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NGD New Graphic Design

Issue 1 04/2013

Form Follows Function

An exploration of Modernism and Postmodernism


An exploration of Modernism and Postmodernism 1.Modern Typography 3.Modernism Artists 7.Postmodernism Artists 11.Modern Achitecture 15.Modern Fashion


MODERN TYPOGRAPHY

Modern Typography was a reaction against the perceived decadence of typography and design of the late 19th century. It is mostly associated with the works of Jan Tschichold and Bauhaus typographers Herbert .Bayer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, El Lissitzky and others

The hallmark of early modern typography is the sansserif typeface. “Because of its simplicity, the even weight of its lines, and its nicely balanced proportions, sans serif forms pleasing and easily distinguished word patterns a most important element in legibility and easy reading Modern typography reflected a modern, universal method of communication. This design concept assumes passive, almost automatic subconscious visual experience. It counts on rationality of both, graphic designer/producer of the message and the audience that is receiving the message. The act of perception that is involved is simple act of seeing; reader is passive, detached and objective. “Typographic style and layoutdo not obstruct the transmission of meaning.” Jan Tschichold codified the principles of modern typography in his 1928 book, New Typography. He later repudiated the philosophy he espoused in this book as being .fascistic, but it remained very influential

Modern Typography was a reaction against the perceived decadence of typography and design of the late 19th century


Modern interpretation of the message assumes objectivity and neutrality. Graphic design, processed through print technology, translates problems and experiences into a visual linear order. There is a single point of view. The designer believes that he/she should control what would be seen. This model of vision rejects interplay between a viewer and image and affirms that our internal makeup does not alter the impressions we receive. The modern designer’s objective is to control the viewer’s detached visual component so that information is transmitted seamlessly. In attempting to control the eye, modern design dismissed the creativity of viewing

Modern Typography was a reaction against the perceived decadence of typography and design of the late 19th century

The Modern typography states as its first objective to develop its visible form out of the functions of the text. For modernist designers it is essential to give pure and direct expression to the contents of whatever is printed Just as in the works of technology and nature, ‘form’ must be created out of function. Only then can we achieve typography that expresses the spirit of modern man. The function of printed text is communication, emphasis (word value), and the logical sequence of the contents.“The trend in modern typography is definitely toward simplicity and legibility, employing forms that comply with the natural inclination of the human eye to seek harmony and ease The Modern typography states as its first objective to develop its visible form out of the functions of the text. For modernist designers it is essential to give pure and direct expression to the contents of whatever is printed Just as in the works of technology and nature, ‘form’ must be created out of function. Only then can we achieve typography that expresses the spirit of modern man. The function of printed text is communication, emphasis (word value), and the logical sequence of the contents.The trend in modern typography is definitely toward simplicity and legibility, employing forms that comply with the natural inclination of the human eye to seek harmony and ease


HANS NEUBUBURG 1904-1983 Swiss mod­ernist graphic designer Hans Neuburg (1904 – 1983) is one of the pio­neers of the Inter­na­tional Typo­graphic Style along with Brock­mann, Crouwel, Aicher, Hof­mann, Casey. He’s left a col­lec­tion of stel­lar work that includes this stun­ning poster pic­tured here and as well as this diag­o­nal design. This gallery con­tains some more of Hans’ excel­lent poster work. He also authored the clas­sic design books Mod­erne Werbe– und Gebrauchs­graphik. Graphic Design in Swiss Indus­try Pub­lic­ity and Graphic Design in the Chem­i­cal Indus­try and Con­cep­tions of Inter­na­ tional Exhi­bi­tion. Neuburg inizia la propria attività nel 1930, in Svizzera, come copywriter. Nel 1932 cura le campagne pubblicitarie di alcune importanti aziende di Basilea.[1] A partire dal 1933, e fino al 1938, cura la pubblicazione del periodico Industriewerbung. Nel 1935 gli viene conferito un premio per un manifesto del grande magazzino zurighese Oscar Weber. Nel 1939 progetta il padiglione per l’esposizione nazionale che si tiene nella città di Zurigo. Sempre in questo periodo inizia l’attività di critico d’arte per il quotidiano Dietat. Nel 1958 fonda assieme a Josef MüllerBrockmann, Richard Paul Lohse e Carlo Vivarelli la rivista Neue Grafik. Le pubblicazioni andranno avanti per 18 numeri, dal settembre del 1958 fino al febbraio del 1965. Obiettivi principali della rivista saranno quelli di divulgare la nuova grafica moderna svizzera, commentare opere influenti, e costituire un tavolo di discussione per i principi spirituali e artistici della grafica contemporanea. Nel 1963 diventa vicepresidente della ICOGRADA (International Council of Graphic Design Associations, concilio che raggruppa associazioni nazionali di grafica rappresentanti paesi di tutto il mondo) e riceve un incarico presso la scuola di Ulm.Nello stesso periodo è membro di giurie in alcune delle principali rassegne di arti applicate.


REZA ABEDINI

POST MODERNISM

for the most part has been a visual and decorative movement. Many designers and design critics contend that postmodernism, in the literary or architectural sense of the term, never really impacted graphic design as it did these other fields. Alternatively, some argue that it did but took on a different persona. This can be seen in the work produced at Katherine McCoy’s program at the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan during the late 1980s to late 1990s and at the MFA program at CalArts in California. But when all was said and done, the various notions of the postmodern in the various design fields never really stuck to graphic design as it did with architecture. Some argue that the “movement” (if it ever was one) had little to no impact on graphic design. More likely, it did, but more in the sense of a continuation or re-evaluation of the modern. Some would argue that this continuous re-evaluation is also just a component of the design process - happening for most of the second half of the 20th century in the profession. Since it was ultimately the work of graphic designers that inspired pop artists like Warhol and Liechtenstein, and architects like Robert Venturi and Denise Scott-Brown, it could be argued that graphic design practice and designs may be the root of Postmodernism. Postmodernism in graphic design Graphic design saw a massive popular raising at the end of the seventies in form of Graffiti and Hip Hop culture's rise. Graphic forms of expression became a vast everyday hobby among school kids all around the developed western countries. Alongside this 'movement', that took rebellious and even criminal cultural forms, was born the mass hobby of coding computer graphics. This phenomenon worked as a stepping stone towards the graphic infrastructure that is applied in the majority of computer interfaces today. This Constructivist poster uses arbitrary placement of geometric shapes, a convention that would appear in many postmodern graphic design pieces. Postmodernism in graphic design Graphic design saw a massive popular raising at the end of the seventies in form of Graffiti and Hip Hop culture’s rise. Graphic forms of expression became a vast everyday hobby among school kids all around the developed western countries. Alongside this ‘movement’, that took rebellious and even criminal cultural forms, was born the mass hobby of coding computer graphics. This phenomenon worked as a stepping stone towards the graphic infrastructure that is applied in the majority of computer interfaces today.


Neville

Neville Brody (born 23 April 1957 in London) is an English graphic designer, typographer and art director. Neville Brody is an alumnus of the London College of Printing and Hornsey College of Art, and is known for his work on The Face magazine (1981–1986) and Arena magazine (1987–1990), as well as for designing record covers for artists such as Cabaret Voltaire and Depeche Mode. He created the company Research Studios in 1994 and is a founding member of Fontworks. He is the new Head of the Communication Art & Design department at the Royal College of Art.


He was one of the founding members of FontWorks in London and designed a number of notable typefaces for them. He was also partly responsible for instigating the FUSE project an influential fusion between a magazine, graphics design and typeface design. Each pack includes a publication with articles relating to typography and surrounding subjects, four brand new fonts that are unique and revolutionary in some shape or form and four posters designed by the type designer usually using little more than their included font. In 1990 he also founded the FontFont typeface library together with Erik Spiekermann. Notable fonts include the updated font for the Times newspaper, Times Modern, New Deal as used in publicity material and titles for the film Public Enemies and Industria.

Brody

Neville Brody (born 23 April 1957 in London) is an English graphic designer, typographer and art director. Neville Brody is an alumnus of the London College of Printing and Hornsey College of Art, and is known for his work on The Face magazine (1981–1986) and Arena magazine (1987–1990), as well as for designing record covers for artists such as Cabaret Voltaire and Depeche Mode. He created the company Research Studios in 1994 and is a founding member of Fontworks. He is the new Head of the Communication Art & Design department at the Royal College of Art.


Armi ofm nn


Armin Hofmann (HonRDI) is a Swiss graphic designer. Hofmann followed Emil Ruder as head of the graphic design department at the Schule fĂźr Gestaltung Basel (Basel School of Design) and was instrumental in developing the graphic design style known as the Swiss Style. He is well known for his posters, which emphasized economical use of colour and fonts, in reaction to what Hofmann regarded as the “trivialization of colour.

His posters have been widely exhibited as works of art in major galleries, such as the New York Museum of Modern Art. He was also an influential educator, retiring in 1987. In 1965 he wrote the Graphic Design Manual, a popular textbook in the field.


MODERN DESIGN ARCHITECTURE & ART Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and an absence of applied decoration. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely.[1] In a broader sense, early modern architecture began at the turn of the 20th century with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with .rapid technological advancement and the modernization of society

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The concept of modernism is a central theme in these efforts. Gaining popularity after the Second World War, architectural modernism was adopted by many influential architects and architectural educators, and continues as a dominant architectural style for institutional and corporate buildings into the 21st century. Modernism eventually generated reactions, most notably Postmodernism which sought to preserve pre-modern elements, while Neomodernism emerged as a reaction to .Postmodernism

Notable architects important to the history and development of the modernist movement include Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, Louis Sullivan, Oscar Niemeyer and Alvar Aalto. The concept of modernism is a central theme in these efforts. Gaining popularity after the Second World War, architectural modernism was adopted by many influential architects and architectural educators, and continues as a dominant architectural style for institutional and corporate buildings into the 21st century. ,Modernism eventually generated reactions


This article describes the history of building types and styles what things were built. See History of construction for the history of construction tools and techniques how things were built.The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regions, overarchingstylistic trends, and .dates

HISTORICAL

OR MODERN

Neolithic architecture is the architecture of the Neolithic period. In Southwest Asia, Neolithic cultures appear soon after 10000 BC, initially in the Levant (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) and from there spread eastwards and westwards. There are early Neolithic cultures in Southeast Anatolia, Syria and Iraq by 8000 BC, and food-producing societies first appear in southeast Europe by 7000 BC, and Central Europe by c. 5500 BC (of which the earliest cultural complexes include the StarÄ?evo-Koros (Cris), Linearbandkeramic, and VinÄ?a). With very small exceptions (a few copper hatchets and spear heads in the Great Lakes region), the people of the Americas and the Pacific remained at the Neolithic level of technology up until the .time of European contact


Kri Park Some of the most unique marbles in the Kris Parke collection come to us through the Aurora Series. These marbles are produced with a "strange brew of reduction and luck." The end result is a matte marble reminiscent of the mysterious gas giants of our solar system. For more information on the Aurora series of marbles please visit Kris Parke's marble page


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Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with fresh ideas about the nature of materials and functions of art. A tendency away from the narrative, which was characteristic for the traditional arts, toward abstraction is characteristic of much modern art. More recent artistic production is often called Contemporary art or Postmodern art


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The New York Times Style Magazine is a perfect-bound magazine dedicated to fashion, living, beauty, holiday, travel and design coverage. The magazine was launched in August 2004. It is published 15 times a year and distributed within the Sunday edition of The New York Times newspaper. Since December 2007, an international edition has been distributed with the weekend edition of .the International Herald Tribune

Stefano Tonchi was editor until 2010; his replacement was Sally Singer. Singer left in 2012 and was replaced by Deborah Needleman. T is not a supplement of The New York Times Magazine, but a distinct publication with its own staff. In 2010, it launched its first country specific edition with T Qatar. Other editions in the Middle East are to follow. Oryx Advertising Co. has acquired the license to publish these .editions


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Mana Mohammadi Graphic Design Mana@unimail.hud.ac.uk U1165135


modernism and postmodernism