THE BORDERLESS SOCIETY
A FRICTIONLESS EVERYDAY
MOVEMENTS IN THE MAKING
“Change is disruptive, disruption is friction, friction is painful, the change will hurt, it will fuck you up!“ - Mark Comerford
We’re in turbulent times, information is everywhere and it’s forcing us to rethink society and ourselves. How are our cultural evolution adapting to the inevitable force of change? We’ll investigate the developing union between technology and culture and how it applies on Helsingborg. We’ve asked ourselves what the future of democracy, borders, collaboration and cities looks like in the networked era. And how can we make the city a place for self fulfillment and positive change, a place that makes people call Helsingborg their home?
TOMORROW’S GENERATION Much of our insights, predictions and ideas will focus around three generations within a western perspective. It includes our own, generation Y(born between 1995 and 1980), generation Z (born after 1995). They’ve all got a lot in common but we’ve put together a brief generalizing conclusion of each of their characteristics, to have in mind for further reading. Generation Y Today, 20-35 years old. In 2035, 40-55 years old. They’ve seen technology evolve dramatically together with the spreading of internet. They witnessed how the early phase of the internet evolution mimicked the analogue. Therefore they’ve got a split relation to digital and analogue. They’re tolerant, demanding and critical with an open mindset towards an experimenting lifestyle. Many have been raised in divorced or single parented homes, which makes them value family later in life. Generation Z Today, 6-20 years old. In 2035, 26-40 years old. By many academics nicknamed “The mutants” because of their unawareness of a world without digital. They value the network above everything else and are certain that success will come from it, rather than the traditional qualifications. They handle information through visual means and demands immediate response. They aren’t lazy and unambitious as many critics point out, they’ve just got a different approach to success. 76% wants to make their hobby their job according to an American study.
THE BORDERLESS SOCIETY
THE BORDERLESS SOCIETY
“When the analogue and digital world are merged into one massive interconnected network, the degree of complexity is hitting the roof” The increasing amount of data also means that more perspectives, ideas, opinions and attitudes will enter the arena. The social structures of society can no longer be seen as the traditional system of “boxes” where the things not fitting in are issues in need of fixing. In order to bring positive change upon our societies we need to adapt to a higher degree of differences.
WHAT’S GOING ON We’re seeing that all sorts of borders are getting questioned, redefined or disassembled. Foremost the geographical borders are losing their importance. More and more people see themselves as citizen of the world rather than identifying as Swedish or Norwegian for instance. We are traveling, working and studying across global borders. There’s an increasing need of being able to choose and argue for specific causes that align with one’s values, something we’ll discuss further in the chapter “Reshaping Democracy”. This development doesn’t just concern geographical or political borders, but affects personal identity markers as well. We see the same development within gender and sexuality related topics. There’s an increasing amount of people not identifying themselves through gender, what’s also been described as androgynous individuals. Family norms is another example of this, the traditional core family with mum, dad and kids have during the past 30 years changed to become a mass of different family constructions, normalized and unlabeled. In general we see an increasing mentality of not wanting to be labeled at all. Instead living in a fluent oscillation between a variety of definitions and states, what’s been described as Metamodernism, what many claim to be the cultural paradigm after postmodernism.
“There’s an increasing amount of people not identifying themselves through gender, what’s also been described as androgynous individuals”
“Globalisation and liquid citizenship, transnationalism, the flow of people and a higher degree of flexibility” When looking forward the following subjects should be in focus; globalisation and liquid citizenship, transnationalism, the flow of people and a higher degree of flexibility. The baseline meaning of this is looking at opportunities and being flexible and adaptive rather than competing against other cities. With that said this also means that it is important to acknowledge and adapt to the “unboxing” of people within the society, like giving people the opportunity to choose between causes instead of political colours, and allow people to be citizen of the world, not citizen of a nation.
SAMMEN & SÅNT SUGGESTS In order for Helsingborg to attract a young and creative age group, everyone, no matter citizenship or nationality, should have the chance to make a difference and plan the future-city before even moving here. This would mean that anyone with an interest in Helsingborg, easily could follow it’s development and remotely partake in it. Helsingborg should set a standard for how how a borderless city should look like. The regional collaborative initiative of “Greater Copenhagen” is a great starting point in the creation of borderless societies. The debate however should shift from the naming issue and who “owns” what, towards focusing on the possibilities of an even more deepened collaboration. A concrete action Helsingborg could do to continue this borderless city development is to initiate to create an education platform that goes across regional borders to increase a regional development perspective. Another example could be to offer flexible apartment for people who would be interested to live here part-time, make the renting process between landlord and tenant seamless and trustworthy without having to meet. This could be a network similar to AirBnb, where international apartment complexes are connected. Look at the inhabitants as consultants and represents. Instead of “begging” them to stay in town, encourage them to go out in the world and let them come back with inspiration and ideas what can be implemented in Helsingborg.
A FRICTIONLESS EVERYDAY
A FRICTIONLESS EVERYDAY
“If you went to bed last night as an industrial company, you’re going to wake up today as a software and analytics company” Jeff Immelt, CEO of GE We live in a world where we talk about things being smart and adaptive to change. We have smart services, smart phones, smart homes etc. Companies are changing and getting prepared for the digital future ahead of us. As a parallel to being smart we also talk about “the internet of things” and big data. In order to be smart, things need to be connected to a network and together these factors creates data. We create, and are surrounded by so much data that we need to decode and structure everything in order to use it in our advantage. All these factors are shaping a new kind of mindset where the tolerance of friction is getting to minimum. In apps and services we seek experiences with as few interactions as possible, if there is unnecessary clicks and detours we drop it and find a more effective one.
WHAT’S GOING ON More and more things in our everyday life are getting connected to the network, as sensors they contribute with information to the larger system. For now we see the emerge of not only wearables but also nearables. It could be your interactive conference table, your bicycle who tells you your track distance or your living room plant tweeting you when it needs water. We’re seeing a variety of examples of the usage of smart technology within urban planning. Barcelona are trying to move into the forefront of interconnected cities, making it possible to in real-time manage the city’s operation. They’ve installed everything from dynamically managed light poles to telecare services for emergency elder care. All this technology enables a friction free data flow between municipality and individual, describing physical conditions in real time. It makes the interaction between the nodes in the system frictionless and seamlessly collaborative.
“All this technology enables a friction free data flow between municipality and individual, describing physical conditions in real time”
LOOKING FORWARD We see that the concept of Smart will be dramatically redefined during the next 20 years. Cities will become fully integrated with what we today call “digital” aspects. We’ll live and work within a truly smart and interactive environment which enables us to free ourselves from devices and that predicts our needs before we need them. It’s also very probable that the amount of data flows will multiply in scale and complexity due to the interconnected environment. Along with this development we see an increasing need of efficient and moral methods of structuring and analyzing data.
“Cities will become fully integrated with what we today call “digital” aspects”
SAMMEN & SÅNT SUGGESTS One of the central roles of the municipality in the upcoming years could be to create, canalize and analyze data flows. As well as govern and making sure that the the data flows are used in a way that protects the individual and benefits society. We’ve seen a great variety of initiatives from the municipality already such as the releases of API-like packages of data, free for the community to develop services around. This is a central pillar in the city as a platform and we see great potential in developing it further. For instance the municipality could start gather much more data from the everyday Helsingborg, everything from the emptying of trash bins to the streams of wind or people. Secondly there has to be initiatives from the community to develop the services that will bring positive change upon the society. An easy way to kill two birds with one rock would be to implement programming and “hacking” within the educational system, from as early ages as possible. Providing and encouraging the students with the data and let them build services, apps and projects around it.
â€œAchievement of your happiness is the only moral purpose of your life, and that happiness, not pain or mindless self-indulgence, is the proof of your moral integrity, since it is the proof and result of your loyalty to the achievement of your values.â€? - Ayn Rand
When machines and computer intelligence can do much of our work for us, what should we humans do with our time? And what is work really? The discussions around efficiency, success and happiness are lifted once more.
WHAT’S GOING ON It wasn’t more than 80 years ago since Sweden got introduced to hobbies and vacations, when the amount of working hours were reduced. Spare time was considered dangerous by some opponents and the state had to inform the public of how to use their time. Today we’re not in a completely different situation. The debate around reduced working hours have taken off again. But this time we’re in a different crossroads, we’re redefining the concept of work and truly have the opportunity to follow the good old cliché: “Do what you love”. Happiness and self fulfillment are getting more prioritized in the networked society. We see an approaching mentality to a non-linear approach, as a result of the more complex and changing environments. The borders between work and hobby have for many slowly disappeared, we work for the fun of it and not only for the money. It’s the joy of creation and the process that is of greatest value, not the end result. We’re seeing that this mentality slowly gets implemented in society. We see it within schools and innovative companies. Strelka, the experimental design school within architectural and urban planning in moscow, are focusing all their design and planning around positive change and happiness. The New York based design studio Sagmeister and Walsh are taking every seventh year off work to travel and collect new perspectives and inspiration for further work. And we see Swedish companies switching to 6 hour work days already.
LOOKING FORWARD The networked society stands upon a massive challenge of designing a post capitalistic system that sees society as a complex system of uniquely connected individuals instead of a mass. It will not only challenge the current economic system but also the concepts of success and work. First off we’ll see that working hours are adapted and customized to the individuals. Let’s face it, not everyone have their glory moments between 9 and 5, five days a week. This will make companies more effective by letting “Night-owls” sleep in and work at night, and morning people work in the morning. And working hours are not only the time spent at work, adding free time may improve work efficiency and creativity.
“Working hours are adapted and customized to the individuals”
SAMMEN & SÅNT SUGGESTS
Helsingborg could be a place that allows experiments within alternative methods of societal organizing, and henceforth attract attention internationally and attract brilliant minds for bringing positive change upon the world. The Vision Fund is a great starting point that could be developed into a “do what you love fund” where anyone could apply for a fully supported year with accommodation and the resources to create and follow their dreams. The funding doesn’t have to come from the municipality alone but could be solved with sponsoring from local as well as international brands and organisations. If done thoroughly it would act as an inspirational initiative that would build stories and spark interest not only locally but potentially internationally. The building of the new flexible and dynamic City Hall could be a an incentive to launch a new organizational philosophy. Further developing the trust towards staff by initiating a truly flexible work mentality favoring all the diverse needs within the organization.
MOVEMENTS IN THE MAKING
MOVEMENTS IN THE MAKING We may be more connected than ever before and we havenâ€™t yet lost our need of defining ourselves together with others. But the online experience feels too shallow for many. The internet has been described as an archipelago of isolated groups without bridges between them, a mimicking of the polarization in society. However thereâ€™s a countermovement going on were an increasing amount of people feel the need of physical social interaction with others, with the collective ambition to bring upon positive change. All organized with the help of social networks.
WHATâ€™S GOING ON We see a shift towards doing change rather than discussing or screaming about it. A lot of people have grown tired of complicated processes in bureaucratic institutes, or the non constructive atmosphere in political debates. People have started to take action outside the current system. From small scale meetups, to hackathons and transformational festivals involving thousands of attendees. The raise of co-creational initiatives is seen at offices after work, in large scale venues or in the middle of the nature. In the urban environment we see a growing amount of co-creational spaces and initiatives such as Makers Labs where collaboration and openness is a part of the business model. People are gathered in hackathons to collaboratively bring positive change to where they see friction. Not to mention all the voluntary work that comes out of social media initiatives. A recent example are the collaborative initiatives taken to assist the refugee crisis. Transformational festivals has almost become a mainstream phenomena over the last years. Burning Man had more than 60 000 people co-experimenting in a temporary city in the middle of the Nevada desert, and there are several similar initiatives taking place all around the globe. What they all got in common is a variety of principles that adds up to a shared mentality of self fulfillment, participation and collaboration. When people from all walks of life gather up outside the norms and structures of society to bring upon positive change, itâ€™s probably a good signal that thereâ€™s a displeasure with how things are handled in the established system.
“If what we see and experience does not become real in imagination, then it never can become real to us, and we are forever divided from it... Imagination is a particularizing and a local force, native to the ground underfoot.” - Wendell Berry A city and a public space is so much more than just a physical place. A place is a perception and it will be perceived differently from person to person. Placemaking is a rather old philosophy but nevertheless applicable to the shaping of future cities. A genuine placemaking occurs when people of all ages, abilities and socio-economic backgrounds not only can access or enjoy a place, but also plays a key role in it’s creation, maintenance and identity. We think that in the next upcoming years, the success stories will be of the cities that successfully managed to harness the collective intelligence and creative joy into a dynamic and flexible environment. We see that the upcoming 20 years will bring a different mindset of what a city is. The emerging generation Z or the subsequent, fostered by interactive experiences and direct feedback will force change upon what they see as static and monotonous physical environments. We see that the upcoming 20 years will bring a different mindset of what a city is. The emerging generation Z or the subsequent, fostered by interactive experiences and direct feedback will force change upon what they see as static and monotonous physical environments.
SAMMEN & SÅNT SUGGESTS We suggest that Helsingborg Municipality initiates the framework for initiatives rather than hosting the actual initiative. Planning and designing frameworks and facilitating the process of development. However the challenge that this brings is to allow and foster a mentality within the city, that promotes change through possibilities and diversity. A launch of the platform (read chapter “Reshaping Democracy”) is the first solution of harnessing ideas and initiatives but how do we make people use it and shape an atmosphere of creativity, possibilities and change?
Bringing inspiration to the city
It’s said that change seldom comes from the inside, perhaps due to satisfaction or the inability of a holistic perspective. There’s a need of fresh perspectives to the challenges ahead and not only internally. We suggest that the municipality iniHarnessing the resources within the city. tiate and invites more external and diverse minds to spark The vision of Helsingborg 2035 is a great ambition and it has a engagement in the city. For instance this could be done by lot of potential of getting used more frequently by the citizens. inviting groups with innovation and change as their driving But first off there’s a need of aligning more people with the motivation and create more events like “HBG talks”. vision. It’s not enough sharing documents on the city’s web pages, or raising a tent in the local park, that doesn’t foster A first step would be to localise collectively organized netengagement and involvement. works around scandinavia that lives for transformation, for instance people in the burner-movements like the Borderland initiative or Burning Man Denmark. Invite them to Helsingborg, give them the keys to an area, provide them with resources and let them transform and experiment freely. This could result in a further development of the HX-Festival, which is a great initiative for the community. In order to spark engagement and amplifying the festival vibe there need to be engagement throughout the year. One solution to this would be to make a permanent space for the HX-festival, like a lab, where artists, entrepreneurs and people who would like to get involved can create and share ideas. The actually festival event in the end of August would then be a sort of celebration of what have been created and done in the city during the year.
RESHAPING DEMOCRACY In its birth, democracy was a political innovation. We were able to examine, to learn, to imagine and then use that to design a better life for ourselves. A human right that many citizens of the world are still fight for. But for those who have had the privilege to be brought up with that kind of freedom, the time has past and our political system has remained the same for a very long time. Meanwhile a dramatic change in our cultural evolution has taken place and itâ€™s impact on society becomes harder to ignore by every day that passes. The emerge of new technologies together with a reshaping of our values and behaviours has made the political system we once called an innovation, seem outdated and non inclusive. We see a stagnation or a decrease in democratic engagement all around the world, both when it comes to how high people value its importance but also the numbers of participating voters.
WHAT’S GOING ON “I have the feeling that we can all agree that we’re moving towards a new model of the state and society. But, we’re absolutely clueless as to what this is or what it should be. It seems like we need to have a conversation about democracy” - Pia Mancini Trust is a central factor for a democratic model to work for everyone living by it. This is a complex measurement, not only because it has a different meaning to us as individuals, but also because it needs to come from both directions. People need to trust the government in their interpretation of people’s values and the realisation of spoken promises. Then the government needs to trust the people’s raised voices about change when their decision making is being questioned. When this trust is taken for granted or in being disrupted it causes silence, as in decreasing voters. Another factor is the growing network environment where the interaction with the world is characterised by rapid feedback and immediate visual response. We are incredibly skilled at using technology to pick up problems and spread it around the world to force a solution. This is relevant especially when it comes to the younger generation whom is brought up in a global technological network society. This boils down to the fact that voting every few years to hand over the decision making to single individuals, isn’t enough anymore. Some initiatives from different parts of the world has already been presented. Successful in participation rate or not, it proves that the conversation about an alternative model of democracy has already started and people are taking action upon it. We’ve seen Meu Rio, a political party in Brazil that only uses direct democracy. We also have the local platform Malmö Initiativet or our neighbours political party, Alternativet the in Denmark.
SAMMEN&SÅNT SUGGESTS There’s a need of focusing the attention towards the silent voices in the city, hearing them and facilitating dialogue between the poles in the city. Trying to align everyone with the vision of Helsingborg 2035. It’s not enough sharing documents on the city’s web pages, or raising a tent in the local park, that doesn’t foster engagement and involvement. A first step would be to quickly involve newly arrived groups in the dialogue. Another important resource we see is the creativity and naivety within the younger citizens. If kids at an early age see that their ideas and visions are taken seriously and not cutely laughed upon, there would be greater incentive of engagement through their upbringing. A question to consider: Why is there a limit at 18 years of age, on voting? Perceive the municipality and the citizens as one organism. To put this into visualisation, imagine that the citizens are a group of experts called in to research the needs of Helsingborg and develop ideas to make it the best city to live in. The role of the municipality is to function as facilitators in this process. Remember to build trust by taking reactions and suggestions seriously. Something that seems to be unfitted in the spirit of positive change, might just be a voice that needs to be carefully and humbly listened upon.
As discussed in the “Friction Free” chapter, technology is playing a significant part of people’s lives. The municipality should use technology as a tool to design seamless experiences for communication, cooperation and decision making. Make it possible for anyone to contribute with ideas and vote for suggestions anywhere at anytime. One core aspect of whether you will be successful or not, is the number of active participants. Assume that this doesn’t happen by itself. Then you need to encourage and create a participation culture by widespread awareness and a loop of successful outcomes. Also know and accept when you fail, if you get the ball rolling and it stops, be prepared to start over. Do your research, set up for different scenarios and constantly reach out for inspiration. Now, this might seem far fetched. But to understand and collect inspiration from organisations that are experts within networking and technology based solutions, can be used as great advantage when creating strategies for your own solutions. It is a cliche thing to say, but we do it anyway; think outside the box. Business over all could function as facilitators and stakeholders of projects of their interests.
DICTIONARY Androgynous individuals:
Internet of Everything:
With this we mean a person who does not identify themselves neatly Internet of things is no longer sufficient, the next step is internet of into the typical masculine or feminine gender roles of their society. everything. Connectivity is no longer reduced to material or physical things, but rather something around us that we take for granted. ex. Your bike lane and bicycle will be connected to a interactive citycloud API: Application Programming Interface. A language and message format that will charge you less on your bus card the more miles you cykle used by an application program to communicate with the operating per month. system or some other control program such as a database management system or communications protocol. Ex. Instagram have open Internet of Things: APIâ€™s which means that anyone can use it to collect data and pictures The Internet of Things has been defined as a global infrastructure to include in new services when they are programmed. for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies. Facilitation: Assisting the progress of a person or a group.
With this we mean that people donâ€™t necessarily identify themselves as An expression used about economical, political, material and cultural a citizen of one nation according to their passport, but rather citizen of transfers, contacts and influences of the modern eraâ€™s on a worldwide the world or citizenship according to a cultural, politics, philosophical phenomenon. scale.
Gathering of people who hacks existing services or products together, Open discussion powered by prototyping and making. It is a nomadic learning environment and process incubator, open to all and always the event is often happening within a span of 1-3 days. evolving.
Finding a new usage for an object and/or connecting it with another Meetup: or multiple objects to create something new. Could also be accessing A gathering of people, often initiated by communities on the internet that share common interests. information illegally thure computers.
DICTIONARY Metamodernism: A new cultural development that is a criticism and Wearables:
departure from post-modernism. It is a constant movement between Wearable technology (also called wearable gadgets) is a category of the modernism’s optimism and the postmodern cynicism. technology devices that can be worn by a consumer and often include tracking information related to health and fitness. Other wearable tech gadgets include devices that have small motion sensors to take Nearables: The idea of smart objects – everyday items with small, wireless com- photos and sync with your mobile devices. puting devices attached to them. Those devices can be equipped with a variety of sensors and work as transmitters to broadcast digital data
The late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from Modernism. If Modernism was “less is more”, Postmodernism would be “less is a bore”
Counterculture festivals that espouses a community-building ethic, and a value system that celebrates life, personal growth, social responsibility, healthy living, and creative expression.
The concept of transnationalism refers to multiple ties and interactions linking people and institutions across the borders of nation-states.
REFERENCES The Borderless Society http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/trans-nationalism/ Metamodernism. Seth Abrahamson, October 2014. Part 1. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/seth-abramson/metamodernism-the-basics_b_5973184.html Part 2. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/seth-abramson/metamodernism-the-basics-_b_5980326.html Part 3. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/seth-abramson/metamodernism-the-basics-_1_b_5998834.html A Frictionless Everyday http://muddyrhino.com/wearable-technology-rugby/ Camilla Siggaard Andersen, June 2015. http://gehlarchitects.com/blog/smart-copenhagen-whats/ Camilla Siggaard Andersen, March 2015. http://gehlarchitects.com/blog/what-is-a-smart-city-anyway/ Barcelonaâ€™s work towards an interconnected city. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCbvxb5t5_8 Deep Neural Networks & Machine Learning, September 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bHvf7Tagt18 Redefining Success Roland Paulsen.(SV) http://www.dn.se/kultur-noje/roland-paulsen-jag-ville-bryta-formen/ Strelka School within Architecture and Urban Planning. http://www.strelka.com/en/idea
Movements in the Making Burning Man Philosophy. http://burningman.org/network/about-us/ Placemaking. http://www.pps.org/reference/what_is_placemaking/ Reshaping Democracy Alessandra Orofino, Political mobilization activist TED TALK: It’s our city, and we need to fix it. https://www.ted.com/talks/alessandra_orofino_it_s_our_city_let_s_fix_it#t-325689 Pia Mancini, Democracy activist TED TALK: How to upgrade democracy for the internet era https://www.ted.com/talks/pia_mancini_how_to_upgrade_democracy_for_the_internet_era#t-23936 Author: Henrik Höjer Published: 2015-10-02 Article: Försvagad global demokratiutveckling http://fof.se/artikel/forsvagad-global-demokratiutveckling Initiativ Samutveckling. http://metamoderna.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Initiativ-Samutveckling-Skapandet-av-ett-nytt-slags-parti-II.pdf Generation Z. http://uk.businessinsider.com/afp-generation-z-born-in-the-digital-age-2015-2?r=US&IR=T Dictonary http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/trans-nationalism/ www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/gsi/iot/Pages/default.aspx http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/wearable_technology.html https://snl.no/globalisering http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/37856/api
INSPIRATIONAL LIST Burning Man https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x54s_G0NYG8 Meu Rio http://www.nossascidades.org/organizations/1/ Malmö Initiativet http://initiativet.malmo.se/epetition_core/ http://alternativet.dk/ Code for America http://www.codeforamerica.org/ Honolulu answers https://vimeo.com/43632898 Future of cities forum http://www.worldfuturecouncil.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Climate_and_Energy/Cities/Imagine_A_Regenerative_City_-_FCF_Report_2014_-_digital.pdf Mark Comerford, Speaker within Transformation. http://www.slideshare.net/simplycommunicate/mark-comerford Network Culture. http://varnelis.net/network_culture Network Behaviours. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110725190044.htm The role of religion in the networked era. http://www.ted.com/talks/alain_de_botton_atheism_2_0#t-518271 Participation in urban environments, example from Rio. http://www.ted.com/talks/alessandra_orofino_it_s_our_city_let_s_fix_it The walkable city. http://www.ted.com/talks/jeff_speck_the_walkable_city Konstfacks forskningsprojekt mot hållbara städer. http://app.konstfack.se/decode/om-projektet/ Six degrees of separation. http://www.svtplay.se/video/3711998/six-degrees-of-seperation/six-degrees-of-separation Hyper Island Toolbox http://toolbox.hyperisland.com/
A SAMMEN&SĂ…NT production Created by: Elin Frimodig Erika Storfeldt Mali Sagmoen Mark Vesterlund Tuomas Laulajainen
Insights Report for the municipality of Helsingborg. Including on going trends, how to look forward and suggestions on how the municipality...
Published on Oct 22, 2015
Insights Report for the municipality of Helsingborg. Including on going trends, how to look forward and suggestions on how the municipality...