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HATLEHOL CHURCH AALBORG UNIVERSITY MSC01 ARC 10, 2014 Andreas Falk Sheye Mateusz Szymon Płoszaj-Mazurek Natalia Okolus Peter Christensen Peter Nordestgaard Rønnest


ABSTRACT This report is based on a competition brief, issued by Ă…lesund municipality in 2008, which concerns the design of a new church for the citizens of Ă…lesund. The brief contains specifics of the site and the requirements that the new building needs to abide by. A diagram of the functions is included through which the spatial requirements for each function is reviewed. The following proposal will focus on the tectonic qualities of wood, influenced by the Nordic context of the project site. The design originates from four workshops, each addressing relevant issues for the design of a church complex. The first workshop focused on the site analysis to supply the design with sufficient substance. The two next workshops were based on a performance aided design process, concerning acoustics and construction. Through these workshops, a structural system was created and relevant knowledge regarding acoustics in a church room was attained. For the fourth and final workshop, the design was further realized through considerations of the dimensions and joining of

the structural elements of the complex. Throughout the process the context of the site has been of great importance. The surrounding nature has been preserved as much as possible, and a desire to create a symbiosis between the architecture and the nature was achieved, by applying features inspired from a series of case reviews. When the visitor is moving towards the site, they will partake in a journey that meanders through the landscape before they arrive at the church complex. This journey will be defined by a fragmented structure that is placed throughout the nature. The functions of the complex are placed in a rectangular motion, interconnected by a flat roofed common space where courtyards are formed, surrounding the preserved trees. The church room is the epitome of a sacral space. The big window showers the room with light and upon hitting the stalactites of the structure, the light is scattered, creating a vivid pattern on the surfaces of the church room.


TITLE PAGE Title: Hatlehol Church Theme: Tectonic Design: Structure and Con struction Project: A&D MSc01 ARC Period: 20/01-2014 to 17/12-2014 Group: 10 Main supervisor: Camilla Østergaard Hansen Technical supervisor: Dario Parigi Number of copies: 9 Number of pages: 152

Andreas Falk Sheye

Mateusz Szymon Płoszaj-Mazurek

Natalia Okolus

Peter Christensen

Peter Nordestgaard Rønnest


PROLOGUE This project is made by group 10, MSc01 2014 Architecture & Design, Aalborg University. The topic of the project module is Tectonic Design: Structure and Construction, with the task of designing a proposal for a new Church at the Hatlehol parish, located in the municipality of Ă…lesund, Norway. Based on a review of the Nordic context, the main purpose of the design is to generate a structural composition that embraces the matters of tectonics and Nordic architecture and creates a sacral expression for the church. Through the analysis of relevant themes for the design of a new church, a vision and concept is developed.


GUIDE OF READING This report contains the presentation of the final design proposal for the new church in Hatlehol. It includes the concept and vision of the design as well as the analyses and design process. Following the introduction is the presentation of the final design. The presentation is given from the outside and in, starting with the master plan. Afterwards the methods are being presented and the different analyses are explained and concluded upon. Then the design process is elaborated to clarify the process leading to the final proposal, before an epilogue is presented that includes a conclusion and a reflection of the project. The references are listed using The Havard System, referred in the text by using the surname of the author and the year of publish. The complete references are summarized in the literature list, found in the Epilogue. Quotes are referred to with surname, year and page number, if available. If the page number is not available, the topic will be added instead. Illustrations are provided with a title and a number, which is also summarized in the illustrations list in the Epilogue.


TABLE OF CONTENT INTRODUCTION

CASES

EPILOGUE

08  09  10  11 

61  63  65  67  69 

111  113  115  119  123 

COMPETITION BRIEF METHODOLOGY NORDIC ARCHITECTURE TECTONIC

PRESENTATION 15  16  17  19  26  29  41  43 

VISION CONCEPT MASTER PLAN MAIN ENTRANCE ELEVATIONS PLAN DETAIL MATERIALS

ANALYSIS 47  48  51  52  54  55  57 

SURROUNDINGS VEGETATION AND TERRAIN NOISE CLIMATE CONCLUSION OF SITE ANALYSES TECHNICAL STUDY CONCLUSION OF TECHNICAL STUDY

CLOISTER TOPOLOGY CASA GRELHA KENNAN-JI ZEN TEMPLE WOODLAND CHAPEL CONCLUSION OF CASES

CONCLUSION REFLECTION REFERENCES ILLUSTRATION LIST TABLE LIST

CONCEPT

APPENDIX

73  74  75 

127  140  144  148  150  151 

JOURNEY GRADIENT FRAMING NATURE

DESIGN PROCESS 79  81  83  85  88  95  97  103  105 

WORKSHOP 1 WORKSHOP 2 WORKSHOP 3 PLACEMENT FUNCTIONS VOLUMES CHURCH ROOM GRID OUTSIDE

CHURCH HALL CALCULATIONS GRID STRUCTURE CALCULATIONS PRELIMINARY ACOUSTICS ANALYSIS FINAL ACOUSTICS ANALYSIS LIGHT STUDIES FIRE STRATEGY


INTRODUCTION


INTRODUCTION

COMPETITION BRIEF The competition brief contains the requirements for the design of the church. Among the practical requirements it also includes a desire for the architectural expression of the church in Hatlehol proposed by Ă…lesund municipality. The church should: -

Compliment the surroundings and enhance the sense of the place. Focus on the materials and a simplicity of design. Be a sacred space and provide focus on the local community. Emphasize high architectural, structural and functional qualities. Show an appreciation of the Northern nature of the existing local context.

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INTRODUCTION

METHODOLOGY In this section the methods being used throughout the report will be described. The project is formed, using the Integrated Design Process. This methodology is created by Mary-Ann Knudstrup from the book, Pandoras Boks. (Knudstrup, 2005) This process is separated into five phases, which are described below. The Problem Phase, here the problem is specified and from this, a vision for the final product is formed. The Analyzing Phase, here self-chosen subjects are analyzed and concluded upon. The conclusion will form the basis of the concept for the further process. The following analyses have been made. Site analysis, here different aspects of the site and surroundings are explored. The analyses will clarify the potentials of the site. Technical study, here a study of how specific technical details are made and applied.

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The Sketching Phase, here the concept is sketched, using hand drawings, diagrams and 3D modeling. Both architectural and engineering knowledge are used to inspire and further develop the project in the aforementioned professions’ directions. The Synthesis Phase, here everything produced throughout the previous phases are combined into one homogeneous mass, forming a synthesis of the knowledge and the detailing of the project. The Presentation Phase, here the presentation material for the final design is produced and presented. The Integrated Design Process is an iterative process; this means that the process is not chronologic, even though it might look that way when reading the report. Instead it consists of numerous loops between the phases of the process, continuously building upon the knowledge that each phase provides and ultimately creating an optimized design. By making the phases in-

fluence one another, the process will move between aesthetical and technical aspects, providing a final design that synthesizes the both of them.


INTRODUCTION

NORDIC ARCHITECTURE When choosing to design a building within the landscape of Norway, which has a history of excellent craftsmanship of wooden buildings, it becomes important to design a building that correlates with and preserves the Nordic language and its building history. Therefore a light overview of prominent buildings, that are valued for their architectonic qualities, are reviewed in order to get a better understanding of how contemporary architecture can take on the tradition of Nordic architecture. The public library in Stockholm by Gunnar Asplund is often perceived as the essence of Nordic architecture. It has a very delicate understanding of how materials are utilized to achieve a high aesthetic value and a very functional and minimalistic approach towards ornamentation. (Stockholms stad, 2014) Further regarding Gunnar Asplunds attention to detail, the Woodland Chapel is also worth mentioning. Here Asplund designed the keyhole to the door as an eye of a skull, this plays with the analogy of welcoming death as a closure to life. (Great Buildings, 2013)

In the case reviews, the Woodland Chapel will be further elaborated upon, regarding the principles of the architecture and how Asplund incorporates interesting architectural features in his design. When talking about Nordic architecture and attention to detail, the way that light enters a building plays an important part. The light is very sparse on these latitudes and must therefore be utilized to its full extend. This particular design approach is for example seen in Lakeuden Risti Church and in the main building for Helsinki Insti-

tute of Technology, Otaniemi, both by Alvar Aalto. These buildings shows how the light is used to illuminate the simple details of the window lining. (Plummer, 2012)

Ill. 01 - Lakeuden Risti Church, Seinäjoki, Finland

Ill. 02 - Aarhus Town Hall, Aarhus, Denmark

The Town Hall of Aarhus, by Arne Jacobson and Erik Møller, grasps the lighting of space in a subtle way. This is for example seen the great hall where skylights are added to create a necessary back light so that visitors will not be dazzled by the huge window of the great hall. (Møller & Lindhe, 1991)

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INTRODUCTION

TECTONIC When handling the tectonics as an approach to achieve a design, that forms a correlation between the structural expression and aesthetics of the church complex, we are inspired by the approach of Gottfried Semper. Semper differentiates between the expression of the structure and the expression of the earthwork, stressing that both play an important role in the origins of architecture. When further explaining the approach, Semper refers to the tectonics of the frame as well as the enclosing membrane and the stereotomics of the mass of the earthwork. Semper believes that the lightweight structure of the frame creates a spatial matrix with the mass of the stereotomic earthwork, and that this important connection should not be forgotten. (Semper, 1852) A quote by Kenneth Frampton further stresses this:

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�It is characteristic of our secular age that we should overlook the cosmic associations evoked by these dialogically opposed modes of construction; that is to say the affinity of the frame for the immateriality of the sky and the propensity of mass form not only to gravitate toward the earth but also to dissolve in its substances.� Kenneth Frampton, 1995: Studies in Tectonic Culture We will incorporate this idea of a spatial matrix between the heavy earthwork and the lightweight structure in our design, by revealing both the structure and the foundation of our volumes. Whenever possible the structure remains visible, aesthetically and honestly expressing the different layers of the construction and thus allowing the visitor to easily be able to relate to how the complex is built. This approach is continuously reviewed throughout the design phase, using digital tools as a guide for a deeper structural understanding of the material, thought to mainly consist of Douglas fir.

The material has great structural value and weathers beautifully without any surface treatment. This provides a high aesthetic value to the patina of the Douglas fir, with its silver grey look. This will fit well into the Nordic context, because of its honest wooden expression.

Ill. 03 - Dala house


PRESENTATION


The new Hatlehol Church enhances both the cohesion and individuality of the visitors. By capturing the surrounding nature, a symbiosis is formed between the nature and the architecture. Shaped by fragments of the structure, spaces for reflection, joy, meditation and sorrow are created. A pilgrimage through the dense forest, with its heavy roof of tree tops, causes an inner state of tranquility. The fragments of the grid will guide the visitors along a fluent transition, through the forest and into the architecture.


PRESENTATION

VISION The vision for the project is to create a clear design for a church and its associated functions. The church will allow the visitor to connect with their religion in close relation with nature. The design will relate to the Nordic context through a tectonic use of timber, that incorporates the disciplines of architecture and engineering. The church will have a clear connection to the landscape it is situated in, implementing elements of nature into the composition. It will interact with its context in a subtle way, welcoming the community to express their worship and facilitate the need for a community church that correlates with Christian traditions.

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PRESENTATION

CONCEPT

Ill. 04 - Concept

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MASTER PLAN

Ill. 05 - Master plan


PRESENTATION

MASTER PLAN Surrounded by roads, the Hatlehol Church is situated in the middle of the woods. The sacral buildings are placed towards the south and the community functions toward the north. The changing heights of the volumes signals the hierarchy of the volumes and their related functions and the flat roof pavilion of the common space interconnect it all. When arriving to the site by car, a parking space is found at the eastern end and an additional one in the north western corner of the site. When accessing the church from the woods, six entrances, evenly distributed throughout the complex, are serviceable by the visitor. Easing the access to the complex is an important aspect of the concept of being on a journey that paves its way through the forest along winding paths.

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PRESENTATION

MAIN ENTRANCE Arriving at the main entrance of the church, the full scale of the complex is revealed. The entrance is tucked in between the volumes of the sacral and common facilities, welcoming the visitor to utilize both. From this angle, the chapel stands out from the complex with its raised foundation set in stone. This change in material highlights the difference in the terrain. The scenic view of the towering tress surrounds the complex and sets the scene for Hatlehol Church.

Ill. 06 - Main entrance

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PRESENTATION

AERIAL VIEW At night, Hatlehol Church lights illuminates the exterior bed of the forest, staging the divinity of the church and giving the viewer a full insight of the grand scale of the windows in the chapel and the church room. Situated on the northern end of the site, the bell tower appears just above the tree tops.

Ill. 07 - Aerial view

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PRESENTATION

CROSSING THE STREAM At the north-western end of the site a small stream meanders southward. Small crossings connect to the site where the church room towers above the trees. At the entrances the grid structure of the site interconnects with the complex, creating a gradual transition towards the tranquil place.

Ill. 08 - Crossing the stream

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PRESENTATION

EASTERN ELEVATION

Ill. 09 - Eastern elevation

25 0

4

8

10m


PRESENTATION

SOUTHERN ELEVATION

ELEVATIONS

Ill. 10 - Southern elevation

26 0

4

8

10m


PRESENTATION

WESTERN ELEVATION

Ill. 11 - Western elevation

27 0

4

8

10m


PRESENTATION

NORTHERN ELEVATION

Ill. 12 - Northern elevation

28 0

4

8

10m


PRESENTATION

GROUND FLOOR Entering the church from the main entrance, the visitors can hang their coats in the cloakroom to the right, before continuing into the common space. From the common space, every volume can be accessed, accommodating the different functions of the church complex. The contrast between the common space and the volumes are enhanced by changing the material of the floor from wooden boards, in the common space, to polished concrete in the volumes.

Ill. 13 - Mezzanine

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PLAN

Ill. 14 - Ground floor


PRESENTATION

SECTION A-A

Ill. 15 - Section A-A

30 0

4

8

10m


PRESENTATION

SECTION B-B

Ill. 16 - Section B-B

31 0

4

8

10m


PRESENTATION

SECTION C-C

Ill. 17 - Section C-C

32 0

4

8

10m


Ill. 18 - Congregational hall

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PRESENTATION

CONGREGATIONAL HALL In the congregational hall the congregants can gather for events, both religious and community oriented. Abutting the congregational hall is the kitchen, the activity room and the music room. The kitchen is opening towards the hall and allows for dining events. The activity room and music room are fitted with folding doors, allowing the rooms to merge with the congregational hall, creating a multipurpose hall for the congregants.

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Ill. 19 - Common space

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PRESENTATION

COMMON SPACE Upon entering the building, the visitors will find themselves in the common space. The embracing nature encloses the space and the wooden material provides a great warmth. Walking around the common space, the Norwegian nature is revealed through the windows and in the courtyards. The area sets the stage for short term stay and can be used for a variety of purposes. When opening the folding doors of the congregational hall and the church room, these spaces flows into the common space and creates a very lively multipurpose area.

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Ill. 20 - Church room

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PRESENTATION

PREACHING IN THE CHURCH ROOM When attending a sermon in Hatlehol Chuch, the spatial expression of the hanging stalactites really manifest themselves when looking to the roof. The ascending motion of the continuously raising ridge, draws the attention of and directs the viewer’s eyes toward the grand window. The slim window frames provides an unobstructed view towards the treetops outside, framing the nature like a picturesque painting behind the priest and the minimalistic altar.

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Ill. 21 - Church room

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PRESENTATION

CHURCH ROOM Looking towards the back of the church room, the symmetrical mezzanine rests on the quadrupled columns that are continued in the ceiling. The organ is placed atop the mezzanine, which is also where the choir resides during sermon. At the far end of the church room, the courtyard appears with its trees so that, during mass, the congregants will feel surrounded by the soothing nature. A light bulb is attached to the end of each stalactite, creating the analogy of an open starry sky.

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PRESENTATION

DETAIL To connect the segments of the frame, two metal plates are slotted into the timber. The connection of the wire to the frame is solved by a hinge, connecting through a third metal plate, slotted in between the two previous ones, as shown in illustration 21. Eight metal bolts are bolted through the timber frame and the metal plates, locking the joint in a rigid connection. At the ridge the two timber segments are connected with a metal plate, to which the wire is attached. The joint is connected with a bolt, allowing for a small rotation. (Ill. 22)

Ill. 22 - Frame and wire detail

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Ill. 23 - Ridge detail


To connect vertical segments to the frame, metal brackets are attached to the frame with bolts. The verticals are then connected to the metal brackets with additional bolts, creating a rigid connection. For the smaller verticals, the wires are connected through a tube which is pierced through the vertical timber segments and afterwards bolted, shown in illustration 23. The bolt allows for regulation of position and the looseness of the connection. For the larger, quartered verticals, the tube is placed between the four segments, shown in illustration 24, and then bolted to the segments, with connectors that allow the wire to regulate its exact position.

Ill. 24 - Small vertical detail

Ill. 25 - Large vertical detail

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PRESENTATION

MATERIALS The floor materials are divided between the common and functional areas. The functional areas are placed on top of solid foundations and the common areas are hovering upon wooden pillars. To emphasize this contrast, a change in the materials was made. For the functional areas, a heavier material was proposed and for the common areas a lighter material, enhancing the different character of the areas. The flooring of the volumes will consist of concrete, with a polished finish, producing a vivid surface by reflecting the interior and providing the floor with a depth of textures. The common space will have a parquet floor in Douglas fir, treated with

a white-pigmented oil finish. The same oil is also used for the columns and the roof of the construction, which creates a unity of colours in the common space. The interior walls are acoustic timber slat panels made of Douglas fir, treated with the same white pigmented oil finish. The glue-laminated frames of the structure are made of Scots pine, a locally sources wood of the area. The wood of the stalactites is likewise made of Douglas fir, but kept in a darker finish, obtained through a transparent oil treatment. The sliding doors inside the church are sound reducing and have a layer of veneer added to their surfaces in order to align with the other

materials used. The window frames are made of Scotch pine, which will turn grey as it is weathered. The same applies for the cladding of the volumes, where Scotch pine is also used. The patina of the natural weathering provides a beautiful grey colour, which will fit well into the surrounding forest. The transition from the interior flooring to the exterior flooring happens through a change in materials, from the parquet floor to heavier wooden planks. When arriving at the church, from the forest, this change of colors will affect the mood of the visitor.

Ill. 26 - Polished concrete

Ill. 27 - Douglas fir parquet

Ill. 28 - Douglas fir timber

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ANALYSIS


The location of the site is meticulously studied from different perspectives, achieving an understanding of the potentials and shortcomings related to the geographical location of the site. Furthermore a technical study of the application and aesthetic effect of shingles is made, with a description of how such a cladding is constructively protected from weathering.


ANALYSIS

SURROUNDINGS INTRODUCTION

INFRASTRUCTURE

The church site is situated in the Hatlehol parish, located in the municipality of Ă…lesund in Norway. Close by, the fjord stretches with its compelling islands and shores. Further inland the traditional Norwegian coniferous forest remains raw and untreated and occupies the site as well as the surrounding areas. Only a few peeks of the fjord and the surrounding mountains remain visible, while the majority is obstructed by the density of the forest. Through an analysis of the surroundings of the site, knowledge is attained of how the church is connected to the community and whether or not some of the functions in the proximity of the church overlap.

Arrival to the site by car will happen via the main road of RV60 to the north. The main road acts as a link between the towns to the east of the site and the highway of E39. Parallel to RV60 there is a bicycle and pedestrian pathway, connecting the site with the area of the public school, which connects to the housing area located in the south western direction of the site. A road encircles the site and connects the two entrance roads to the contemporary parking area east of the site. Furthermore a small road runs through the cemetery and continues westbound, connecting the cemetery and the southwestern housing area.

FUNCTIONS A cemetery is located to the east of the site, connected to the church through pathways and roads. Two housing areas are located in a distance of about 300m northeast and southwest of the site. A public school is located to the west along the road, also within 300m of the site.

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Ill. 29 - Connections


ANALYSIS

VEGETATION AND TERRAIN INTRODUCTION By analyzing the vegetation and the terrain of the site it becomes possible to find the optimal placement of the building when regarding the changing elevations of the site and the preservation of the nature.

VEGETATION The vegetation of the site and its surroundings is very common for the Norwegian flora. The types of wood are mainly spruce, pine and birch. Pine and spruce are commonly used for timber constructions throughout Norway (Wikipedia, Scots Pine, 2014) while birch is mostly used for cladding and firewood. Birch is also the most commonly type of tree throughout Norway. (Science Nordic, 2014) Scots pine easily reaches heights of 36 meter in Norway, but it is not nearly as high on the site due to the very shallow dirt layer covering the bedrock. This prevents the roots of the tree to fully develop (Forestry Commission, 2014) and keeps the Scots pine at a heights of approximate of 20 meters. Compared to spruce, Scots

pine has a much denser crown; this leaves the trunk open which has a significant influence on the aesthetic value for the design of our landscape. This is to be considered when placing the building, so that most of the pine trees are preserved. A free-standing pine tree (Ill. 30) has a tendency to get a bigger and denser crown than trees situated next to each other in a typical forest scenery (Ill. 31). At the forest floor, the low vegetation consists mainly of ferns and small bushes, creating a soft layer above the solid bedrock.

Ill. 30 - Freestanding tree

Ill. 31 - Tree with naked branches

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TERRAIN The elevation of the site changes in a southward direction. At the most northern end, the elevation is 30.5m above the sea-level, while the most southern end is just 20m above. This adds up to 10.5m of difference in elevation. The contour lines of the site reveals that the site slopes the most close to its center. This makes the northern and southern part of the site more flat and thus more suitable for building. The level of soil above the bedrock differs throughout the site. In the southern part, the thickness of the soil reaches 1m, at the northern end as well as certain parts of the center it reduces to 0.1m and at some points the bedrock extrudes through the soil. (Ă…lesund Kommune, 2009, p. 1-8)

Ill. 34

Ill. 33

Ill. 32 - Vegetation map and terrain sections

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27m

25m

Ill. 33 - Terrain east-west

29m

20m

Ill. 34 - Terrain north-south

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ANALYSIS

NOISE INTRODUCTION The study of the noise levels on the site reveals the optimal placement for the different functions of the church. It would be beneficial to place the functions less disturbed by sound at the zones with high noise levels and vise versa.

NOISE The analysis shows that the majority of the noise arrives from the main road of RV60 to the north and is then gradually reduced through the site, towards the south. With this knowledge it becomes evident that placing the sacral functions furthest to the south and the administrative functions to the north is the most reasonable.

Ill. 35 - Noise from RV60

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ANALYSIS

CLIMATE

ANGLE OF ELEVATION 0° 10°

30°

INTRODUCTION

WIND

Analyses of the sun, wind, precipitation and temperature is made to review the climate conditions of the site. The study will reveal how favorable the conditions are for staying outdoor as well as the behavior of the sun.

At the location of the site the wind most frequent21 ly arrives from the northeast. However winds will 20 also occur from the southwest and southeast. The average wind speed ranges from 5 to 6 m/s, 19 (Windfinder, 2014) but due to 18our preservation of 19 the trees, these will act as a barrier and reduce 17 18 the impact of the wind on the site.16 15 12 13

5

22

Due to the northern latitude of the site, the amount of daylight hours varies a lot throughout the year. In the winter the sun only barely rises, with about four hours of daylight while the sun stays up for around 21 hours during summer. This phenomenon calls for considerations of how to provide the building with as much daylight as possible during the winter, while at the same time not risking overheating in the summer period. Primarily the sunlight comes from the south but the altitude changes depending on the season. This result in longer shadows during winter and shorter shadows during summer. However, the elevation of the sun never surpasses 55°, so the shadows remain somewhat long during summer.

40°

ANGLE OF ELEVATION 0°

6

23

6

8

19

11

15

14

10

12

13

15

13

14

16 10

14

12

13

14

11

13

15

13

10

15

14

12

13

11

16

15

14

12

13

WIND DIRECTIONS ANALYSIS 12

11

16

14

11

11 15

15

9

12

16

16

15

17

9

11

16

10 11

8

10

8

18

11

16 17

9

917

18

18

8

8

18

9

17

16

7

19

10

50°

7

20

9

40°

6

8

20

14

30°

5 21

21

17

20° 5

22

7

22

19

10°° 50

4

23 4

19

SUN

20°

4

23

14

12

13

ALESUND/VIGRA

12

SUMMER: 21/06 SPRING/FALL: 21/03(09) WINTER: 21/12 SUMMER: 21/06

SPRING

SPRING/FALL: 21/03(09) WINTER: 21/12

Ill. 36 - Sun path

N

15% 12%

NW

12,4%

9%

NE

6% 3,7%

W

4,6%

3% 2,8%

0

9,5%

7,2%

SW

E

1,8%

9,9%

SE S

Ill. 37 - Wind directions

Wind direction distribution in % Statistics based on observations taken between 10/2001 - 09/2014 daily from 7am to 7pm local time. Source: http://www.windfinder.com/

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TEMPERATURE

PRECIPITATION

The site is located on the western coast of Norway. Because of this, the average temperature is considerably higher than it is further inland. Annually the temperature usually varies from 1°C to 16°C, and on rare occasions it might drop to -3°C during the winter and rise to 20°C during the summer. As seen in illustration X, the cold season spans from November 21st to March 30th where the ‘daily average high’ reaches 6°C. The warm season spans from June 24th to September 14th where the ‘daily average high’ reaches temperatures of above 14°C.

Through the year at least 55% of the days will have precipitation. Through October, December and January 70% of the days will have precipitation. Due to the temperature, only 20% of the precipitation will fall as snow and more than 50% of it will fall as ‘moderate rain’.

COLD

WARM

COLD

20°C

15°C

10°C

JUN 24 14°C

SEP 14 14°C

10°C

10°C

MAR 30 6°C

MAR 30 6°C

5°C

3°C

2°C

The snow mainly falls between November and April as shown in the graph. This correlates well with the results of the temperature analysis above. (Weather Spark, 2014)

0°C

-5°C

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

Ill. 38 - High and low temperature

80% 70%

JAN 5 72% APR 1 63%

60% 50%

DEC 31 71%

OCT 1 71% MAY 14 55%

JUL 2 60%

LIGHT RAIN (16%)

40% 30% LIGHT SNOW (12%) 20%

MODERATE RAIN(52%)

MODERATE SNOW (21%)

10% 0%

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

Ill. 39 - Probability of precipitation

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JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC


ANALYSIS

CONCLUSION OF SITE ANALYSES Placing the church in the northern part of the site will be favorable because of the shorter distance to the main road of RV60. This will allow for an easier delivery by truck, but because of the noise levels of the road, simply placing the building directly beside it will be insensitive towards the sacral functions of the complex.

which are all very characteristic for the Norwegian flora. The pine and spruce trees are considered the most worthy of preservation because of the aesthetic effect they provide to the site.

The climate conditions of the site are far from favorable. Due to the high chance of precipitation it would make little sense to create outdoor areas for longer use.

When further examining the advantages of the northern terrain, it became clear that the location is relatively flat and thus a great location for the building. The center of the site has the steepest level differences and would therefore require the complex to have a lot of level differences, making is hard to acces by disabled people. The southern part of the site is also relatively flat and has a thicker layer of soil. This location would be advantageous if the building were to be lowered into the terrain at certain points. The vegetation of the site is a mix of different types of trees and shrubbery. The types of the trees in question are birch, pine and spruce,

Ill. 40 - Site

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ANALYSIS

TECHNICAL STUDY WOOD AS CLADDING

SHINGLES AS CLADDING

The cladding for the volumes is thought to consist of shingles. When naturally aged, shingles has an aesthetic appearances that correlates well with the natural surroundings of the site. Shingles has been used as a building material in Norway for a long time, from traditional houses to the old stave churches, shown in illustration 44, that are significant for the Norwegian context.

Illustration 42 shows a detail of how every end grain is chamfered. This method is seldomly used because it exposes a much bigger end surface of the shingles. Even if the wood is carefully chamfered to a smooth surface, the grain end is still the weakest part of a shingle and when exposed to the weather, it will reduce the longevity of the shingles. Even though this principle is not a very practical solution it shows how detailing can visually alter the appearance of a surface. Illustration 43 shows how different dimension of the shingles provides the cladding with a very distinctive look. The principle derives from a sustainable idea of using the entire trunk of the tree, resulting in various widths of the planks. This way, the mounting of the cladding is simplified as the only applicable rule is that the shingles should cover up the underlying gaps. This method is the most commonly used because of its use of the entire trunk of the tree. Furthermore, it is perhaps the one that fits the natural context of Norway the best considering its sustainable approach and the vivid expression of the cladding.

Each shingle has a unique texture and shape due to the way they are made. Historically shingles were hand split exploiting the natural grain structure of the wood. The hand split ones usually comes in thicknesses between 9 and 19 mm, widths ranging from 80 to 200 mm and lengths ranging from 36 to 91 cm. (Wikipedia, Wood Shingle, 2014) Especially the length of the shingles is important for the longevity of the cladding. This defines by how much the shingles overlap each other. (Ill. 41)

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Ill. 41 - Overlapping of shingles

Ill. 42 - Chamfered ends


Illustration 45 and 46 shows a different approach to the pattern of the cladding. This time the shingles has various lengths in order to soften up the strong horizontal lines that often occur with traditional shingle cladding. The principle of this solution is similar to the solution showed in illustration 41 where the only rule is that the shingles should cover the underlying gap. This method stands out by having a more random visual appearance.

Ill. 43 - Various dimensions

Ill. 45 - DIfferent sizes

Ill. 44 - Stave Church

Ill. 46 - Different lengths

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ANALYSIS

CONCLUSION OF TECHNICAL STUDY When wooden shingles age due to weathering, it is a result of the presence of ultraviolet radiation and microfuge inhabiting the shingles. Later the the wood being exposed to the precipitation and thus continuously absorbing and vaporising the water, will make small cracks appear. This gives each shingle, and thereby also the cladding, a unique character. The patina will provide a subtle appearance to the building and fit well within the Nordic context of the site.

Ill. 47 - Shingles

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CASES


Four cases have been reviewed for the purpose of providing references for the following topics used in the design process of the project: -

Topology Grid Framing nature Connection to nature

Each topic is further clarified through the four cases, which contributes unique architectural qualities to the project and provides a toolbox of references.


TOPOLOGY

CLOISTER TOPOLOGY Since the rule of Charlemagne, the historical cloister of the medieval age has developed into the traditional cloister that we know today. During this period the internal functions of the historical cloisters changed from an open composition to a confined and enclosed space that houses multiple functions and thus creates a monastery within the monastery. (Wikipedia, Cloister, 2014) The architecture was developed in order to contain the values of worship while providing areas for the everyday labours of the monks.

Ill. 48 - Cloister, Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa


The english word “cloister” is derived from latin claustrum which means enclosure. The spatial gesture (Hvejsel, 2013) of a typical cloister is the creation of an enclosed courtyard. The courtyard is normally surrounded by covered walkways or open galleries which are typically formed through open arcades on the inner side, running along the walls of the buildings. In the Oxford Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, the term “Cloister” defines the courtyard as a way of “forming a continuous and solid architectural barrier... that effectively separates the world of the monks from that of the serfs and workmen, whose lives and works went on outside and around the cloister.”

The functions are typically organized around the courtyard. A common space, in form of arched galleries, joins the internal garden with the different buildings that accomodates the functions of the cloister.

Ill. 50 - Cysters Cloister, Wachock, Poland

The division between the inside and outside in a typical cloister utilizes different architectural elements to create a gradual connection to the courtyard. A cloister normally opens up inward to the green courtyard. This gesture incorporates foliage into the architecture. Ill. 49 - Lewes Priory, England

Ill. 51 - Cloister topology diagram

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GRID

CASA GRELHA Casa Grelha translates to Grid House. It is designed by FGMF Architects and is situated in S達o Paulo, Brazil. The building is composed on the basis of a structural wooden grid with 5.5 x 5.5 x 3m modules that are suspended across the terrain.

Ill. 52 - Casa Grelha


The house is an example of a building which uses a grid not only for structural purposes, but also as a method of connecting and dealing with the landscape and the nature. Casa Grelha is located in a small valley surrounded by trees and nature. The grid structure takes on the main role of the building while at same time organizing the different functions and creating different kinds of spaces: terraces, communication paths, pavilions or a simple frame in the landscape.

The architect’s idea was to create a transition between the open field of the valley and the closed forest on both hillsides. Using the grid, the building creates this transition by spreading towards the trees and gradually changing into the nature. The grid structure is a very simple tool to create this transition while at the same time determining rules for the structural system in the building.

Ill. 53 - Grid overview

The timber grid structure is wedged into the hillsides of the valley. Additionally a number of small concrete pillars support the structure. By having a building that is elevated above the valley it allows the natural landscape to stay almost untouched. Trees cross with the grid and grows through the cavities of the modules. The hillsides are connected through a roof garden on the top of the structure. It is also possible to walk underneath the grid and enter the building from the lowest point of the valley. Ill. 54 - Grid section

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FRAMING NATURE

KENNAN-JI ZEN TEMPLE Kennin ji Temple is a Buddhist Zen temple situated in Kyoto, Japan. It dates back to the early 12th century and has been rebuilt several times since then due to fires. It was lastly rebuild in the sixteenth century. The temple is considered to be one of the Kyoto Gozan, which means that it is one of the five most important Zen temples in Kyoto. (Wikipedia, Kennin-Ji, 2014)

Ill. 55 - Garden in Kennan-Ji Zen Temple


The structural system in the building is made of timber and primarily consists of columns that support the roof. The columns are simultaneously dividing the interior spaces and creating the different areas for the functions of the temple. The composition of the temple is an open floor plan which allows the building to become seemingly transparent. The centre of the temple is a small tsubo-niwa, the Japanese word for a small uncovered courtyard. The name of this specific courtyard is Chouontei (Japanese word for ‘the garden of the sound and the tide). It contains maple trees, tiny cliffs and green vegetation consisting mainly of moss. This style of design is very traditional in Japanese gardens. (Kenninji, 2008) The courtyard becomes a vibrating space, like a vivid painting with the colors of nature, providing the surrounding building with a beautiful view through the nature of the open plan. The idea of this courtyard is not to enter it, but merely to perceive it from a distance and let the tranquil feeling of the nature overwhelm you while meditating. (Wikipedia, Japanese garden, 2014)

This gesture provides the visitor with a feeling of being outside while inside and it is a great way to achieve a fluent transition between the two. The floor or the temple is also elevated slightly from the ground so that it further regards the natural landscape and creates an aesthetic frame for the nature.

Ill. 57 - Framing nature

Ill. 56 - Relation to outside

Ill. 58 - Nature inside

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CONNECTION TO NATURE

WOODLAND CHAPEL The woodland chapel is a part of the Woodland Cemetery, situated to the south of Stockholm in Sweden. It was completed by Erik Gunnar Asplund in 1920. (Great Buildings, 2014) The chapel itself is a square plan but the interior reveals a circular dome, through which indirect light is flooding in. (Stockholms stad, 2014)

Ill. 59 - Entrance of Wooden Chapel


Being a part of the woodland cemetery the small chapel is carefully placed into the surrounding woods of the site where the tall pine and spruce trees towers above the roof of the building almost hiding it. From a distance the main entrance to the chapel reveals itself at the end of a lengthy pathway surrounded by tall pine trees. Crossing the small parking lot, the visitor is met by a low concrete wall encircling the area. A narrow corridor acts as the main entrance to the chapel, deliberately designed this way to prepare the visitor for the things to come. It resets their expectations for the site, which are derived from the previous experiences of the cemetery, while at the same time informing the visitor of an impending building and accentuating the contrast between the more open natural landscape of the cemetery and the dense natural landscape of the chapel site. When entering the site the woodland is dense and enclosing, emphasizing the connection between the nature and the deceased and acting like an oasis of tranquility. The central path-

way leads straight to the antechamber which is formed up of an open space supported by 12 columns. Here the mourners can gather before entering the chapel. Contrary to entering the chapel the wood gradually opens up when leaving it. This gesture eases the mourning party’s transition from the enclosed and intimate space of the chapel site and back into their everyday lives.

Ill. 61 - Woodland Chapel

1. Main entrance 2. Woodland Chapel 3. Secondary entrance

2 1 3

Ill. 60 - Plan of Woodland Chapel

Ill. 62 - Woodland Chapel

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CASES

CONCLUSION OF CASES Reviewing the cases of the previous chapters it becomes evident that each case can provide our project with interesting architectural features. We wish to utilize the typology of the historical cloister, with its central courtyard, surrounded by a covered walkway through which the various functions of the cloister are connected. Furthermore the way that the historical cloister addresses the issue of hierarchy is interesting to us. The functions are gathered in the larger buildings and the open arcades of the common space are kept at a smaller scale. Casa Grelha will be a great reference when creating the structural grid of the project. Similar features of the grid will be used in the design when creating the fluent transition between the changes of the landscape and the different typology of spaces, like terraces, areas for communication and pavilions.

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Kennan-Ji Zen Temple will likewise provide great references for connecting a building with its surrounding nature. Features like courtyards and open area plans that allow the interior views to frame nature can be extracted from the case. Furthermore the way that the temple is placed on the site is interesting. It is lifted from the dirt, which forms a sympathetic approach of preserving the nature. The way that the Woodland Chapel creates a connection to its surrounding nature by utilizing elements of hierarchy and visual connections is intriguing, and similar features can be added to the design of the church.


CONCEPT


Following a conclusion of the analyses and cases, the main design criteria are formed for the further progress of the design. Through this, the main concept is sketched. The concept of Connection to nature is divided into three sub-concepts: Journey, Framing nature and Gradient.


CONCEPT

JOURNEY The concept of the journey originates from the analysis of the site and the vegetation. The fact that the site works like an island, accessible from all sides, strengthens the intention to provide the visitors with a journey through the landscape and into the church. Like the shore of an island, the journey begins upon entering the boundaries of the site, pvaing the way to the church, through winding paths that naturally appears among the trees of the forest. The passage will primarily happen underneath the treetops of the towering pine trees. This will emphasize the connection between the church and the nature, creating a gradual change of scenery between the dense forest and the sacral church.

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Ill. 63 - Directions

Ill. 64 - Journey


CONCEPT

GRADIENT The gradient concept was formed from multiple aspects of the site analyses. First and foremost it was the notion of enhancing the journey,through and along the structure, that reaches out into the surrounding nature. Secondly it creates a hierarchy by becoming denser the closer you get to the initial point of the gradient. The gradient also enables the creation of a fluid transition between the architecture and the nature. Through this, the contrast is dissolved and an interaction is formed, connecting the nature and the architecture. Ill. 65 - Gradient

Ill. 66 - Grid

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CONCEPT

FRAMING NATURE The concept of framing nature has its origin in the analysis of the site, through which it became clear that the nature is an important part of the identity of the site. By bringing the surrounding nature into the design proposal through views that frame the nature, this identity is further emphasized. Nature is often considered to have a soothing and sometimes even mentally healing effect on human beings (Aripin, 2007) and it would be advantageous to utilize this effect in a church so closely connected with the nature. Ill. 68 - Framing nature in the courtyard

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Ill. 67 - Framing nature church room


DESIGN PROCESS


This section clarifies the design process and guides the reader through the progress of the work leading up to the final proposal of the design, shown in the presentation. It describes the first four workshops concerning early concept development, acoustics analyses, structure studies and light studies. Afterwards the progress of the church design is described from the outside and in, ending up in an explanation of the architectural features placed outside the building. Even though the process is presented chronologically, it has been developed through an iterative process of continually revisiting the different design phases of the project.


DESIGN PROCESS

WORKSHOP 1 - SITE, PLACE, AND CULTURAL IDENTITY INTRODUCTION

DIRECTIONS

Workshop 1 consisted of a fixed assignment to come up with three concepts for a design solution based on the results of a site analysis. The results of the site analysis are merged into a collage, showing all the important considerations when building on the site in Hatlehol. The collage emphasizes the analogy of the island by its clear graphical separation of the site and the surroundings. Information like the path of the sun, noise levels, elevations, vegetation and wind direction can be read from it. The dashed lines symbolize the flow to and from the site.

The first concept is all about directing the gables of the buildings towards specific qualities of the site, whether it being the nature, the cemetery or the main entry points. Choosing to direct the buildings in this way, the composition addresses the surroundings and leaves no backside to it. This creates a building that welcomes you regardless of which direction you enter from.

Ill. 69 - Collage

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Ill. 70 - Directions concept


GRID

CIRCLE OF LIFE

CONCLUSION

The second concept works with a grid that organizes and connects the building with the context by gradually dissolving into the nature. The volumes are arranged into this grid and relates to one another in the way they are directed. The clarity of using a grid is expressed by how the different volumes work as a unity through their direction and hierarchy.

This concept focuses on the flow of the complex, creating a circular motion which relates to the circle of life, that starts with the baptism and ends with the funeral. The infrastructure will behave as the red line through the church, connecting the spaces for baptism, wedding and funeral with the remaining functions of the building.

By analyzing the site, we discovered that the area has some unique values. Because the site is surrounded by roads it can be perceived as an island amidst the nature, this analogy implies that the site is accessible from every direction. The analyses also revealed that the site is densely covered by shrubbery and trees, some of which are deemed preservable. This has to be considered when placing the building. Seeing as each concept provides valuable features for the design of a building, key values for each concept is merged into a collective concept which is then further refined through the design process.

Ill. 72 - Grid concept

Ill. 71 - Circle of life concept

CIRCLE OF LIFE

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DESIGN PROCESS

WORKSHOP 2 - FORM AND ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION

FOLDED ROOF

SLOPED ROOF

In workshop 2 the acoustics of the church room were addressed. This section will focus on how different formalistic parameters influence the reverberation time, clarity and Haas effect of the church room. The knowledge that is gained through the following analyses will be applied in the final design of the church room.

The basis for this proposal was to create interior surfaces that would absorb the sound waves in the room. Through a series of iterations with different parameters and a comparison of the results, the shape shown underneath was the most favorable. Furthermore the results also show that having several small folds in the roof will absorb the sound, lowering the reverberation time, while few large folds will reflect the sound, enhancing the clarity.

During the next analysis the shape of the roof was tested. Each iterations had different slopes or shapes of the roof. Some were angled, some were arched and some were straight.

Ill. 73 - Folded roof interior

Ill. 74 - Sloped roof interior

The entire analysis is found in Appendix – Acoustics Analysis.

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When comparing the results, it became evident that the angled roof performed the best due to the lowered height of the roof in the back.


REFINEMENT

CONCLUSION

The last analysis was an attempt to enhance the shape of the angled roof through a refinement of the previous parameters as well as the Haas effect. The analysis shows that the Haas effect is improved when the angle of the roof is made more flat, shown in the illustration below. The reverberation time and clarity stays almost the same.

Comparing the previous analyses it became evident, that keeping the slope of the roof straight and adding folds, had the same effect as angling the slope of the roof when comparing the values of reverberation time and clarity. Adding the Haas effect to the equation the angled roof becomes the favorable one When taking the aesthetics into consideration, the folded roof shape will create a depth in the ceiling which will create an interesting light setting for the church room. The angled roof will create a motion towards the framed nature of the window and the altar.

Ill. 75 - Less sloped roof interior

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DESIGN PROCESS

WORKSHOP 3 - FORM AND STRUCTURE INTRODUCTION

THE FRAME

THE TREES

The approach of the third workshop was to come up with a proposal for the structure of the building. The result of the workshop should be a structure that appeared tectonic and aesthetic. The process was initiated in the church room, as this is the most significant single room in the building.

The basic frames were the point of origin for all the proposals and thus also considered the main principle for the construction of the church room. The frames were placed according to the grid structure that is present throughout the building. The initial concept was to incorporate tectonic ornamentation in the church room and from that concept, three proposals were made.

The first proposal is a structure that is inspired by the surrounding trees. The columns of the grid forms the “trunk” of the trees and the “branches” connects the column with the frames. Because of this tree-like structure, the aisle of the church looks like an avenue. Structurally the loads are being transferred from the frames in the roof and down through the columns. This should provide stability for the large frames of the roof.

Ill. 77 - Frame structure

Ill. 78 - Tree structure

The following text presents a series of proposals that were tested functionally and aesthetically.

Ill. 76 - Terrain

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THE WIRE

THE VERTICALS

CONCLUSION

The second proposal was thought to provide a completely open space for the church room through the use of a wire. Structurally this was done by adding wires that connected the corners and the top of each frame. This approach is really minimalistic and does not take up any of the floor area of the church room.

When the wire was tested it became evident that it was not structurally sufficient on its own, especially in regards to instability by buckling. To avoid this, vertical elements were added between the wire and the frame. The purpose of these verticals was to transfer the loads of the frame to the wire so that the stress of the rafter was minimized.

When choosing which design to further progress with we put weight on a couple of parameters; firstly the structure should tectonically function as an ornament of the room. Secondly the structure should relate to the remaining grid structure of the complex.

Ill. 79 - Wire

Even though the columns of the tree-like structure relates to the grid, the overall aesthetic look of it does not seem to comply with the grid structure. The columns would also disrupt the view towards the altar and the design was therefore discarded. The proposal with the verticals was chosen for further examination. Aesthetically this structure bears resemblance to the stalactites of a cave, adding a dramatic expression to the church room and creating an interesting tectonic ornamentation.

Ill. 80 - Wire with verticals

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DESIGN PROCESS

PLACEMENT FLOW ON SITE As mentioned earlier, the site began to appear like an island placed in the vivid landscape of the Norwegian nature. Not in the sense that it was isolated from the surroundings with the roads as obstacles, but that it was accessible from different directions. Sprung from this notion, an idea of a pilgrimage to the church was formed. By seperating the different functions of the design it became possible to ensure that visitors could arrive from every direction. When walking underneath the tree tops, the visitor is able to choose whichever path to take.

Ill. 81 - Journey through the woods

In order to enable the visitors to enter the building from different directions, the complex had to be equipped with more than one entrance. At the same time it became imperative to provide said entrances with a hierarchy, so that no one would question which one of them was the main entrance. Ill. 82 - Journey under the tree tops

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Ill. 83 - Site as an island


DIVISION OF BUILDING A decision had to be made regarding the character of the building. Did we want a building that would have the features of a landmark or would we rather have a building that subordinated itself into its surroundings. The choice fell upon something that would merge features of of them both, creating a landmark that does not ignore its context, but subordinates itself into it. In order to respect the nature of the site, a decision of grouping the functions into smaller volumes was made. The concept of the composition was to create a division between the sacral and the community functions. To combine the volumes, a flat roof pavilion was formed and added to the complex. This takes on the function of a common space while also providing the possibility to add multiple entrances to the building. The concept of the flat roof pavilion was to avoid creating a flow that was directed by the volumes, but for it to become an individual choice of the visitors.

Ill. 84 - Landmark or subordinate

Ill. 85 - Flat roof and sloped roof

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GRADIENT In order to create a fluent transition between the nature and the architecture of the building, a gradient was added. The center of the gradient would be the church room, placed directly in the middle of the site and from this point, the remaining buildings gradually appears, further emphasizing this notion, a structural grid was created, which gradually becomes less dense as it moves away from the church complex and into the nature until all that remains, are the fragmented parts. Following the desire of preserving as much of the nature as possible, the gradient of the grid is controlled by the preserved trees. Courtyards were added at these locations further enhancing the fluid transition between the inside and outside.

Ill. 86 - Gradient perspective

Ill. 87 - Gradient section

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DESIGN PROCESS

FUNCTIONS The amount of necessary functions for a church complex is extensive, so it is imperative that the requirements are brought into the design process at an early stage. Every function needs different connections to other functions, so the infrastructure needs to be properly solved. As a preliminary proposal an incision is made, dividing the profane and the sacral functions. This division will separate the congregational hall from the sacral area of the church room and the matching secondary rooms of each of these volumes will be scattered around them as shown in illustration 88.

PROFANE

Ill. 88 - Sacral and community

CONGREGATION HALL

ACTIVITY ROOM

TECHNICAL ROOM

8 OFFICES

ENTRANCE

CHURCH HALL

DINING

CLASS ROOMS

LAUNDRY ROOM

STAFF TOILET

CLOAKROOM

CHILDREN’S CHAPEL

KITCHEN

MUSIC ROOM

REFUSE

MEETING

PUBLIC TOILET

STORAGE

SACRAL

STORAGE

MEZZANINE

CHAPEL

SACRISTY

CLOISTER ROOM

CHURCH ROOM

SACRISTY ARTEFACTS SACRISTY FOR BAPTISM

WORKSHOP

Ill. 89 - Diagram profane to sacral

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GROUPINGS By separating the functions of the church into smaller volumes, more of the nature will be preserved. Furthermore it creates a complex that has no backside while at the same time being accessible from every direction. Therefore, in order to design the plan, the functions of the complex has to be grouped together in volumes big enough to fit the spatial demands of the area plan for the functions. To ensure that the groupings make sense and that the infrastructure is working, the groupings are not only grouped based on the profane contra sacral parameter, but also in terms of which rooms needs to service other rooms. As an example the congregational hall is placed in the same grouping as the kitchen so that it can service the congregation.

PROFANE 8 OFFICES STAFF TOILET

CHURCH ROOM

MEETING

MEZZANINE TECHNICAL ROOM REFUSE LAUNDRY ROOM WORKSHOP STORAGE

STORAGE ENTRANCE CLOAKROOM PUBLIC TOILET

SACRISTY FOR BAPTISM SACRISTY ARTEFACTS SACRISTY CHURCH HALL

CONGREGATION HALL DINING

CHAPEL

KITCHEN

CLOISTER ROOM

ACTIVITY ROOM

CHILDREN’S CHAPEL

CLASS ROOMS MUSIC ROOM

Ill. 90 - Grouping of functions

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SACRAL


CONNECTION Due to the separation of the functions, the connections between them becomes even more important. Two things were considered in regards to interconnecting the complex. Firstly, the question of how freely the visitor should be able to walk between the volumes. Secondly, how favorable it would be to have to step outside in order to get from one volume to the next, which was quickly deemed not favorable when looking at the amount of precipitation.

and at the same time provide the complex with an area for casual conversations between the congregants. (Ill. 91) The common space became the final decision based on its many different utilizations. The space does not only service the flow, but can also provide an extension for functions like the congregational hall if needed.

The first idea was to allow the visitors to move between volumes through predefined, covered walkways. (Ill. 92 and 93) This solution would connect the groupings of the functions with one another, but a problem occurred when the visitor wanted to reach the functions farthest away from the main entrance. In order to do so, they would have to move through the groupings of other functions which were not deemed favorable. Another idea was to create a separate common space which would connect the volumes

Ill. 92 - Pathways

Ill. 91 - Open space

Ill. 93 - Pathways

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BASIC COMPOSITION

ARRANGEMENT

Now that the approximate placement of the complex was in order, the composition of the plan could begin. The first thing to consider was how the separate volumes should be placed in relation to one another. Should they be organized perpendicular to one another, for the purpose of connecting certain functions, (ill. 94) or should they rather be positioned in a freely composed layout based on the aesthetic values of the complex as a unity (Ill. 95) Keeping the previous considerations in mind, the functionality was deemed the most important, but at the same time we sought to achieve a compromise that would provide the complex with a composition that could service both the practical and the aesthetical matters. The choice of composition was to create an axis going through the church room and the congregational hall. The secondary functions were then placed around this axis forming a square motion that reveals the center of the building and forms a courtyard. This clear composition would enhance the flow and ease the movement inside the complex.

The composition was then further realized by adding the required sizes of the rooms into the design. It became clear that the arrangement of the different rooms in proportion to each other was essential.

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Ill. 94 - Perpendicular layout

The framing of the nature was also taken into consideration. Previously the connection had only been from the inside out, but by adding court yards into the complex it became possible to physically and visually integrate the nature inside aswell. Proposals for the placement of the volumes in relation to the changing amount of courtyards were made and the final version for the composition was created. This composition had a fitting amount of common space area and the courtyards were placed so that they would enhance the connection with the nature without disrupting the flow.

Ill. 95 - Freely composed layout


Ill. 96 - Functions 1

Ill. 98 - Arrangement 1

Ill. 100 - Arrangement 2

Ill. 102 - Arrangement 3

Ill. 97 - Functions 2

Ill. 99 - Arrangement 4

Ill. 101 - Arrangement 5

Ill. 103 - Arrangement 6

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FUNCTIONS MAP A functions map was made based upon the previous four chapters. The outer ring of the map has six groupings of functions placed upon it. The three to the left accommodates the sacral functions and the three to the right the administration and community functions. The outer ring symbolizes the common space of the complex which acts as the infrastructure connecting the functions. It will give the visitors the freedom to choose their own path when moving through the complex.In relation to the building being accessible different directions, the common space will be utilized as a joint entrance for all the functions, creating multiple entrances. The main entrance, however, will be placed closest to the parking lot and the cloak room. The division between the congregational hall and the common space is of a more fluid nature and the congregational hall can borrow space from the common space if needed. From the functions map, the final plan was made as it is shown in the Presentation – Plan section of the report.

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SACRAL

PROFANE

STORAGE SACRISTY FOR BAPTISM

MEETING

SACRISTY ARTEFACTS

STAFF TOILET

SACRISTY

OFFICES

CHURCH HALL

KITCHEN DINING CHURCH ROOM

CONGREGATIONAL HALL

MEZZANINE

ACTIVITY ROOM CLASS ROOMS MUSIC ROOM

CHAPEL CLOISTER ROOM

CLOAKROOM

TECHNICAL ROOM

CHILDREN’S CHAPEL

PUBLIC TOILET

REFUSE LAUNDRY ROOM WORKSHOP

Ill. 104 - Functions map

STORAGE


Ill. 105 - Volumes

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DESIGN PROCESS

VOLUMES Having designed the plan, the final shapes of the volumes were explored. Already knowing the dimensions of the units, the grouping of the scattered volumes led our thoughts toward a Norwegian village. This initiated the idea of creating volumes with pitched roofs that would almost resemble houses. Different proposals for the shapes were examined, some with straight ridges and some with angled or curved ridges. The final shape of the volumes was designed, combining the previous knowledge of the light studies and the acoustics analyses with aesthetic considerations. The final shape is shown in illustration 111 and 119.

Ill. 106 - Arched roof Ill. 109 - Sloped roof

Ill. 107 - Arched roof elevation

Ill. 108 - Perspective

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Ill. 110 - Vaulted roof

Ill. 111 - Sloped roof


Ill. 112 - Sloped roof elevation Ill. 117 - Triangular building

Ill. 115 - Folded roof

Ill. 113 - Tiangular building

Ill. 118 - Sloped roof

Ill. 116 - Arched roof

CHURCH ROOM CONGREGATIONAL HALL CHAPEL ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS

Ill. 114 - Folded roof

CHURCH ROOM

> CONGREGATIONAL HALL > CHAPEL > ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS

Ill. 119 - Final composition, showing hierarchy

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DESIGN PROCESS

CHURCH ROOM PLAN The plan of the church room is organized by two lines of direction. The first line of direction is the one going from the main entrance towards the window, ultimately framing the nature. The second line is shaped by the flow of the church room and consists of two lines of direction flowing from the two side entrances through the middle of the room. This division creates a front and a back for the church room which simultaneously divides the main and secondary seating. This way the church will not appear as empty if only the main seats are occupied, and when bigger masses are held the secondary seating can be accommodated as well.

him more visible to the congregants. The seating is divided into four areas as shown in illustration 120. Lastly the baptismal font is placed between the main and secondary seating area in the left part of the church room.

Framing nature

Directions

Upon furnishing the church room, a mezzanine is placed just above the secondary seating area. This will be the location for the choir and the pipe organ. A plateau is placed underneath the altar on the floor plan. This will elevate the priest and make

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Ill. 120 - Church room plan process

Seating areas

Mezzanine

Furnishing


STRUCTURE A tectonic approach was used to design the structural system of the church room. The design is formed from a close cooperation between structural analyses performed in Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis and aesthetics. By using parametric software the structural design could be integrated early on in the design process. Looking at a single frame was the first approach; this indicates how the loads are transferred through the system. Initially only the dead loads were applied, but later on the wind load and snow load were added to the equation. The outcome provides an understanding of how the deformation will look so that any excessive deformation can be counteracted.

Ill. 121 - Frame structure

Initially the aesthetic look of the verticals frame was sketched as shown in illustration 123. Through the calculations and the analyses the structure was optimized and ended up looking a little different as shown in illustration 124. This appearance has the tectonic approach that we were looking for. Upon analysing the calculations of the structure it became evident that the wire had to be bended instead of straight. Only the bended version was able to transfer the loads from the timber frame. The entire analyse can be found in Appendix – Structural Analysis.

Ill. 122 - Wire structure

Ill. 123 - Vertical structure

Ill. 124 - Improved vertical structure

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ACOUSTICS ANALYSIS

STRUCTURE

APPLIED MATERIALS

The goal when planning the acoustics for the church is to design a room that allow for good communication for speeches and music between the preacher, the choir, the pipe organ and the congregants. Unique for spaces for worship, is that the congregants are both perceived as listener and sound sources. They communicate with one another through prayers and songs and thus the situation differs from the traditional acoustic planning of concert halls, operas and theaters.

For the preliminary analysis of the acoustics, the structure was tested by performing an analysis with (Table 14-15) and without the structure, (Table 12-13) in a simple environment with plywood walls, windows and concrete floor.

Considerations about the materials were then made based off of aesthetic values while at the same time trying to enhance the acoustic situation. The walls were changed from plywood to an absorbing wall panel Rockfon VertiQ (Rockwool, 2014) in order to absorb more sound, especially in the higher frequencies. The remaining plywood elements were changed to construction timber, in order to reflect more sound to achieve satisfying results for clarity and to distribute the audio more evenly throughout the space. The frames of the structure were changed to glue laminated timber.

All results and tables are found in Appendix - Final Acoustics Analysis

The results show that the structure itself is reflecting the sound and thus increasing the reverberation time, this makes sense when considering the increase in the amount of surfaces. Furthermore it shows that the structure alone will not be sufficient to provide a satisfying acoustic atmosphere in the church room.

The results (Table 16-17) shows satisfying values for all frequencies and the values are much more evenly distributed. Listening to the auralization provided similar results, but the finish of acoustic panels were not aesthetically pleasing.

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WOODEN ACOUSTICS PANELS The Rockfon VertiQ panels were changed to an acoustical panel system made of vertical timber slats on wooden laths, covered by a fabric and mounted directly onto the insulation. The most important parameter for such an acoustic system is the “open area” defined by the amount of surface that is not covered by timber slats. Two iterations are then run for systems with Performance Class C (Table 18-19) and C (Table 2021) defined in the table below.

Performance

Noise Reduction

Minimum “open

Class

Coefficient

area” required

A

0.90-0.99

+40%

B

0.75-0.90

30%

C

0.60-0.75

20%

CONCLUSION The open area for the following iterations is calculated with an acoustic calculator provided by BCL Timber Projects Ltd. (Barret, 2014) For the Performance Class C, timber slats made of construction wood with a dimension of 50x40 mm are placed 20mm apart for an open area of 29%.

The results show values that are all within the required range for both reverberation time and clarity. When listening to the auralization the one that has the best distribution of the sound with a fitting reverberation time is the iteration with Class A acoustic slat panels.

For the Performance Class A, timber slats made of construction wood with a dimension of 40x40 mm are placed 27 mm apart for an open area of 40%.

Table 01 - Performance Class (BCL, 2014)

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DESIGN PROCESS

LIGHT STUDY

PROPOSAL 1

PROPOSAL 2

Performing a light study early in the process grants a basic understanding of how to best incorporate daylight into the church room.

The first iteration tested the resulting daylight factor when all the solid walls of the volume were changed to windows. The results show that the daylight increased in the front of the church room, but mainly along the floor due to the placement of the windows.

In proposal 2 the windows were raised to the beginning of the roof, so that the windows would be placed on top of the walls.

The purpose of the study was not to get the final window placement, but to achieve knowledge of how daylight could be spread throughout the room and how this would affect the design of the volume. A series of proposals for the window placements were formed and then analyzed in the Velux Visualizer. The basic volume is labeled proposal 0 and so forth.

The results show that this proposal further raises the daylight of the room and that the minimum daylight factor is increased to 6.25%.

The minimum daylight factor for the room increased to 5% compared to the value of 3.75% in proposal 0.

The full scheme of the light study is found in Appendix – Light Study.

Ill. 125 - Proposal 0

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Ill. 126 - Proposal 1

Ill. 127 - Proposal 2


PROPOSAL 3

PROPOSAL 4

CONCLUSION

This proposal had the windows placed as skylights along the ridge of the roof.

The final proposal built upon the concept of a skylight window. The windows were created as vertical window bands perpendicular to the ridge.

When concluding upon the iterations it becomes evident that proposal 0 already achieved an acceptable amount of daylight, most likely due to the massive south facing window area. This means that adding more windows to the volume will not be necessary and would only become an aesthetic parameter.

The results show that Proposal 3 allows for even more daylight in the room and that the minimum daylight factor is increased to 7.50%.

The results show that the daylight is now completely distributed throughout the entirety of the room and that the minimum daylight factor is increased to 10%

Additionally, it is important to consider what mood the light should set for the church room, regarding whether the light should be dimmed or luminous. This affects the window placement where proposal 0 would be the best proposal for a dimmed light, and proposal 4 would be the best proposal for a luminous light. If the room should be lit up along the aisle, proposal 3 would be a favorable solution. For the final design we chose not to implement any further windows. We liked the idea of a very uniform volume and felt that windows would go against that.

Ill. 128 - Proposal 3

Ill. 129 - Proposal 4

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DESIGN PROCESS

GRID COLUMN During the process of detailing, the design of the column was considered. Initially they were thought as solid timber columns, but through a visualization in 3D it was concluded that they needed to look less solid. This led to the column being split into parts, as seen in the various pictures. This resulted in a much lighter expression of the column and especially the columns split into four parts fit well into the grid, whereas the less symmetrical ones stood out too much (Ill. 137 and 138). Further testing the possible iterations for the fourpiece column, regarding how it should join with the rest of the structure, illustration 136 looked most favorable for our design. It provided both an aesthetic and structural advantage through the way it joined with the beam. After having tested the four-piece columns the inverse shape was tested. This still made the column look light, but it had a more solid expression than the previous shape and thus the column shown in illustration 136 was chosen for the final shape due to its aesthetical and structural advantages.

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Ill. 130 - Column 1

Ill. 132 - Column 2

Ill. 131 - Column 6

Ill. 133 - Column 7


Ill. 134 - Column 3

Ill. 136 - Column 4

Ill. 138 - Column 5

Ill. 135 - Column 8

Ill. 137 - Column 9

Ill. 139 - Column 10

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DESIGN PROCESS

OUTSIDE STRUCTURE The main purpose for the grid structure was to create a fluent transition from the church complex and into the nature of the site. By gradually dissolving the grid into the nature the complex reveals itself bit by bit until the entrance is reached. This feature slowly prepares the visitor for entering the church. The segments of the structure relates to the visible structural system of the building and thus the segments will be perceived as a part of the building. In addition to the fragmentation, the grid can also become denser and form structures that frames chosen parts of the natural landscape as well as provide spaces for contemplation and meditation. This will be an important aspect in the journey to the church.

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Ill. 140 - Structure in forest

Ill. 142 - Place for meditation

Ill. 141 - Framing nature

Ill. 143 - Structure in forest


Ill. 144 - Grid in nature

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BELL TOWER The design for the bell tower was mainly achieved through the concept of the gradient. In order to fit with the rest of the building it was decided that the bell tower should resemble the grid structure and different iterations were sketched, as shown in the illustrations. The integration of the grid is shown through the stacking of cubes that fits the dimensions of the grid, and the use of the gradient becomes evident through the gradual hiding and showing of the structure of the bell tower. Ill. 145 - Solid middle

Ill. 147 - Elevation of bell tower

Ill. 146 - Gradient of cubes

Ill. 148 - Cluster of cubes

For the placement of the bell tower, the northern corner of the site was chosen. This way it is possible to use the elevation of the northern terrain to our advantage, making the sound travel as far as possible without having to create a giant tower that would destroy the composition. It is placed close to the main road of RV60 so that people driving past can get a glimpse of the tower through the treetops, see illustration 147. The final design chosen for the bell tower is shown in illustration 149.

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Ill. 149 - Final design


EPILOGUE


In the following section the final conclusion and reflection is presented. Concluding on the vision of the project and reflecting upon relevant extracts of the choices made throughout the design process.


EPILOGUE

CONCLUSION The design creates a symbiosis between the nature and the building in various ways. The structural grid is gradually dissolved outward into the nature. These fragments will work as a guidance to the church, but will also, at certain places, take the form of areas for meditation and short term stay. The structural grid is not only applied to organize the master plan, but also to achieve a fluent transition between the changes in the landscape of the site. It directs the volumes of the complex and stages the beginning of a journey to the church. Using the Woodland Chapel as a reference, it became clear that the path leading to the destination is as equally important as the destination itself. This formed the basis for a journey that will meander between the trunks of the pine trees. Through the journey the visitor is met with gradually appearing fragments of the dissolved grid structure, placed into the landscape. This feature emphasizes the connection between the church complex and the surrounding nature, and gradually changes the scenery from

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the dense forest to the church that almost rises from the bedrock of the Norwegian nature. The journey will distance the visitors from their everyday lives and prepare them to enter the church, where the journey is continued until the desired room is reached, thus creating a fluent transition between the fragmented grid structures that are placed into the nature, the lightweight structure of the common space and the solid structures of the volumes. Tucked into the nature the building complex strives to respect the presence of the existing trees by not only letting them occupy the surrounding area, but also letting them reside in the enclosed courtyards. The huge windows at the gables of the volumes, will provide the rooms with the necessary daylight for deskwork and similar activities. Through the work with the elevations of the site, the volumes are raised above the terrain, thus allowing the sermons to remain uninterrupted by the people walking by. This solution also allows for an undisturbed view to the forest and embraces the tranquil atmo-

sphere of the nature. By framing the nature in the interior, the connection to the nature becomes more present, and the congregants will be able to visually connect with the nature during the sermon. Nature is often considered to have a soothing, and sometimes even healing effect, on human beings. This is shown in modern hospital designs, where having views to the nature has become an important aspect of the physical and mental healing and rehabilitation. (Aripin, 2007) Because the site is surrounded entirely by roads it will act as an island and thus become accessible from every direction. This notion is preserved and enhanced by the composition of the plan and the journey to and from the site that is described above. The analogy of the island is used logistically, but also mentally – temporarily allowing the visitors to forget about the happening outside the church complex.


When reaching the church complex, situated atop the highest point of elevation in the northern part of the site, the building rises above the dense foliage of the forest floor, defining the hierarchy of the volumes. The tallest of the volumes accommodates the most important of the functions whereas the size is gradually decreased to house the remaining functions of the building. The two volumes that accommodate the most sacral functions of the church room and the chapel, are directing their tallest gables towards the nature. The chapel is furthermore directed towards the cemetery in order to create a connecting flow between the two and allow the funeral procession to relate to the location of the cemetery. The placement on the high ground of the terrain also eases the delivery and distribution of goods to different functions of the complex.

Douglas fir for the structure. The patina of the wood fits well into the Nordic context and by using wooden shingles for the cladding, parallels to the characteristic stave churches of Norway is created. The interior expression of the church room is obtained through a performance aided design process of the timber structure. The stalactites hanging from the trusses are enlarged at the points of the grid, thus resembling its shape. They create a spatial effect through their vivid and tectonic expression that fits well with the sacred church room.

For the materials Scots pine and Douglas fir are the two main materials used for the building. Scots pine has been used for the cladding and

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EPILOGUE

REFLECTION When designing the shape of the steep sloped roofs, the relation to the surroundings was of critical importance to us, both in terms of incorporating a link between the nature and the building, but also to achieve an architectural language of coherency among the volumes. The church room and the congregational hall are ranked first and second in the hierarchy of the complex. The sheer height of these two volumes is meant to stress that they are the two volumes that accommodate the main functions of the complex. This worked well for the church room, with its height of approximately 20 meters, but for the congregational hall the height became a problem. Having a volume with a height of 17 meters that accomodates the congregational hall and only utilizes the first level left us with unforeseen aesthetical problems for the interior solution. The detailing of it became hard to solve when only the first three meters were assigned to the ground floor and the rest was unoccupied space. The transition looked abrupt and in order to conquer the problem, a proposal was created, that incorpo-

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rates the use of the quadrupled columns of the grid, reaching all the way to the roof and thus creating a continuity of the materials used. The detail solved the aesthetics but the abundance of square meters was still an issue. In the end, the final proposal were agreed upon, taking a stand that the architectural expression were to be valued the most. The abundance of square meters would be kept open and thus utilized to illuminate the congregational hall. Perhaps it would have been better to place the community area and the surrounding administrative functions underneath flat roofs, but this would leave us with an aesthetically unpleasing composition that would become too separated from the Nordic context. During the final considerations for the plan, an issue occurred to us. According to our previous analyses, much emphasize was being put on how the building would relate to the surrounding nature and regard the subject of preserving trees.

The final master plan worked well in unison with the surrounding nature and left no backsides to the complex, but the addition of the common space left us with a proposal for a master plan that exceeded the required amount of square meters by approximately 350 m2. This issue was discussed because it meant that we might have to occupy areas that were otherwise assigned to the preservation of trees. Perhaps the best solution would be to create covered walkways that would only accommodate the transit of the complex. A similar concept is exemplified in the museum of Louisiana, with its close relation to the surroundings, expressed through the transparent hallways. Reflecting on the matter, it was decided that the covered hallways did not comply with the composition of our design. The leading argument was that creating hallways that would transfer the visitors from A to B, defragmented the building into separate pieces and left behind the impression of a scattered structure. The infrastructure would likewise become scattered,


resulting in an overcomplicated flow through the building, where visitors would have to move through some of the more private volumes to reach their destination. Another argument arose, that the use of hallways would leave little spatial quality because they would merely become transit areas. Keeping the flat roof pavilions would allow for an integration of spatial qualities, enabling the visitor to sit down and admire the beauty of the landscape, something which would have been lost with the hallway proposal. Through these considerations we came up with a design that would incorporate courtyards inside the complex and thus preserve the nature of the site in various locations.

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EPILOGUE

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Kenninji. 2008. The Oldest Zen Temple Kenninji. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.kenninji.jp/english/. [Accessed 04 November 14]. Knudstrup, MAK, 2005. Pandoras Boks. Red. L. Botin & O. Pihl. Aalborg University, 13-19. Møller & Lindhe, M & L, 1991. Aarhus Raadhus. 1st ed. Copenhagen, Denmark: Arkitektens Forlag. Parigi, DP, 2014. Mini-workshop 2:4 Form and acoustics. Tectonic Design: Structure and Construction, [Online]. 50, 29. Available at: https://www.moodle. aau.dk/pluginfile.php/320871/mod_folder/content/0/mw2%20intro_rid.pdf?forcedownload=1 [Accessed 27 October 2014]. Parigi, DP, 2014. Mini-workshop 2:4 Form and acoustics. Tectonic Design: Structure and Construction, [Online]. 50, 41-42. Available at: https://www.moodle. aau.dk/pluginfile.php/320871/mod_folder/content/0/mw2%20intro_rid.pdf?forcedownload=1 [Accessed 27 October 2014]. Parigi, DP, 2014. Mini-workshop 2:4 Form and acoustics. Tectonic Design: Structure and Construction, [Online]. 50, 13. Available at: https://www.moodle. aau.dk/pluginfile.php/320871/mod_folder/content/0/mw2%20intro_rid.pdf?forcedownload=1 [Accessed 27 October 2014]. Paroc. 2014. Skillevægge. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.paroc.dk/loesninger-og-produkter/loesninger/brandsikring/skillev%C3%A6gge. [Accessed 15 December 14]. Plummer, HP, 2012. Nordic Light. 1st ed. London, United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson Ltd. Rockwool, 2014. Akustisk vægabsorbent med høj lydabsorption og en æstetisk flot og slidstærk overflade. VertiQ® - Akustisk vægabsorbent med høj lydabsorption og en æstetisk flot og slidstærk overflade, [Online]. 4, 1-4. Available at: http://rwiumbraco-rfn.inforce.dk/media/2381015/datablad_dk_ vertiq_06.2014.pdf [Accessed 09 December 2014].

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Science Nordic. 2014. Trees Top 10. [ONLINE] Available at: http://sciencenordic.com/trees-top-10. [Accessed 24 October 14]. Semper, GS, 1851. Die vier Elemente der Baukunst. 1st ed. Germany: F. Vieweg. Snøfangerkroken. 2014. Finn karakteristiske snølaster. [ONLINE] Available at: http://snofangerkroken.no/sider/lastkalk7.php#. [Accessed 19 November 14]. Stockholms stad. 2014. Woodland Chapel. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.skogskyrkogarden.se/en/architecture/woodland-chapel.php. [Accessed 23 November 14]. Wikipedia. 2014. Cloister. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloister. [Accessed 11 December 14]. Wikipedia. 2014. Japanese garden. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_garden. [Accessed 04 November 14]. Wikipedia. 2014. Kennin-ji. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kennin-ji. [Accessed 28 October 14]. Wikipedia. 2014. Scots Pine. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scots_pine. [Accessed 24 October 14]. Wikipedia. 2014. Wood Shingle. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_shingle. [Accessed 01 December 14]. Windfinder. 2014. Wind & weather statistics Alesund/Vigra. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/alesund_vigra. [Accessed 10 December 14]. Woodland Trust. 2014. Scots Pine. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/learn/british-trees/native-trees/scots-pine/. [Accessed 24 October 14].

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Ålesund Kommune, ÅK, 2009. Digitalt kart og målinger terreng. Hatlehol Kyrkje, 8, 1-8.

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EPILOGUE

ILLUSTRATION LIST Ill. 1 - Jonathan Rieke, (2012), Sein채joki Lakeuden Risti Church - 7 [ONLINE]. Available at:https://www.flickr.com/photos/jonathanrieke/9399568174/ [Accessed 14 December 14]. Ill. 2 - seier+seier, (2008), arne jacobsen, aarhus town hall 1937-1942 [ONLINE]. Available at:https://www.flickr.com/photos/94852245@N00/2824346476/ [Accessed 14 December 14]. Ill. 3 - Christensen, MFC, (2014), Tectonics of Timber Architecture. Tectonics of Timber Architecture, [Online]. 83, 6. Available at: https://www.moodle. aau.dk/pluginfile.php/403324/mod_resource/content/2/1%20MSc%20Arch%20timber%20tectonics%20details%20and%20connections.pdf [Accessed 14 December 2014]. Ill. 4-25 - Own illustration Ill. 26 - Dezine Guide. (2014). 30+ Free Concrete Textures Download. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.dezineguide.com/freebie/30-free-concrete-textures-download/. [Accessed 11 December 14]. Ill. 27 - Vintage Wood. (2014). Douglas Fir - Dunsbury FLDF627. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ekvintagewood.com/products/douglas-fir-dunsburyfldf627. [Accessed 11 December 14]. Ill. 28 - Bear Creek Lumber. (2014). Select Structural Grade Douglas Fir. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bearcreeklumber.com/species/fir_selstruct.html. [Accessed 11 December 14]. Ill. 29 - Own illustration

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Ill. 30 - Wild Scotland, (2014), Glen Affric Scots Pine [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.wild-scotland.org.uk/species/78/scots-pine/ [Accessed 24 October 14]. Ill. 31 - Woodland Trust, (2014), Scots Pine Full Tree [ONLINE]. Available at:https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/learn/british-trees/native-trees/scots-pine/ [Accessed 24 October 14]. Ill. 32-34 - Own illustration Ill. 35 - Miljøstatus.no. (2014). Miljøstatus i Norge : Kart. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.miljostatus.no/kart/?lang=no&extent=-43590|6557269|-14564|6 573686&layers=261:70;&basemap=KART&opacity=70&saturation=100. [Accessed 20 October 14]. Ill. 36 - Sun Earth Tools. (2014). Calculation of Sun’s Position. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.sunearthtools.com/dp/tools/pos_sun.php?lang=en. [Accessed 28 November 14]. Ill. 37 - Windfinder. (2014). Wind, Waves & Weather Forecast Gåseid/Alesund. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.windfinder.com/forecast/gaseid_alesund. [Accessed 28 November 14]. Ill. 38-39 - Weather Spark. (2014). Average Weather For Ålesund, Norway. [ONLINE] Available at: https://weatherspark.com/averages/28840/Alesund-Mre-og-Romsdal-Norway. [Accessed 01 December 14]. Ill. 40 - Picture found in competition material.

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Ill. 41 - Wall-to-Wall Contraction, (2012), New Red Cedar Shake Roof [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.walltowallinc.com/?project=new-red-cedarshake-roof-3&utm_source=Remodelista%2FGardenista+Subscriber+List&utm_campaign=293321dc8b-Gardenista+Daily+Email+Campaign&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_447a717cea-293321dc8b-384384753 [Accessed 01 December 14]. Ill. 42 - Ulrich Matuschowitz, (2014), Wooden shingles, full frame, close up [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.visualphotos.com/image/2x4317926/wooden_shingles_full_frame_close_up [Accessed 01 December 14]. Ill. 43 - Wood Shingle Roofing, (2009), San Diego Roofing Wood Shingles [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.sandiegoroofing.com/services/wood-shingle-roofing/ [Accessed 01 December 14]. Ill. 44 - Richard Wijlage, (2011), Old church (stavkyrkje) in Norway [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.panoramio.com/photo/46084422 [Accessed 14 December 14]. Ill. 45 - Mark E. Gibson, (2014), Wood Shingle Siding [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.allposters.dk/-sp/Wood-Shingle-Siding-plakater_i8666112_.htm [Accessed 01 December 14]. Ill. 46 - Roofmasters Roofing, (2014), Wood Shingles [ONLINE]. Available at: http://roofmastersroofing.net/roofing/shingle-roofing/ [Accessed 01 December 14]. Ill. 47 - Mark E. Gibson, (2014), Wood Shingle Siding [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.allposters.dk/-sp/Wood-Shingle-Siding-plakater_i8666112_.htm [Accessed 01 December 14]. Ill. 48 - The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (2014). Cloister from Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/470314. [Accessed 03 December 14].

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Ill. 49-51 - Own illustration Ill. 52 - Met@lica. (2014). Casa Grelha. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.metalica.com.br/casa-grelha. [Accessed 03 December 14]. Ill. 53-54 - Own illustration Ill. 55 - My Modern Met. (2014). Hi-Def Pics - Zen Sanctuary: Kyoto, Japan (18 photos). [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/ blogs/hidef-pics-zen-sanctuary. [Accessed 02 December 14]. Ill. 56-58 - Own illustration Ill. 59 - Nuk goes to Helsinki. (2014). Stockholm - Cementerio del Bosque. [ONLINE] Available at: http://helsinkitonuk.blogspot.dk/2010/11/stockholm-cementerio-del-bosque.html. [Accessed 26 November 14]. Ill. 60-129 - Own illustration Ill. 130 - 139 - Own photograph Ill. 140-149 - Own illustration Ill. 150-151 - Eurocode 1 Ill. 152-158 - Own illustration

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Ill. 159 - Eurocode 1 Ill. 160-163 - Own illustration Ill. 164-165 - Autodesk Robot Structure Analysis Ill. 166-168 - Own illustration Ill. 169-172 - Autodesk Robot Structure Analysis Ill. 173-183 - Own illustration

TABLE LIST Table 01 - BCL, 2014. Acoustic Timber Systems. Technical information Handbook - Acoustic Timber Systems, [Online]. 25, 11. Available at: http://www.ribaproductselector.com/Docs/6/20016/external/COL1320016.pdf [Accessed 08 December 2014]. Table 02-21 - Own tables

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APPENDIX


The appendix includes additional calculations and analyses of the project. This allows for further study of specific parts of the project.


APPENDIX

CHURCH HALL CALCULATIONS WIND LOAD CALCULATIONS

MAIN WIND VELOCITY

The proper dimensioning of a structure relies on the loads calculations. Wind load was calculated in a few steps - mean wind velocity, wind turbulence, peak velocity pressure and the wind forces(forces on walls and roof). The actual wind load depends on the location and the shape of the building. Eurocode 1.4 was used to get all the formulas and factors. The loads for the structure of the church room are calculated in order to make a structural analysis and realistic dimensioning of the structure. The calculations of the wind includes mean wind velocity, wind turbulence, peak velocity pressure and the wind forces(forces on walls and roof). The wind load is based on the location in Norway and shape of the volume. All formulas and factors are in Eurocode 1.4.

Main wind velocity is dependant on the basic wind velocity , the terrain and roughness factor. The terrein category was selected as III category.

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ROUGHNESS FACTOR

ROUGHNESS FACTOR PEAK VELOCITY PRESSURE Peak velocity pressure is a value that contains factors of both mean and short term fluctuations.


WIND MAP - NORWAY

WIND LOAD

WALLS - CASE 1

From the site analysis we can see, that the wind is most often coming from the southern direction. This is the direction used in the calculations. The church room shape has been simplified -the dimensions were rounded off, the roof shape was divided into three simpler parts.

The wind loads have been divided into load on walls and the roof.

Two cases were analyzed - as the building is tilted from nort-south axis: one with wind load from the shorter and one from the longer side of the church room. The wind load has been calculated according to the Eurocode EN 1991-1-4. The windloads have been later inserted into Grasshopper and Robot to proceed with structural analyses.

Ill. 150 - Map from Eurocodes

Ill. 151 - Pressure coefficients

Ill. 152 - Wind

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WALLS - CASE 2 WALL 1 ZONE D A = 233m2 we = 0.827 * 0.8 = 0.661kN/m2 0.661 * 233 = 153kN WALL 2 & WALL 4 ZONE A A = 12m2 we=0.827 * (-1.2) = -0.992kN/m2 0.992 * 12 = -11,9kN WALL 2 & WALL 4 ZONE B A = 48m2 we = 0.827 * (-0.8) = -0.662kN/m2 0.662 * 48 = -31.776kN WALL 2 & WALL 4 ZONE C A = 48m2 we = 0.827 * (-0.5) = -0.414kN/m2 0.414 * 48 = -19.8726kN -11.9 - 31.77 - 19.87 = -43.67kN -43.67kN/108m2 = -0.588kN/m2 WALL 3 ZONE E A = 106.4m2 we = 0.827 * (-0.5) = -0.414kN/m2 0.414 * 106.4 = -44.05kN

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Ill. 153 - Wind

WALL 1 ZONE A A = 65.07m2 we = 0.827 * (-1.2) = -0.992kN/m2 -0.992 * 65.07 = -64.55kN

WALL 1 ZONE B A = 168.03m2 we = 0.827 * (-0.8) = -0.662kN/m2 -0.662 * 168.03 = -111.24kN -64.55 - 111.24 = -175.79kN -175.79kN/233m2 = -0.754kN/m2 WALL 2 ZONE D A = 108m2 we = 0.827 * 0.8 = 0.662kN/m2 0.662 * 108 = -71.45kN WALL 3 ZONE A A = 33.1m2 we = 0.827 * (-1.2) = -0.992kN/m2 -0.992 * 33.1 = -32.84kN WALL 3 ZONE B A = 73.3m2 we = 0.827 * (-0,8) = -0.662kN/m2 -0.662 * 73.3 = -48.53kN -32.84kN - 48.53kN = -81.37kN -81.37kN/106.4m2 = -0.764kN/m2 WALL 4 ZONE E A = 108m2 we = 0.827 * -0.5 = -0.414kN/m2 -0.414 * 108 = -44.71kN


ROOF - CASE 1 ROOF 1 & ROOF 1B

ZONE H & ANGLE ~60 +0.7 A = 237.5m2 we = 0.827 * (0.7) = 0.579kN/m2 0.579 * 237.5 = 137.5kN

Ill. 155 - Roof angles

ROOF 2 & ROOF 2B ZONE I & ANGLE ~45 +0.0 A = 181.2m2 we = 0.827 * (0) = 0kN/m2 0kN

ROOF 3 & ROOF 3B

ZONE I & ANGLE ~30 +0.0 A = 133m2 we = 0.827 * (0) = 0kN/m2 0kN

Ill. 154 - Key for duopitch roofs

Ill. 156 - Wind

130


SNOW LOAD CALCULATIONS

ROOF - CASE 2

Ill. 157 - Wind

ROOF 1 ZONE H & ANGLE ~60 +0.7 A = 237.5m2 we = 0.827 * (0.7) = 0.579kN/m2 0.579 * 237.5 = 137.5kN ROOF 1B ZONE I & ANGLE ~60 -0.2 A = 237.5m2 we = 0.827 * (-0.2) = -0.165kN/m2 -0.,165 * 237.5 = -39.19kN

131

ROOF 2 ZONE H & ANGLE ~45 +0.6 A = 181.2m2 we = 0.827 * (0.6) = 0.496kN/m2 0.496 * 181.2 = 89.9kN ROOF 2B ZONE I & ANGLE ~45 -0.2 A = 181.2m2 we = 0.827 * (-0.2) = -0.165kN/m2 -0.165 * 181.2 = -29.89kN ROOF 3 ZONE H & ANGLE ~30 +0.4 A = 133m2 we = 0.827 * (0,4) = 0.33kN/m2 0.33 * 133 = 43.89kN ROOF 3B ZONE H & ANGLE ~30 -0.4 A = 133m2 we = 0.827 * (0,4) = -0.33kN/m2 -0.33 * 133 = -43.89kN

The snow load is directly dependant on two coefficients: exposure and thermal, and the characteristic value of the snow load.

μi - now load shape coefficient Ce - exposure coefficient - 1,2 Sk - characteristic value of snow load = 3kN/m2 Ct - thermal coefficient – 1

Ill. 158 - Roof angles


ROOF

DEAD LOAD CALCULATIONS

ULS AND SLS

ROOF 1

Dead load consists of two different load sources: the structure itself, and the weight of the roof layers. The load of the structure is calculated by the Autodesk Robot itself.

The snow load is directly dependant on two coefficients: exposure and thermal, and the characteristic value of the snow load.

μi = 0 s = 0kN/m2

ROOF 2 μi = 0.8(60-a)/30 μi = 0.8(60-45)/30 = 0.8 * 0.5 = 0.4 s = 1.2 * 0.4 * 3 = 1.44 kN/m2

ROOF 3 μi = 0.8 s = 1.2 * 0.8 * 3 = 2.88kN/m2

CALCULATIONS OF THE ROOF LAYERS

SHINGLES 4.5cm shingles (3 layers of 1.5 cm) – 4.2kN/m3 – 0.045 * 4.2 = 0.189kN/m2 WOODEN UNDERSTRUCTURE FOR SHINGLES 2.5cm - covers around 50% of area - 4.2kN/m3 – 0.025 * 0.5 * 4.2 = 0.0525 kN/m2 OSB BOARDS 2cm – 6.3kN/m3 – 0.02 * 6.3kN/m3 = 0.126kN/m2 INSULATION 33cm (3 different layers of different thicknesses) – 0.3kN/m3 – 0.33 * 0.3 = 0.099kN/m2 WOODEN UNDERSTRUCTURE FOR ACOUSTIC BOARD 2cm - covers around 40% of area - 4.2kN/m3 – 0.02 * 0.4 * 4.2 = 0.0336 kN/m2 WOODEN BOARD 3cm - 4.2kN/m3 – 0.03 * 4.2 = 0.126kN/m2 TOTAL = 0.6261kN/m2

132


Ill. 159 - Factors

133

Ill. 160 - Results


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS The tectonic approach to the architectural design revolves around a close cooperation between structural analyses and the design itself. Parametric tools allows us to incorporate the structural considerations almost from the start of the design process. A three dimensional frame has been built in grasshopper. The parametric model included all the structural elements: the frames, the ceiling supporting structure with the timber verticals and the wires, and additional supporting structure for the mezzanine.

The calculations in robot helped us to choose the right dimensions for every element.

Ill. 161 - 3D model of the structural system

Ill. 162 - Single frame

The load cases were created to test the structure behaviour for different conditions. Two wind load cases have been tested – for wind blowing perpendicular to the gable, and for the wind blowing perpendicular to the side wall. The ULS load combinations have been created for dominant wind from south and east, and for dominant snow with taking in account wind from south or east. SLS load combinations allowed us to check the exact deformations for different elements.

The whole structure was created with parametric tools (Grasshopper), which allowed us for many iterations of selecting values, changing form and making calculations.

A comparison have been made to see how the cable influences the structure. We have calculated the displacements and ratios for the structure with, and without the supporting cable and verticals. The results showed us almost 4 times higher displacement.

The working process consisted of analyzing the ways the cable interacts with the structure. We have studied how can we improve the way the structure works by changing the shape of the cable and the number of verticals.

The final shape of the cable follows the catenary curve shape.

134


Ill. 164 - Normal forces

Ill. 163 - Process

The shape of the structure we have used in the final design eveolved gradually. It was selected not only because of the structural qualities. The aesthetic and acoustic value was as much important. We have been making analyses looking how it performs in acoustic tests, and also how it looks in a 3d model of the church room.

135

The final version of the structure showed us that the wire is working correctly. We can see compression forces on the frame elements, and tension forces on the wires. The back of the church, which is supported by the additional mezzanine shows much lower forces. The process of finding the correct shape of the wire consisted of many iterations of creating Grasshopper definition, then exporting it to Robot, analyzing it and finally making conclusions, that allowed us to go back to the first step again.

Ill. 165 - Displacement for Dom. Wind East SLS combination

The displacement has been calculated using SLS load combinations. The maximum displacement happens when we apply Dominant Windload East – the displacement is 31 mm. The structure works much better in comparison to a structure made out of just frames, or the structure that used straight cables.


Ill. 166 - Ratio table

Ill. 167 - Ratio table

Ill. 168 - Ratio table

136


RESULTS The results from Robot analyses showed us that structure is working correctly and the section usage ratio never exceeds 100%. The extract of from the calculations presented on the previous page, shows some of the highest ratio in the cables and timber elements

COMPARISONS Before finally deciding on the shape of the cable, we have analyzed different cases. Next images are extracts from the robot files that proves that the final shapes is working much better.

Ill. 169 - Cable and timber ratio map

137


“JUST FRAMES� CASE The first basic shape that we analyzed. Consists of only timber frames, and results in high displacement - MAX 120 mm for Dom. Wind East Elements usage ratios: over 100% The timber frame that works for the final shape (400x270mm) is not enough for the correct ratios.

Ill. 170 - Frames only

138


“STRAIGHT CABLES� CASE Next step was the addition of wires and verticals. The idea was that the vertical elements will transfer the loads into the cables, and cables, that will be tensioned, will carry the loads and lower the ratios and displacements. But the shape with straight cables showed us that it actually do not work correctly. The ratio on wire is very low. The normal forces do not show tension on cables, but compression instead. Displacement: MAX 115 mm for Dom. Wind East Elements usage ratios: over 100% for timber elements and below 10% for cables. That is when we decided to change the shape of the cable. The arched shape was tested as it is the most common shape for cables in similar structures. The structure, that used catenary shape for the cables, showed us that it actually works in tension, and uses a lot of its section to carry the loads. The displacement was lowered greatly to around 30mm.

139

Ill. 171 - Displacement

Ill. 173 - Cable ratios

Ill. 172 - Normal forces

Ill. 174 - Timber ratios


APPENDIX

GRID STRUCTURE CALCULATIONS INTRODUCTION

DEAD LOAD

Throughout the calculations the loads are being calculated for an area of 16m2, which is the area of the structure that each column will be supporting.

The dead load for the roof structure is calculated above the load-bearing structure of the beams and columns.

ROOF

SNOW LOAD Because the roof is flat, the weight of the snow is found through the website Snøfangerkroken.no. Here the load from the snow can be found for the location of the site and how high the buildings is placed above sea-level. The loads are found for the following values: From sea-level to 150m above: 3.0kN/m2 (Snøfangerkroken, 2014) Length of beams: Spacing c/c: Area pr. beam:

4m 0.57m 2.28m2

Linear load: 6.84kN

3kN/m2 * 2.28m2 = 6.84kN/4m = 1.71kN/m

The construction of the roof will fulfill the requirements for the Danish building regulations BR15 of an U-value of 0.09W/(m2/K). Area pr. beam: 2.28m2 ASPHALT ROOFING Thickness: 0.008m Area: 2.28m2 Volume: 0.018m3 Density: 10.82kN/m3 Load pr. beam: 0.19kN

LINEAR LOAD Total load pr. beam:

0.19kN+0.14kN =

Linear load:

0.33kN 0.33kN/4m = 0.08kN/m

Total linear load:

BEAMS

GRID BEAMS Height: 0.35m Width: 0.15m Length: 4m Volume pr. column: 0.41m3 Density Douglas fir C35: 3.92kN/m3 Point load:

PLYWOOD Thickness: 0.021m Area: 2.28m2 Volume: 0.048m3 Density: 2.95kN/m3 Load pr. beam: 0.14kN

0.19kN/m+0.08kN/m = 0.27kN/m

3.92kN/m3 * 0.41m3 = 1.6kN

140


BUCKLING SMALL BEAMS Height: 0.20m Width: 0.10m Length: 4m Volume pr. column: 0.48m3 Density Douglas fir C35: 3.92kN/m3 Point load:

3,92kN/m^3 * 0.48m3 = 1.9kN

Total point load:

1.6kN + 1.9kN = 3.5kN

Modeling the structure in Grasshopper and afterwards exporting the structure to Autodesk Robot Structure Analysis enables us to calculate all ratios for the elements. It became clear that the desired beam size was insufficient and that the structure had instability by buckling. After redimensioning the beams the structure achieved the desired ratio of 1.

COLUMN Width: 0.10m x 0.10m Height: 3m Volume: 0.03m3 Density Douglas fir C35: 3.92kN/m3 Load:

0.12kN * 4 = 0.48kN

Total dead load:

1.6kN + 1.9kN + 0.48kN = 3.98kN Ill. 175 - Isometric exploded grid structure

141


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ROOF In order to dimension the structure of the flat roof construction, a model for Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis was made. Through different iterations of the dimensions, the final dimensions of the beams was found. Using the dimensions, the segment members 27 and 28 has a ratio of 1.00 with the applied load combination of the load of the roof, the self load of the element and the snow load. Using the model, the maximum forces that the columns will have to carry is found.

Ill. 176 - Ratio table

Ill. 177 - Ratio table

142


COLUMN Having calculated the forces that the column will be influenced by, the structure is tested in Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis in order to dimension it. The calculation tests the strength of the column and whether or not instability by buckling will occur. In the table shown underneath, the ratios of the four segments of the column are shown, proving that the ratio is less than 1.

Ill. 178 - Column ratio

143


APPENDIX

PRELIMINARY ACOUSTICS ANALYSIS REVERBERATION TIME

CLARITY

HAAS EFFECT

The reverberation time of a room is a measurement of how long it takes a sound to die out or more specifically how long it takes for a sound to decay by 60dB. For Churches and Cathedrals the desired reverberation time ranges from 1.4 to 2.6 seconds. (Parigi, 2014, p. 29)

The clarity of a room is defined as a measurement of how ‘clear’ a sound is or how much the different layers of sound will stand apart from one another. The better the clarity, the more the sounds in a musical performance will appear as individual sounds. The result from this measurement is the ratio between the early arriving sounds and the later reverberant sounds. The recommended clarity values for concert halls are between -3 and 2, which is similar to the acoustics wanted in a church room. (Parigi, 2014, p. 41-42)

The Haas effect measures the path difference between the direct sound and the reflected sound. As long as the reflected sound is delayed by less than 50ms, the human ear will not register the difference. 50ms is equivalent to 17m which is therefore the maximum length a reflected sound can travel without producing an echo. (Parigi, 2014, p. 13)

The reverberation time is calculated in PachyDerm, an acoustics plug-in for Rhinoceros. The calculations are made from data regarding the absorption coefficients for the materials, their surface area and the volume of the church room. By analyzing different changes in these parameters it will be possible to gather knowledge on how to best reach the desired reverberation time for the final design.

144


FOLDED ROOF In this first test the basic form of the church room is being analyzed. The dimensions are: ROOM Length: 37m Width: 20.3m Height: 2.5m ROOF Height: 20m This test will produce three iterations with differences in the parameters that change the number and height of the folds PARAMETERS

REVERBERATION TIME 1.1

1.2

1.3

Frequency [Hz]

Secs [s]

Secs [s]

Secs [s]

62.5

1.23

1.16

1.20

125

1.51

1.39

1.45

250

1.87

1.79

1.88

500

2.51

2.38

2.51

1000

4.98

4.64

5.09

2000

4.43

4.12

4.48

4000

3.94

3.72

4.01

8000

3.16

3.04

3.27

Table 03 - Reverberation time

1.1

CLARITY 1.1

1.2

1.3

Frequency [Hz]

C80

C80

C80

62.5

1.90

1.52

1.98

1.1

1.2

1.3

125

0.79

0.34

0.93

Valleys

5

10

10

250

-0.90

-1.08

-0.53

Amplityde

0.5m

0.5m

2m

500

-2.44

-2.85

-2.11

1000

-5.75

-6.28

-5.34

2000

-5.23

-5.76

-4.95

4000

-4.94

-5.21

-4.34

8000

-3.76

-4.10

-3.30

Table 02 - Parameters

Table 04 - Clarity

145

Through the analysis it becomes clear that iteration 1.2 has the values for reverberation time closest to the desired range, and that iteration 1.3 has the values of clarity that are closest to the desired range. This means that in order to shorten the reverberation time it is favorable to have many small folds which will absorb the reflected sounds. When regarding clarity however, many high folds is the most favorable for making the individual sounds stand out. 1.2

1.3

5m

5m

5m

5m

5m

5m

Ill. 179 - Pespective, plan and section


SLOPED ROOF In the second analysis the acoustic effect of a sloped roof is tested. The main dimensions are: ROOM Length: 37m Width: 20.3m Height: 2.5m Again three iterations are performed with difference in the parameter that changes the height and the curve of the roof.

REVERBERATION TIME

PARAMETERS

2.1

2.2

2.3

Frequency [Hz]

Secs [s]

Secs [s]

Secs [s]

62.5

1.31

1.12

1.06

125

1.55

1.37

1.27

250

2.02

1.82

1.62

Table 07 - Parameters

500

2.59

2.44

2.09

1000

5.08

4.66

3.94

2000

4.52

4.16

3.53

4000

4.01

3.74

3.18

8000

3.32

3.02

2.63

The results show that iteration 2.3 has the values that are closest to the desired range of the reverberation time, but that the shape performing the best in relation to clarity is iteration 2.2. Iteration 2.2 is chosen for further analysis despite it being the second best performing regarding reverberation time. The difference is perceived as minor and iteration 2.2 correlates better with the simultaneous aesthetic considerations for the shape of the building.

Table 05 - Reverberation time 2.1

2.2

5m

5m

2.3

5m

5m

CLARITY

5m

2.1

2.2

2.3

Frequency [Hz]

C80

C80

C80

62.5

2.20

2.60

3.22

125

1.11

1.82

2.09

250

-0.58

0.02

0.32

500

-2.17

-1.56

-1.67

1000

-5.46

-5.33

-5.53

2000

-4.89

-4.64

-4.84

4000

-4.23

-4.24

-4.15

8000

-3.37

-3.01

5m

Ill. 180 - Pespective, plan and section

-3.04 Table 06 - Clarity

2.1

2.2

2.3

Height 1

20m

20m

20m

Height 2

20m

5m

5m

Curve

Straight

Straight

Arched

Comparing the sloped roof proposals to the folded roof proposals, it becomes clear that the sloping roof has a better effect. The results for the reverberation time of 1.2 and 2.2 looks much the same, but the results that comes closest to the values of the clarity is achieved through the sloped roof.

146


REFINEMENT In this final test, the best performing iteration from above is analyzed in order to figure out how to improve upon it. Furthermore the Haas effect will be included in the calculations. The dimensions are: ROOM Length: 37m Width: 20.3m Height: 2.5m The parameter for this test will be the height of the roof PARAMETERS Height 1

2.2

3.1

3.2

3.3

20m

20m

15m

10m

0.5m

5m

5m

Height 2 5m Table 08 - Parameters

REVERBERATION TIME 2.2

HAAS EFFECT 3.2

3.3

Freq [Hz]

Secs [s]

Secs [s]

Secs [s]

Secs [s]

62.5

1.12

0.93

1.05

1.02

125

1.37

1.14

1.34

1.28

250

1.82

1.62

1.76

1.73

500

2.44

2.07

2.32

2.25

1000

4.66

3.96

4.39

4.33

2000

4.16

3.58

3.95

3.88

4000

3.74

3.21

3.58

3.49

8000

3.02

2.61

2.91

2.84

2.2 Difference 30.6m Table 11 - Haas effect

3.1

3.2

3.3

27.5m

24.0m

16.8m

Upon analyzing the results of the reverberation time and the clarity no big change is discovered between the two iterations. When looking at the Haas effect values and the graphical result of the analysis, they show that iteration 3.3 is the best performing one due to the smaller travel distances of the reflected sounds.

Table 09 - Reverberation time

CLARITY 2.2

3.1

3.2

3.3

Freq [Hz]

Secs [s]

Secs [s]

Secs [s]

Secs [s]

62.5

1.12

0.93

1.05

1.02

125

1.37

1.14

1.34

1.28

250

1.82

1.62

1.76

1.73

500

2.44

2.07

2.32

2.25

1000

4.66

3.96

4.39

4.33

2000

4.16

3.58

3.95

3.88

4000

3.74

3.21

3.58

3.49

8000

3.02

2.61

2.91

2.84

Table 10 - Clarity

147

3.1

3.1

3.2

3.3

5m

5m

5m

5m

5m

5m

Ill. 181 - Pespective, plan and section


APPENDIX

FINAL ACOUSTICS ANALYSIS WITHOUT STRUCTURE

WITH STRUCTURE

REVERBERATION TIME

REVERBERATION TIME

APPLIED MATERIALS REVERBERATION TIME

Frequency [Hz]

Seconds [s]

Frequency [Hz]

Seconds [s]

Frequency [Hz]

Seconds [s]

62.5

1.13

62.5

1.16

62.5

1.57

125

1.28

125

1.45

125

1.64

250

4.26

250

1.97

250

1.62

500

2.03

500

2.22

500

1.63

1000

2.27

1000

2.39

1000

1.79

2000

2.06

2000

2.55

2000

1.99

4000

2.06

4000

2.16

4000

1.61

8000

1.90 Table 12 - Reverberation time

8000

2.08 Table 14 - Reverberation time

8000

1.69 Table 16 - Reverberation time

CLARITY

CLARITY

CLARITY

Frequency [Hz]

C80

Frequency [Hz]

C80

Frequency [Hz]

C80

62.5

4.19

62.5

4.42

62.5

0.34

125

3.23

125

3.36

125

-0.02

250

1-23

250

1.38

250

0.49

500

0-39

500

0.07

500

1.33

1000

-1-86

1000

-1.76

1000

0.92

2000

-1.21

2000

-1.28

2000

0.54

4000

-1.38

4000

-1.06

4000

0.94

8000

-0.59

8000

-0.74

8000

0.43

Table 13 - Clarity

Table 15 - Clarity

Table 17 - Clarity

148


WOODEN ACOUSTICS PANELS CLASS C

WOODEN ACOUSTICS PANELS CLASS A

REVERBERATION TIME

REVERBERATION TIME

Frequency [Hz]

Seconds [s]

Frequency [Hz]

Seconds [s]

62.5

1.69

62.5

1.62

125

1.69

125

1.60

250

1.77

250

1.84

500

2.34

500

1.51

1000

2.11

1000

1.70

2000

2.11

2000

1.68

4000

2.09

4000

1.63

8000 Table 18 - Reverberation time

2.30

CLARITY

8000 Table 20 - Reverberation time

1.69

CLARITY

Frequency [Hz]

Seconds [s]

Frequency [Hz]

Seconds [s]

62.5

0.18

62.5

-0.55

125

-0.05

125

0.37

250

0.44

250

1.01

500

1.11

500

1.05

1000

-0.14

1000

0.82

2000

-0.97

2000

0.39

4000

-0.69

4000

0.32

8000 Table 19 - Clarity

149

-1.51

8000 Table 21 - Clarity

0.01


APPENDIX

LIGHT STUDIES From the five different proposals for the placement of the windows in the church room a scheme is created, making it possible to easily compare pros and cons for each proposal

0

1

2

3

Isometric

Isometric

Isometric

Isometric

Isometric

Section

Section

Section

Section

Section

Daylight factor

Daylight factor

Daylight factor

Daylight factor

Daylight factor

Church Room

Church Room

Church Room

Church Room

4

Church Room

Ill. 182 - Light analysis

150


APPENDIX

FIRE STRATEGY The public parts of the complex are considered to be of application category 3. (Bygningsreglementet. 2014, 5.1.1 Anvendelseskategorier) This indicates that these parts of the building will accommodate more than 50 persons and that these persons will have no knowledge of escape routes, but are able to get themselves out of the building. The private areas of the building are considered to be of application category 1, indicating that the staff of the church will have knowledge of escape routes and that they are able to rescue themselves. The volumes are considered as fire sections with interior walls that are constructed and classified as EI 60, (Paroc, 2014) indicating that the interior walls will keep out flames, gasses and heat for 60 minutes. The exterior walls are classified as REI 60 indicating that they will continue to carry the load of the building in case of a fire, while also keeping out flames, gasses and heat for 60 minutes.

151

ABA-equipment will be installed throughout the building, warning the visitors of an occurring fire and telling them to proceed to the nearest emergency exit. The escape routes are kept at a width of 1.3 m (Bygningsreglementet. 2014, 5. Brandforhold) and will lead the visitors from the fire sections of the volumes to the emergency exits unobstructed. Furthermore the fire sections are equipped with rescue openings in order to supply the visitors and the staff with multiple exits.


SECTION C-C 1464

2049

22

1080

141

1210

6090 400

400

200

200

400

400

400

400

400

200

200

400

400

400

400

400

45

REFUSE

36

11,8 m2

HALL

25,5 m2

35

LAUNDRY ROOM 7,9 m2

810

400

12 m2

400

34

TECHNICAL ROOM

400

37

33

32

WORKSHOP 21,4 m2

400

400

20,9 m2

14,4 m2

ACTIVITY ROOM

22

30 m2

18

20

BAR 15 m2

STORAGE 2,9 m2

STORAGE

19

5,7 m2

31 30

MEETING ROOM

870

24

TOILET

28

CORRIDOR

TOILET 10,3 m2

15 m2

CLASS ROOM 22,4 m2

OFFICES 66 m2

MUSIC ROOM

16

30 m2

400

23

11,5 m2

CLASS ROOM 22,4 m2

27 15

CLOAK ROOM 38 m2

CONGREGATIONAL HALL 158 m2

TOILET

200 400

1330

400

366 m2

09

CHURCH HALL 78 m2

DETAIL 2

400

03

MEZZANINE

04

CHILDREN CHAPEL

08

CORRIDOR

57 m2

98 m2

STORAGE 54 m2

400

10

400

400

SECTION B-B

23 m2

200

SECTION A-A 11 12

SACRISTY 13,5 m2

SACRISTY FOR ARTEFACTS 10 m2

06

CLOISTER ROOM 15 m2

CHAPEL

400

93 m2

400

07

MEETING ROOM 02

CHURCH ROOM

05

SACRISTY FOR BAPTISM 40,9 m2

200 400

2031

400 DETAIL 3b

45

45

DETAIL 3a

400

400

400

400

400

400

400

200

DETAIL 1

378

200

714 m2

200

38 m2

400

177

224

13

45

400

210

1022

400

400

378

400

400

400 SECTION C-C

2030

1270

CORRIDOR 17 m2

SECTION A-A

400

14

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

7090

ENTRANCE HALL 142 m2

COMMON SPACE

SECTION B-B

400

400

38

200

178

200

10,7 m2

01

2400

29

400

17

25

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

TOILET 15 m2

30,7 m2

400

400

26

2080

KITCHEN

21

STORAGE

7090

400

400

45

186

45

45 214

2070

400

400

400

400

400

800

6090 351

2059

400

45

Ill. 183 - Fire plan

152

Hatlehol Church  

A project done on 1st semester of Master in Architecture (Msc01) on Aalborg University, Denmark Group: Andreas Falk Sheye Mateusz Szymon Pło...

Hatlehol Church  

A project done on 1st semester of Master in Architecture (Msc01) on Aalborg University, Denmark Group: Andreas Falk Sheye Mateusz Szymon Pło...

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