[AIR] ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO MATT AMBLER
[Movement] Dynamism & [Responsive] Design_
CONTENTS I.I CASE OF INNOVATION Design Precedents & Introduction to Discourse. [David Fisher’s Dynamic Tower.] I.I CASE OF INNOVATION Design Precedents [Santiago Calatrava’s Quadratic Pavilion.] I.II CASE OF INNOVATION An Introduction to Parametric Design. I.III CASE OF INNOVATION Innovations of Parametric Design. [Digital Fabrication.] II.I RESEARCH PROJECT CUT Research Project. [BANQ Restaurant.] II.II RESEARCH PROJECT Furthered Design Precedents. [Project & Design Specific.] II.III RESEARCH PROJECT Design Development. [Initial Matrices & Selection.] II.IIII RESEARCH PROJECT Initial design refinement. II.IIIII RESEARCH PROJECT Final design development. III.I DESIGN PROPOSAL Initial concepts IIII.I DESIGN PROPOSAL FURTHER PRECEDENTS III.II DESIGN PROPOSAL CONSRUCTION DIAGRAMS AND SECTIONS III.III DESIGN PROPOSAL SITE CONTEXT III.IIII DESIGN PROPOSAL MODEL PHOTOGRAPHS III.IIIII DESIGN PROPOSAL FINAL MONTAGE
Week 6_ I’m not particularly supportive of the group work. I understand that it is put forward to assist with a shared workload, and that the understanding of all group member’s is better than one, but that shouldn’t be necessary, should it? The content should be set and designed so that it does not exceed the understanding of one student. What most concerns me is that the design is not your own. It’s a combination of what group members see themselves as doing. For me, designing, and design developing is personal, it reflects your interests and understandings. I’m hoping our group ‘clicks’ and works well. Week 7_ We fabricated our model of the Banq Restaurant today, using Rhino and Grasshopper creating a waffle. I am very happy with the result. After a long process of sending it to the FabLab so that it could be printed, the result was worth while. Lasercutting always phased me, but the results and accuracy are spectacular. We took some excellent photos thanks to the ‘How to take good photographs of your model’ document. Thumbs UP. How we got that blob on screen into a physical model is something I didn’t have as much of an input in, but this certainly marks a notable development in my work.A small step for ADS3, but a large step for me.
EXPRESSION Week 1_ Throughout this architecture degree, my lack of understanding and general resentment towards the use of computer aided design and more particularly the difficult computer programs has been exposed. It is a great weakness in me, which I am slowly working on being rid of. I’ve never be as up to date as my colleagues, but I do get by. This subject with it’s focus on Parametirc Design and Digital Fabrication is incredibly daunting and forceful. It will be a massive challenge for me, more particularly where I’m at right now. At this stage I am uncomfortable with the course’s prospects. Throughout this degree I have learnt so much and my skills have exceeded my expectations, so I just need to see this as a challenge rather than an obstacle. I understand the world’s shift to computerization in design, as its a field of innovation offering so much more than pens and paper. I’ve never opened Rhino or even heard of Grasshopper before. 3D modelling and particularly scripting doesn’t excite me. I’m visual, I like to see things as they are. I’m creative, therefore I want to dream up these designs, draw them and own them, rather than leaving the success of a design to the ability of a program. I hope this course can change that opinion and assist me in becoming more employable.
Week 4_ I’m really lost. This personal journal isn’t personal at all. Week 4_ I’m really lost. This personal journal isn’t personal at all. I view a progress journal as something you create that shows your I view a progress journal as something you create that shows your development in design and in understanding. This is the only part of development in design and in understanding. This is the only part of this journal that is me. I was enjoying finding design precendents, but this journal that is me. I was enjoying finding design precendents, but took too long getting my head around what a discourse is let alone took too long getting my head around what a discourse is let alone choosing one, making me make a forced opinion. But I’ll stick with choosing one, making me make a forced opinion. Dynamic But I’ll it, because Dynamic Architecture is pretty amazing and I can see stick with it, because Dynamic Architecture is pretty amazing and I myself spending a semester developing my understanding of it. As can see myself spending a semester developing my understanding of for the matrices, grasshopper and parametric design in general, my it. As for the matrices, grasshopper and parametric design in general, understanding is minimal. I just need to spend more time on online my understanding is minimal. I just need to spend more time on ontutorials, but I’m really lacking the motivaton. The 3 files, inputs, asline tutorials, but I’m really lacking the motivaton. The 3 files, inputs, sociations and outputs has really thrown me at this stage. associations and outputs has really thrown me.
Week 7_ During class our group’s lack of solution and lack of our design idea’s meshing was obvious. We found ourselves coming to a design agreement rather than a stand out design concept. But none of us new how we could actually make it work using Grasshopper. But our model was basically seen as crap, very disheartning. We’ve gotta start somewhere!
Week 8_ Our EOI was poor. I personally take responsibility for lengeness of the beginbeginning, ning of the Ipresentation, put too muchI put work toointo much thatwork and less intointo thatour andfinal less design. into ourI final suppose design. I I was trying suppose I was to stick trying to to mystick strengths. to my strengths. I found it very I found interesting it very interesting linking thelinking designthe to design thethe to municipality municipality however, however, creating creating a design a design to to evoke evoke pride pride within within a community a community is ais a very warming prospect. I did gain a better understanding of the course as a whole and expectations/submissions through scanning through the entire lms page, making sure I didn’t miss a beat. But Bur I would like to see more consistencies throughout the course. I I cameacross came acrossalot alotofofinformatiin date that contradicted that contradicted what were whatdoing were doing and what and tutors what tutors are sayare ing. such saying, such as in asthe in the original original design design breif breif which which we we were were toldtold to work to work with, with, it stated it stated thatthat the site had no power and no water connection, where as alot of groups incorporated these elements. Not that its a big deal, it’s just an example supporting my belief that this this subject subject lackslacks consistencies guidance.so Are far.we Are to we disregard to disregard some some information information from original from original documents? if so which documents? if so which information? information? So ontop So ontop of finding of finding this information this information throughout throughout a alarge largeamount amountofofcontent contentallallinindifferent differentlocations, locations,wewehave havethe theassumed assumedknowledge knowledgetoto know what shouldn’t be thought about? In terms of design, I’ve found that our goals and design ideas are strangled with the use of use of parametric parametric design,design, we have wetohave design to design to whattowe what canwe actually can actually acheive. acheive. And I’ve just been alerted, that throughout all this work and hardship we’ve only earnt up to 15% of our final mark? wonderful. Week 10_ This has been the most challenging week for me, not in terms of course content and workload, but rather the external factors such a group work failing. Our group basically disbanded, with one of our group members (and our strongest group member) leaving our group to join a friend, basically because our group simply didn’t mesh. We still don’t really have a strong design prospect. It’s very minimal, which reflects our knowledge of the programs we are using. I’m not really sure what to do now. It’s the last three weeks of semester, where our peers our on the stretch home so to speak, where I’m practically at square one, again. Week 11_ It’s thursday of week 11, I have chosen to join forces with another group in a similar situation to me. We have a design, very rushed, but it’s something. I can see things coming together through consistent and hard work in the next 7 days. I’ve taken lead in this group, which is a role I’m enjoying. I’m just hoping that it all works out and we can pull it together. Week 14_ It’s done! This course has been extremely challenging, but looking back now I’m happy I’ve completed it. I can look back through all the challenge +defeat and smile.
I.I CASE OF INNOVATION
ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE [Design Precedents]
INTRODUCTION TO MY DISCOURSE: [KINETIC ARCHITECTURE + DYNAMISM] An ultra modern architectural style based on movement, Kinetic Architecture is the design of buildings in which transformative, mechanized structures change with climate need or purpose. This opens up a revolutionary world of design opportunity, promoting maximal use of space and utilizing spaces efficiently. This aides in improving overall building functionality, moving living architecture, while everything else stands still. This is the future of world architecture. The Dynamic Tower is an architectural feat, designed in 2008, by spanish architect David Fisher. This design can transform from an elegant, ordered and balanced facade into a wonderful, disorientating mess. It has the potential to document the essence of movement, expressed through a giant ripple rotating throughout an everchanging design. This building is an ideal representation of kinectic and dynamic architecture, making use of movement, like never before. Kinetic architecture incorporates movement into building design. I have a particular interest in this direction of architecture, including the physical movement of buildings and spaces to create a more functional, more dynamic design. My interest also flows on to the concept of movement itself, basing aesthetic design on a moving figure/ precedent, plotting the movement of an object or creature, and basing a design on that movement path . Kinetic architecture and the cocept of movement are both dynamic, ultra modern design concepts that represent the future of architectural design. The Western Gate installation is situated where future urban growth will exist, meaning that the project will be viewed by motorists driving by at high speeds. The project is to be an ultramodern design, based on movement.
Dynamic Tower Architect: David Fisher
I hope to use the concepts of dynamism and movement throughout my development and final design. They are both inspiring ideas and I believe they will work well in representing Wyndham and in the creating of a truly eye catching design.
I.I CASE OF INNOVATION
ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE [Design Precedents]
The Quadracci Pavilion is a sculptural, postmodern addition to the Milwaukee Art Museum completed in 2001. It is an exceptional architectural marvel, which responds to ‘the culture of the lake; the sailboats, the weather, and the sense of motion or change’ (Calatrava,. 2000). It’s wing-like attributes expand and spread, opening up the main interior spaces, and promoting a connection with it’s neighbouring landscape. This creates a facinating variation of light and shade. It’s incorporation of the surrounding features and environment is something I wish to incorporate into my roadside design, acting as a way of recognising and representing Wyndham and what it involves.
Quadracci Pavilion Architect: Santiago Calatrava
I.II CASE OF INNOVATION
AN INTRODUCTION TO PARAMETRIC DESIGN [for my own understanding]
Generative, computational, digital, computer aided, and associative are all forms of parametric design which, basically differ through their use of computers rather than a drawing board. This allows them to generate more sophisticated designs, featuring higher levels of accuracy and complexity.1
Parametric design is the future of design diciplines such as architecture. Once it is understood conceptually and the means to harness it are gained, parametric design can revolutionise work, simplifying frustrating and time consuming factors, and opening up a new world of sophistication, complexities
1â€™Introducing Parametric design,â€™ Jaroslaw Ceborski, 24 October 2010,
and themes; which in some cases could never have been imagined or acheived. Instead of slaving over monotone and repetative tasks, which are essentially algorithms, the computer is now left to do this. For designers, particularly architects, the use of Rhino and Grasshopper is suited. Grasshopper is a graphical
algorithm editor, tightly intergrated with Rhinoâ€™s 3D modelling tools.2 Parametric design is closely related to digital fabrication, giving these computational designs, which feature high levels of complexity, the abilty to physically print in equal quality. 2â€™Introducing Parametric design,â€™ Jaroslaw Ceborski, 24 October 2010, http://www.rethinking-architecture.com/introduction-parametric-design,354/
INNOVATIONS OF PARAMETRIC DESIGN This Hyperbolic tower concept was designed using Rhino and Grasshopper. It is a simple functional design, making use of the double curved hyperboloid geometry. It is the highly aesthetic, digitally fabricated facade which draws me to this design concept. The complex facade can be accurately created through several components, which are combined for the completion of the design.
I.II CASE OF INNOVATION
1.2 DIGITAL FABRICATION Digital modelling and fabrication is the process that marries architectural design with the construction industry, through the use of 3D modelling software. Digital fabrication allows designers to produce digital material to extremely high levels of accuracy. Fabrication techniques include rapid prototyping, stereolithography and laser cutting which, enable the production of physical models directly from digital, parametric designs. This allows for new forms and aesthetics of space.1 1â€™Digital Fabrication,â€™ Marius Watz, march 2012. http://www.generatorx.no/cata/digital-fabrication/
II.I CUT RESEARCH
BANQ RESTAURANT DESIGN & MODEL
The BANQ Restaurant in Boston features a striking curved linear wall, fluid in movement as if dripping from the ceiling. This feature has been created through the use of parametric design. We modelled our design using a waffle feature on Rhino, before cutting sections 1.5cm apart on both the x and y axis. We then fabricated these flat sections through a laser cutter, connecting these surfaces physically. This task gave us a better understanding of the tools we were using. Iâ€™m happy with our result as it effectively reflects the key aesthetic componants of the researched design.
II.II RESEARCH PROJECT
FURTHERED DESIGNSpecific] PRECEDENTS [Project and Design
The mixed-use bridge concept in Amsterdam [Above & Right] is an extremely modern concept mixing curved lines and abstract compositions. Waving through the design space, it creates an extremely aesthetic design feature, which we intend to incorporate into the Wyndham City roadside installation. The structural feature, which is also the main design feature of this concept, is parametrically designed, recognisable through itâ€™s relatively complex interconnected lines, all naturally stretching across the design space and stemming from core points.
II.III RESEARCH PROJECT
POTENTIAL DESIGN DEVELOPMENT [EXPLORATION OF MATRICES AND INITIAL DESIGN CONCEPTS]
As instructed, we combined the given inputs with selected associations and outputs, but the common result had nothing to do with what we were hoping to achieve. The outputs worked well for a group selecting pattern as a discourse, but not really for dynamism and movement. In the end, we did not use any of what was drawn from the matrices.
INITIAL EXPRESSION OF INTEREST PROPOSAL
II.IIII RESEARCH PROJECT
The overall form was derived from our interest in the natural form of a wave, in particular a water wave, as a representation of movement. We trialed some different forms all representing this wave formation through use of natural line curve and shape. Our refined design [right] featured a spiral form resembling a breaking wave. At this stage this design showed potential in terms of suitability to the design brief, particularly in reference to site context, as the road would run through the centre of the design, just as a surfer would ride through the barrel of the wave. But, this design lacked complexity in terms of concept and entire form. It was strangled by our inability to develop it any further through Grasshopper. This design also lacked depth in terms of relation and representation of Wydnham, therefore we discontinued development and refinment of this potential design option.
II.IIIII RESEARCH PROJECT
FINAL EXPRESSION OF INTEREST PROPOSAL
Four circles are drawn and lined up horizontally before being lofted to create surfaces. These circles are different in shape and size, creating a more dynamic loft, varying in size and shape.
This loft form twenty two-d yet varying in then trimmed
is then evenly sectioned, creating dimensional circles, evenly spaced n size and shape. These circles are d creating semi circlular curves.
A path resembling the road [Princess Highway Service Lane] is added and treated as a point attractor, which moves one end point of the curves, hence rotating the entire curve.
The product is a dynamic and complex series of twenty curves of varying heights, curve shapes and diameters. These curves represent the path of water, each individually powered by separate water jets submerged beneath the ground on the side of the road. The flow, power, consistency and height reached by these water curves can be based on a variable within the Wyndham community, such as water use and water wastage.
III.I DESIGN PROPOSAL
MOVEMENT & DYNAMISM
RESPONSIVE DESIGN GATEWAY DESIGN PROJECT
WYNDHAM DYNAMIC COMMUNITY ‘MOVING’ FORWARD ‘MOVING’ VIEWERS POPULATION GROWTH
WESTERN WATER TREATMENT WETLANDS/MARSHLANDS EMPHASIS ON WATER WASTAGE AND USE
Population 2010: 181,191. Wyndham has experienced the largest and fastest growth out of all Victorian local government areas, and is the third fastest growing in Australia.1 Wyndham is one of Melbourne’s designated growth areas, with an estimated population to exceed 245,000 by 2012. Wyndham is moving forward. 1Demographics and Populations of Wydnham, Wyndham City, April 2012. <http://www.wyndham.vic.gov.au/aboutwyndham/wyndhamcity/demographics>
The Western Water Treatment Plant exists within a belt of Wetlands and Marshlands. It is recognised as a Wetland of international significance and is a haven for tens of thousands of birds. It is one of the most popular birdwatching sites in Victoria with around 270 species recorded.1 1 Western Water Treatment Plant, Melbourne Water, April 2012. , http://www.melbournewater.com.au/content/ sewerage/western_treatment_plant/western_ treatment_plant.asp?bhcp=1>
The Western Water Treatment Plant treats around 50% of Melbourneâ€™s sewage and generates almost 40 billion litres of recycled water a year.1 This recylced water is primarily used for fruit/vegetable irrigation as well as livestock, ut a large portion of this water is simply disposed of into the Bay. This is the water that will power our design project. 1 Western Water Treatment Plant, Melbourne Water, April 2012. , http://www.melbournewater.com.au/content/ sewerage/western_treatment_plant/western_ treatment_plant.asp?bhcp=1>
III.II DESIGN PROPOSAL
DESIGN SPECIFIC PRECEDENTS
Seeds of Change [above], is a similar installation within Wyndham, designed by James Brearley. This design features simple steel frames in the form of a leaf which is native to Wyndham. The solid textured componants make use of a native rock type within the soils of Wyndham, achieving a sense of connection with place, particularly through the rocks, which anchor the design to that concept. This is something I intend to incorporate into my final design.
Parque de la Reserv fect curve of water solid parabolas cons cading water, I belie this is a design featu
va [above]â€”in Lima, Peru. Fifty inch-thick jets create a persurrounding a large walking path. The experience of the stantly flowing over head, accompanied by the roar of caseve would be a very pleasant experience. For this reason, ure which I wish to incorporate into our design.
In most fountains the water jets become wider, looser and more chaotic as they reach height; losing their precision, unity and organisation. One particularly interesting exception is this indoor fountain. This fountain features precisely defined laminar (turbulence-free) flow produce jets of rapidly moving water making them look motionless; like glass rods bent into parabolas. Each narrow jet of rapidly flowing water retains its perfectly circular form throughout its trajectory. When the flow is interrupted, the final segment can be traced all the way to the end, still following its natural arc. At times, the computer-orchestrated water choreography makes the segmented water jets look like extremely slim, silver fish leaping through the air. A key element of these fountain designs is a special nozzle, invented by Mark Fuller (one of the founders of WET Design), that generates streamline (or laminar or turbulencefree) flow. This nozzle will be a key component in our final design.
III.III DESIGN PROPOSAL
SECTIONAL DIAGRAMS AND DETAILS [CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OUTLINE] EXISTING ROAD WATER JET
WATER STREAM FEATURE WALL GUTTER SYSTEM
STRUCTURAL TIMBER BEAMS JARRAH FEATURE TIMBER STRUCTURAL TIMBER ALUMINIUM GUTTER BASALT ROCK RETAINER
100x100 drainage point. -Pour the concrete slab, fitted with rebates for structural timber. -Construct structural timber following typical timber stud interior wall building and structural system. -Cap structural timber with timber beams. -Fix Jarrah feature timber to exterior vertical faces of the structural timber wall. -Construct steel framing retainer system, allowing space for rocks to be placed. -Build up the Basalt Rock surface, fitting all rocks strategically for a consistent feature wall. -Finish with aluminium surface, ensuring all waterproofing measures are taken including the installation of professionally installed flashing. -Install the water jet system.
JARRAH TIMBER (EUCALYPTUS MARGINATA)
Deep red to red-brown in colour, very deep and rich in comparison to most other Australian Owned timbers. Standout straight grain, maintaining linearality throughout the feature wall and gutter system of the design. Used extensively for construction in Australia, it is particularly suited for marine applications such as wharfs, bridges and ship building. It is heavy, hard, strong, and highly decay and rot resitant. Seasons well with minimal shrinkage. Ideal for this design primarily because of itâ€™s strength, durability and resistance. Its rich deep red and brown colour will complement the surrounding natural environment, as well as providing a smooth a yet rich aesthetic to the design.1 1 Jarrah, Sawdust Studios, May 2012, < http://www.woodworkersauction.com/jarrahpage.htm>
CONTEXT ANALYSIS [1:500 SITE PLAN]
The chosen site location for the design project is along the service road connecting with the Princess Freeway [Easbound to Melbourne.] This site was chosen primarily because this single lane road also acts as a major access point to Werribee, which is part of the greater city of Wyndham. Commuters travelling to Wyndham will therefore be able toexperience this design first hand when travelling through it, promoting a direct relationship and association with Wydnham. This design will also be noticable from the East Bound Freeway, where communters will be able to catch a glimpse of the design, potentially in action. Ideally, this will provide a common sense of intrigue. The design also intentionally reflects the sun, in its eastern position in the mornings, back onto the Freeway and into the rush hour commutersâ€™ line of vision. This will provide that extra factor which will create interest within the design.
III.IIIII DESIGN PROPOSAL
PHYSICAL MODELS [1:5O MODEL, 1:10 FUNCTION MODEL]
FINAL DESIGN [PROJECT MONTAGES]
Our roadside installation combines concepts of movement, dynamism and themes of responsive and sustainable architecture. The overall intention of this design concept is to create awareness of the water use throughout the city of Wyndham and the city of Melbourne as a whole. This will be achieved through a direct association with the waste water sourced from the Western Water Treatment plant and the water used throughout our installation. As well as this, our design promotes Wydham’s other unique characteristics, such as it’s rapid growth, expansion and development. Wyndam is growing, it is moving foward. It is a designated growth area of metropolitan Melbourne, Wyndam’s movement towards bigger, brighter and a more dominant future is unprecedented and unstoppable. We have drawn parallels to this position within the very base concepts of our design. Why not represent movement with movement, and why not promote Wyndam’s foreseen future with the most break through and modern architectural movement yet, the dawn of dynamic architectural design, a concept which will be a big part of the World’s near future, just as Wyndam will be a big part of Melbourne’s and Victoria’s.
REFERENCE LIST. iMAGES REFERENCED IN ORDER OF APPEARANCE. Pnina Eventasl, 2006, Abstract Movement In Blue, Photo.net, Viewed 12 April 2012. < http://photo.net/photodb/photo?photo_id=4812941> Aikika, 2008, Smoke 21, DeviantArt, Viewed 14 April 2012 < http://smokingstories.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/abstract-color-smoke-art.jpg smoke> Unknown. David Fisher, 2010, Dynamic Tower Concept, Simoncpage, viewed 5 April. < http://simoncpage.co.uk/blog/2008/10/dynamic-tower-design-by-david-fisher/> Santiago Calatrava, 2001, Quadrattic Pavilion from entrance, Galenfrysinger, viewed 5 April 2012, < http://www.galenfrysinger.com/milwaukee_quadracci_pavilion.htm> Santiago Calatrava, 2001, Quadrattic Pavilion interior foyer, Galenfrysinger, viewed 5 April 2012, < http://www.galenfrysinger.com/milwaukee_quadracci_pavilion.htm> Santiago Calatrava, 2001, Quadrattic Pavilion structural image, Galenfrysinger, viewed 5 April 2012, < http://www.galenfrysinger.com/milwaukee_quadracci_pavilion.htm> Jaraslow Caborski, 2010, what is parametric design?, Rethinking Architecture, viewed 10 May 2012, < http://www.rethinking-architecture.com/introduction-parametric-design,354/> Sebastian Wiesenh端tter, 2012, Hyperboloid Tower, Parametric Generative Design, vWiewed April 2012, < http://parametricgenerative.blogspot.com.au/2012/01/hyperbolic-tower.html> Agata Kycia, 2009, Parametric Pipe, WorkshopFactory, viewed may 26, < http://workshopsfactory.wordpress.com/category/digital-fabrication/page/3/> John Horner, 2011, Banq Museum Feature, Supertacular, viewed April 17, < http://supertacular.com/2011/01/banq-restaurant-by-office-da/> John Horner, 2011, Banq Museum Feature, Supertacular, viewed April 17, < http://supertacular.com/2011/01/banq-restaurant-by-office-da/> John Horner, 2011, Banq Museum Feature, Supertacular, viewed April 17, < http://supertacular.com/2011/01/banq-restaurant-by-office-da/> Laurent Saint-Vail, 2012, Mixed-Use Bridge for Amsterdam, Evolo, viewed April 29, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/mixed-use-bridge-for-amsterdam-laurent-saint-val/> Laurent Saint-Vail, 2012, Mixed-Use Bridge for Amsterdam, Evolo, viewed April 29, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/mixed-use-bridge-for-amsterdam-laurent-saint-val/> Laurent Saint-Vail, 2012, Mixed-Use Bridge for Amsterdam, Evolo, viewed April 29, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/mixed-use-bridge-for-amsterdam-laurent-saint-val/> Willie Wonker, 2009, Cheetham Wetlands, Flickr, viewed May 27, < http://www.flickr.com/photos/87791108@N00/3909230046/> Wetlands Near Watson Creek, 2009, Port Phillip & Western Port CMA, viewed May 29, < http://www.ppwcma.vic.gov.au/our-projects/major-environmental-projects/ramsar-protectionprogram.aspx> Seeds of Change, 2006, Wyndham City Council, viewed April 12, < http://www.flickriver.com/groups/513922@N22/pool/interesting/> Paul Kelly, 2011, Parque de la Reserva, Lonely Planet Photography, viewed April 20, < http://www.lonelyplanet.com/peru/images/parque-de-la-reserva-peru$25819-6> I. Peterson, 2011, Parabola Fountains, The Mathematical Tourist, viewed April 20, < http://mathtourist.blogspot.com.au/2011/05/fountain-parabolas.html>