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Vol. 2011., No 2., prosinac 2011.

herpetological bulletin

Hrvatsko herpetološko društvo


Hyla herpetološki bilten herpetological bulletin Vol. 2011., No 2.

urednik/editor: Dušan Jelić

Hrvatsko herpetološko društvo - HYLA Croatian Herpetological Society - HYLA

Zagreb, prosinac 2011.


Impressum HYLA, HERPETOLOGICAL BULLETIN Ključni naslov: Hyla (Zagreb) Skraćeni ključni naslov: Hyla (Zagreb) Izdavač/Publisher: Hrvatsko herpetološko društvo - HYLA Croatian Herpetological Society - HYLA Radučka cesta 15, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia Urednik/Editor: Dušan Jelić, prof. biol. jelic.dusan@gmail.com ISSN: 1848-2007


Sadržaj: Contents: O HHD HYLA ………………………………………………………………………

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About HHD HYLA …………………………………………………………………

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Radočaj, M., Jelić, D., Karaica, D. & Kapelj, S. - Morphological and reproductive traits of the insular population of Podarcis siculus (REPTILIA: LACERTIDAE) from Krk Island (Croatia) ………..……….…

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Morfološke i reproduktivne karakteristike otočne populacije Podarcis siculus (REPTILIA: LACERTIDAE) sa otoka Krka (Hrvatska) ..…...……. Burić, I. & Jelić, D. - Record of Lacerta agilis bosnica (L i n n a e u s , 1758) erythronotus coloration morph from Zelengora mountain, Bosnia and Herzegovina .……………………………………………………………….…

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Nalaz Lacerta agilis bosnica (L i n n a e u s , 1758) erythronotus tipa obojenosti sa planine Zelengore, Bosna i Hercegovina ……………………………...…. Jelić, M. – Finding of Common toad (Bufo bufo) with predominant yellow body coloration ………………………………………………………….………….

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Nalaz smeđe krastače (Bufo bufo) s prevladavajućom žutom obojenošću tijela ………………………………………………………………………….. Koren, T. & Jelić, D. - Interesting color forms of the European tree frog, Hyla arborea (L i n n a e u s , 1758) (AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE) from Croatia ..…..

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Raznolikost tipova obojenosti kod gatalinke, Hyla arborea (L i n n a e u s , 1758) (AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE) u Hrvatskoj ………………...……………. Jelić, D., & Vilaj, I. – Remarks on Death feigning in Coronella austriaca (L a u r e n t i , 1768), Natrix natrix (L a u r e n t i , 1768) and Natrix tessellata (L a u r e n t i , 1768)………………………………….…………………..……

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Pojava ponašanja poznatog kao ‘death feigning’ kod Coronella austriaca (L a u r e n t i , 1768), Natrix natrix (L a u r e n t i , 1768) i Natrix tessellata (L a u r e n t i , 1768) ……………………………………………………..…… Lisičić, D., Počanić, P., Lovrić, V., Derežanin, L. & Tadić, Z. - A case of cannibalism in Hierophis gemonensis: preying on conspecific adult ..….….

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Slučaj kanibalizma kod zmije šare poljarice Hierophis gemonensis: hranjenje jedinkom jednake veličine ………………….…………………………….…. Jovanović, O., Šafarek, G. & Samardžić, M. – A field observation of common buzzard predating on common toad .…...……………..……………….…....

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Terensko opažanje predacije običnog škanjca na sneđu krastaču ….…....…. 1  


Zadravec, M. & Lauš, B. – Melanism variations in Natrix natrix (L i n n a e u s , 1758) and Zamenis longissimus (L a u r e n t i , 1768) in Croatia .…...……....

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Varijacije melanizma kod Natrix natrix (L i n n a e u s , 1758) i Zamenis longissimus (L a u r e n t i , 1768) u Hrvatskoj …………………………....…. Lauš, B. & Zadravec, M. – Observations on copulating pairs of Zamenis longissimus (L a u r e n t i , 1768), Podarcis siculus (R a f i n e s q u e , 1810), Podarcis muralis (L a u r e n t i , 1768) and Podarcis melisellensis (B r a u n , 1877) in Croatia .……………………………………………………..……....

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Opažanja parenja jedinki Zamenis longissimus (L a u r e n t i , 1768), Podarcis siculus (R a f i n e s q u e , 1810), Podarcis muralis (L a u r e n t i , 1768) i Podarcis melisellensis (B r a u n , 1877) u Hrvatskoj ……..……………...…. Hlavati, D. – Winter activity of Pseudepidalea viridis (L a u r e n t i , 1768).…......

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Zimska aktivnost Pseudepidalea viridis (L a u r e n t i , 1768) ……….…..….

Upute autorima ……………………………………………………………………

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Author guidelines ………………………………………………………………….

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Popisni list za kartiranje herpetofaune Republike Hrvatske …....…………………

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O HHD – Hyla Hrvatsko herpetološko društvo – Hyla osnovano je 1997. godine pod imenom "Društvo za zaštitu i proučavanje vodozemaca i gmazova Hrvatske-Hyla". Osnovano je od strane biologa i zaljubljenika u vodozemce i gmazove zbog potrebe zaštite ovih životinja, koje su često i bezrazložno proganjane i ubijane, te ekosustava i mnogih staništa na kojima obitavaju ove, ali i ostale skupine životinja. Društvo je 2004. preimenovano u današnji naziv te sa razvila unutrašnja infrastruktura u vidu web stranice (www.hyla.hr) i mailing liste koje održavaju povezanost članova i mreže regionalnih i lokalnih udruga i organizacija partnera. Društvo je registrirano kao strukovna organizacija te je većina članova biološke struke. Međutim, otvoreni smo za sve koje zanima zaštita i proučavanje hrvatske herpetofaune (vodozemaca i gmazova) i staništa. HHD-Hyla je punopravna članica IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), najstarije i najveće međunarodne mreže za zaštitu prirode koja pod svojim okriljem okuplja više od 1000 članica - nevladinih i državnih organizacija - u više od 160 zemalja širom svijeta. Projekti i aktivnosti usmjereni su na istraživanja te zaštitu vrsta i staništa, edukaciju lokalnog stanovništva i šire javnosti (u sklopu projekata ali i zasebna predavanja i radionice), edukaciju studenata te izdavanje publikacija i ostalog edukativnog materijala. Društvo je aktivno na nacionalnoj razini te provodimo projekte u raznim dijelovima Hrvatske uz suradnju s državnim i lokalnim institucijama, udrugama, stručnjacima u zemlji i inozemstvu, školama te lokalnim stanovništvom. VODSTVO DRUŠTVA Upravni odbor

Nadzorni odbor

Marija Kuljerić - predsjednica

Dragica Šalamon

Ivona Burić - dopredsjednica

Olga Jovanović

Mila Lončar - tajnica

Ivan Budinski

Boris Lauš Petra Svoboda KONTAKT Poštanski pretinac: Radučka 15, 10 000 Zagreb

e-mail: hyla@hyla.hr

Telefon: 095 - 9050736 (Marija Kuljerić) 098 - 9310854 (Ivona Burić)

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About HHD - Hyla Croatian Herpetological Society - Hyla was founded in 1997 under the name "Society for the protection and study of amphibians and reptiles in Croatia-Hyla". It was established by the biologists and nature enthusiasts because of the need to protect amphibians and reptiles, which are often unduly persecuted and killed, as well as ecosystems and many habitats, on which this and other groups of animals reside. In 2004 Society was renamed to its present name and we developed an infrastructure, web site (www.hyla.hr) and mailing list, through which we maintain cohesion between members and a network of regional and local NGOs and partner organizations. Society is registered as a professional organization, and the majority of our members are biologists. However, we are open to all people interested in research and conservation of Croatian herpetofauna (amphibians and reptiles) and habitats. HHD-Hyla is a full member of the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), the oldest and largest international network for the protection of nature, with more than 1000 members - government and non-government organizations - in over 160 countries around the world. Projects and activities are focused on research and protection of species and habitats, education of the local inhabitants and public (during the projects, as well as separate lectures and workshops), training of students and publishing of the various scientific, professional and educational materials. Society is active at the national level and implements projects in different parts of the Croatia in cooperation with national and local institutions, NGOs, national and international experts and scientists, schools and local inhabitants.

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Morphological and reproductive traits of the insular population of Podarcis siculus (REPTILIA: LACERTIDAE) from Krk Island (Croatia) Morfološke i reproduktivne karakteristike otočne populacije Podarcis siculus (REPTILIA: LACERTIDAE) sa otoka Krka (Hrvatska) MARTINA RADOČAJ1, DUŠAN JELIĆ2, DEAN KARAICA1, SVEN KAPELJ1

1

Croatian Herpetological Society HYLA, Radučka 15, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

2

State Institute for Nature Protection, Trg Mažuranića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Corresponding author: DUŠAN JELIĆ, State Institute for Nature protection, Trg Mažuranića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, dusan.jelic@dzzp.hr

SUMMARY: Today, lizards of the genus Podarcis are one of the most important representatives of Mediterranean herpetofauna, primarily because of their great variability in islands. We studied a population of Podarcis siculus (REPTILIA: LACERTIDAE) from Krk Island (Northern Adriatic) and compared the results to other lacertid species of the Mediterranean Basin. The study was carried out using live lizards that were maintained in terrariums under natural conditions of light and temperature, where they produced egg clutches which were incubated until hatching. The eggs were incubated for average of 31 days and hatching took place from late July to mid of August. The average adult female body size (SVL) was 61,88 mm. Out of 10 females, 9 produced egg clutches with average of 5.3 and the maximum of 7 eggs. The knowledge of reproductive potentials and life traits of this species is significant for further monitoring plans of this invasive species in these areas. Key words: reproductive characteristics, Krk Island, Podarcis siculus

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SAŽETAK: Gušteri roda Podarcis su danas jedni od najvažnijih predstavnika mediteranske herpetofaune, prvenstveno zbog velike varijabilnosti na otocima. Proučavali smo populaciju Podarcis siculus (REPTILIA: LACERTIDAE) s područja otoka Krka (sjeverni Jadran), te usporedili dobivene rezultate sa ostalim vrstama lacertidnih gušterica na Mediteranu. Istraživanje je provedeno na živim gušterima koji su držani u terarijima pod prirodnim uvjetima svijetla i temperature, gdje su polegli jaja koja su inkubirana do izlijeganja. Jaja su inkubirana prosječno 31 dan, te se izlijeganje odvijalo od kraja srpnja do sredine kolovoza. Prosječna veličina tijela ženke (SVL) iznosila je 61,88 mm. Od ukupno 10 ženki, 9 je poleglo jaja, s prosjekom od 5,3 jaja, a najviše 7 jaja u leglu. Znanje o reproduktivnom potencijalu i životnim navikama ove vrste je bitno radi daljnjih planova monitoringa populacija ove invazivne vrste na navedenom području.

Ključne riječi: reproduktivne karakteristike, otok Krk, Podarcis siculus

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INTRODUCTION Today, lizards of the genus Podarcis are one of the most important representatives of Mediterranean herpetofauna, primarily because of their great variability on islands, and are the most dominant genus of reptiles in southern Europe (PODNAR LEŠIĆ, 2005). The genus is distributed in Northern Europe reaching up to the Southern part of the Netherlands, Rhine Valley, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Crimea. Also, the genus appears in northwest Africa (Morocco, north Algeria, Tunisia), northwest Asiatic Turkey and islands in the Mediterranean Sea eastward to the Cyclades (ARNOLD, ET AL., 2007). There are 21 species in total in the genus today, and some are endemic to the Mediterranean islands (UETZ ET AL., 2011). As an autochthon species, the Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis siculus, Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1810) inhabits the Apennine Peninsula, as well as a large number of islands and islets in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Sea and spreads along the Adriatic coast in Croatia. It is primarily insectivorous, heliothermic, widely foraging, oviparous lizard, polygynous and highly territorial, with SVL (snout-vent length) up to 9 cm. It is first active during March, in higher temperatures (16 ºC - 18ºC), but it can be seen also in January or February during warm days. It dominates in competition with autochthonous species and reduces their distribution area by competitive exclusion (BÖHME, 1986, DOWNES AND BAUWENS, 2002A). Up to now there were few studies dealing with reproductive characteristics of P. siculus (HENLE, 1988; CAPULA ET AL., 1993,

DOWNES AND BAUWENS, 2002A, DOWNES AND BAUWENS, 2002B).

A species life-history is characterized by variables such as age and size at maturity, frequency of reproduction, clutch size, and egg and hatchling size. These variables profoundly affect the species fecundity and survival (BAUWENS, 1999). The relationships between the female body-size, clutch size, egg dimensions, hatchling size and mass can add to our knowledge of reproductive potential and life habits of species. Island populations of lizards have fewer terrestrial predators, therefore attain high densities but face high intraspecific competition and low food availability. Therefore, to insure better survival, island populations have shown to produce few clutches with larger eggs (CARRETERO, 2006). Our aim was to determine the morphological and reproductive characteristics of Podarcis siculus population from Krk Island. These data could be the base for further analyses of the variation in morphological and reproductive characteristics of the Italian Wall Lizard. 7  


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MATERIALS AND METHODS STUDY AREA – The study was conducted on a population of Podarcis siculus at the beginning of June 2010 (17 males and 9 gravid females), taken from two localities on Krk Island: Punat (X - 5471691, Y - 4986202, elevation of 50 m, 5 males and 3 females) and Ponikve lake (X - 5466810, Y - 4992182, elevation of 20 m, 12 males and 6 females). Krk Island belongs to a group of islands in Kvarner area in the Northern part of Croatian coast, with the Mediterranean sub-tropic climate type (RIĐANOVIĆ,

ET. AL.,

1975.). The average

temperature measured on the nearest meteorological station (Rijeka city) was 13,98 °C (January 5,7°C, July 23,3 °C). Average precipitation was 116, 03 mm (November 183,3 mm, July 77, 8 mm). MORPHOLOGY AND SEXUAL DIMORPHISM—For all specimens (17 males, 9 females), we recorded the following morphological variables to the nearest 0.1 mm (Powerfix ELECTRONIC DIGITAL CALIPER): snout-vent length (SVL); tail length (TL); head length (HL; distance from the anterior edge of the ear aperture to the tip of the snout) and head width (HW; horizontal line joining the anterior edge of each ear aperture). Weight was measured to the nearest 0,01 g with DW-100 AS digital balance. These measurements were used to calculate two other measures of head morphology relative to body size: HL/SVL and HW/SVL. REPRODUCTION - Females (N =9) with oviductal eggs present (determined by ventral palpitation) were moved to individual terrariums on June 6th 2010. All females were kept under the same conditions. Natural and artificial light was provided throughout 12 hours per day, with food (fly larvae) and water available ad libidum. Following oviposition, the females were measured (snout-vent length, SVL), weighed and autopsied for determination of the presence of enlarged vitellogenic follicules. The previously marked eggs were carefully dug up after oviposition, measured (length, width and weight, and moved to a plastic box used for incubation). The eggs were incubated at a temperature of 28 ºC, and 70%-80% humidity, which were controlled daily. The unfertilized eggs, which were lighter (0,25 ± 0,15 g) and haven’t showed signs of the fetus under a light source, were separated from the fertilized ones after oviposition. EGG MEASUREMENTS – Egg volume (V) and surface area (S) were calculated through width (L) and length (B) of the egg. These parameters help estimate possible population size, 8  


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morphology, offspring mass and hatching ability, and egg shell characteristics (NARUSHIN, 2005). We used the formulas V = (0,6057 – 0,0018B) LB2, S = (0,9658 B/L + 2,1378) LB (kV=0,525 and kS=2,864) from NARUSHIN (2005) to calculate egg volume and surface area, respectively, assuming that the geometry of lizard egg is more similar to a bird egg, than that of a ellipsoid body. In contrast, in the work of authors like LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ, ET. AL. (2010A), CASTILLA AL.

AND

BAUWENS (2000A), LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ,

ET. AL.

(2007) and LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ,

ET.

(2008), the values of egg volumes were obtained by approximating the volume of the

ellipsoid: V=4/3π a2b, with a and b being half of the width and length of the egg, respectively. The clutch mass was calculated as the total egg mass in a clutch. Each clutch was in all cases assigned to an individual female, allowing us to calculate the relative clutch mass (RCM) as the ratio of clutch mass to post-oviposition body mass. The offspring were measured after hatching (mass and SVL). The research was conducted under approval of the Ministry of culture, Board for environmental protection (KLASA: UP/I-612-07/10-33/0662, URBROJ: 532-08-01-01/1-10-02). STATISTICS – Standard descriptive statistics was used (mean, standard error, range, minimum and maximum) for all values. Throughout this study, values were presented as mean ± SE. In presenting some of the graphic results, we used log-transformed values, to ensure data normality and to generate homogeneous variances. All data were tested with Shapiro-Wilk W test of normality (SHAPIRO AND WILK, 1965), and showed no abnormality (p ≤ 0,05). Linear correlations were used to study the inter relationships among various reproductive traits. For statistical analyses we used the program PAST ver. 2.06 (HAMMER, ET. AL., 2001).

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RESULTS MORPHOLOGY AND SEXUAL DIMORPHISM- The specimens examined comprised 17 adult males and 9 adult females (Table 1). The largest male we recorded was 75,4 mm and female 70,0 mm SVL. Males had greater snout-vent length, head width and head length compared to females (Table 1, Figure 1). Table 1. Summary of sexual dimorphism in morphological traits in P. siculus from Krk Island. Measures are shown in millimeters. HL (head length), HW (head width) and TL (tail length) are presented as a proportion of snout-vent length (SVL) Tablica 1. Kratak pregled spolnog dimorfizma u morfološkim značajkama P. siculus saotokaKrka. Mjere su prikazane u milimetrima. HL (duljina glave), HW (širina glave) i TL (duljina repa) su prikazane kao proporcije duljine tijela (SVL).

Trait SVL TL HL HW HL/SVL HW/SVL

N 9 9 9 9 9 9

Female Mean ± SE Range 61,88 ± 2,07 53,3 - 70,0 91,74 ± 9,85 40,0 - 124,0 14,42 ± 0,31 13,2 - 15,7 8,68 ± 0,21 7,9 - 9,5 0,234 ± 0,003 0,218 - 0,248 0,142 ± 0,002 0,133 - 0,150

N 17 17 17 17 17 17

Male Mean ± SE Range 67,44 ± 1,49 55,3 - 75,4 127,8 ± 2,98 99,8 - 150,3 17,87 ± 0,38 15,0 - 20,0 11,19 ± 0,24 9,3 - 12,4 0,265 ± 0,002 0,255 - 0,273 0,166 ± 0,002 0,150 - 0,182

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22,00 21,00

Head Lenght (mm)

20,00 19,00 18,00

Female

17,00

Male

16,00

Linear (Female)

15,00

Linear (Male)

14,00 13,00 12,00 50,00

60,00

70,00

80,00

SVL (mm) 13,00

Head Width (mm)

12,00 11,00 Female 10,00

Male Linear (Female)

9,00

Linear (Male) 8,00 7,00 50,00

60,00

70,00

80,00

SVL (mm) Figure 1. Sexual dimorphism in body proportions of the Italian Wall Lizard, P. siculus, based on the measurement of specimens from Krk Island. At the same snout–vent length (SVL), males have both broader (A) and longer heads (B). Slika 1. Spolnidimorfizamkoddimenzijatjelesnihproporcijaprimorskegušterice, P. siculus, dobiven na temelju mjera primjeraka s otokaKrka. Na jednaku duljinu tijela (SVL), mužjaci imaju šire (A) i duže (B) dimenzije glave.

FEMALE AND CLUTCH CHARACTERISTICS – Out of 10 collected females, nine laid eggs. We assume that the last gravid female was not gravid or miscarried due to shock. The 11  


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mean value of female SVL was 61,88 ± 0,76 mm. The female, clutch and egg characteristics are shown in Table 2. In Table 3. we present the egg characteristics of hatched eggs only. Table 2. Female, egg and clutch characteristics of P. siculus Tablica 2. Značajke ženki, jaja i legala P. siculus Measurement

Mean value ± SE

Range

N

Female SVL (mm)

61,88 ± 2,07

53,3 - 70,00

8

Clutch size

5,37 ± 0,26

3 -7

9

Female mass after oviposition (g)

5,22 ± 0,16

3,95 - 7,03

9

Clutch mass (g)

1,91 ± 0,11

0,46 - 2,79

9

Relative clutch mass (RCM) (g)

0,35 ± 0,03

0,10 - 0,71

9

Egg mass (g) – after ovipos.

0,36 ± 0,02

0,13 - 0,54

43

Egg length (mm) – after ovipos.

12,52 ± 0,14

10,52 - 14,95

43

Egg width (mm) – after ovipos.

7,68 ± 0,17

3,91 - 9,08

43

448,91 ± 19,91

108,82 - 653,97

637,82 ±150,95

289,28 – 910,01

Egg volume (mm³) – after ovipos.

43

Table 3. Mass and volume values of P. siculus. Here only characteristics of hatched eggs were used. Tablica 3. Vrijednosti težine i volumenaP. siculus. Korištene su značajke samo izleglih jaja. Measurement

Mean value ± SE

Range

N

Egg mass (g) – after ovipos.

0,44 ± 0,06

0,34 - 0,54

26

Egg length (mm) – after ovipos.

12,85 ± 0,77

11,75 - 14,25

26

Egg width (mm) – after ovipos.

8,15 ± 0,67

5,34 – 8,91

26

499,8 ± 83,87

235,08 - 653,97

696.41 ± 100,60

500,17 ± 910,01

Egg volume (mm³) – after ovipos.

26

The number of eggs in a clutch varied from 3 – 7 (mean value = 5.37). Three clutches with three eggs, three clutches with seven eggs, two clutches with four eggs and one clutch with five eggs were recorded. The average relative clutch mass value was 0,35 ± 0,19 RCM.

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In Table 4.we present compared volume values calculated by the two different formulas of all eggs that produced offspring (26).

Table 4. Comparison of volume values of hatched eggs (N = 26) obtained by two different formulas Tablica 4. Usporedba vrijednosti volumena izleglih jaja (N = 26) dobivenih s dvije različite formule

Date of  measurement  01.07.2010.  09.07.2010.  18.07.2010.  20.07.2010. 

Volume V, cm3  (Narushin,  2005)  0,499±0,083  1,003±0,225  1,299±0,312  1,284±0,284 

Volume V, cm3  (ellipsoid body)  0,696±0,1  1,267±0,307  1,662±0,441  1,668±0,452 

N eggs  26  23  23  23 

The values of volumes obtained through the formula for ellipsoid body have showed to be 20% – 30% higher than the volume values obtained through the formulas from the work of NARUSHIN (2005). EGG CHARACTERISTICS – In all eggs laid, the volume increased due to egg shell permeability up to 750,68 ± 2,49 mm3during the average incubation period (31 days, 28 - 35 days). The increase in egg surface area was 238,45 ± 1,96 mm2. The volume increase per day was estimated at23,12 ± 0,96 mm3, while the egg mass increase was 0,0224 ± 0,0087 g per day. Increase in egg length from the first to the last measurement was 3,81 mm, egg width 3,63 mm and mass 0,79 g (Table 5). 23 juveniles managed to hatch, two of which were stillborn (probably suffocated). Average egg mass after oviposition was 0,36 ± 0,14 g ranging from minimum of 0,13 g to maximum of 0,54 g and interestingly none of the eggs lighter than 0,30 g managed to hatch (Figure 2.). Most of these eggs were discarded as unfertilized because they were yellowish in color and compact inside, opposite to white and liquid in healthy eggs.

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14 12

1

No. of eggs

10 8 6

4

3

Not hatched 11

11

Hatched

4 6

6

2 0

1 0 0,2 ‐ 0,3

0 0,1 ‐ 0,2

0,3 ‐ 0,4

0,4 ‐ 0,5

0,5 ‐ 0,6

Weight (g) Figure 2. Number of hatched eggs according to their weight Graf 2. Broj izleglih jaja spram težine jaja

The average time from oviposition to hatching was 41 days (35-44 days). Table 5. and Figure 3. shows how values of egg characteristics increased during the incubation period.

Table 5. Results of egg characteristics of P. siculus from first to last measurement (mean value ± SE) Tablica 5. Vrijednosti značajki jaja P. siculus od prvog do zadnjeg mjerenja (srednjavrijednost± SD) After oviposition 264,40 ± 8,05

Last measurement 521,98 ± 17,44

Volume (mm3)

448,91 ± 19,91

1246,54 ± 60,03

Length (mm)

12,52 ± 0,14

16,33 ± 0,34

Width (mm)

7,68 ± 0,17

11,31 ± 0,18

Weight (g)

0,36 ± 0,02

1,15 ± 0,06

2

Surface area (mm )

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Figure 3. Average egg characteristic values during the incubation period: a) egg length L (mm), b) egg volume V (cm3), c)egg weight m (g), d) egg width B (mm), e)egg surface S (cm2), f) ratio between egg width (B) and length (L). Slika 3. Srednje vrijednosti značajki jaja za vrijeme perioda inkubacije: a) duljina jaja L (mm), b) volume jaja V (cm3), c) težina jaja m (g), d) širina jaja B (mm), e) površina jaja S (cm2), f) omjer širine (B) i duljine (L) jaja.

REPRODUCTIVE RELATIONSHIPS – Egg mass and female mass had no statistically significant correlation(r = 0,11168, p = 0,61192), probably due to small specimen count. 15  


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The relationship between offspring mass and female mass did not show significant correlation (r = -0,053, p = 0,807), same as the relationship between female SVL and clutch size(r = -0,046, p = 0,777). Clutch size and female mass also showed the same result (r = 0,088, p = 0,573). Data scattering from the regression line was quite strong in all three analyses and showed a lot of deviations. The females mostly laid larger eggs, but a few deviated from that rule. Furthermore, we compared the clutch, egg and female size of P. siculus from this study to some other Lacertid species (Table 6) described in the literature.

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Table 6. Comparison of egg, clutch and female size of other Lacertid species and P. siculus (mean value ± SE) Tablica 6. Usporedba veličine ženki, jaja i legla P. siculus s ostalim vrstama porodice Lacertidae (srednja vrijednost± SD) Species

Female SVL (mm)

Female mass after oviposition(g)

Egg mass (g)

Egg length (mm)

Egg width (mm)

Egg volume (mm³)

References

Genus Podarcis P. siculus

63,24 ± 0,78

5,36 ± 1,03

0,36 ± 0,14

12,52 ± 0,94

7,68 ± 0,06

448,91 ± 2,21

This study

P. siculus

/

/

0,40 ± 0,05

11,3 ± 0,7

7,8 ± 0,3

/

IN DEN BOSCH &BOUT, 1998

P. atrata

63,0 ± 0,3

/

0,37 ± 0,01

12,4 ± 0,1

7,3 ± 0,1

/

CASTILLA AND BAUWENS, 2000A

P. lilfordi

61,9

/

0,63 ± 0,01

14,4 ± 0,01

8,8 ± 0,1

/

CASTILLA AND BAUWENS, 2000B

P. bocagei

55,40 ± 0,66

/

0,26 ± 0,01

/

/

236,3 ± 4,87

GALAN, 1997

P. melisellensis

62,91 ± 2,52

/

/

/

/

257,02 ± 23,78

BEJAKOVIC , ET AL.. 1996

P. muralis

/

/

0.204 ± 0.004

10.77 ± 0.16

6.20 ± 0.06

218.53 ± 6.20

ALEKSIĆ&LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ, 2001

P. taurica

52,71 ± 0,71

2,85 ± 0,109

0,424 ± 0,02

14,01 ± 0,31

7,41 ± 0,08

406,08 ± 15,70

LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ, ET AL., 2010A

67,28 ± 0,53

4,92 ± 0,09

0,417 ± 0,01

12,62 ± 0,09

7,83 ± 0,06

407,62 ± 7,36

RUA&GALAN, 2003

85,05 ± 1,074

/

0,59 ± 0,03

/

/

453,4 ± 16,6

AMAT, et al., 2000

62,90 ± 0,25

4,132 ± 0,08

0,25 ± 0,007

12,26 ± 0,11

6,25 ± 0,06

256,80 ± 5,95

BEJAKOVIC , ET AL.. 1995

63,76 ± 0,82

/

0,53 ± 0,03

16,28 ± 0,23

7,98 ± 0,11

/

LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ, ET AL., 2007

54,74 ± 0,60

/

0,26 ± 0,008

10,67 ± 0,17

6,61 ± 0,07

/

LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ, ET AL., 2008

Genus Iberolacerta I. monticola

Genus Lacerta L. agilis

Genus Dalmatolacerta D. oxycephala Genus Dinarolacerta D. mosorensis

Genus Darevskia D. praticola

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DISCUSSION COMPARISON WITH OTHER SPECIES – Table 6. presents the results of research conducted on other species of the family Lacertidae, and the comparison with results obtained in this study. Inside the Podarcis genus, egg mass of P. siculus from this study proved to be somewhat less than the egg mass of other species in the genus, and a significant difference is observed in P. muralis (egg mass is almost half the egg mass of P. siculus) and P. lilfordi (egg mass twice the mass of P. siculus). The length and width values of the eggs were approximately equal for almost all listed species of Podarcis genus, except in P. muralis, where the values were slightly lower. The egg volume of P. siculus from this study was significantly greater than egg volume of P. bocagei, P. melisellensis and P. muralis. The egg mass, width and length of P. siculus from this study did not differ from those of P. siculus published in the paper by IN DEN BOSCH AND BOUT (1998). In comparison with other genera, P. siculus egg mass from this study proved to be somewhat less than the egg mass of other species, and a significant difference is observed in species D. praticola and D. oxycephala (almost half the egg mass of P. siculus). The length and width values of the eggs were approximately equal for all listed species, with the exception of a slightly higher egg length in D. mosorensis. The egg volume of P. siculus was almost equal to the egg volume of L. agilis, and significantly greater than egg volume of D. oxycephala. MORPHOLOGY AND SEXUAL DIMORPHISM – Sexual dimorphism in head size has been reported in many lizard species (HERREL LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ,

ET AL.,

ET AL.,

2007, LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ

ET AL.,

2010B,

2011), presumably because of an advantage of large head size in

male-male competition and fights. Podarcis siculus is an aggressive and territorial species and male combats are usual (EDSMAN, 1989). Thus, male head size may be important in malemale competition and could be subject to sexual selection. As expected, our results show the same trend. REPRODUCTIVE RELATIONSHIPS AND STRATEGIES – The amount of reproductive energy can be distributed in such a way that either a few clutches with a small amount of larger eggs are deposited seasonally (island species), or one clutch containing a larger amount of smaller eggs, and consequently smaller hatchlings (continental species) (BAUWENS, 1999, CARRETERO, 2006). There was no significant correlation between clutch size, female mass and SVL. The females of the observed population in this study have not showed the tendency in increasing egg size like the smaller species of the genus do, nor an increase in clutch size, 18  


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like the larger species of the genus do (CASTILLA AND BAUWENS, 2000B). It is possible that females of the studied population with both smaller and larger body size produce the same amount of eggs. The reasons for such a result could be the following: the female population specimen was too low for a more accurate result, or due to long alcohol conservation of the lizards, the measurements could have been inaccurate. On the other hand, this strategy varies from populations and species, so it could be possible that this is the reproductive strategy the population of P. siculus from Krk Island uses. However, this is a preliminary study and conclusion, and to get a more accurate result, another year of research is necessary with a larger specimen count. INVASIVNESS – It is reported by DOWNES AND BAUWENS (2000A) that in competition with P. melisellensis, P. siculus dominates over the species, taking up basking spaces longer than the other species. That access to basking sites may have important consequences for the ability to capture food, and for growth rates, which could have significant ramifications for fitness and life history of lizards. Slower growth during a lizard’s early life can lead to smaller sizes at maturity, the production of fewer offspring per clutch, and lighter clutch masses and hatchlings, which in the end could lead to the problem of domination over other lizard species that cohabitate with P. siculus. DOWNES

AND

BAUWENS (2000A) and VAN DAMME,

ET AL.

(1990) propose to test this hypothesis in a way to remove P. siculus from an area and look at colonization from the other species in the same area.

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REFERENCES •

ALEKSIĆ, I. & LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ, K. (2001): Reproductive cycle in the Common Wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) from Belgrade. Arch. Biol. Sci., 53 (3-4), 73-81

AMAT, F., LLORENTE, G.A. & CARRETERO, M.A. (2000): Reproductive cycle of the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) in its southwestern range. Amphibia-Reptilia, 21 (4): 463476

ARNOLD, N.E., ARRIBAS, O. & CARRANZA, S. (2007): Systematics of the Palaearctic and Oriental lizard tribe Lacertini (Squamata: Lacertidae: Lacertinae), with descriptions of eight new genera. Zootaxa 1430: 1-86

BAUWENS, D. (1999): Life - history variations in Lacertid lizards. NAT. CROAT. Vol. 8 No. 3 239 – 252

BEJAKOVIC, D., ALEKSIC, I., CRNOBRNJA-ISAILOVIC, J., DZUKIC, G. & KALEZIC, M.L. (1995): Reproductive cycle and clutch size in female sharp-snouted rock lizards, Lacerta oxycephala. Amphibia-Reptilia, 17 (1): 73-77

BEJAKOVIC, D., ALEKSIC, I . TARASJEV, A., CRNOBRNJA-ISAILOVIC, J., DZUKIC, G. & KALEZIC, M.L. (1996): Life-history variation in a community of lacertid lizards from the lake Skadar region (Montenegro). Herpetological Journal, Vol.6, pp. 125-132

BÖHME, H.V.W. (1986): Handbuch der Reptilien und AmphibienEuropas. Band 2/II Echsen (Sauria) III (Lacertidae III: Podarcis). AULA-Verlag Wiesbaden, 254-322

CAPULA, M., LUISELLI, L. & RUGIERO, L. (1993): Comparative ecology in sympatric Podarcis muralis and P. sicula (Reptilia: Lacertidae) from the historical center of Rome: What about competition and niche segregation in an urban habitat? Boll. Zool. 60, 287-291.

CARRETERO, M.A. (2006): Reproductive cycles in Mediterranean lacertids: plasticity and constraints. Unpublished data.

CASTILLA, A.M. & BAUWENS, D. (2000a): Reproductive Characteristics of the Lacertid Lizard Podarcis atrata. Copeia, 3: 748-756

CASTILLA, A.M. & BAUWENS, D. (2000b): Reproductive Characteristics of the Island Lacertid Lizard Podarcis lilfordi. Journal of Herpetology, 34 (3): 390-396

CVITANIĆ, A. (1971): Morfološke karakteristike Lacerta siculus- Rafinesque, s obzirom na njihov geografski raspored u Dalmaciji. Magistarski rad. Prirodoslovno – matematički fakultet, Zagreb

DOWNES, S., & BAUWENS, D. (2002a): An experimental demonstration of direct behavioural interference in two Mediterranean lacertid lizard species. Animal behaviour, 63, 1037–1046

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DOWNES, S., & BAUWENS, D. (2002b): Does reproductive state affect a lizard’s behavior toward predator chemical cues? Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 52:444–450

EDSMAN, L. (1989): Territoriality and competition in wall lizards. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.

GALAN, P. (1997): Reproductive ecology of the lacertid lizard Podarcis bocagei. Ecography, 20: 197-209

HAMMER, O., HARPER, D. A.T. & RAYAN, P.D. (2001): PAST: Palaeontological Statistics software package for education and data analysis. Paleontologia Electronica, 4 (1): 9

HENLE, K. (1988): Dynamics and ecology of three Yugoslavian populations of the Italian wall lizard (Podarcis sicula campestris De Betta) (Reptilia: Lacertidae). ZoologischerAnzeiger, 220: 33-48

HERREL, A. MCBRAYER, L.D. & LARSON, P.M. (2007): Functional basis for sexual differences in bite force in the lizard Anolis carolinensis. Biological journal of the Linnean Society, 91:1, p. 111-119

IN DEN BOSCH, H.A.J. & BOUT, R.G. (1998): Relationships between maternal size, egg size, clutch size and hatchling size in European Lacertid lizards. Journal of Herpetology, 32 (3): 410-417

LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ, K., POLOVIĆ, L., TOMAŠEVIĆ KOLAROV, N., DŽUKIĆ, G. & KALEZIĆ, M.L. (2007): Female life-history characteristics of the Mosor rock lizard, Dinarolacerta mosorensis (Kolombatovic, 1886) from Montenegro (Squamata: Lacertidae). Journal of Natural History, 41 (45–48): 2979-2993

LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ, K., DŽUKIĆ, G. & KALEZIĆ, M.L. (2008): Female reproductive life history traits of the meadow lizard, Darevskia praticola (Eversmann, 1834) (Squamata: Lacertidae) from the westernmost boundary of the species range. Polish journal of Ecology, 56/2: 289-297

LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ, K., DŽUKIĆ, G. & KALEZIĆ, M.L. (2010a): Female reproductive characteristics of the Balkan wall lizard (Podarcis taurica) in the northwestern periphery of its range. Central European journal of Biology, 5 (3): 391-395

LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ, K., UROŠEVIĆ, A. ALEKSIĆ, I. & IVANOVIĆ, A. (2010b): Sexual dimorphism of skull shape in lacertid lizard species (Podarcis spp., Dalmatolacerta sp., Dinarolacerta sp.) revealed by geometric morphometrics. Zoology, 113:168-174. doi: 10.1016/j.zool.2009.09.003.

LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ, K., POLOVIĆ, L., UROŠEVIĆ, A. & IVANOVIĆ, A. (2011): Patterns of morphological variation in the skull and cephalic scales of the lacertid lizard Algyroides nigropunctatus. Herpetological Journal 21: 65–72

NARUSHIN, V.G. (2005): Egg Geometry Calculation Using the Measurements of Length and Breadth. Poultry Science, 84: 482-484 21


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PODNAR LEŠIĆ, M. (2005): Phylogeography of the Balcan species of the genus Podarcis (Reptilia: Lacertidae). Doktorski rad. Prirodoslovno – matematički fakultet, Zagreb

RIĐANOVIĆ, J., ROGIĆ, V., ROGLIĆ, J. & ŠEGOTA, T. (1975): Geografija SR Hrvatske– Sjeverno hrvatsko primorje, knjiga 5. Školska knjiga, Zagreb

RUA, M. & GALAN, P. (2003): Reproductive characteristics of a lowland population of an alpine lizard: Lacerta monticola (Squamata, Lacertidae) in north-west Spain. Animal Biology, 53(4): 347-366

SHAPIRO, S.S. & WILK, M.B. (1965): Analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples), Biometrika, 52: 591-611. Online version implemented by Simon Dittami (2009) from: www.dittami.gmxhome.de/shapiro, accessed: 29.01.2011.

UETZ, P. et al. (2011): The Reptile Database, http://www.reptile-database.org, accessed 30. 03. 2011.

VAN DAMME, R., BAUWENS, D., CASTILLA M.A. & VERHEYEN, R.F. (1991): Comparative thermal ecology of the sympatric lizards Podarcis tiliguerta and Podarcis sicula. Acta Ecologica, 11 (4), 503-512

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Record of Lacerta agilis bosnica (Linnaeus, 1758) erythronotus coloration morph from Zelengora mountain, Bosnia and Herzegovina Nalaz Lacerta agilis bosnica (Linnaeus, 1758) erythronotus tipa obojenosti sa planine Zelengore, Bosna i Hercegovina IVONA BURIĆ1, DUŠAN JELIĆ2 1

Hrvatsko herpetološko društvo – Hyla, Radučka 15, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, ivona.burich@gmail.com

2

State Institute for Nature Protection, Trg Mažuranića 5, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia, dusan.jelic@dzzp.hr

Figure 1. The erythronotus coloration morph from Zelengora, Bosnia and Herzegovina Slika 1. Jedinka s erythronotus tipom obojenosti sa Zelengore, Bosna i Hercegovina

The Sand Lizard, Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758, is a widely distributed species in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It occures in the northern lowlands from 70 m a.s.l. till the high mountain grasslands even above 2000 m (RADOVANOVIĆ, 1951). In Bosnia and Herzegovina two subspecies of the Sand Lizard appear, Lacerta agilis argus Laurenti, 1768 and Lacerta agilis bosnica Schreiber, 1912 (BISCHOFF, 1988, KALYABINA et al., 2001). Lacerta agilis bosnica is very common mountain species that inhabits dinaric mountain range that makes up 80% of the country. Lacerta agilis, colouration morph erythronotus, are known to appear in different parts of Central and Eastern Europe (BISCHOFF, 1988). Accordingly there are also records of erythronotus morph from neighbouring countries: Slovenia (VOGRIN, 1999), 23  


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Croatia (JELIĆ, 2010) and Montenegro (SCHWEIGER, 2008). WERNER (1898) was the first to mentione „Lacerta agilis var. erythronota“ from Bosnia and Herzegovina (Travnik and Glamoč area). Later VEITH (1991) in 1925. mentiones that he found several individuals of this coloration morph in „Bosnia and Herzegovina“ but not defining the exact localities. He also mentiones one near-erythronotus male from Dobropolje (between Trnovo and Kalinovik). During herpetological field research on July 15, 2011, in Southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, on Zelengora mountain authors caught one male erythronotus coloration morph of Lacerta agilis (Fig. 1). This specimen was found in low grass on open mountain grassland, at 1550 m above sea level (X 5798823, Y 4805378). Zelengora mountain now represents the only exact finding place of erythronotus coloration morph in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

REFRENCES BISCHOFF, W. (1988): Zur Verbreitung und Systematik der Zauneidechse, Lacerta agilis Linnaeus,1758. Mertensiella 1, 11–30. JELIĆ, D. (2010): First record of the erythronotus coloration morph in Lacerta agilis argus Laurenti, 1768 from Croatia. Nat. Croat., Vol. 19, No. 2, 459–462. KALAYABINA, S.A., MILTO, K.D., ANANJEVA, N.B., LEGAL, L., JOGER, U. & WINK, M. (2001): Phylogeography and systematics of Lacerta agilis based on mitochondrial cytochrome B gene sequences: first results. Russ. J. Herpetol. 8 (2), 149–158. RADOVANOVIĆ, M. (1951): Vodozemci i gmizavci naše zemlje. Naučna knjiga, Beograd. SCHWEIGER, M. (2008): First record of the erythronotus mutation in Lacerta agilis cf. bosnica Schreiber, 1912. Herpetozoa 20 (3/4), 174. VEITH, G. (1991): Die Reptilien Bosniens und der Herzegowina. Teil I.- Herpetozoa, Wien; 3 (3/4): 97-194. (first published in 1925.) VOGRIN, N. (1999): First data on the occurrence of Lacerta agilis »erythronotus« in Slovenia. Bol.Asoc. Herpetol. Esp. 10, 28–29. WERNER, F. (1898): Prilozi poznavanju faune reptilija i batrahija Balkanskog poluostrva. Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja u Bosni i Hercegovini 10, 131-156.

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Fin nding of Coommon toa ad (Bufo bu ufo) with prredominan nt yellow boody colorattion N Nalaz smeđee krastače (Bufo ( bufo)) s prevlada avajućom žutom ž obojjenošću tijeela 1 M IŠEL JELIĆ Ć 1

Departtment of Zoollogy, Faculty of o Science, Unniversity of Zagreb, Z Roosev veltov trg 6, 110000 Zagreb,, Croatia, m.jeelich@gmail.com

Figure 1. Yellow Y coloredd male of the Common C toad d (Bufo bufo) Slika 1. Svijjetlo-žuto oboojen mužjak sm međe krastačee (Bufo bufo)

On 1st A April 2009, M. Jelić fo ound one m male specim men of the Common C toaad (Bufo bu ufo) with intensivve yellow colored c skin n on the bbank of an accumulattion lake nnear the Arrboretum Lisičinee (Voćin, Croatia) C (E 17°31’48,32 1 2’’ ili 17,53 300893°, N 45°39’14,66’’ ili 45,65 540563°, UTM 10 x 10 km is XL95; 165 m a.s.l.)). Then wass the period of reproduuction so theere were lots of individuals mating m in th he lake. No other indiv vidual had su uch coloratiion. mmon toad is possibly cconnected with w lack This observed non--melanistic coloration in the Com of pigm ments in melanophor m res and thherefore with w predom mination o f pigmentss inside xanthopphores. Palee coloration n ranging fr from tan to green that is provideed by the overlying o xanthopphores and iridophoress was obserrved in oth her amphibiian species (BAGNARA A ET AL., 1968). REFEREENCES Bagnaraa, J. T., Tayylor, J. D., Hadley, H M. E E. (1968): The T dermal chromophoore unit. Thee Journal of Cell Bioology 38 (1)): 67-79. 25  


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Interesting color forms of the European tree frog, Hyla arborea (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia: Ranidae) from Croatia Raznolikost tipova obojenosti kod gatalinke, Hyla arborea (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia: Ranidae) u Hrvatskoj TONI KOREN1, DUŠAN JELIĆ2

1

Institute for Biodiversity Studies, University of Primorska, Science and Research Center Koper, Si6000 Koper, Slovenia, koren.toni1@gmail.com 2

State Institute for nature protection, Trg Mažuranića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

The European tree frog, Hyla arborea (LINNAEUS, 1758), is known to change colors in response to different factors. The color change is due to the changes in xanthophores, iridophores and melanophores (NIELSEN, 1984). The color adaptation depends on the degree of the lightness of the background, but the former also shows a certain adaptation to the purity (NIELSEN, 1984). For this species, more than one factor must therefore be regulating the adaptive color change. KING ET AL. (1994) proved that in a similar tree frog species, Hyla cinerea, color changes depend on the coloration of the background (e.g. they become lighter in the light background) and the temperature of the water (they become lighter at higher temperatures). So such behaviour may function both as predatory avoidance and in thermoregulation of the water balance (KING ET AL. 1994). It has also been shown that adrenaline causes an increase in lightness in H. arborea (NIELSEN, 1978). Most common colors are yellow green, light green, green, dark green, black-green, olive green and grey colors (NIELSEN, 1984). The aim of this paper is to present records of different color forms of Hyla arborea recorded in different parts of Croatia. Color forms were noted in different places in Croatia during the last few years. As it can be seen from pictures 1-8, H. arborea shows a great pallet of different colorations, ranging from dark green form (Fig. 1), green-grey (Fig. 2-3), grey (Fig. 4-5), brown (Fig. 6-7) and even marbled green (Fig. 8). Even if H. arborea shows a wide pallet of colors, it seems that such color variations are not so commonly found. In most cases, the three frogs with different colorations were singled out from a population of typically green frogs. But for example, pictures 1, 2 and 7 were taken during the same night, in a forest park Grmošćica, in Zagreb. However, even in this example, green forms prevailed with approximately 50 green frogs observed, of which only this tree had different coloration.

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REFERENCES King, R. B., S. Hauff and J. B. Phillips (1994): Physiological color change in the green treefrog: Responses to background brightness and temperature. Copeia 1994 (2): 422-432. Nielsen, I. H. (1978): The effect of stress and adrenaline on the color of Hyla cinerea and Hyla arborea. General and Comparative Endocrinology 36 (4): 543-552. Nielsen, I. H. (1980): Color and color adaptation of the European tree frog, Hyla arborea. Journal of Experimental Zoology 2011 (2): 143-151.

Figure 1. Zagreb, Grmošćica, 16.4.2010.

Figure 2. Zagreb, Grmošćica, 16.4.2010.

Figure 3. Turopoljski lug, 9.3.2009.

Figure 4. Donji Miholjac, Drava, 22.4.2006.

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Figure 5. Gorski kotar, Sunger, 9.6.2007.

Figure 6. Baranja, Batina, 10.5.2009.

Figure 7. Zagreb, Grmošćica, 16.4.2010.

Figure 8. Baranja, Batina, 11.5.2009.

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Remarks on Death feigning in Coronella austriaca (LAURENTI, 1768), Natrix natrix (LAURENTI, 1768) and Natrix tessellata (LAURENTI, 1768) Pojava ponašanja poznatog kao ‘death feigning’ kod Coronella austriaca (LAURENTI, 1768), Natrix natrix (LAURENTI, 1768) i Natrix tessellata (LAURENTI, 1768) DUŠAN JELIĆ1, IGOR VILAJ2 1

State Institute for Nature Protection, Trg Mažuranića 5, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia, dusan.jelic@dzzp.hr

2

Croatian Herpetological Society – Hyla, Radučka 15, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, vilaj22@gmail.com

Figure 1. Death feigning in Coronella austriaca from Poštak mountain (South Croatia) Slika 1. 'Death feigning' kod Coronella austriaca s planine Poštak (južna Hrvatska)

Death feigning, tonic immobility or thanatosis is a form of defence behaviour in which an animal becomes immobile as if dead (MACFARLAND, 1981; GEHLBACH, 1970). Death feigning in snakes is a phenomenon when a snake is going totally limp; sometimes the tongue will dangle from the open mouth, the pupils are turned toward the lower rim of the orbit, and usually at least part of the body is turned upside down (KREINER, 2007). Many organisms, like 31


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the grass snake (Natrix natrix), dice snake (Natrix tessellata) or mud snake, (Farancia abacura), defecate either during or just prior to tonic immobility (DOODY et all., 1996). In this short report we present the first recorded finding of death feigning in Coronella austriaca (Poštak Mountain, South Croatia, 24.4.2011, 5586043 N, 4908235 E, 1090m a.s.l., UTM WK80). Until now, this type of antipredator behaviour in Coronella austriaca has never been recorded in literature. Death feigning behaviour has been known also for two European / Croatian snakes, Natrix tessellata and Natrix natrix. In Table 1. we presented and compared some of specific actions of death feigning (data from GREGORY & GREGORY, 2006; GREGORY ET AL, 2007; GREGORY, 2008).

Table 1. Comparison of some specific actions in death feigning in Croatian / European snakes Tablica 1. Usporedba specifičnosti vezanih uz death feigning kod zmija Hrvatske / Europe

Behaviour/Species On‐back behavior and supination  Mouth gaping  Tongue hanging free  Defecation 

Coronella austriaca Yes  No No No

Natrix natrix

Natrix tessellata

Yes Yes  Yes  Yes 

Yes Sometimes Sometimes Yes 

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REFERENCES: DOODY, J.S., BRAUMAN, R., YOUNG, J., & FIORILLO, R. (1996): Farancia abacura (mud snake) Death Feigning, Herpetol. Review 27, 2: 82-83. GEHLBACH R.F. (1970): Death-feigning and erratic behavior in Leptotyphlopid, Colubrid and Elapid snakes, Herpetologica 26: 24-34. GREGORY, T.P. & GREGORY, A.L. (2006): Immobility and supination in Garter Snakes (Thamnophis elegans) following handling by human predators. Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol. 120, No. 3: 262–268. GREGORY, T.P., ISAAC, A.L. & GRIFFITHS, A.R. (2007): Death Feigning by Grass Snakes (Natrix natrix) in Response to handling by human “predators”. Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol. 121, No. 2: 123–129. GREGORY, T. P. (2008): Bluffing and waiting: handling effects and post-release immobility in a Death-Feigning Snake (Natrix natrix), Ethology 114: 768–774. KREINER, G. (2007): The Snakes of the Europe, Edition Chimaira,Germany,155-163. MCFARLAND, D. (1981): The Oxford Companion to Animal Behavior, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.

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A case of cannibalism in Hierophis gemonensis: preying on conspecific adult

Slučaj kanibalizma kod zmije šare poljarice Hierophis gemonensis: hranjenje jedinkom iste vrste i veličine DUJE LISIČIĆ1, PAULA POČANIĆ1, VANJA LOVRIĆ, 1 LORENA DEREŽANIN1, ZORAN TADIĆ1

1

Department of Animal Physiology, Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia, corresponding author: dujelisicic@gmail.com

Figure 1. Hierophis gemonensis feeding on conspeific adult Slika 1. Hierophis gemonensis se hrani jedinkom iste vrste i veličine

During the field work in vicinity of Split, Croatia, on May 28th, 2011. Duje Lisičić (photo author) and his team observed a Balkan whip snake (Hierophis gemonensis (Laurenti, 1768)) eating a conspecific of similar size (Fig. 1). It was midday, and snake was found among large rocks in low grass in olive growth (43°32'56.29"N; 16°31'1.15"E). It is not unusual for H. 35


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gemonensis to prey on snakes (JELIĆ & BORIS, 2011), since this opportunistic snake feeds on variety of vertebrates as well as invertebrate prey (ARNOLD & OVENDEN, 2002). Cannibalistic behaviour has been documented for snakes (ENGEMAN et al., 1996 PERNETTA et al., 2009), but eating conspecifics of similar size has both advantages and disadvantages (POUGH et al., 2001). It is interesting that this highly predatory species has evolved feeding strategy to prey on conspecifics of similar size.

References: ARNOLD, E.N. & OVENDEN, D. (2002): A field guide to the reptiles and amphibians of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins, London. ENGEMAN, R.M., RODDA, G.H., RODRIGUEZ, D.V. & LINNELL, M.A. (1996): Brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) cannibalism. The Snake 27: 149-152. JELIĆ, D. & LAUŠ, B. (2011): Record of Natrix tessellata as a prey of Hierophis gemonensis. Mertensiella 18: 450. PERNETTA, A.P., READING, C.J., ALLEN, J.A. (2009): Chemoreception and kin discrimination by neonate smooth snakes, Coronella austriaca. Animal Behaviour 77: 363–368. POUGH, F.H., ANDREWS, R.M., CADLE, J.E., CRUMP, M. L., SAVITZKY, A.H. & WELLS, K.D. (2001): Herpetology, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey.

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A field observation of common buzzard predating on common toad Terensko opažanje predacije običnog škanjca na sneđu krastaču

OLGA JOVANOVIĆ*1, GORAN ŠAFAREK1, MIROSLAV SAMARDŽIĆ2 1

Society for Research and Popularization of Science Baobab, Trg k. Krešimira 10, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia, corresponding author: jovanovic.olga@googlemail.com 2 Ecological Society Koprivnica, Hrvatske državnosti 10, 48 000 Koprivnica, Croatia

Figure 1. Skinned toad in the breeding pond near Đelekovec Slika 1. Koža smeđe krastače na mrijestilištu u blizini Đelekovca

Common toad Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758), similarly to many species of bufonid family, has parotoid glands that release a secretion that is toxic to many predators and serve as defence mechanism (WILBER , CARTOLL, 1940, TRONCHET, 1952, TOLEDO, JARED, 1995). In that context, predation on bufonid frogs is not very common, and it mostly happens under specific conditions (e.g. during the breeding season; OLSON, 1989, SLATER, 2002). We observed common buzzard Buteo buteo (Linnaeus, 1758) 37


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on 16th March 2008 in the dusk, skinning the common toads that were injured in the traffic during their spring migration to the breeding site, on the county road from Koprivnica to Ä?elekovec. On the next morning, in the nearby pond which is the main breeding site of Bufo bufo in this area, we observed completely skinned individual of common toad, which was skinned and eaten by common buzzard. The same predation pattern was also observed on the road near the gravel excavation pit Gabajeva Greda. It seems that this pattern is here even more common due to lower frequency of traffic. Skinning of common toads was previously reported by Eurasian otter Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758) (SLATER, 2002), while the same pattern has also been reported for other bufonid frogs (e.g. B. boreas predated by Corvus corax; OLSON, 1989).

REFERENCES

OLSON, D. H. (1989): Predation on breeding western toads (Bufo boreas). Copeia: 1989 (2): 391-397. SLATER, F. (2002): Progressive skinning of toads (Bufo bufo) by the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin 19 (1): 25-29. TOLEDO, R. C. & JARED, C. (1995): Cutaneous granular glands and amphibian venoms. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology, 111 (1): 1-29. TRONCHET, J. (1952): Contribution a I’etude histochimiche des glandes paratoides du crapaud common Bufo bufo (Linne). Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France 71: 204-215. WILBER, C. G. & CARTOLL, P. L. (1940): Studies on the histology of the glands in the skin of Anura. I. The parotoid gland of Bufo americanus. Holbrook. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 59: 123-128.

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Melanism variations in Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758) and Zamenis longissimus (Laurenti, 1768) in Croatia Varijacije melanizma kod Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758) i Zamenis longissimus (Laurenti, 1768) u Hrvatskoj MLADEN ZADRAVEC1, BORIS LAUŠ1 1

Hrvatsko herpetološko društvo – Hyla, Radučka 15, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, corresponding author: mladen.z123@gmail.com

Melanism is considered as a common and highly variable phenomenon in snakes (LORIOUX ET AL.,

2008), offering a variety of advantages: faster heating rates, higher mean body

temperatures, protection from overheating (LUISELLI, 1992, FORSMAN, 1995, CLUSELLATRULLAS ET AL., 2008, BITTNER ET AL.., 2002, TANAKA, 2005, GIBSON & FALLS, 1979), but also disadvantages, such as higher predation risk (CLUSELLA-TRULLAS ET AL., 2008). In some species, melanism is a Mendelian trait (KING, 2003) and it's appearance varies in frequency due to random genetic drift (BITTNER & KING, 2003). It is not rare among Grass Snake (Natrix natrix) (Linnaeus, 1758) populations, and dark specimens can be found throughout the distribution area (JANDZIK, 2004). The occurence of melanistic colouration among Aesculapian Snakes (Zamenis longissimus) (Laurenti, 1768) is also known, but is far less frequent (EDGAR & BIRD, 2006). In this paper we present several individuals of Natrix natrix and Zamenis longissimus, displaying incomplete melanistic colouration, from various locations in Croatia, found between 2008 and 2010: Diviška (Island of Krk) (two N. natrix, X: 5481675, Y: 4984181), Zmajevac (Baranja) (two N. natrix, X: 5796776, Y: 5080849; one Z. longissimus, X: 5795946, Y: 5080155), Jezero (Island of Krk) (one Z. longissimus, X: 5466553, Y: 5003106), Bizek (Zagreb) (one N. natrix, X: 5566555, Y: 5077558), Majkovi (Dubrovnik) (one N. natrix, X: 5738792, Y: 4740729).

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a

b

c

d

e

f

g

Figure 1. Melanistic Grass Snakes from (a,c) Zmajevac, (b) Bizek, (d,g) Diviška, (e,f) Majkovi Slika 1. Melanističke bjelouške iz (a,c) Zmajevca, (b) Bizeka, (d,g) Diviške, (e,f) Majkova

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a

b Figure 2. Melanistic Aesculapian Snakes from (a) Zmajevac, (b) Jezero Slika 2. Melanističke bjelice iz (a) Zmajevca, (b) Jezera

REFERENCES: BITTNER, T.D., KING, R.B. & KERFIN, J.M. (2002): Effects of body size and melanism on the thermal biology of Garter Snakes (Tamnophis sirtalis). Copeia. 2002: 477-482. BITTNER, T. D., KING, R. B. (2003): Gene flow and melanism in garter snakes revisited: a comparison of molecular markers and isnad vs. coalescent models. Biologycal journal of the Linnean Society 79: 389-399. CLUSELLA-TRULLAS, S., TERBLANCHE, J. S., BLACKBURN T. M. & CHOWN, S.L.K (2008): Testing the thermal melanism hypothesis: a macrophysiological approach. Functional ecology 22: 232-238 EDGAR, P. & BIRD, D.R. (2006): Action Plan for the Conservation of the Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis longissimus) in Europe. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. FORSMAN, A. (1995): Heating rates and body temperature variation in melanistic and zigzag Vipera berus: does colour make a difference? Ann. Zool. Fennici 32: 365-374 41  


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GIBSON, A.R. & FALLS, J.B. (1979): Thermal biology of the common garter snake Tamnophis sirtalis (L.). Oecologia 43: 99-109. JANDZIK, D. (2004): Partial melanism in the Grass snake Natrix natrix (Reptilia: Colubridae) from northeastern Slovakia. Acta Zoologica, Universitatis Comenianae 46 (2): 75-77 KING, R.B. (2003): Mendellian inheritance of melanism in the garter snake Tamnophis sirtalis. Herpetologica 59 (4): 484-489 LORIOUX, S., BONNET, X., BRISCHOUX, F. & DE CRIGNIS, M. (2008): Is melanism adaptive in sea kraits? Amphibia-Reptilia 29: 1–5. LUISELLI, L. (1981): Reproductive success in melanistic adders: a new hypothesis and some considerations on Andrén and Nilson's (1981) suggestions. Oikos 64, 3: 601-604 TANAKA, K. (2005): Thermal aspects of melanistic and striped morphs of the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. Zoological science 22: 1173-1179

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Observations on copulating pairs of Zamenis longissimus (Laurenti, 1768), Podarcis siculus (Rafinesque, 1810), Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768) and Podarcis melisellensis (Braun, 1877) in Croatia Opažanja parenja jedinki Zamenis longissimus (Laurenti, 1768), Podarcis siculus (Rafinesque, 1810), Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768) i Podarcis melisellensis (Braun, 1877) u Hrvatskoj BORIS LAUŠ1, MLADEN ZADRAVEC1 1

Hrvatsko herpetološko društvo – Hyla, Radučka 15, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, corresponding author: boris.laus.pmf@gmail.com

Copulating acts of snakes and lizards in nature are not so often encountered, and research is mostly based on captive specimens (TOKARZ, 1999). Unlike Grass snakes, Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758), where individuals form mating congregations during the mating season, Aesculapian snakes, Zamenis longissimus (Laurenti, 1768) copulate in pairs (KREINER, 2007). One mating couple of Aesculapian snakes was observed by the authors in Vugrovec (Zagreb, 25.05.2008., X: 5515507, Y: 5084158) (Fig. 2). Most lizards have a polygynous social system, as recorded in Anolis sagrei (Duméril & Bibron, 1837) (TOKARZ, 1998). Mating behaviour varies, like evolved forced copulation in Ctenophorus maculosus (Mitchell, 1948) (OLSSON, 1995). Conventional mating behaviour in lizards includes the male inflicting narrow V-shaped bite marks on the dorsal and ventral part of the female's abdomen, just anterior of her hind legs (ANDERSON & VITT, 1990). In some species, males produce a copulatory plug that adheres firmly inside the female's cloaca and blocks both oviducts, as recorded in Iberian rock lizards, Iberolacerta monticola (Boulenger, 1905) (MOREIRA & BIRKHEAD, 2003; MOREIRA & BIRKHEAD, 2004). The authors recorded one mating couple of Podarcis melisellensis (Braun, 1877) on the island of Žirje (02.05.2009., X: 5554711, Y: 4832567), one 43  


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couple of Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768) at Ružica Grad (Papuk Mt., 30.03.2008., X: 5723871, Y: 5044707) and one couple of Podarcis siculus (Rafinesque, 1810) in Rovinj (12.06.2011., X: 5393043, Y: 4992655) (Fig. 1).

c

Figure 1.: Mating of (a) P. melisellensis (Photo: B. Lauš), (b) P. siculus (Photo: M. Zadravec), (c) P. muralis (Photo: D. Jelić) Slika 1. Parenje (a) P. melisellensis (Fotografija: B. Lauš), (b) P. siculus (Fotografija: M. Zadravec), (c) P. muralis (Fotografija: D. Jelić)

a

b

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a

b

c

Figure 2.: Mating of Z. longissimus: (a) overview, (b,c) details (Photos: M. Zadravec) Slika 2.: Parenje Z. longissimus: (a) odozgo, (b,c) detalji (Fotografije: M. Zadravec)

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REFERENCES: ANDERSON, R.A. & VITT, L.J. (1990): Sexual selection versus alternative causes of sexual dimorphism in teiid lizards. Oecologia 84 (1): 145-157. KREINER, G. (2007): The Snakes of Europe. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main: 122-156. MOREIRA, P.L. & BIRKHEAD, T.R. 2003. Copulatory plugs in the Iberian rock lizard do not prevent insemination by rival males. Functional Ecology 17: 796-802. MOREIRA, P.L. & BIRKHEAD, T.R. (2004): Copulatory plug displacement and prolonged copulation in the Iberian rock lizard (Lacerta monticola). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 56: 290-297. OLSSON, M. (1995): Forced copulation and costly female resistance behavior in the Lake Eyre Dragon, Ctenophorus maculosus. Herpetologica 51: 19-24. TOKARZ, R. R. (1998): Mating pattern in the lizard Anolis sagrei: implications for mate choice and sperm competition. Herpetologica 54: 388-394. TOKARZ, R. R. (1999). Relationship between copulation duration and sperm transfer in the lizard Anolis sagrei. Herpetologica 55: 234-241.

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Winter activity of Pseudepidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768) Zimska aktivnost Pseudepidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768) DINA HLAVATI 1

1

Croatian herpetological Society – Hyla, Radučka 15, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, corresponding author: hakljavahlibrz@gmail.com

Figure 1. One of P. viridis photographed on January 1st 2010 in Našice (eastern Croatia), X 5742167, Y 5043809 Slika 1. Jedna od jedinki P. viridis fotografiranih 1. Siječnja 2010 u Našicama (istočna Hrvatska), X 5742167, Y 5043809

There are many factors that influence toad activity in the temperate region, such as air temperature, light intensity, lunar phases, weather, seasons and the age of individuals (ZUG & ZUG, 1979). The minimum air temperature at which breeding activity was observed around

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the reproductive site was 7.6 °C at La Fossa and 7.4 °C on Ustica (SICILIA et al., 2006). In nature they are rarely found during the winter months because they hibernate. Green toads (Pseudepidalea viridis) (Laurenti, 1768), after becoming active in April, usually start migrating from hibernation spots towards breeding pools (SINCH, 1988). In this photo note the author presents a Green toad specimen photographed on January 1st 2010, in the author's back yard in Našice (Slavonia, Croatia, X 5742167, Y 5043809). Several other P. viridis were also observed, but not photographed. According to meteorological data (DHMZ, D. MLINEK, pers. comm.) average day temperature on that day was 6.6 ºC and at 21:00h it was 5.6 ºC. Toads are thought to have been confused by sudden strike of warm weather and came out. Toads were not seen after that and author suspects they managed to retreat back to their hibernation places.

REFERENCE ZUG, G.R. & ZUG, P.B. (1979): The marine toad, Bufo marinus: A natural hystory resumé of native populations. Smithsonian institution press, City of Washington 1979. SINSCH, U. (1988): Sesonal changes in the migratory behaviourof the toad Bufo bufo: direction and magnitude of movements. Oecologia, 76: 390-398. SICILIA, A., LILLO, F., ZAVA, B. & BERNINI, F. (2006): Breeding phenology of Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 in Sicily. Acta Herpetologica 1(2): 107-117.

48  


Upute autorima Rukopisi

moraju

biti

dostavljeni

isključivo

u

elektronskom

obliku

(na

e-mail:

jelic.dusan@gmail.com), kao i originalne slike i tablice. Tekst rukopisa treba biti u formatu MS-

Word, font Times New Roman veličine slova 12, bez fusnota, s dvostrukim proredom na A4 (210 x 297 mm) papiru s marginama od najmanje 25 mm na svakoj strani. Sve stranice trebaju biti numerirane u donjem desnom kutu. Za sve vrste radova, naslov stranice mora sadržavati samo sljedeće: naslov rada (podebljan); ime(na) autora (SMALL

CAPS);

adresu ustanove u kojoj je rad napravljen te adresu e-pošte

autora za korespondenciju (veličine slova 10). Naslov treba biti sažeta i informativna sinteza istraživanja. Gdje je prikladno treba spomenuti porodicu ili višu svojtu - Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata, Lacertidae). - Izvorni znanstveni rad - treba sadržavati sažetak, uvod, materijale i metode, rezultate, raspravu i literaturu (vidi primjer rukopisa dolje). - Kratko priopćenje - općenito manje od četiri-pet stranica rukopisa koje su napisane kao kontinuirani tekst sa sažetakom na početku s najviše 150 riječi. - Slikovno priopćenje - izvješće o zanimljivim nalazima uhvaćenim na fotografiji i objašnjeno s najviše 150 riječi teksta. Moguće je objaviti jednu ili više fotografija. - Sažetak o vrsti - sažetak o trenutno poznatim podacima o određenoj vrsti (treba uključiti distribuciju, ekologiju, ponašanje i pregled literature) Literatura koja se citira treba biti napisana kako slijedi u tekstu, SMALL CAPS na sljedeći način: (PIANKA, 1989, HUEY & PIANKA, 1981, HAYDON ET AL., 1997). Literatura koja se u tekstu navodi zajedno treba biti napisana kronološki. Svi radovi navedeni u tekstu trebaju biti navedeni u popisu literature. Literaturu "u tisku" treba navesti samo onda kada je prihvaćena za tisak. Imena osoba koje su ustupile neobjavljene informacije trebaju biti citirana kao u primjeru: “(ANDERSSON, Stockholm, pers. comm. 2005)”. U popisu literature pod naslovom Literatura autore navodimo po abecednom redu te po datumu objave publikacije kod jednog autora. Imena časopisa i serija moraju biti napisani u potpunosti.

49


Literaturu citirajte na sljedeći način: HAYDON, D. T., CROTHER, B. I. & PIANKA. E. R. (1994): New directions in biogeography? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 403-406. SOKAL, R. R. & ROHLF, F. J. (1995): Biometry. The principles and practice of statistics in biological research. 3rd Edition. W. H. Freeman & co, New York. HUEY, R. B. & PIANKA, E. R., (1983): Temporal separation of activity and interspecific dietary overlap (with an Appendix by S. L. Pimm). pp. 281-296. In HUEY, R. B.,. PIANKA, E. R., SCHOENER T. W. (eds.) Lizard Ecology: Studies of a Model Organism. Harvard University Press. IUCN (2010): Global Mammal Asessement. IUCN - International Union for Conservation of Nature, <http://www.iucn.com> . Pristupljeno 21. siječnja 2010.

Svaki rad pregledati će 1-2 nezavisna recenzenta.

50  


Naslov koji sažeto opisuje sadržaj rada

IME PREZIME1, IME PREZIME *2 1

Ime institucije, Radučka 15, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, vaš.mail@mail.hr 2

Ime institucije, Heinzlova 55, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

SAŽETAK: Sažetak treba biti jasan, pregledan i ne duži od 300 riječi, treba objediniti ključne rezultate i zaključke. Također treba uključiti četiri do pet ključnih riječi. Ključne riječi: četiri, pet, ključna riječ, uključen

UVOD U uvodu treba staviti jezgrovit opis pozadine (problema), s logičkom podlogom, svrhom i konkretnim ciljevima rada. Očekuje se dobra literaturna podloga, ako postoji.

MATERIJALI

I

METODE

Materijali i metode trebaju pružiti dostatne informacije da bi se dozvolilo ponavljanje eksperimenta i/ili terenskog rada. Tehnički opis metoda istraživanja je poželjan samo ako se radi o novim ili važnim metodama za razumijevanje rezultata.

REZULTATI Ovaj dio mora sadržavati precizno predstavljanje rezultata istraživanja. Izbjegavajte predstavljanje istih informacija kao teksta i/ili prikaza i/ili tablice. Ovdje ubacite tekst, tablice i ilustracije. Za svaku ilustraciju potrebno je napisati referencu u tekstu. Također, spremite,

51


priložite i pošaljite vaše ilustracije zasebno, koristeći naziv datoteke TablicaBr.ekstenzija (npr. Tab-1 korelacija SVL i mase kod ženki Lacerta vivipara.tiff). Objašnjenje tablica, grafikona i slika treba staviti u legendu, koristeći Times New Roman font, veličina 10. Objašnjenja za tablice pišu se iznad, lijevo poravnata, a objašnjenja slika i grafikona pišu se ispod, centrirano poravnata. Tablica 1. Kratak naslov razumljiv sam po sebi (Times New Roman 10) kratak,

kratak (cm) kratak (kg)

no dostatno razumljiv

NS 1

NS2

NS 3

prvi

16.69a

15.18b

15.95

14.83

14.83

SPSV2 drugi

a

14.97

treći

15.94

15.92 a

15.23

kratak (kg/min) 2.55 2.74 2.45 2.83 2 a,b NS – Naslov stupca; Standardna pogreška srednje vrijednosti; = P<0.01.

0.31 b

14.29

0.22

2.66

0.22

1

RASPRAVA Ovaj dio bi trebalo odvojiti od dijela s rezultatima kod izvornih znanstvenih radova, i trebao bi se baviti značenjem rezultata i njihovom vezom s ciljevima istraživanja. Također bi trebalo uključiti kako će rezultati istraživanja promijeniti odnosno utjecati na naše znanje o predstavljenom organizmu ili staništu.

LITERATURA Slijedite upute na stranici 1.

ZAHVALE Zahvale i bilo koje dodatne informacije koje se tiču financiranja istraživanja.

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Author Guidelines Manuscripts must be submitted in electronic version only (on jelic.dusan@gmail.com), as well as the original figures and tables. The manuscript text should be MS-Word processed, typed throughout in letter quality with font size 12, Times New Roman, without footnotes, double spaced, on A4 (210 x 297 mm) paper, with margins of at least 25 mm on each side. All pages should be numbered consecutively in the bottom, right-hand corner. For all types of papers, the title page must contain and only contain the following: title of paper (bold); name(s) of the author(s) (in Small caps); address of the Institution where the work was done, and the email of the corresponding author (font size 10). Provide a title that is concise but also an informative synthesis of the study. - Original scientific paper – should include summary, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion and references (see example manuscript below). - Short note - generally less than four-five manuscript pages; should be produced as continuous text, preceded by an abstract of no more than 150 words. - Photo note – reports of interesting findings captured on photographs, explained with maximum 150 words of text. It is possible to publish one or more photographs. - Species summary – summary of currently known data about certain species (should include distribution, ecology, behavior and literature overview) Cited sources should written in Small caps and referred to as follows: (PIANKA, 1989, HUEY & PIANKA, 1981, HAYDON ET AL., 1997). References cited together in the text should be arranged chronologically. All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references. References "in press" shall only be cited when they have been accepted for publication. Names of persons who provided unpublished information should be cited as follows: “(ANDERSSON, Stockholm, pers. comm. 2005)”. List references alphabetically by author under References and date of publication at the same author. Journal and series names have to be spelled out fully.

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Use the following format for references section: HAYDON, D. T., CROTHER, B. I. & PIANKA. E. R. (1994): New directions in biogeography? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 403-406. SOKAL, R. R. & ROHLF, F. J. (1995): Biometry. The principles and practice of statistics in biological research. 3rd Edition. W. H. Freeman & co, New York. HUEY, R. B. & PIANKA, E. R. (1983): Temporal separation of activity and interspecific dietary overlap (with an Appendix by S. L. Pimm). pp. 281-296. In Huey, R. B.,. Pianka, E. R., Schoener T. W. (eds.) Lizard Ecology: Studies of a Model Organism. Harvard University Press. IUCN (2010): Global Mammal Asessement. IUCN - International Union for Conservation of Nature, <http://www.iucn.com> . Pristupljeno 21. sijecnja 2010.

Each paper will be reviewed by 1-2 independent reviewers.

54  


Title that succinctly describes the contents of the paper

NAME SURNAME1, NAME SURNAME*2 1

AffiliationName, Radučka 15, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, your.mail@mail.hr 2

AffiliationName Heinzlova 55, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

SUMMARY: The abstract should be clear, descriptive and not longer than 300 words, should summarize the essential results and conclusions. Four or five keywords should also be included. Key words: Four, Five, Keywords, Included

INTRODUCTION Has to be a concise description of the background, rationale, aims and specific objectives of the paper. Good literature background, if existing, is expected.

MATERIAL AND METHODS Materials and methods have to provide sufficient information to permit repetition of the experiment and/or fieldwork. The technical description of study methods should be given only if such methods are new or important for the understanding the results.

RESULTS Results section must be a concise presentation of the finding of the study. Avoid the presentation of same information as text and/or figure and/or table. Insert text, tables and illustrations here. References should be made in the text to each illustration. Also, save, attach and send your

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illustrations separately using the file name TableNo.Explination.extension (ex. Tab-1Female mass to SVL correlation in Lacerta vivipara.tiff). Explanations of tables, graphs and pictures should be written in English and Croatian (note if one is missing and it will be added by editor), given in the typewritten legend, use Times New Roman font, size 10. Explanations of tables are written above, aligned left, and explanations of pictures and graphs are written underneath, centre aligned. Table 1. Brief and self-explanatory title (Times New Roman 10)

DISCUSSION Discussion section should be separate from the results section at full-length papers and should deal with the significance of the results and their relationship to the aims of the paper. Also include how the findings of the paper will change, influence the state of our knowledge about model organism or habitat.  

REFERENCES Follow the guidelines on page 1.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Acknowledgements and any additional information concerning research grants.

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PRAVILA ZA ISPUNJAVANJE POPISNOG LISTA -

Popisne listove ispunjavati po povratku s terena - prepisati podatke iz terenske bilježnice.

-

Popisne listove treba ispunjavati tako da jedan list predstavlja samo jedan lokalitet i samo jedan dan opažanja tog lokaliteta. Također, ako se obilazi jedan veći lokalitet s više različitih staništa poželjno je upotrijebiti više popisnih listova.

-

OBAVEZNO priložiti fotografiju vrste izbliza kako bi mogli potvrditi točnost determinacije. Fotografije pošaljite kao dodatni attachment u e-mail poruci.

Popisni listovi se ispunjavaju na slijedeći način: ŽUPANIJA: Upisati županiju u kojoj se određeni lokalitet nalazi. NAJBLIŽE NASELJE: Upisati najbliže naseljeno mjesto. OPIS LOKALITETA: Upisati najbliži toponim (npr. planinski vrh, prijevoj, naselje…) te udaljenost i smjer od toponima. Upisuju se hrvatske kratice za strane svijeta. Također što detaljnije opisati lokalitet i kako doći do njega. KOORDINATE I NADMORSKA VISINA: Očitati ili pomoću GPS uređaja ili s karte te naznačiti na koji način su dobiveni podaci. Ako su koordinate očitane s karte naznačiti mjerilo karte. OPIS STANIŠTA: Pobliže opisati tip staništa na kojem su nađene jedinke (morfologija staništa, vegetacija, tip podloge, mikrostanište...). VRIJEME I TEMPERATURA: Zaokružiti vremenske prilike; ako imate termometar sa sobom izmjeriti temp. zraka (mjerena u hladu na oko 1 m od tla), odnosno vode (mjerena u hladu, oko 10 cm ispod površine) ovisno o staništu pojedine vrste. FOTO: Priložiti fotografiju nalaza. Upisati naziv priloženog dokumenta. VRSTA: Upisati ime vrste te broj jedinki u odgovarajući stupac, upisati i spol ako je poznat (JUV – do 1 godine starosti; SAD – subadultne jedinke, više od 1 godine starosti; AD – odrasle, spolno zrele jedinke; ako je poznat spol upisati M - mužjak i/ili F - ženka). Ako ste pronašli uginule jedinke normalno ih upišite i pod rubriku NAPOMENE navedite da su uginule. Na kraju lista nalazi se prostor za upisivanje podataka osobe koja je ispunila popisni list.

Ispunjene popisne listove slati na: - e-mail: hyla@hyla.hr ili - poštom: Hrvatsko herpetološko društvo - Hyla Radučka 15 10000 Zagreb


HERPETOFAUNA - POPISNI LIST ŽUPANIJA: NAJBLIŽE NASELJE: OPIS LOKALITETA:

KOORDINATE:

X

Y

NADM. VISINA:

GPS KARTA

OPIS STANIŠTA:

VRIJEME:

sunčano poluoblačno oblačno

suho vlažno kiša

mirno lagani vjetar vjetrovito Tzrak:

Tvoda:

DATUM:

SAT:

FOTO - naziv datoteke:

VRSTA

IME I PREZIME: TELEFON I ADRESA: E - MAIL:

mrijest ili jaja

ličinke

JUV

SAD

AD

NAPOMENE


HERPETOFAUNA - POPISNI LIST ZADARSKA

ŽUPANIJA:

NAJBLIŽE NASELJE:

DRAGE, PAKOŠTANE

OPIS LOKALITETA: 360 m I od vrha brda Čelinke, neposredno uz cestu Pakoštane-Drage (sa strane prema Vranskom jezeru)

KOORDINATE: OPIS STANIŠTA: polusjena.

VRIJEME:

X 5543150

Y 4861115

GPS KARTA

1:100.000

NADM. VISINA: 10 m

Niska makija hrasta crnike, uz cestu. Mikrostanište: nakupine kamenja ispod grmlja,

sunčano poluoblačno oblačno

suho vlažno kiša

mirno lagani vjetar vjetrovito Tzrak: 25°C

DATUM: 26.05.2011.

Tvoda: --

SAT: 16:15 - 16:30

FOTO - naziv datoteke: DSC00265.jpg, DSC00267.jpg

VRSTA

mrijest ili jaja

P. siculus

ličinke

JUV

2

SAD

AD

2+1M

H. gemonensis

IME I PREZIME: Mate Matić TELEFON I ADRESA: 095-1234567; Vesela ulica bb, 23000 Zadar E - MAIL: mate.matic@gmail.com

NAPOMENE

1

pregažen na cesti


POPIS VRSTA VODOZEMACA I GMAZOVA U HRVATSKOJ

VODOZEMCI

GMAZOVI

Ichthyosaura alpestris - planinski vodenjak Lissotriton vulgaris - mali vodenjak Triturus carnifex - veliki vodenjak Triturus dobrogicus - dunavski vodenjak Salamandra atra - crni daždevnjak Salamandra salamandra - pjegavi daždevnjak Proteus anguinus - čovječja ribica Bombina bombina - crveni mukač Bombina variegata - žuti mukač Bufo bufo - smeđa krastača Pseudapidalea viridis - zelena krastača Pelobates fuscus - češnjača Hyla arborea - gatalinka Pelophylax kl. esculentus - jestiva zelena žaba Pelophylax lessonae - mala zelena žaba Pelophylax ridibundus - velika zelena žaba Rana arvalis - močvarna smeđa žaba Rana dalmatina - šumska smeđa žaba Rana latastei - talijanska smeđa žaba Rana temporaria - livadna smeđa žaba

Testudo hermanni - kopnena kornjača, čančara Emys orbicularis - barska kornjača Mauremys rivulata - riječna kornjača Dermochelys coriacea - sedmopruga usminjača Caretta caretta - glavata želva Chelonia mydas - golema želva Algyroides nigropunctatus - mrki ljuskavi gušter Iberolacerta horvathi - velebitska gušterica Dalmatolacerta oxycephala - oštroglava gušterica Dinarolacerta mosorensis - mosorska gušterica Lacerta agilis - livadna gušterica Lacerta bilineata - zapadno mediteranski zelembać Lacerta viridis - obični zelembać Lacerta trilineata - veliki zelembać Podarcis melisellensis - krška gušterica Podarcis muralis - zidna gušterica Podarcis siculus - primorska gušterica Zootoca vivipara - živorodna gušterica Hemidactylus turcicus - kućni macaklin Tarentola mauretanica - zidni macaklin Anguis fragilis - sljepić Ophisaurus apodus - blavor Ablepharus kitaibelii - ivanjski rovaš Coronella austriaca - smukulja Dolichophis caspius - smičalina Elaphe quatuorlineata - četveroprugi kravosas Hierophis gemonensis - šara poljarica Hierophis viridiflavus - crna poljarica Malpolon insignitus - zmajur Natrix natrix - bjelouška Natrix tessellata - ribarica Platyceps najadum - šilac, plavetna poljarica Telescopus fallax - ljuta crnokrpica Zamenis longissimus - bjelica, Eskulapova zmija Zamenis situla - pjegava crvenkrpica Vipera ammodytes - poskok Vipera berus - riđovka Vipera ursinii - planinski žutokrug * Trachemys scripta - crvenouha kornjača


Hyla herpetological bulletin 2011_2  

Journal for publishing research on amphibians and reptiles of South-eastern Europe

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