.12

108

Steel Bracket Leveler

620

3.5

10 30

6.18 Wooden planks 30 mm

7.06

8.29

Detail #3 Support Rafter

8.82

25

Pilkington Optiterm s3 Low-e

Metal Sheeting panels

3

Window Sill 30mm

8.82

4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12

6.1

163

7.29

CLT 125mm Solar Shading

5 12

Rockwool Rockpanel

0 30

Zink Gutter

0 69

Zink Covering

10

Roofing Asphalt

0 15

230mm x 55mm Beam 357mm RockWool HardRock

5

15 mm Photovoltaic Panels

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

50

Bearing for Pv'es

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7

2.54 0.94 Detail #8

Detail #1

Cross Laminated Timber

1.14

300mm Molding Firm Styrolit

1.15

Reinforced Concrete Slab

1.16

Capillary Break Layer 8-16mm & 16-32mm

1.17

LecaTerm 490mm

1.18

15mm Airgap Drip Cap 1mm Aluminium

0.4 mmm. Sandpillow

1.19

Reinforced Conrete

1.20

Soil

1.21

3

3 40

100mm Styrolit

8.8

125mm Cross Laminated Timber

8.9

CLT Bracket

8.10

Concrete Slab 200mm

7 557

303

275

30 28 25

-0.72

8.7

5

Plaster 10mm

1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13

Grey Brick RandersTegl

Grey Brick Rander Tegl

200

Suporting Mortar

200

Moisture Barrier 1mm Bitumen

666

1.7 1.8 1.9

5 100

Window Ledge in Brick

8.6

15 Ventilation Gap

3 25

1.6

12mm Grout

150

Pilkington Optiterm s3 Low-E

8.4 8.5

-1.26

150

1.5

-0.11

Moisture barrier 10 mm

150

Rockwool Styrolit 30 mm

0.00

250

Particleboard 28mm

1.3 1.4

250

22mm Floor Heating

28

1.2

8.3

350mm Rockwool Flexibatts/Vertical Rafters

30

Heat Distribuation Plate 1mm Aluminium

Pilkington Ventilated Window Panels

5

1.1

1441

Parquet Flooring 22mm

0.29

8.1 8.2

8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16

Capillary Break Layer 8-16mm Capillary Break Layer 16-32mm Sandpillow, 0.4mm Styrolit 160mm Conrete Wall 250mm Foundation Reinforced Concrete 400mm

-2.40

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

DETAIL SUSTAINABLE PART: 6-1 URBAN HOME DATE: 27-05-2015

MADE BY:

GROUP 2

SCALE:

1:20


17.91

17.61

15.30

12.54 12.24

9.48 9.18

6.32 6.12

3.06

0.00 -0.72

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

COURTYARD FACADE SUSTAINABLE PART: 3 - 1 MADE BY: GROUP 2 URBAN HOME DATE: 1:100 27-05-2015 SCALE:


12.54

18.20

12.54 12.24

9.48 9.18

6.42 6.12

3.36 3.06

0.00 -0.72

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CITY

URBAN FACADE PART:

3-2

DATE:

27-05-2015

MADE BY:

GROUP 2

SCALE:

1:100


7500 8013,5 1500

400

1000

2450

950

800

4372,5

913,5

10805

900

WASH. REF.

5537,5

VENT.

1013,51752

1500

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

1000

8018,5 1000

SUSTAINABLE 7500 URBAN HOME 8013,5

1520

1500

480

GROUND FLOOR FAMILY APARTMENT PART:

7-1

DATE:

27-05-2015

MADE BY:

GROUP 2

SCALE:

1:50


7500

7500

8013,5

8013,5 913,5 1000

2750

6001000

1000

750

2750

REF.

1000

600

1000

750

913,5

1000

2750

1000 913,5

6001000

1000

750

2750

10800

CAB.

10800

VENT.

VENT. CAB.

2522

5265,5

WASH.

10810

900

2112,5

REF.

1000

750 1013,5

1500

1500

1250 1000

1000

750

1500

1250

1513,5

1500

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN 7500

7500

8013,9 2775

AALBORG UNIVERSITY

6501000

1000

750

2775

SUSTAINABLE URBAN HOME 8013,5

8013,9 913,9 925

2000

925

650

1000

750

938,5

975

2750

1513,5 1500

1500 1500

2000

MIDDLE FAMILY APARTMENT PART:

7-2

DATE:

27-05-2015

938,5 1000

600 975

MADE BY:

GROUP 2

SCALE:

1:50

1000

750

8013,5 2750


7500

7500

8013,5 913,5

900

1000

2450

1000

913,5

750

1000

900

2592,5

1000

607,5

1000

4367,5

4367,5

1000

8013,5

WASH.

1237,5

10805

10800

900

900

WASH.

VENT.

REF.

REF.

798

1000

702

5537,5

1200

600

VENT.

1747

1500

616,5

1150

1000

500

1000

500

1013,5

1500

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN 7500 8013,5

AALBORG UNIVERSITY

1926

600

1500

SUSTAINABLE 7500 URBAN HOME 8013,5

1474

COUPLE APARTMENT - 2 TYPES PART:

7-3

DATE:

27-05-2015

MADE BY:

GROUP 2

SCALE:

1:50


8013,5 1500

400

1000

2450

1000

750

600

342,5

900

2612,5

913,5

1890

VENT.

VENT.

900

342,5 600

REF.

2612,5

10800

7500

1013,5

1500

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

1000

1000

SUSTAINABLE URBAN HOME

2000

1000

500

2 STUDENT APARTMENTS PART:

7-4

DATE:

27-05-2015

MADE BY:

GROUP 2

SCALE:

1:50


7500

7500

8013,9

8013,9 913,9 925

1000 650

1000

750 2775

925

650

1000

938,5

750

975

938,5 1000

2750

600975

1000

750 2750

VENT.

1300

1500

4236,5

4236,5

1436,5

10800

10692

10800

VENT.

WASH.

REF.

REF.

3789

6563,5

6563,5

900

1874,5

2775

8013,5

8013,5

587,5

926

10001000

500

2500 1000

500

587,5

926

1000

500

1000

500

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN 7500 8013,5

7500 8013,5

AALBORG UNIVERSITY

SUSTAINABLE URBAN HOME 8156

TOP FAMILY APARTMENT 115m2 PART:

7-5

DATE:

27-05-2015

MADE BY:

GROUP 2

SCALE:

1:50

8156


000

7500

7500

8013,5

8013,5 1000913,5 600

2250

1000 1500

750

8156

2250

REF.

1000

600

1000

913,5

750

1000

8156 913,5

3226

3016,5 1000

3226

4997,5

4997,5

3492,5

REF.

WASH.

1000

626

1513,5

2874 1000

1000

1000

626

2874

1000 4812,5

4812,5

1000

10800

10800

VENT.

1000 4812,5

10800

600

VENT.

900

WASH.

1538,5

975

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

1000

1000

626

SUSTAINABLE URBAN HOME

1538,5

975

1000

TOP FAMILY APARTMENT 130m2 PART:

7-6

DATE:

27-05-2015

MADE BY:

GROUP 2

SCALE:

1:50

1000


La

de

g책

rds

ga

en

Ste

nga

te

rb

ro

G책

se

pig

de

Ve s

Ur

ba

ns

ga

de

de

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

MASTERPLAN SUSTAINABLE PART: 1-1 URBAN HOME DATE: 27-05-2015

MADE BY:

GROUP 2

SCALE:

1:500


18.2

18.35

12.24

9.18

6.12

5.87

3.12

3.06

2.54

-0.72

-0.92

-1.03

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

PLAZA HOUSING SECTION SUSTAINABLE PART: 5 - 2 MADE BY: GROUP 2 URBAN HOME DATE: 1:100 27-05-2015 SCALE:


18.2

12.24

10.35

9.24

9.18

6.18

6.12

5.56

3.40 3.06

2.81

2.54

0.00 -0.80

-0.11

-0.72 -0.67

-3.07

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

SUSTAINABLE URBAN HOME

COURTYARD HOUSING SECTION PART:

5-3

DATE:

27-05-2015

MADE BY:

GROUP 2

SCALE:

1:100


bicycle parking

Ma 10

%

in e

ntr

an

ce

1 2 3 4

43

5

44

42

6

45 41

46

40

47

39

7

48

38

8

49

37

9

50 51

10

36

11

52

35

12

53

34

33

54

32

55

31

13

56

30

14

57

29

15

58 59

16

26

25

62

24

63

23

19

64

22

20

ste

18

61

Ve

60

27

rb ro

28

17

65

21

66 67 68 69

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

UNDERGROUND PARKING SUSTAINABLE PART: 4 - 1 MADE BY: GROUP 2 URBAN HOME DATE: 1:500 27-05-2015 SCALE:


ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY

URBAN SECTION SUSTAINABLE PART: 2 - 1 MADE BY: URBAN HOME DATE: 27-05-2015 SCALE:

MASTERPLAN SUSTAINABLE PART: 2-2 URBAN HOME DATE: 27-05-2015

GROUP 2 1:500

MADE BY:

GROUP 2

SCALE:

1:500

Sustainable Urban Home  

MscArch02 Project. Aalborg University 2015 Natalia Okolus, Mateusz Płoszaj-Mazurek, Peter Nordestgaard Rønnest, Peter Christensen, Andreas F...

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