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The Architectural Profession in Europe - A Sector Study Commissioned by the Architects’ Council of Europe

FINAL 18 December 2008


Mirza & Nacey Research

Mirza & Nacey Research

FINAL The Architectural Profession in Europe Contents Section 1: Research Results Survey Background Summary

page:

1: Architects in Europe The Number of Architects in Europe Profile of the Profession The Profession’s Reputation

12

2: Architecture – the Market The Construction Market in Europe The Architectural Market in Europe Future Prospects

32

3: Architecture – the Practice Profile of Architectural Practices Practice Revenue Practice Costs and Profits

44

4: Architects – the Individual Earnings Retirement Hours Worked Career Satisfaction

58

6 10

Final Report 18 December 2008 © Architects’ Council of Europe (ACE/CAE) 2008

Section 2: Country Factsheets

72

Appendix I - Methodological notes

108

Appendix II - Survey questionnaire

110

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

Mirza & Nacey Research Ltd Southdown House Ford, Arundel West Sussex BN18 0DE Tel: +44 1243 551302 www.mirza-nacey.com

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Mirza & Nacey Research

Executive Summary and Political Interpretations This document summarises the Sector Study of the architectural profession in Europe that was carried out in 2008 by Mirza & Nacey for the Architects’ Council of Europe (ACE) and it draws out conclusions and ideas for further awareness and political action by the ACE and its Member Organisations. The Sector Study was based on answers from more than 8,000 architects in 17 European countries. The average response rate in these countries was 18%. It must be noted that the answers to the survey were received in two batches. The first batch included Estonia, Greece, Ireland, Malta, Romania, Sweden and Slovenia and was received between 23rd June and the 11th August. The second batch included Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Turkey and the United Kingdom and was received between the 8th September and the 3rd November. This means that the second batch was received after the global economic crisis broke and thus may have affected the results. The main conclusion that can be drawn from the Sector Study is that the architectural profession in Europe is very heterogeneous. The Study has found that the number of architects, their profile and their earnings differ significantly from country to country. Nevertheless, the results of the Study offer inspiration for national or trans-national policy making and/or business development initiatives and, while keeping in mind that it does not cover the whole of Europe, it forms the first truly comprehensive, professionally executed survey of the profession at European level ever undertaken. The primary results as reported in the full report are summarised as follows: Architects: Europe (the 32 countries from which the ACE draws its membership) has approximately 483,000 architects of which 25% are based in Italy and 20% are in Germany. The density of architects differs from one architect per 485 inhabitants in Italy to as low as one per 4,155

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inhabitants in Slovakia. 93% of architects work in their own country. In some countries almost all architects are locals, but in a few countries (Ireland, Austria, Malta and Luxemburg) more than 10% of architects registered there work in other countries. As an average two-thirds of all European architects are males, but in some countries (Austria, Estonia, Malta and the Netherlands) the male dominance is extreme (higher than 80%). On the other hand in France, Finland Greece and Sweden more than half of the architects are females. Can a better balance between the genders be useful for the development of the profession? The length of practice experience of respondents shows huge differences: In some countries (Estonia and The Netherlands) more than 50% of architects have more than 20 years of experience. On the other hand, some countries lack new blood as less than 10% of their architects have 6 years experience or less (Estonia, France, Ireland, Luxemburg and Slovenia). This demonstrates that the need to attract new blood is a challenge to the profession that must be addressed. Closely related to this subject is the age profile of respondents. The study found again big differences. In Belgium, Malta and Turkey more than 40% of the architects are younger than 35 years, whilst in Austria and France this is only 10%. Finally some countries are able to hold the architects on the market for many years. In Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden more than 25% of architects are more than 55 years old. A high proportion of older architects is only a problem if the countries have, at the same time, problems attracting younger architects. Fortunately, this is not the case in these countries. A significant proportion of the architects operate as sole principals (24%) or as freelancers (9%). The picture of employment is very different from

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country to country. In the Netherlands and in Estonia 81% and 80% respectively of the respondents work as sole principals, partners or associates. The highest proportion of architects working in the public sector is found in Denmark (34%), Finland (33%) and Sweden (44%). In France and the Netherlands the public sector only employs very few architects. This demonstrates a significant divide between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe. The reputation of architects as seen by architects: In general, Architects do not believe that their reputation is favourably perceived by others, with the possible exception of their own clients. They feel they are regarded “quite highly” or “very highly” by about half of their clients, but only by 37% of the public and 31% of others in the construction sector. The profession believes that public respect is highest in the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands, while the lowest respect is found in Slovenia, France and Estonia. The profession believes that its reputation is most favourably respected among fellow professionals. Architects feel that 53% of fellow professionals perceive their colleagues quite highly or very highly. On average this only applies for 31% of others in the construction industry. Among clients the best perception is found in Denmark and Luxemburg where more than 70% of architects think that their clients perceive them quite highly or very highly. This raises the question of whether or not the ACE should launch a perception survey among these groups in order to check if the professions view of itself is accurate. The market: The total value of the European construction market (32 countries) is estimated to exceed €1,650 billion per year. The UK, France, Germany and Italy account for 54% of the total output. Measured per head of the population the average value is €2,826, being highest in Luxemburg, Norway and Ireland (each over €7,000 per person).

The total value of the architectural market in the 17 countries that responded to the survey is estimated at €11.6 billion (corresponding to a total of €22 billion in all 32 countries). The largest markets are found in Germany and in the UK – counting for more than half of the total market in the 17 countries. The highest market values per architect are recorded in Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK, where the market size per architect exceeds €95,000. In Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands and the UK the architectural market exceeds 1% of the total construction market value. The largest single project type for architects is individual houses, accounting for 31% of the architectural market. In total 45% of the architects’ market is private housing. The highest proportion of private housing (more than half) is found in Belgium, Greece, Luxemburg, the UK and Turkey. On the other hand the highest proportion of public sector work is in Austria and France. Looking at how the three major market sectors (private housing, commercial and public) are split, there is an interesting difference between the countries. In Belgium approximately two thirds of the work is undertaken for the private housing sector, whereas in Finland, Estonia, Austria, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden the three sectors each count for approximately one third of the work. Private individuals are the architects’ principal clients, accounting for 47% of the work. This average figure hides big differences. In Estonia and Finland individual households only count for one fourth of the work. In Estonia and Malta the developers on the other hand account for the largest part of work (34%). In some countries the local governments are not active as clients to the architects (Belgium, France, Malta and Romania). In other countries they represent more than 10% of the work. In France “other public clients” account for 35% of the work undertaken – five times more than the average undertaken for this client sector in the 17 countries taken together. Can these differences between clients give ideas for new activities in some countries?

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Not surprisingly, it is building design that generates the highest revenue to architects: 66%. It is lowest is Denmark (47%) and highest is Finland (78%). In some countries the work is better spread over more service types (i.e. interior design, project management, planning or other services). This is the case in Denmark, Malta, Slovenia, Sweden and Turkey. Architectural practice: There are approximately 69,800 architectural practices in the 17 countries (corresponding to more than 130,000 practices in the Europe 32). More than half of these practises are oneperson firms. Only 1% of architectural practices have more than 30 staff. On the other hand it is estimated that 19,000 persons are employed in the 350 practices with more than 50 staff. The average revenue per single person practice is €59,389 with The Netherlands (€84,497) at the top and Turkey (€17,028) at the lower end of the scale. The average revenue for practices with more than 50 staff is approximately €4.5 million per annum. The highest revenue for SME-practices (1-10 staff) is in the UK, Denmark and France (more than €300.000 per annum) The most common method of calculating fees is as a percentage of the total value of the construction cost (56%). This method is the most popular method in all countries except Denmark, Finland, Greece, the Netherlands Sweden and the UK. In Finland and in Sweden approximately half of the companies charge on an hourly basis. This diversity highlights the need for guidance on methods for calculating how architects charge for their services. The average amount that principals charge for an hour of their work is €63. For architects the average charge is €50 and for Technicians it is €40. The hourly charge-out rates vary considerably between countries. The lowest charge for principals is found in Romania (€15) and the highest charge is in Ireland (€145). Adjusted for

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the different price levels (and purchasing power) in the countries the charge for principals differs from €20 in Turkey to €116 in Ireland. Profits in the practices decline in line with the size of the practices. In single person practices the pre-tax profit is 52% of revenue, whereas the pre-tax profit is only 17% in companies with 31-50 employees. This is not surprising and it is only in the largest companies (plus 50 staff) that the profit ratio increases again to reach 26%. For the smallest practices (one or two persons) the staff costs are naturally very low compared to other costs. The staff costs (as percentage of the total practice costs) increases by the size of the practices until 30 staff. At that point other costs increase relatively. The rent takes almost the same share of the total costs for all practice sizes. Finally the other costs (travel, bank, insurance, promotion etc.) play the biggest role in the smallest practices, decreasing up to 30 staff and increasing again for the largest practices. It seems like the largest practices have to use more money on other things (like promotion) to defend their position or to demonstrate that they have achieved such a prominent position. Architectural practices are mainly, but not only, active in their domestic markets. On average only 6% of the revenue derives from export markets. Again there are big differences between the countries. The export proportion is highest in Denmark (12,4%) and lowest in Greece (1,5%). The UK has the highest proportion of architects working in branch offices (18%), but also Denmark, Greece, Malta, Romania and Turkey lies above the average proportion (9%). In France only 1% work in branch offices. Most often the Head Office of the branch offices lies in the same country as the main office. Only in Greece, Ireland, Malta, Romania and Sweden are head offices in most cases located in a different country. One would have thought that the largest countries like Germany and France had more branch offices. Individual earnings: There is a substantial variation in the average earning of full time architects in Europe. The

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average highest pre-tax annual earnings are in Ireland (€65,000), Denmark (€53,720) and in Luxemburg (€50,000). Lowest earnings are in Romania (€13,990) and in Turkey (€14,648). This picture is not surprising since prices and welfare also differ a lot across Europe. Adjusted by the purchasing power parity index another picture occurs, but still we find big differences with almost the same countries at the top and bottom of the list although the difference is now smaller (although there is still a difference of 150% between Turkey and Ireland). In an open market with free competition these differences should make it possible to exchange services over the borders to a higher extent. On a country-by-country basis it is interesting to see the differences between the earnings for the different positions. Principals earn, on average, more than double the amount that freelancers earn. There are several countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Luxemburg, Malta and Slovenia) where the average earnings of sole principals is greater than that of partners and directors. Public employees earn, on average across Europe, approximately 75% of the amount earned by principals. But the difference is very small in some countries. In Belgium, Finland, France, Germany and Slovenia average public sector pay is higher than in the private sector. On the other hand private earnings are only significantly better in a very few countries (like Romania and Turkey). If the architectural profession aims to attract the best young people in the future it should be able to offer them much better salaries than those in the public sector. There is a dramatic difference in the earnings between the two genders. The average earnings for full time male architects is €39,600. For female architects it is only €23,436. In a situation where more women enter the architectural profession this will be a challenge for the future attraction of new staff. We do not know what the picture is on the general labour market. The highest proportion of architects in Europe expect to retire between the ages of 65 and 69 years. In Turkey the retirement is much earlier,

since 47% expect to retire before the age of 60. In Austria 57% expect to retire after the age of 70 (or never). Keeping experienced architects on the market and at the same time giving room for younger and more creative people is a challenge in some countries. The highest number of hours worked is recorded for sole principals and for partners/directors. They both work more than 50 hours per week on average. Architects working for public sector work only 43 hours per week (but not in the Netherlands). The longest working weeks for private practice salaried architects are recorded in Belgium, Austria and Turkey (close to 50 hours per week). In Finland and in Denmark these employees work less than 40 hours per week. In general European architects are satisfied with their choice of career (7.7 out of 10). However, satisfaction with earnings is only 4.7 out of 10. The highest satisfaction levels are recorded by public sector architects and the lowest by principals/directors in the private sector. Geographically, architects in the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands record the highest satisfaction levels. Satisfaction with earnings for private employees (other than partners/directors) is highest in Denmark (7.2 out of 10) and lowest in Austria (3.9 out of 10). In the public sector architects in Luxemburg are very satisfied with their salary (9.2 out if 10). Satisfaction with the business environment does not present a big variation from the other satisfaction parameters. With an average satisfaction of 6.2 out of 10 the highest satisfaction is found in Denmark (7.4) and the lowest in Turkey (5.8). There seem to be a close correlation between some findings in the study. In Turkey the revenue and earnings are low with long working hours. So the architects in Turkey would like to retire at an early age and they are not satisfied. On the other hand, in Denmark the reputation is good and the earnings are high with less working hours. So the satisfaction is high. 7th May 2009

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survey background Introduction & Survey Methodology This Sector Study was commissioned by the Architects’ Council of Europe (ACE), the representative body for the architectural profession at European level, whose Members are the national representative and regulatory bodies of the profession in all EU Member States, Accession States, Norway and Switzerland. It is the first comprehensive Study of the architectural profession carried out in Europe. All 32 countries from which the ACE drew its membership at the time of the study in 2008 were invited to participate and 17 countries fully participated. Additionally, several other countries, who had recently

carried out national studies, shared the results of those studies with the ACE and hence could also be considered. It was with the direct cooperation of the Member Organisations of the ACE that it was possible to carry out the Study and the results obtained belong to them and to the ACE. Given the complexity of this undertaking, the Study was carried out in a number of phases as described here below. Phase I of this research was conducted by the ACE in 2007. The method was to gather information by way of a written questionnaire sent to Member Organisations. Twenty countries

TABLE A-1 On-line survey response (Phase II) respondents to architect survey

respondents to principal survey

total number of replies

total contacted by email

response rate, %

Austria

0

160

160

526

30

Belgium

96

222

318

2101

15

Denmark

130

29

159

850

19

Estonia

8

17

25

70

36

Finland

146

57

203

344

59

France

30

112

142

1500

9

1375

2085

3460

12000

29

Greece

147

247

394

1700

23

Ireland

78

69

147

410

36

Luxembourg

14

61

75

543

14

Malta

61

34

95

400

24

Germany

Netherlands

27

91

118

1167

10

202

405

607

3070

20

Slovenia

42

54

96

688

14

Sweden

267

96

363

1188

31

Turkey

893

701

1594

15981

10

92

35

127

1450

9

3608

4475

8083

43988

18

Romania

United Kingdom EUROPE - 17

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took part. A further ‘interim phase’ of this research was conducted subsequently at end 2007 – early 2008 amongst these twenty participants, of whom 13 responded.

which simply did not exist in many countries. So rather than continue to approach Member Organisations for information they might only be able to guess at, our approach was to gather this information directly from architects.

A very large volume of background information has been collected. The results of the questionnaire research conducted directly with the Member Organisations were presented in an internal document to the ACE. The results are very useful and much of the raw data has been used to ‘inform’ and check against the statistics gathered in Phase II. Our observation is that the responses to the Phase I questionnaire are in many cases unclear and need “cleaning”. Figures do not always add to 100 per cent, some figures are inconsistent, and there is an issue in the interpretation of the questions. The research appears to have been assembled by many different individuals who may have made various different assumptions and have different understandings about what has been asked.

The results of Phase II therefore are based on an on-line questionnaire survey, which was conducted in five languages amongst the architect members of seventeen ACE Member Organisations. At least one Member Organisation in each of the 32 ACE countries was invited to participate. The methodology was as follows: 1. Member Organisations were asked to select a sample of their architect members – generally one in five of members for whom an email address was available. Organisations with small numbers of architects were asked to select one in two architects.

To move this project on we proposed an ambitious research survey. We felt the ACE was seeking data

2. Member Organisations constructed and sent out to the sample an email which

CHART A-1 On-line survey (Phase II) timetable and when countries joined the survey start

end

first period: seven countries participate

number of respondents

2500

Estonia Greece Ireland Malta Romania Sweden

summer break, no new mailings or reminders, few responses

Slovenia

second period: ten more countries participate

Austria Finland France Germany Netherlands Turkey

Belgium Luxembourg Denmark United Kingdom

2000 1500 1000

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ov

-N

17

N o 01 v -D ec

1

ov

N

10

24 -

1

ct

O 3-

-O c 27 t -O c 03 t -N ov

0

p

ep Se 22

S 5-

20

ep

S 8-

O ct

p

Se

01

ep

g

Au

25

06 -

g

Au

11

29 -S

g

Au

04

ug

n

Ju

30

18 -A

n

Ju

23

07 -

0

Ju 14 l -J u 21 l -J ul 28 -J ul

500

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included a link to the on-line questionnaire. Two ‘reminder’ emails were sent out to architects who did not respond.

TABLE A-2 Statistical validity: Accuracy of results, plus or minus xx per cent at the 95% confidence level

3. architects were guided to the on-line survey form which could be read and completed in any one of five different languages. The information they provided was submitted electronically to the research team, no-one at either the Member Organisation or the ACE saw the personal reply.

accuracy within range of plus or minus: (%) *

4. all data was aggregated and analysed by the research team. The fieldwork stage of this research was undertaken in two periods, either side of the summer holiday. The first Member Organisations began sending out emails in June 2008; most of whom had completed the two reminders by July. The remaining countries began their mailout in September and October 2008, with all countries having completed their reminders by November. The UK Member Organisation was only able to send out one email to its Members so no reminders were sent.

Austria

8

Belgium

5

Denmark

8

Estonia

19

Finland

7

France

8

Germany

2

Greece

5

Ireland

8

Luxembourg

11

Malta

9

Netherlands

9

Romania

4

Slovenia

10

Sweden

5

Turkey

2

United Kingdom

9

EUROPE - 17

1

* this means we are 95 per cent confident that the results are accurate to within + or - 1 per cent overall, or within + or - xx per cent for each individual country

CHART A-2 Countries participating in the on-line survey (Phase II)

Finland

Sweden

participant Estonia

non-participant

Denmark Netherlands

Ireland United Kingdom Belgium Luxembourg

Germany Austria Slovenia Romania

France Turkey

Malta

Greece

NB: Malta has been enlarged on all maps to aid visibility - it is not to scale

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Substantial work by the Member Organisations was undertaken in identifying the sample and subsequently organising the contact with their members; we are very grateful indeed for all the help and support these 17 Member Organisations have provided. A number of Member Organisations in other countries spent considerable time in attempting to participate, ultimately without success; we thank them too. Responses to the survey were received electronically, a total of 8,083 architects replied. The overall response rate is 18 per cent, and both figures are well above expectations. Turkey and Germany sent out the largest number of survey invitations and produced the largest numbers of respondents; over half of all respondents came from these two countries. Countries with very high response rates are Finland (59 per cent); Estonia (36 per cent); Ireland (36 per cent); Austria (30 per cent) and Sweden (31 per cent). In these, and several other countries, the response rates are outstanding. Only in the Netherlands, UK and France were response rates around 10 per cent, possibly due in part to questionnaire fatigue. (The UK was unable to send out any ‘reminder’ emails) The response is considered satisfactory for the level of analysis undertaken. The statistical validity of these results is tabulated left; overall, the results are accurate to within + / - 1 per cent at the 95 per cent confidence level. The accuracy varies for each individual country and these + / - levels should be regarded very carefully when making comparisons between countries. We are extremely grateful to the thousands of architects who participated in this survey. The online questionnaire did ask for a lot of information, and we were originally concerned we might dampen response by asking for too much. The fact that over 8,000 architects participated, most of whom completed all sections of the questionnaire, is remarkable and again displays an enthusiasm within the profession for this study. The huge response to this survey is well beyond our expectations, and ensures the results have statistical significance.

Definitions Architects Persons who are professionally and academically qualified and generally registered / licensed / certified to practice architecture in the jurisdiction in which he or she resides and who are responsible for advocating the fair and sustainable development, welfare, and cultural expression of society’s habitat in terms of space, forms and historical context. Architectural students Full-time or part-time students following a recognised course of architectural studies leading to a qualification listed in Annexe V7 of the Qualifications Directive (2005/36/EC). Architectural Staff Comprises Principals, Partners & Directors; Associates: Architects; Technical staff. Architectural Practices The form of structure through which architects practice the architectural profession. It includes sole principals, partnerships, and limited companies. Sole Principal An Architect, working independently, who provides a full range of architectural services to clients. Revenue The total income earned, through the provision of services, by an architectural practice in a tax year. Not Economically Active Not engaged in the practice of architecture or any directly associated activity such as research or teaching. Include architects who are retired and who are unemployed. Freelance Architect An architect who contracts his/her services to an architectural practice or organisation and does not accept commissions directly from clients. Statistical Definitions Confidence Level The likelihood that the results are real and repeatable, and have not occurred randomly If the Confidence Level is 50% then the results would be random, We select a Confidence Level of 95% which suggests if you repeat this exercise there is a 95% chance you will achieve similar results Accuracy of Results The range of accuracy of the findings, at a given Confidence Level. So table A-2 shows that the ‘Europe 17’ totals are accurate to within plus or minus 1 per cent, at the 95% Confidence Level. This means that, for example, the proportion of architects who are women is quoted as being 37 per cent, but we can be 95% certain that the “true” figure lies between 36 and 38 per cent. Accuracy of results for each country differs. Taking Sweden as an example, its results are accurate to within +/- 5 %. The quoted figure (table 1-4) is 51 per cent of architects are women, the ‘true’ proportion of women architects in Sweden lies between 46 and 56 per cent. Mean A type of average, where individual data are added together and then divided by the number of pieces of data, Median A type of average calculated by placing all individual data in order of magnitude and selecting the middle value. Quartile An indication of the bottom or top quarter of the sample, calculated by placing all individual data in order of magnitude. The Lower Quartile is the value one quarter the way up and the Upper Quartile is the value three quarters the way up this list of data.

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Summary number of countries in Sector Study: 32 = “Europe - 32” number of countries participated in on-line survey: 17 = “Europe - 17” number of countries that provided relevant national surveys: 3 total number of respondents to on-line survey: 8083 response rate: 18 per cent estimated number of architects in Europe - 32: 483,000 estimated number of architects in Europe - 17: 255,850 estimated size of construction industry in Europe - 32: €1,650 billion estimated size of architectural market in Europe - 32: €22 billion number of architectural practices in Europe - 17: 69,800 average earnings of architects: €36,686 per cent women architects: 37 per cent per cent economically active (working full or part-time): 84 per cent of whom:

per cent Freelance architects: 9 per cent per cent Sole Principals: 24 per cent

per cent architects aged under 40: 42 per cent per cent architects aged 40 to 54: 40 per cent per cent architects aged 55 and over: 18 per cent per cent working or resident in the same country as they are registered: 93 per cent per cent who think architects are viewed ‘quite highly’ or ‘very highly’ by the general public: 37 per cent by fellow professionals: 53 per cent

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Summary: Top Five Countries Largest number of architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey UK

123,000 95,000 45,000 32,000 32,000

Highest proportion male architects Netherlands Austria Estonia Malta UK

86% 85% 84% 81% 79%

Highest average earnings Ireland Netherlands Denmark Luxembourg UK

€65,000 €54,000 €53,720 €50,000 €49,650

Largest architectural market Italy Germany UK France Turkey

€5700m €4000m €2800m €1100m €700m

Note: Italy and Spain did not participate in this survey but did provide relevant national surveys* that allowed the research team to include information on these countries in this section only of the report

Highest proportion female architects France Greece Sweden Finland Denmark

56% 52% 51% 50% 49%

Highest proportion of architects working outside own country Ireland Malta Austria Luxembourg France

18% 14% 13% 11% 8%

Highest level of satisfaction (Quality of Life rating, 1 to 10)

Denmark Sweden Netherlands Finland Ireland

7.9 7.8 7.7 7.5 6.7

* Sources: CRESME / CNAPPC, 2008, Il mercato della progettazione architecttonica in italia, p. 82 Cabral et al, Lisbon University for Portugese Order of Architects, 2006, Profession Report, Architect. Consejo Superior de los Colegios de Arquitectos de Espan / Fundacion caja de arquitectos, 2007, Informe Arquitectos 2007

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Architects in Europe The Sector Study was aimed at 32 countries: Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France FYROM Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom

1

The number of Architects in Europe

Europe - 32 has an estimated 483,000 architects. One quarter (25 per cent) of architects are based in just one country; Italy. The second highest number of architects is recorded in Germany, accounting for 20 per cent to of the Europe total. Third highest is Spain, with 45,000 architects and three countries - Turkey, the UK and France – have around 30,000 architects each (between 6 and 7 per cent of the Europe total). So these six countries together account for 74 per cent of all of Europe’s architects. Comparing the number of architects with the general population is another way of examining country variations. There are approximately 0.8 architects per 1000 of Europe’s population. The highest ‘density’ of architects occurs in Italy (2.1 architects per 1000 population), FYROM and Portugal. The lowest ‘density’ of architects is recorded in Eastern Europe – Slovakia, Latvia, Czech Republic and Romania, each recording 0.3 or fewer architects per 1000 population. The range in the ‘density’ statistic across Europe is huge; in Italy there is one architect for every 485 people while in Slovakia the ratios nearly ten times lower at one architect for every 4155 people.

In this report, when data refers to all of these countries it is labelled ‘EUROPE - 32’. Seventeen of these countries participated in the on-line survey. Totals for all survey country participants are labelled ‘EUROPE - 17’. Page 12

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TABLE 1-1 Estimated number of architects in each country and number of architects per 1000 population number of architects

population

architects per 1000 population

Austria

3,800

8,331,930

0.5

Belgium

11,500

10,666,866

1.1

Bulgaria

3,500

7,640,238

0.5

Croatia

3,000

4,435,383

0.7

Cyprus

430

794,580

0.5

Czech Republic

3,000

10,381,130

0.3

Denmark

7,000

5,475,791

1.3

Estonia

700

1,340,935

0.5

Finland

3,600

5,300,484

0.7

France

29,400

63,753,140

0.5

FYROM

3,000

2,045,177

1.5

Germany

95,000

82,221,808

1.2

Greece

15,000

11,214,992

1.3

Hungary

4,000

10,045,000

0.4

Ireland

3,500

4,419,859

0.8

123,000

59,618,114

2.1

Italy Latvia

700

2,270,894

0.3

2,000

3,366,357

0.6

Luxembourg

600

483,799

1.2

Malta

500

410,584

1.2

Netherlands

9,100

16,404,282

0.6

Norway

3,600

4,737,171

0.8

Poland

13,500

38,115,641

0.4

Portugal

16,300

10,617,575

1.5

Romania

5,500

21,528,627

0.3

Slovakia

1,300

5,400,998

0.2

Slovenia

1,350

2,025,866

0.7

45,000

45,283,259

1.0

5,400

9,182,927

0.6

Lithuania

Spain Sweden Switzerland

5,300

7,591,414

0.7

Turkey

32,300

70,586,256

0.5

United Kingdom

31,600

61,185,981

0.5

483,480

586,877,058

0.8

EUROPE - 32

Population source: Eurostat, population as at 1 January 2008, copyright (c) Eurostat Architects source: Various sources, the starting point was the research publication produced by COAC - Architectural Practice Around the World research by the ColClegi d’Arquitectes de Catalunya (COAC), based on information supplied by national institutes and associations of architects of the individual countries. Further data was collected by ACE in Phase I of this research, we attempted to verify all figures using a mixture of primary and secondary sources including Member Organisations’ websites, telephone / email. Very often different sources produced conflicting figures, sometimes substantially different. Final figures are our best estimates based on these several different sources. All figures are ‘latest available’.

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

Page 13


Mirza & Nacey Research

CHART 1-1 Number of architects per 1000 population

number of architects per 1,000 population under 0.5 0.5 to 0.9 1.0 to 1.4 1.5 and over

CHART 1-2 Estimated number of architects in each European country Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Greece Poland Portugal Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Ireland Bulgaria Czech Republic Croatia FYR Macedonia Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta Cyprus 0

Page 14

10

20

30

40

50 60 70 80 number of architects, 000's

90

100

110

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

120

130


Mirza & Nacey Research

Where architects work The vast majority – 93 per cent – of architects work or reside in the same country as they are registered in. The highest proportions of architects working / resident outside their ‘home’ country are in Ireland (18 per cent), Malta (14 per cent of architects work outside Malta), Austria (13 per cent) and Luxembourg (11 per cent).

TABLE 1-2 Proportion of architects working / resident in a different country from the one in which they are registered per cent

architects working / resident in different country from the one in which registered (%)

Austria

12.5

Belgium

4.2

Denmark

3.3

Estonia

<1

Finland

<1

France

8.3

Germany

7.9

Greece

6.0

Ireland

18.2

Luxembourg

11.1

Malta

14.3

Netherlands

6.7

Romania

6.3

Slovenia

<1

Sweden

5.9

Turkey

6.4

United Kingdom

6.3

EUROPE - 17*

7.0

* EUROPE - 17 figure is a weighted average and takes account of the number of architects in each participating country

CHART 1-3 Proportion of architects working in another country

proportion of architects working in another country under 5% 5% to 9% 10% to 14% over 15% no response

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

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Mirza & Nacey Research

Profile of Architects TABLE 1-3 Gender of architects analysed by country per cent

CHART 1-4 Male / female split, all responding architects

gender of architects male

female

Austria

85

15

Belgium

76

24

Denmark

51

49

Estonia

84

16

Finland

50

50

France

44

56

Germany

71

29

Greece

48

52

Ireland

77

23

Luxembourg

69

31

Malta

81

19

Netherlands

86

14

Romania

52

48

Slovenia

54

46

Sweden

49

51

Turkey

53

47

United Kingdom

79

21

EUROPE - 17 *

63

37

* weighted to reflect the total architectural population in all 17 countries. The weighting process is explained in the Appendix.

CHART 1-5 Proportion of women architects

female male

The male / female split across Europe averages at around one third female, two thirds male. In five countries the profession is predominantly male; 80 per cent or more of architects in Austria, Estonia, Malta and the Netherlands are male. However, in four countries women form the majority of the profession. Over 50 per cent of architects are female in Finland, France, Greece and Sweden; while in Denmark, Romania, Slovenia and Turkey over 45 per cent of architects are female.

proportion of women architects under 20% 20% to 34% 35% to 49% 50% and over no response

Page 16

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

Employment Status TABLE 1-4 Employment status of architects analysed by country per cent

working full-time

working part-time

not economically active

Austria

66

3

31

Belgium

94

4

2

Denmark

74

11

15

Estonia

88

8

4

Finland

69

6

25

France

88

5

7

Germany

73

10

17

Greece

74

9

17

Ireland

88

10

3

Luxembourg

74

12

14

Malta

87

6

7

Netherlands

84

10

6

Romania

78

5

17

Slovenia

90

4

6

Sweden

75

10

15

Turkey

61

6

34

United Kingdom

87

4

9

EUROPE - 17

77

8

16

CHART 1-6 Employment status of architects

Seventy seven per cent of architects are working full-time, 8 per cent working part-time. The highest level of part-time working is in Luxembourg (12 per cent) and Denmark (11 per cent), closely followed by Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden each with 10 per cent.

not economically active

working part-time

16 per cent of all architects in Europe are not economically active - retired, unemployed, or not working for other reasons. working full-time

The original survey results have been amended using data collected for Phase I of this study to take account of a perceived under-reporting of retired and not economically active respondents. See the Appendix for a further explanation.

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

Page 17


Mirza & Nacey Research

Years Qualified as an Architect TABLE 1-5 Number of years qualified as an Architect, analysed by country per cent

number of years qualified as an architect 1

2

3 to 5

6 to 9

10 to 14

15 to 19

20 to 24

25 +

Austria

5

1

11

17

19

18

12

16

Belgium

9

4

10

16

14

9

12

25

Denmark

6

4

13

17

13

9

10

28

Estonia

0

0

4

12

20

12

16

36

Finland

0

3

10

15

15

14

11

32

France

1

0

2

23

25

3

24

23

Germany

1

2

9

18

18

18

12

22

Greece

4

8

19

13

10

9

9

27

Ireland

0

0

6

23

24

15

13

18

Luxembourg

1

1

7

15

17

19

20

20

Malta

2

6

20

18

10

18

6

19

Netherlands

1

4

8

13

10

14

22

29

Romania

0

1

17

17

16

7

9

30

Slovenia

1

1

4

27

33

7

8

20

Sweden

6

6

14

13

11

6

10

33

Turkey

5

8

16

15

14

11

11

20

United Kingdom

11

5

16

16

13

9

10

20

EUROPE - 17 *

4

3

11

17

17

12

13

23

* weighted to reflect the total architectural population in all 17 countries.

Almost a quarter of architects (23 per cent) have been fully qualified as an Architect for 25 years or more. Another 25 per cent have been qualified for between 15 and 24 years. Eighteen per cent have been qualified for five years or less. The highest levels of the most experienced architects are recorded in Estonia (36 per cent have been qualified for 25 or more years), Finland (32 per cent), Sweden (33 per cent) and Romania (30 per cent). The highest proportion of architects qualified for five years or less are recorded in Belgium (23 per cent), Greece (31 per cent), Malta (28 per cent), Sweden (26 per cent), Turkey (29 per cent) and the UK (32 per cent). Interestingly, Sweden emerges as having high proportions architects at both ends of the experience range.

Page 18

CHART 1-7 Number of years architects have been qualified 1

2 3-5

25+

20-24

6-9

15-19

10-14

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Mirza & Nacey Research

Age of Architect The age profile of the profession is skewed towards younger age groups; 42 per cent are aged under 40. The profession peaks at a relatively young age, in the age range between 35 and 39, after which numbers decline. A quarter (23 per cent) of the profession is aged under 35, with slightly more (32 per cent) aged between 35 and 44. Thus, a little over half of the profession is aged under 45. Another 27 per cent is aged between 45 and 54. Countries with the youngest profile are Turkey (48 per cent aged under 35), Belgium (41 per cent) and Malta (46 per cent). Countries with the highest proportion of architects aged over 55 are Denmark (26 per cent), Finland (29 per cent), the Netherlands (28

per cent) and Sweden (30 per cent). Fewer than 10 per cent of architects are aged 60 or over. The age profile is younger for women than it is for men. The peak age group for women is five years younger than for men, and 55 per cent of women architects are aged under 40 compared with 35 per cent of men. Fewer than 10 per cent of women architects are aged 55 or more, compared with 22 per cent of men.

CHART 1-8 Age profile of architects

per cent architects

20

15

10

5

0

<30

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

50-54

55-59

60-64

65+

age

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

Page 19


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 1-6 Age of Architects analysed by country per cent

age of architects <30

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

50-54

55-59

60-64

65+

Austria

0

4

20

23

13

17

9

7

8

Belgium

25

16

13

9

12

8

9

6

3

Denmark

4

18

18

13

9

11

16

10

0

Estonia

4

12

20

12

12

16

8

4

12

Finland

4

11

17

16

11

14

20

8

1

France

1

6

40

3

10

28

8

4

0

Germany

2

12

17

19

18

13

10

5

4

Greece

21

18

14

7

9

14

10

6

2

Ireland

4

25

27

12

10

12

5

3

2

Luxembourg

3

13

23

15

21

12

7

3

4

Malta

23

23

7

16

12

8

7

3

0

Netherlands

3

12

17

11

16

14

15

12

1

Romania

12

23

13

10

6

15

14

5

3

Slovenia

2

20

30

17

9

4

11

7

0

Sweden

10

16

15

9

9

11

13

9

8

Turkey

30

18

13

10

9

9

5

3

2

United Kingdom

12

20

19

13

11

12

10

5

0

EUROPE - 17*

9

14

19

13

13

14

10

5

2

* weighted to reflect the total architectural population in all 17 countries

CHART 1-9 Population pyramid - analysis of architects by age and gender 65+ 65+ 60-64 60-64 55-59 55-59 50-54 50-54 45-49 45-49 40-44 40-44 35-39 35-39 30-34 30-34 <30 <30 30 25 20 15

10

5

per cent males

Page 20

0

0

5

10 15 20 25 30 per cent females

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Mirza & Nacey Research

CHART 1-10 Proportion of architects aged under 45

proportion of architects aged under 45 40% to 49% 50% to 59% 60% to 69% 70% and over no response

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

Page 21


Mirza & Nacey Research

Field of Employment

TABLE 1-7 Field of Employment of Architects

CHART 1-11 Field of Employment other public education local authority / government other private

per cent architects working

sole principal

freelance

in house / agency

salaried private practice

partner / director associate

sole principal

24

partner / director

16

associate

5

private practice salaried

22

in - house

3

agency

6

freelance

9

other private

4

local authority - municipal

5

local authority - regional

1

central government

1

education

2

health

<1

other public

3

chef de project

<1

EUROPE - 17 *

100

* weighted to reflect the total architectural population in all 17 countries

A significant proportion of architects operate alone as Sole Principals (24 per cent) and Freelancers (9 per cent) which is typical of the ‘liberal professions’. Including Sole Principals, private practice dominates and accounts for more than two thirds of the profession (67 per cent). One quarter (27 per cent) of architects work in private practice as salaried architects (including Associates), while the remainder are Principals, Partners or Directors, with an equity stake in the practice. Outside private practice, the principal employer is Government and Local Authorities. Five per cent of architects work for a Municipal Local Authority, 1 per cent for a Regional Local Authority and 1 per cent for Central Government or its agencies. Taken together, the public sector employs 13 per cent of the profession. Private practice is the largest employment field in most countries. The highest level of architects employed in private practices is in Austria (99 per cent). The highest proportion of architects who are Sole Principals is in Austria (66 per cent) and Germany (40 per cent), while the lowest

Page 22

proportions are in Malta (9 per cent), Sweden (8 per cent) and the UK (8 per cent). The concept of a ‘Freelance’ architect varies significantly between countries, with many reporting zero per cent while others as many as one in four architects. Highest levels of Freelance architects are in Belgium (22 per cent), France (25 per cent) and Greece (23 per cent). Fewer architects are employed in the public sector than the private sector in all countries. But here too there are significant variations between the countries. Local Authorities account for a very similar proportion (21 or 22 per cent) in each of Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Local Authority employment in each of these three Scandinavian countries is not only at a remarkably consistent level but is also well above the levels recorded in any other country. Only in Malta, where 13 per cent of architects work in Central Government, is there a noticeably higher public sector presence than anywhere outside Scandinavia.

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

Austria

66

30

1

Belgium

21

12

Denmark

11

7

Estonia

16

Finland

12

France

2

0

0

0

1

5

3

0

23

22

6

26

4

4

2

56

8

12

0

4

4

12

0

31

1

5

2

23

5

12

6

1

23

Germany

40

14

1

19

5

Greece

14

15

6

13

1

Ireland

16

23

14

26

1

Luxembourg

31

14

8

7

1

Malta

9

15

4

31

1

Netherlands

31

45

5

9

3

Romania

14

23

12

25

Slovenia

18

13

10

23

Sweden

8

10

5

Turkey

10

20

2

United Kingdom

8

17

EUROPE - 17 *

24

16

other public

education

central govt

local authority

other private

freelance

agency

in-house

private practice salaried

partner director

sole principal

per cent

associate

TABLE 1-8 Architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; field of employment by country

0

0

0

0

5

6

0

0

3

6

21

3

4

6

0

0

0

0

0

3

21

4

4

4

25

1

1

1

1

3

3

3

4

7

0

1

3

3

23

4

7

1

6

8

1

2

3

6

2

1

3

15

16

1

5

0

0

1

2

12

3

5

13

1

4

0

3

0

2

0

2

1

1

6

10

3

2

1

3

2

2

5

18

2

5

0

1

2

30

1

4

6

2

22

3

6

3

33

1

2

13

2

6

1

6

5

13

43

4

0

1

7

5

0

1

2

5

22

3

6

9

4

6

1

2

3

* weighted to reflect the total architectural population in all 17 countries

CHART 1-12 Main employment fields by country sole principal

partner / director

other private

other public

private practice salaried

freelance

local & central government

Austria Estonia Netherlands United Kingdom Ireland Germany Romania Turkey Slovenia Luxembourg Malta Finland Sweden Denmark Greece France Belgium 0

20

40 60 per cent respondents

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

80

100

Page 23


Mirza & Nacey Research

The Profession’s Reputation This section of the survey reports on how architects believe they are perceived by others. This data is architects rating themselves. Architect respondents feel they are regarded ‘quite highly’ or ‘very highly’ by about half (48 per cent) of their clients, but by only 37 per cent of the public, and by 31 per cent of others in the construction industry. Fifty three per cent believe their fellow professionals rate

them ‘quite’ or ‘very highly, while only 32 per cent believe they are rated ‘quite’ or ‘very’ highly by public authorities. And 6 per cent of respondents believe they are perceived ‘very poorly’ by public authorities – the highest negative score recorded. The profession believes its public regard is highest in the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands, while the lowest regard emerges in Slovenia, France and Estonia.

CHART 1-13 How well architects think they are regarded - summary chart, ranked, highest first very poorly

quite poorly

neutral

quite highly

very highly

fellow professionals clients

the public

public authorities

others in construction industry

0

20

40 60 per cent respondents

80

CHART 1-14 (right) How well architects think they are regarded by the general public

per cent respondent architects who think they are viewed ‘quite’ or ‘very highly by the general public below 30% 30% to 49% 50% to 69% 70% and over no response

Page 24

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

100


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 1-9 How well Architects think they are regarded by the general public - country analysis per cent

perception of architects very poorly

quite poorly

neutral

quite highly

very highly

Austria

5

27

36

29

4

Belgium

5

38

30

24

2

Denmark

1

6

27

57

9

Estonia

0

36

52

12

0

Finland

6

25

25

40

3

France

11

35

33

19

1

Germany

5

25

32

33

5

Greece

8

24

30

32

7

Ireland

5

28

36

29

1

Luxembourg

0

20

37

39

4

Malta

5

13

46

29

6

Netherlands

2

14

37

43

4

Romania

4

25

32

33

7

Slovenia

3

46

29

18

3

Sweden

1

14

30

44

12

Turkey

8

22

39

26

5

United Kingdom

7

20

32

34

7

EUROPE - 17

5

24

33

32

5

CHART 1-15 How well Architects think they are regarded by the general public - ranked, highest first very poorly

quite poorly

neutral

quite highly

very highly

Denmark Sweden Netherlands Finland Luxembourg United Kingdom Romania Greece Germany Malta Austria Turkey Ireland Belgium Slovenia France Estonia 0

20

40 60 per cent respondents

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

80

100

Page 25


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 1-10 How well Architects think they are regarded by fellow professionals - country analysis

per cent

perception of architects very poorly

quite poorly

neutral

quite highly

very highly

Austria

1

2

35

47

14

Belgium

1

17

36

42

4

Denmark

1

1

11

64

23

Estonia

0

4

28

60

8

Finland

0

5

27

59

8

France

1

21

25

48

5

Germany

1

7

35

50

7

Greece

3

12

31

45

8

Ireland

1

6

27

56

10

Luxembourg

0

4

24

53

19

Malta

0

7

38

51

4

Netherlands

0

4

33

57

5

Romania

1

9

28

50

14

Slovenia

0

20

35

38

7

Sweden

0

4

19

63

13

Turkey

3

13

58

24

2

United Kingdom

2

10

27

54

7

EUROPE - 17

1

9

37

46

7

CHART 1-16 How well Architects think they are regarded by fellow professionals - ranked, highest first

very poorly

quite poorly

neutral

quite highly

very highly

Denmark Sweden Luxembourg Estonia Finland Ireland Romania Netherlands Austria United Kingdom Germany Malta France Greece Belgium Slovenia Turkey 0

Page 26

20

40 60 per cent respondents

80

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

100


Mirza & Nacey Research

CHART 1-17 How well architects think they are regarded by fellow professionals

per cent respondent architects who think they are viewed ‘quite’ or ‘very highly by fellow professionals below 30% 30% to 49% 50% to 69% 70% and over no response

CHART 1-18 How well architects think they are regarded by others in the construction industry

per cent respondent architects who think they are viewed ‘quite’ or ‘very highly by others in construction below 30% 30% to 49% 50% to 69% 70% and over no response

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

Page 27


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 1-11 How well Architects think they are regarded by others in the construction industry - country analysis per cent

perception of architects very poorly

quite poorly

neutral

quite highly

very highly

Austria

4

23

40

31

2

Belgium

3

24

41

31

1

Denmark

0

13

40

46

2

Estonia

0

20

40

40

0

Finland

2

22

35

40

1

France

2

28

46

23

1

Germany

2

27

41

28

1

Greece

5

22

36

32

4

Ireland

1

17

41

39

2

Luxembourg

1

19

27

49

4

Malta

2

9

34

54

1

Netherlands

0

29

33

34

4

Romania

1

18

34

43

4

Slovenia

6

37

47

11

0

Sweden

2

31

43

24

0

Turkey

3

19

53

22

2

United Kingdom

10

27

38

24

0

EUROPE - 17

3

24

42

29

2

CHART 1-19 How well Architects think they are regarded by others in the construction industry - ranked, highest first very poorly

quite poorly

neutral

quite highly

very highly

Malta Luxembourg Denmark Romania Ireland Finland Estonia Netherlands Greece Austria Belgium Germany Turkey United Kingdom France Sweden Slovenia 0

Page 28

20

40 60 per cent respondents

80

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

100


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 1-12 How well Architects think they are regarded by clients - country analysis

per cent

perception of architects very poorly

quite poorly

neutral

quite highly

very highly

Austria

0

8

27

49

17

Belgium

3

12

34

48

3

Denmark

0

3

21

71

6

Estonia

0

12

28

56

4

Finland

0

5

24

61

9

France

0

14

24

52

10

Germany

1

11

31

51

6

Greece

4

15

31

43

7

Ireland

1

12

29

58

1

Luxembourg

0

3

27

57

13

Malta

3

7

37

50

2

Netherlands

0

5

29

63

3

Romania

3

14

30

45

9

Slovenia

0

27

36

33

4

Sweden

0

4

31

59

6

Turkey

11

33

42

13

2

United Kingdom

1

13

32

48

5

EUROPE - 17

3

15

33

43

5

CHART 1-20 How well Architects think they are regarded by clients - ranked, highest first very poorly

quite poorly

neutral

quite highly

very highly

Denmark Finland Luxembourg Netherlands Austria Sweden France Estonia Ireland Germany United Kingdom Romania Malta Belgium Greece Slovenia Turkey 0

20

40 60 per cent respondents

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

80

100

Page 29


Mirza & Nacey Research

CHART 1-21 How well architects think they are regarded by clients

per cent respondent architects who think they are viewed ‘quite’ or ‘very highly by clients below 30% 30% to 49% 50% to 69% 70% and over no response

CHART 1-22 How well architects think they are regarded by public authorities

per cent respondent architects who think they are viewed ‘quite’ or ‘very highly by public authorities below 30% 30% to 49% 50% to 69% 70% and over no response

Page 30

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 1-13 How well Architects think they are regarded by public authorities - country analysis

per cent

perception of architects very poorly

quite poorly

neutral

quite highly

very highly

Austria

0

13

39

42

6

Belgium

10

27

34

28

1

Denmark

0

3

31

61

6

Estonia

0

28

48

24

0

Finland

2

11

39

45

2

France

1

28

43

26

2

Germany

2

15

43

37

2

Greece

16

29

37

16

2

Ireland

5

21

38

33

3

Luxembourg

8

16

36

36

4

Malta

5

21

41

32

1

Netherlands

0

16

43

40

2

Romania

11

28

38

20

3

Slovenia

10

32

40

18

0

Sweden

2

15

38

42

2

Turkey

11

30

45

12

2

United Kingdom

6

18

50

25

2

EUROPE - 17

6

20

42

30

2

CHART 1-23 How well Architects think they are regarded by public authorities - ranked, highest first very poorly

quite poorly

neutral

quite highly

very highly

Denmark Finland Austria Sweden Netherlands Germany Luxembourg Ireland Malta Belgium France United Kingdom Estonia Romania Greece Slovenia Turkey 0

20

40 60 per cent respondents

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

80

100

Page 31


Mirza & Nacey Research

Architecture the Market The Construction Market in Europe

2

The total value of the European construction market (‘Europe - 32’) is estimated to be worth in excess of €1,650 billion per year. This includes civil engineering and infrastructure work.

Construction output has been growing in each of the last ten years. The estimated figure for 2007 is an all-time peak value, up by 4 per cent since the previous year.

There are four significant players, who together account for 54 per cent of total construction output: the UK, France, Germany and Italy.

Construction output measured per head of the general population works out at €2826 per person. The highest output per head is in Luxembourg, Norway and Ireland - each is over €7,000 per person.

CHART 2-1 Value of Construction Output, average per head

2007 Construction Output per head population under €2,000 €2,000 to €3,999 €4,000 to €5,999 €6,000 and over no data available

Page 32

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 2-1 Size of construction market

Millions of Euros (or ECU up to 31.12.98)

€ millions

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Austria

26,487

27,037

27,834

28,590

28,211

28,591

30,510

31,622

32,669

34,973

37,544

Belgium

30,368

30,691

33,761

35,862

36,688

36,394

37,680

40,126

42,659

48,680

52,987

Bulgaria

738

1,205

1,396

1,507

1,727

1,813

2,088

2,866

3,999

5,321

n/a

Croatia

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Cyprus

1,103

1,149

1,192

1,234

1,324

1,453

1,599

1,834

2,117

2,273

n/a

Czech Republic

11,805

12,426

12,182

12,880

14,255

17,011

17,904

18,686

21,101

25,665

27,934

Denmark

18,167

18,997

19,553

20,550

21,408

21,550

22,492

23,337

25,140

28,552

n/a

Estonia

819

1,075

998

938

1,058

1,252

1,352

1,503

1,992

2,569

n/a

Finland

11,922

13,665

15,099

17,077

17,709

17,457

17,667

18,859

20,867

22,665

26,077

France

n/a

n/a

141,002

157,605

165,636

170,250

177,465

190,175

204,994

228,674

n/a

FYROM

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

232,295

224,543

229,880

225,270

214,460

199,390

195,730

189,440

184,480

198,690

212,890

Greece

14,033

14,900

16,327

21,214

23,107

24,331

27,295

29,244

30,247

31,263

32,969

Hungary

4,258

4,130

4,553

5,430

6,592

8,177

8,021

8,892

9,776

9,948

10,436

Germany

Ireland Italy Latvia

n/a

n/a

n/a

17,587

19,926

21,294

23,820

27,595

31,556

n/a

n/a

122,206

123,471

129,065

138,840

148,197

156,842

163,900

173,415

181,237

192,843

203,428

572

869

1,047

1,224

1,426

1,627

1,841

2,575

3,167

4,607

6,533

Lithuania

1,192

1,484

1,396

1,348

1,465

1,713

2,131

2,434

2,897

3,873

5,338

Luxembourg

2,041

2,311

2,559

2,810

3,067

3,511

3,671

3,701

4,007

4,290

4,585

278

271

273

339

328

399

361

362

376

415

415

Netherlands

47,043

49,839

55,027

60,287

64,656

64,880

63,650

63,675

66,284

72,085

78,648

Norway

15,942

16,251

17,220

18,154

19,291

21,625

20,663

21,921

25,847

29,448

35,003

Poland

20,925

25,513

27,084

31,790

34,928

31,244

26,164

27,280

35,680

43,749

n/a

Portugal

Malta

19,056

20,848

22,019

24,376

26,226

26,912

25,708

27,167

27,940

27,260

n/a

Romania

n/a

4,226

3,671

4,491

5,486

6,171

6,811

8,114

11,319

15,882

n/a

Slovakia

4,018

3,969

3,127

3,939

4,012

4,605

4,774

5,318

6,300

6,613

8,401

Slovenia

3,209

3,353

3,980

3,741

3,645

3,972

4,346

4,716

5,191

8,947

10,718

Spain

81,376

88,001

98,696

127,335

146,380

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Sweden

15,970

16,217

17,240

18,981

19,143

19,842

20,148

22,097

n/a

n/a

n/a

Switzerland

25,147

25,689

26,649

28,585

29,730

31,912

31,181

32,289

33,944

34,534

n/a

n/a

1,478

3,096

5,301

13,440

24,802

33,858

39,182

45,590

66,696

70,156

147,575

161,920

177,002

201,818

214,421

230,849

227,986

250,884

245,458

n/a

n/a

858

895

1,092

1,219

1,287

1,326

1,347

1,415

1,475

1,596

1,658 (2)

Turkey (1) United Kingdom EUROPE - 32 (€ 000 millions)

source of all data except Turkey: Eurostat, National Accounts by 31 branches - aggregates at current prices Copyright © Eurostat. All Rights Reserved. (1) Source: Derived from raw data sourced from TurkStat, the Turkish Statistical Institute. Raw data (not reproduced here) is Copyright (c) TURKSTAT. Raw data converted from New Turkish Lira to Euros using conversion rates as at 31.12 each year. NB, conversion rates changed significantly over the period 1997 to 2001, more stable since 2002. (2) Note: some countries which provided data for previous years are marked n/a for 2007 (and occasionally for 2005 and 2006) so the ‘total’ figure has been adjusted to include the latest available figure for those missing years. Data for Spain is n/a since 2002, here too the latest (2001) figure has been added to Europe ‘total’ figure for those missing years. It was decided to use latest available data sourced from Eurostat rather than to research missing data direct from national statistical offices, as it proved hard to reconcile data between different sources. Construction output includes civil engineering and infrastructure work.

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

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Mirza & Nacey Research

CHART 2-2 Size of Construction Market, Europe United Kingdom France Germany Italy Spain Netherlands Turkey Belgium Poland Austria Norway Switzerland Greece Ireland Denmark Czech Republic Portugal Finland Sweden Romania Slovenia Hungary Slovakia Latvia Lithuania Bulgaria Luxembourg Estonia Cyprus Malta Croatia n/a FYROM n/a 0

50

100

150

200

250

â&#x201A;Ź 000 million, current prices Base: all 32 European countries Source: compiled from Eurostat and Turkstat data, 2007 data where available, the latest available annual data elsewhere

CHART 2-3 Trends in European Construction Output, 1997 to 2007

â&#x201A;Ź millions current prices

2000

1500

1000

500

0

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Base: all 32 European countries Source: compiled from Eurostat and Turkstat data, 2007 data where available, the latest available annual data elsewhere

Page 34

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

2007


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 2-2 Estimated size of construction market, 2007 (or latest available year) by country, and comparative values construction output (€m’s)

population (number as at 01.01.2008)

construction output per head of population (€’s)

architects (est. number)

Austria

37,544

8,331,930

4,506

3,800

Belgium

52,987

10,666,866

4,967

11,500

Bulgaria

5,321

7,640,238

696

3,500

Croatia

n/a

4,435,383

n/a

3,000

Cyprus

2,273

794,580

2,861

430

Czech Republic

27,934

10,381,130

2,691

3,000

Denmark

28,552

5,475,791

5,214

7,000

2,569

1,340,935

1,916

700

Estonia Finland

26,077

5,300,484

4,920

3,600

France

228,674

63,753,140

3,587

29,400

FYROM

n/a

2,045,177

n/a

3,000

212,890

82,221,808

2,589

95,000

Greece

32,969

11,214,992

2,940

15,000

Hungary

10,436

10,045,000

1,039

4,000

Germany

Ireland

31,556

4,419,859

7,140

3,500

203,428

59,618,114

3,412

123,000

Latvia

6,533

2,270,894

2,877

700

Lithuania

5,338

3,366,357

1,586

2,000

Luxembourg

4,585

483,799

9,477

600

Italy

Malta

415

410,584

1,011

500

Netherlands

78,648

16,404,282

4,794

9,100

Norway

35,003

4,737,171

7,389

3,600

Poland

43,749

38,115,641

1,148

13,500

Portugal

27,260

10,617,575

2,567

16,300

Romania

15,882

21,528,627

738

5,500

Slovakia

8,401

5,400,998

1,555

1,300

Slovenia

10,718

2,025,866

5,291

1,350

Spain

146,380

45,283,259

3,233

45,000

Sweden

22,097

9,182,927

2,406

5,400

Switzerland

34,534

7,591,414

4,549

5,300

Turkey United Kingdom EUROPE - 32

70,156

70,586,256

994

32,300

245,458

61,185,981

4,012

31,600

1,658,367

586,877,058

2,826

483,480

source: Construction output and population data - Eurostat Copyright © Eurostat. All Rights Reserved. Construction output includes civil engineering and infrastructure work.

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

Page 35


Mirza & Nacey Research

The Architectural Market in Europe The total value of the architectural market in the 17 surveyed countries is estimated to be €11.6 billion. This relates to the total value of the revenue generated by the profession. This figure is very much of an estimate and relies on survey data from which it has been grossed up; we are not aware of any other published data on the size of the European architectural market with which to compare so this estimate is very much a first attempt at establishing the market size and will be refined in future years. If we were to gross up this figure to reflect all 32 European countries, the total estimated value of the architectural market in Europe is €22 billion.

Two countries emerge as having the largest markets: Germany and the UK. Those two countries alone account for more than half of the total market of the countries surveyed. Analysed per architect, the highest values are recorded by architects in Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK. The average market size per architect in these three countries is €95,000 or more. By comparison, the average market size per architect is under €25,000 in Finland, Greece, Romania and Turkey.

CHART 2-4 Value of Architectural Market, average per head

Size of Architectural Market per architect under €25,000 €25,000 to €49,999 €50,000 to €74,999 €75,000 and over no data available

Page 36

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 2-3 Estimated size of architectural market, by country, and comparative values market size (€000’s)

value per architect (€’s)

value per 1000 population (€’s)

architectural market as per cent construction

Austria

296,789

78,102

35,621

0.8

Belgium

327,108

28,444

30,666

0.6

Denmark

356,228

50,890

65,055

1.2

27,524

39,320

20,526

1.1

Finland

42,580

11,828

8,033

0.2

France

1,103,778

37,543

17,313

0.5

Germany

Estonia

3,988,103

41,980

48,504

1.9

Greece

294,149

19,610

26,228

0.9

Ireland

408,855

116,816

92,504

1.3

31,828

53,047

65,788

0.7

Luxembourg Malta

13,320

26,641

32,443

3.2

Netherlands

901,558

99,072

54,959

1.1

Romania

112,659

20,484

5,233

0.7

Slovenia

40,501

30,001

19,992

0.4

Sweden

145,073

26,865

15,798

0.7

Turkey United Kingdom EUROPE - 17

726,778

22,501

10,296

1.0

2,800,042

88,609

45,763

1.1

11,616,874

45,405

31,017

1.1

‘Market size’ refers to the architectural market as measured as the sum of the revenues earned by private architectural practices in each country. Data refers to 2007. The market size has been estimated, see Appendix I for an explanation of the methodology used.

CHART 2-5 Estimated value of Architectural Market Germany United Kingdom France Netherlands Turkey Ireland Denmark Belgium Austria Greece Sweden Romania Finland Slovenia Luxembourg Estonia Malta 0

500

1000

1500

2000 € millions

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

2500

3000

3500

4000

Page 37


Mirza & Nacey Research

The Architectural Market analysed by building sector The largest single sector of the market is work to individual houses. These account for an estimated 31 per cent of the architectural market. Other private housing work â&#x20AC;&#x201C; which will include flats and housing developments â&#x20AC;&#x201C; account for a further 14 per cent. So in total 45 per cent of the architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; market is private housing. Add in the public housing share and housing in total accounts for 49 per cent. Eighteen per cent of the market is commercial work, while public works (including public housing) accounts for 24 per cent. Over half of work in Belgium, Greece, Luxembourg, the UK and Turkey is private housing (including

individual houses). The highest proportion of public sector work is in Austria and France. Commercial and other private is highest in Malta, Romania, Estonia and Finland. Not only is private housing the dominant source of revenue; more architectural practices are involved in private housing than in any other sector. Seventy six per cent of architectural practices have, in the past 12 months, derived revenue from work on individual houses; while 48 per cent have undertaken other private housing work. Forty two per cent have been involved in the office sector.

CHART 2-6 Proportion of market by building sector other public public housing

individual houses

education health other private industrial private housing leisure retail

offices

TABLE 2-4 Comparison of proportion of the market accounted for different building sectors, and the proportion of practices involved in those building sectors per cent of market

per cent of practices involved

individual houses

31

76

other private housing

14

48

offices

10

42

retail

5

26

leisure and the arts

3

14

industrial

8

32

health

4

14

education

6

22

public housing

4

13

other private

7

29

other public

10

30

Page 38

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 2-5 Proportion of work undertaken by building sector, analysed by country

TOTAL

other public

other private

public housing

education

health

industrial

leisure

retail

offices

private housing

individual houses

per cent

Austria

20

8

11

3

4

7

7

7

13

8

11

100

Belgium

44

15

7

4

2

5

4

3

5

2

10

100

Denmark

20

11

12

5

5

8

5

6

10

8

11

100

Estonia

18

8

24

6

1

2

3

9

13

8

7

100

Finland

18

8

13

13

4

7

4

6

8

5

14

100

France

24

14

7

4

4

3

7

8

7

6

16

100

Germany

30

13

10

4

2

11

4

7

2

7

11

100

Greece

42

15

7

6

3

4

1

3

3

5

11

100

Ireland

29

11

8

9

4

3

8

7

8

10

4

100

Luxembourg

43

13

8

3

3

4

2

7

2

3

11

100

Malta

28

18

10

10

4

10

3

1

1

9

8

100

Netherlands

18

12

14

4

6

8

8

8

13

4

5

100

Romania

34

11

13

8

3

9

1

3

4

8

6

100

Slovenia

27

9

9

2

6

9

2

8

11

4

14

100

Sweden

19

14

14

4

5

6

3

7

11

7

10

100

Turkey

30

23

7

10

2

8

2

2

2

8

5

100

United Kingdom

38

16

8

4

3

2

2

11

3

8

6

100

EUROPE - 17

31

14

10

5

3

8

4

6

4

7

10

100

CHART 2-7 Proportion of work undertaken for each main building sector, ranked in order of highest private housing work private housing

commercial & other private

public

Belgium Greece Luxembourg Turkey United Kingdom Malta Romania Germany Ireland France Slovenia Sweden Netherlands Denmark Austria Estonia Finland 0

20

40 60 per cent total market

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

80

100

Page 39


Mirza & Nacey Research

The Architectural Market analysed by type of client Private individuals are architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; principal client type, accounting for almost half (47 per cent) of architectural practicesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; revenue. This clearly mirrors the importance of individual housing as the largest market sector. Public sector clients account for 22 per cent of revenue while 10 per cent of revenue comes from developers and 14 per cent from private companies.

CHART 2-8 Proportion of market by client type others other public private individual

government

local authority

limited company developer

TOTAL

other private

other public

local government

PLC (public limited company)

limited company

developer

individuals

per cent

central government

TABLE 2-6 Proportion of work undertaken for different clients, analysed by country

Austria

40

9

18

0

13

10

4

6

100

Belgium

54

13

11

0

3

2

13

5

100

Denmark

39

19

10

0

3

15

7

8

100

Estonia

25

34

16

0

3

16

6

1

100

Finland

24

15

25

0

3

12

18

2

100

France

34

13

6

0

2

1

35

8

100

Germany

49

6

13

0

7

13

5

8

100

Greece

56

13

9

0

5

7

4

5

100

Ireland

36

21

9

0

4

9

6

14

100

Luxembourg

48

19

4

0

9

3

16

1

100

Malta

34

34

16

0

4

0

4

7

100

Netherlands

36

27

10

0

3

11

8

5

100

Romania

44

22

18

0

2

3

5

4

100

Slovenia

37

20

12

0

9

14

7

2

100

Sweden

32

23

14

0

4

12

9

4

100

Turkey

53

8

22

0

1

4

5

7

100

United Kingdom

48

22

13

0

3

4

1

10

100

EUROPE - 17

47

10

14

0

6

9

7

7

100

Page 40

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

The Architectural Market analysed by type of service Building design is very clearly the principal revenue generating activity, accounting for two thirds (66 per cent) of the total market. The only other significant service type is interior design, which accounts for 9 per cent of the CHART 2-9 Proportion of market by type of service

total architectural revenue. The remainder of the market is split between several types of service, each of which accounts for 5 per cent or less of the total.

others planning

project management feasibility studies building design

interior design landscape design

Austria

74

0

7

6

2

3

TOTAL

planning

project management

feasibility studies

interior design

building design

landscape design

per cent

other service

TABLE 2-7 Proportion of work undertaken for each service type

7

100

Belgium

74

1

7

3

9

2

4

100

Denmark

47

6

15

3

12

3

15

100

Estonia

64

5

12

0

5

12

2

100

Finland

78

1

8

1

2

6

4

100

France

72

2

5

5

3

7

5

100

Germany

67

4

7

3

4

3

11

100

Greece

60

6

14

1

6

6

6

100

Ireland

71

1

7

7

5

4

6

100

Luxembourg

71

1

4

5

9

6

4

100

Malta

48

5

8

7

15

3

14

100

Netherlands

69

2

11

5

4

6

3

100

Romania

61

3

12

5

5

10

4

100

Slovenia

59

3

13

1

4

16

4

100 100

Sweden

56

6

10

2

6

10

11

Turkey

60

2

14

2

11

1

10

100

United Kingdom

69

1

6

7

5

3

9

100

EUROPE - 17

66

3

9

3

5

4

9

100

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

Page 41


Mirza & Nacey Research

Future Prospects The results of this question provide one of the more dramatic trend charts in this research. During the five month survey period, the unprecedented volatility in financial markets has massively changed the economic climate, plunging Europe very rapidly into a recession. When the first architects responded to this question in June and July, optimism was strong and significantly outweighed pessimism. Asked “how do you anticipate your practice’s workloads will change in the next 12 months” a majority reported they expected an increase. Subtracting

those who predict a decrease from this creates the ‘balance’ statistic, which is analysed in the chart (right) and map (below). The chart records balance statistics in June and July of up to +47. But by September this had fallen to just below zero, plummeting to –50 by the end of the survey period. Such extreme volatility over the survey period unfortunately means comparisons in architects’ optimism between countries – the original reasons for asking this question – cannot be analysed in a meaningful way.

CHART 2-10 Workload predictions for 2009

architects’ workload predictions, 2009 increase by over 5% no change (-5% to +%5) decrease by over 5% no response

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CHART 2-11 Changes in the optimism of respondents during the survey period

50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30

23

-50

-J u 30 n -J un 07 -J u 14 l -J u 21 l -J ul 28 -J 04 ul -A ug 11 -A u 18 g -A ug 25 -A u 01 g -S e 08 p -S e 15 p -S e 22 p -S e 29 p -S ep 06 -O c 13 t -O 20 ct -O c 27 t -O c 03 t -N o 10 v -N o 17 v -N 24 ov -N o 01 v -D ec

-40

too few respondents replying to create a week-by-week analysis

too few replies

TABLE 2-8 Future workload prospects for 2009, analysed by country per cent of Principals who expect their practice workloads to change over the coming 12 months

balance

response period

per cent

up

no change

down

Austria

27

47

26

+1

September

Belgium

34

46

20

+14

October

Denmark

28

34

38

-10

October

Estonia

24

24

53

-29

June

Finland

24

47

29

-5

September

France

21

39

40

-19

September

Germany

21

50

29

-8

September

Greece

33

46

21

+12

June

Ireland

19

30

51

-32

June

Luxembourg

25

44

31

-5

October

Malta

44

38

18

+26

June

Netherlands

27

49

24

+3

September

Romania

59

35

5

+54

June

Slovenia

50

39

11

+39

July

Sweden

27

49

23

+4

June

Turkey

27

36

37

-10

September

United Kingdom

29

25

46

-18

October

EUROPE - 17

28

45

28

0

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

start month

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Mirza & Nacey Research

Architecture the Practice Profile of Architectural Practices There are an estimated 69,800 private architectural practices in the 17 responding countries. This figure has been estimated by creating a model and then inserting data from the survey. The model is described in Appendix I. Grossing-up this figure to reflect all 32 European countries produces an estimate of 130,000 private architectural practices in Europe. More than half (54 per cent) of these practices are one person firms. A further 35 per cent have between 2 and 5 architectural staff. Eight CHART 3-1 Average size of architectural practices

3

per cent of practices have between 6 and 10 architectural staff and 3 per cent have 11 to 30. Only 1 per cent of architectural practices have more than 30 staff. So architectural practices are skewed very heavily towards small firms (â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;micro-enterprisesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;). But large firms employ a significant number of architects. We estimate that in Europe -17 countries, 12 per cent of the total private practice workforce, is employed in firms of more than 50 architectural staff. So 19,000 architects are employed in 350 firms. At the other end of the scale, the 37,000 one person firms employ 21 per cent of all private practice architects.

average size of architectural practices under 2 staff 2 to 2.9 staff 3 to 3.9 staff 4 and more staff no response

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TABLE 3-1 Estimated number and size of architectural practices size of architectural practice (number of architectural staff) number (estimate)

1 staff

Austria Belgium Denmark Estonia

2 staff

3 to 5 staff

6 to 10 staff

11 to 30 staff

TOTAL

31 to 50 staff

over 50 staff

985

299

380

94

15

0

0

1,773

2,403

701

587

105

82

6

10

3,894

393

64

103

81

40

18

28

727

81

0

66

28

14

1

0

190

Finland

140

46

54

52

54

4

5

355

France

4,900

1,903

930

366

51

4

3

8,157

18,970

6,470

4,283

1,908

552

77

51

32,311

Greece

1,563

900

931

235

109

26

57

3,821

Ireland

196

142

190

92

56

10

8

694

Luxembourg

127

22

30

11

4

0

0

194

33

13

20

5

10

2

1

83

Germany

Malta Netherlands

1,896

449

414

278

191

68

8

3,304

Romania

478

227

330

157

68

6

9

1,275

Slovenia

137

38

62

30

19

2

1

288

Sweden

360

68

80

58

44

7

14

631

Turkey

2,136

1,229

1,730

826

395

86

95

6,497

United Kingdom

2,571

918

678

992

310

132

54

5,655

37,369

13,489

10,868

5,318

2,014

449

344

69,851

54

19

16

8

3

1

1

100

EUROPE - 17 per cent of practices

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;architectural staffâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; includes principals, partners & directors; associates; salaried architects; technical staff

CHART 3-2 Practices analysed by size

CHART 3-3 Proportion of architects employed in practices of different sizes

1 staff

1 staff

2 staff

2 staff

3 to 5 staff

3 to 5 staff

6 to 10 staff

6 to 10 staff

11 to 30 staff

11 to 30 staff

31 to 50 staff

31 to 50 staff

over 50 staff

over 50 staff 0

10

20

30

40

50

per cent architectural practices

60

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

0

5

10

15

20

per cent architects employed

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Legal Formation of Practices The information in this section is based on the questionnaires completed by Principals. These include Sole Principals, Freelancers, and Partners & Directors in Private Practice. Over half of Principals work in practices they classify as ‘Independent Architect’. This may include Freelance architects and architects working on their own as a Sole Principal. The Independent Architect practices model is most common in Austria, Belgium France, Germany and Luxembourg. In each of these countries it accounts for over 50 per cent of architectural practices.

cent – are Directors in limited companies. The highest proportion of Principals working in partnerships is to be found in Estonia (44 per cent), Greece (35 per cent). Limited companies are the preferred legal formation in the UK (57 per cent), Turkey (56 per cent) and Ireland (49 per cent). PLC’s are significant only in Finland (52 per cent), Estonia (19 per cent) and Sweden (11 per cent). The highest prevalence of the EIG (Economic Interest Group) business type is in Sweden (18 per cent), Greece (16 per cent) and Malta (13 per cent).

Eighteen per cent of Principals work in partnerships, and rather more – 22 per

CHART 3-4 Type of architectural businesses Economic Interest Grouping Corporation Public Limited Company

Limited Liability Company

Independent Architect

Partnership

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TABLE 3-2 Legal formation of architectural practices - based on type of practice in which Principals work per cent

independent architect

partnership

limited company

PLC (public limited company)

corporation

economic interest group

Austria

59

9

29

3

0

0

Belgium

52

12

25

7

2

2

Denmark

48

28

14

3

0

7

Estonia

0

44

25

19

6

6

Finland

32

11

5

52

0

0

France

54

7

35

3

0

1

Germany

70

19

8

1

0

2

Greece

37

35

7

5

0

16

Ireland

33

13

49

3

0

1

Luxembourg

57

11

25

7

0

0

Malta

44

25

16

0

3

13

Netherlands

38

21

32

6

0

3

Romania

28

20

43

3

1

4

Slovenia

35

24

27

4

2

8

Sweden

28

26

16

11

1

18

Turkey

25

9

56

6

1

3

United Kingdom

26

9

57

3

0

6

EUROPE - 17

52

18

22

4

1

3

CHART 3-5 Proportion of architectural practices which are limited companies / PLCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s / corporations

proportion of practices which are companies under 20% 20% to 34% 35% to 49% 50% or more no response

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Practice Revenue The survey asked Principals to provide details of their revenue in the calendar year 2007, or the most recent 12 month accounting period. Average revenue rises in line with practice size, with an average of €59,389 for one person practices almost doubling to €117,827 for two person firms. The average for a 3 to 5 person practices is €201,693, less than half that of a 6 to 10 person practice. The averages for larger sizes of firm are only indicative as the staff intervals

are large and there can be a very high variation in revenues reported. Geographically, highest average revenues per practice (measured for practices up to 10 staff, for which there is least variation) are recorded in France, the UK and Denmark. Lowest average revenues are recorded in Turkey, Greece and Romania.

TABLE 3-3 Average revenue per practice analysed by country and practice size €’s

size of practice (number of architectural staff) 1

2

Austria

67,216

198,915

3 to 5 271,281

6 to 10 457,591

11 to 30 1,530,625

31 to 50 n/a

51+ n/a

Belgium

33,457

88,979

147,571

171,167

334,375

1,750,000

n/a

Denmark

72,903

291,700

n/a

566,330

n/a

n/a

n/a

Estonia

n/a

n/a

231,665

322,500

n/a

n/a

n/a

Finland

42,376

70,000

98,545

350,000

62,500

n/a

600,000

France

48,803

138,158

298,773

698,573

n/a

n/a

n/a

Germany

43,604

88,458

197,263

406,027

1,139,455

1,745,167

3,768,279

Greece

29,018

33,612

55,231

284,625

194,708

n/a

1,328,750

Ireland

72,361

146,294

270,556

498,453

1,580,107

4,650,000

n/a

Luxembourg

61,335

n/a

216,417

605,778

1,502,042

n/a

n/a

Malta

46,171

83,375

64,086

236,250

496,725

n/a

n/a

Netherlands

84,497

103,714

292,003

325,909

1,401,228

2,910,834

n/a

Romania

39,555

39,680

72,235

129,915

273,301

n/a

n/a

Slovenia

27,506

51,220

126,564

342,832

750,000

835,000

Sweden

54,762

257,250

n/a

304,719

521,629

n/a

1,542,654

Turkey

17,028

38,556

57,292

154,042

372,851

n/a

1,261,888

United Kingdom

52,205

130,164

212,467

893,258

n/a

n/a

n/a

EUROPE - 17

59,389

117,827

201,693

498,563

1,282,563

3,156,907

4,563,556

Figures are averages (means) The minimum number of responses to give a reliable answer is 10. But for smaller countries we have extended this to 5 and in very exceptional cases to 4. Where there are fewer than four responses, or where the figure varies excessively from the mean, we mark the data as n/a Calculated as the sum of the average of each of four practice sizes. Where data for a practice size is n/a the ‘All’ average for that size has been applied but grossed up or down dependant upon the grossing factor calculated for available data for that country

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CHART 3-6 Average revenue per practice for small and medium-sized practice, size 1 to 10 staff average revenue per small and medium sized practice below €125,000 €125,000 to €199,999 €200,000 to €299,999 €300,000 or more no response

How Practices Charge for their Services The most common method of calculating charges is as a percentage of the total contract value. A majority of jobs currently being undertaken by architects are being charged using this method. Next most popular (23 per cent) is a charge agreed after an estimate of time required; while TABLE 3-4 How charges are calculated per cent current jobs

16 per cent base their charge on an hourly rate. Six per cent of jobs appear to be undertaken ‘at risk’ where there has been no agreement on charges. Calculating charges as a percentage of the value is the most popular method in all countries except Denmark, Finland, Greece, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK.

method of calculating charge per cent of contract value

lump sum

hourly charge

no charge agreed (effectively “at risk”)

Austria

67

18

13

3

Belgium

57

21

19

2

Denmark

29

39

23

8

Estonia

47

41

9

3

Finland

5

43

48

3

France

68

26

6

1

Germany

61

18

18

4

Greece

39

41

12

8

Ireland

61

26

7

7

Luxembourg

72

13

13

2

Malta

58

17

13

11

Netherlands

40

38

17

4

Romania

64

23

8

5

Slovenia

60

26

8

7

Sweden

3

39

53

5

Turkey

45

30

5

20

United Kingdom

35

42

18

3

EUROPE - 17

56

23

16

6

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Hourly charge-out rates The Europe-17 average hourly charge-out rate for Principals is €63 per hour. This is the average rate which Principals charge clients for an hour of their work, before tax. This is 21 per cent more than the average rate at which Architects are charged out by private practices (€50 per hour), technical staff are charged-out at an average of €40 per hour. Average hourly charge-out rates vary considerably between the 17 surveyed countries.

We have attempted to adjust this data to take account of different price levels between the countries, using a Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) index. The PPP hourly charge-out rates (table 3-5) are highest for Principals in Ireland and the Netherlands. Lowest hourly rates are recorded in Romania and Turkey. The pattern is very similar for architects and for technical staff. The unadjusted, ‘as reported’, figures are presented in table 3-6.

TABLE 3-5 Average hourly charge-out rates ADJUSTED to take account of Purchasing Power Parity

€’s

average hourly charge-out rates ADJUSTED to take account of Purchasing Power Paraties (PPP), Euros principals

architects

technologists

Austria

79

69

54

Belgium

60

47

42

Denmark

73

65

54

Estonia

74

46

32

Finland

57

49

41

France

74

69

46

Germany

58

52

39

Greece

39

16

11

Ireland

116

80

60

Luxembourg

90

71

50

Malta

82

61

34

Netherlands

116

92

68

Romania

24

13

7

Slovenia

48

39

23

Sweden

73

64

55

Turkey

20

11

7

United Kingdom

103

79

67

Data is expressed in Euros but each country’s figure has been adjusted using an index of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). This index takes account of price level differences across countries. We have used an index sourced from Eurostat, whose Comparative Price Level Indices assess the price level of each country in the comparison with all 27 EU member countries. Thus EU 27 = 100, and for example other indices are: Ireland 124, France 108, Germany 103, Greece 89, Turkey 71, Romania 61. Each country’s average hourly rates figure is divided by the country’s index value to create the PPP adjusted figure.

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CHART 3-7 Average hourly charge-out rates for Principals, adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity Ireland Netherlands United Kingdom Luxembourg Malta Austria Estonia France Denmark Sweden Belgium Germany Finland Slovenia Greece Romania Turkey 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

average rates, €'s, adjusted for PPP

TABLE 3-6 Average hourly charge-out rates, unadjusted €’s

average hourly charge-out rates, Euros principals

architects

technologists

Austria

80

70

55

Belgium

64

50

45

Denmark

101

89

74

Estonia

53

33

23

Finland

70

60

50

France

80

75

50

Germany

60

54

40

Greece

35

15

10

Ireland

145

100

75

Luxembourg

101

80

56

Malta

60

45

25

Netherlands

120

95

70

Romania

15

8

4

Slovenia

38

30

18

Sweden

85

75

64

Turkey

15

8

5

United Kingdom

114

87

74

EUROPE - 17

63

50

40

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Practice Costs & Profits Profits expressed as a percentage of revenue decline in line with the size of an architectural practice. So while the pre-tax profits of a one person practice is 52 per cent of revenue, this falls to 31 per cent for a practice of size 6 to 10 staff, and further to 17 per cent for one of 31 to 50 staff. Only in the very largest size does the per cent profit figure rise, to 26 per cent.

The general pattern is repeated in all countries although there may be variations in the definition of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;profitsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; so inter-country comparisons should be considered with caution. The level of costs is around 50 per cent of revenue for 1 or 2 person firms, rising to between 73 and 83 per cent for firms with more than ten staff.

TABLE 3-7 Proportion of revenue which is costs, pre-tax and post-tax profits, analysed by practice size per cent

per cent of practice revenue costs

pre-tax profits

profits after tax

1 staff

48

52

42

2 staff

56

44

32

3 to 5 staff

61

40

28

6 to 10 staff

69

31

23

11 to 30 staff

75

26

18

31 to 50 staff

83

17

12

over 50 staff

73

26

24

CHART 3-8 Costs, profits (after tax) and tax paid on profits profits

taxation

costs

1 staff 2 staff 3 to 5 staff 6 to 10 staff 11 to 30 staff 31 to 50 staff over 50 staff 0

20

40

60

80

per cent practice revenue

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Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 3-8 Average pre-tax profits as a per cent of total revenue, analysed by country and practice size

per cent

size of architectural practice (number of architectural staff) 1 staff

2 staff

3 to 5 staff

6 to 10 staff

11 to 30 staff

31 to 50 staff

over 50 staff

Austria

46

39

35

16

21

n/a

13

Belgium

43

31

37

14

41

6

n/a

Denmark

72

10

n/a

24

25

n/a

n/a

Estonia

n/a

n/a

14

17

15

n/a

n/a

Finland

44

22

17

10

13

n/a

n/a

France

48

26

23

13

n/a

n/a

n/a

Germany

52

47

40

32

23

13

63

Greece

59

54

54

40

46

92

48

Ireland

51

56

21

40

6

8

n/a

Luxembourg

63

47

18

26

14

n/a

n/a

Malta

61

68

53

52

38

n/a

22

Netherlands

53

45

42

16

9

14

13

Romania

55

45

45

44

33

15

37

Slovenia

35

n/a

39

9

38

2

n/a

Sweden

43

21

35

31

14

7

12

Turkey

56

46

44

37

30

25

5

United Kingdom

67

63

n/a

18

n/a

n/a

n/a

EUROPE - 17

52

44

40

31

26

17

26

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TABLE 3-9 Break-down of costs analysed by practice size per cent

size of architectural practice (number of architectural staff)

rent

1

2

3 to 5

6 to 10

11 to 30

31 to 50

51+

10

11

9

11

8

7

9

utilities

4

4

3

3

2

3

1

staff

23

40

51

55

62

52

49

travel & motor

15

10

8

5

4

6

9

bank

7

4

3

2

2

3

3

insurance

12

7

5

4

3

4

9

legal & financial

12

10

7

6

5

3

4

promotion

5

3

2

2

3

4

7

other costs

13

10

11

11

10

18

10

TOTAL costs

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

The break-down of costs is explored above. Costs and profits are expressed as a percentage of practice revenue. The largest cost element is staff, accounting for 50 per cent or more of costs in all practices with more than two architectural staff. Rent and utilities account for between 10 and 15 per cent, travel is between 5 and 10 per cent for all but one person practices.

practices); banking charges are around 3 per cent for medium and large practices. Legal and accounting charges range between 3 and 12 per cent of costs, while between 2 and 7 per cent of costs is accounted for by promotion and marketing. The highest proportion of costs spent on promotion is recorded by the largest practices.

Professional Indemnity Insurance averages at between 3 and 5 per cent of total costs across most practice sizes although is higher for small practices (12 per cent of costs for 1 person practices and 7 per cent for the largest

It is remarkable how little difference there is in the break-down of cost elements for practices of size group 3 to 5 upwards. We have not attempted to break this data down by country, as the quantity of the data would not support this.

CHART 3-9 Main cost elements analysed by practice size staff costs

rent & utilities

other costs

1 staff 2 staff 3 to 5 staff 6 to 10 staff 11 to 30 staff 31 to 50 staff over 50 staff 0

Page 54

20

40 60 per cent practice costs

80

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Mirza & Nacey Research

Revenue from outside own country Approximately 6 per cent of practice revenues are generated by work undertaken outside the country in which the architectural practices is based. This proportion is highest in Denmark (12 per cent), Turkey (9 per cent), Luxembourg (8 per cent), Romania and Malta (both 7 per cent). The relatively low average figure suggests that the architectural profession remains very localised, preferring to generate most of its revenue from within its own national boundaries. Further, it suggests the profession is cautious in its approach to pan-European working, and that the Single Market model has not been harnessed.

CHART 3-10 Source of revenue work outside country

TABLE 3-10 Proportion of practice revenue derived from outside the country, analysed by country per cent

turnover derived from outside the country

Austria

4.2

Belgium

3.2

Denmark

12.4

Estonia

4.2

Finland

3.9

France

3.9

Germany

3.4

Greece

1.5

Ireland

5.3

Luxembourg

7.6

Malta

7.3

Netherlands

3.4

Romania

7.4

Slovenia

5.3

Sweden

6.3

Turkey

9.2

United Kingdom

5.8

EUROPE - 17

6.0

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

domestic work

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Associations A minority of architectural practices have a formal association with another architectural practice. Twelve per cent say they do have such an arrangement with another architectural practice in their own country, 3 per cent have an association with an architectural practice in another country. But there are significant differences between countries. In Germany only

6 per cent have a formal association. By contrast more than a third of architectural practices in Greece, Romania and Slovenia have a formal association with another architectural practices in their own country, while in Finland the proportion soars to 63 per cent. The highest level of association with a firm in another country is recorded in Ireland (15 per cent).

TABLE 3-11 Proportion of practices who have a formal association with another practice per cent

no formal association

have a formal association with architect / practice in same country

with architect / practice in another country

Austria

87

11

3

Belgium

86

10

4

Denmark

83

10

7

Estonia

75

25

0

Finland

38

61

2

France

90

9

1

Germany

94

4

2

Greece

64

30

6

Ireland

78

7

15

Luxembourg

85

5

10

Malta

70

24

6

Netherlands

85

11

5

Romania

59

35

6

Slovenia

62

30

9

Sweden

72

19

10

Turkey

89

8

3

United Kingdom

81

8

11

EUROPE - 17

85

12

3

CHART 3-11 Proportion of practices who have a formal association with another practice Finland Romania Slovenia Greece Malta Sweden Estonia Ireland United Kingdom Denmark Netherlands Luxembourg Belgium Austria Turkey France Germany

practice has an association with another in ... same country

0

Page 56

10

20

30

40 per cent practices

50

other country

60

70

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

80


Mirza & Nacey Research

Branch Offices The question “do you work in a branch or subsidiary office” provides a clue as to how many offices an architectural practice might have, So in the UK, which has the highest proportion of architects working in branch offices, this might imply that practices in the UK are more likely to have multiple offices. Data relating to the number of offices was not explicitly collected. Other countries in which a relatively high proportion of architects work in branch offices are Denmark (15 per cent), Romania (15 per cent) and Turkey (14 percent). In general, however, the proportion of architects working in branch offices is low, at 9 per cent. The head office of those practices which operate branch offices is usually (in 71 per cent of cases) located in the same country. Only in Greece, Ireland, Malta, Romania and Sweden are head offices in most cases located in a different country.

TABLE 3-12 Proportion of architects working in a branch office per cent

work in branch office

Austria

3

Belgium

4

Denmark

15

Estonia

5

Finland

6

France

1

Germany

5

Greece

10

Ireland

7

Luxembourg

5

Malta

11

Netherlands

9

Romania

15

Slovenia

6

Sweden

9

Turkey

14

United Kingdom

18

EUROPE - 17

9

TABLE 3-13 Location of branch office’s Head Office per cent

head office is located in... same country as where branch office is located

same country as where architect is registered

Austria

88

88

Belgium

94

96

Denmark

80

97

Estonia

100

100

Finland

78

100

France

97

92

Germany

85

92

Greece

18

94

Ireland

9

82

Luxembourg

56

89

Malta

7

86

Netherlands

60

93

Romania

24

94

Slovenia

67

100

Sweden

18

94

Turkey

87

94

United Kingdom

88

94

EUROPE - 17

71

93

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

Page 57


4

Mirza & Nacey Research

Architects the Individual Earnings Architects in Europe earn an average of €36,686 before tax. However, there is a substantial variation in this average across Europe. We have attempted to adjust the average earnings to take account of differing price levels in the 17 surveyed countries, adjusting each country’s average earnings figure by its purchasing power

parity (PPP) index. These adjusted figures show average earnings are highest in the Netherlands and Ireland closely followed by Austria, the UK and Luxembourg. Average adjusted earnings are lowest in Romania and Turkey.

CHART 4-1 Average earnings, all full-time architects, ADJUSTED for Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Netherlands Ireland Austria United Kingdom Luxembourg Denmark Germany Estonia Malta France Finland Slovenia Sweden Belgium Greece Romania Turkey 0

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

average earnings, €'s, adjusted for PPP

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The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

60000


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 4-1 Average earnings of full-time Architects analysed by country €’s

average earnings adjusted for PPP

unadjusted

Austria

47,337

48,000

Belgium

28,222

30,000

Denmark

39,012

53,720

Estonia

36,084

25,800

Finland

32,327

39,600

France

33,241

36,000

Germany

38,797

40,000

Greece

26,846

24,000

Ireland

52,209

65,000

Luxembourg

44,484

50,000

Malta

34,447

25,250

Netherlands

52,224

54,000

Romania

22,748

13,990

Slovenia

31,491

24,500

Sweden

29,990

35,178

Turkey

20,486

14,648

United Kingdom

45,014

49,650

EUROPE - 17*

35,570

36,686

* EUROPE - 17 ‘unadjusted’ figure is a weighted average and takes account of the number of architects in each participating country

CHART 4-2 Range of average earnings (all full-time architects), unadjusted

average (median) annual earnings, unadjusted below €30,000 €30,000 to €39,999 €40,000 to €49,999 €50,000 or more no response

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

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Mirza & Nacey Research

Earnings by Field of Employment TABLE 4-2 Average earnings analysed by country and field of employment (unadjusted) €’s

sole principal

partner/ director

ALL Principals

private practice salaried

freelance

other private

ALL private

local / central gov’t

other public

ALL public

Austria

50,000

40,000

48,000

n/a

n/a

n/a

47,460

n/a

n/a

n/a

Belgium

30,600

24,000

30,000

24,000

30,000

31,000

30,000

28,500

n/a

33,734

Denmark

67,150

53,720

67,150

53,720

n/a

46,736

53,720

53,720

30,218

53,720

Estonia

41,280

25,800

27,735

n/a

n/a

n/a

25,800

n/a

n/a

n/a

Finland

35,000

49,250

42,000

36,000

n/a

36,500

39,800

45,000

42,500

45,000

France

29,000

42,000

30,000

46,800

35,000

37,200

35,500

n/a

n/a

39,585

Germany

40,000

46,300

40,000

36,000

35,000

48,000

40,000

45,000

50,500

47,000

Greece

30,000

30,000

30,000

18,000

20,000

22,500

24,000

21,500

30,083

26,000

Ireland

75,000

80,000

77,500

60,000

n/a

72,500

65,000

70,000

60,000

66,000

Luxembourg

57,000

45,000

50,000

90,000

n/a

50,000

50,000

n/a

n/a

n/a

Malta

51,000

42,000

42,000

20,000

25,000

n/a

25,250

n/a

n/a

25,000

Netherlands

45,144

103,500

72,500

42,000

n/a

n/a

52,000

n/a

n/a

n/a

Romania

16,788

26,889

22,384

11,472

14,943

10,912

13,990

11,192

11,836

11,514

Slovenia

33,000

26,000

30,000

16,500

12,000

15,600

24,000

17,000

n/a

34,000

Sweden

38,376

44,772

42,640

34,347

31,980

5,010

35,178

34,538

43,706

35,178

Turkey

26,366

26,366

26,366

13,988

17,577

11,952

14,648

14,062

10,546

11,718

United Kingdom

50,992

58,373

56,360

46,966

n/a

67,095

49,650

n/a

n/a

n/a

EUROPE - 17*

38,227

44,847

40,292

34,047

20,641

37,927

36,953

25,124

25,266

30,742

* EUROPE - 17 figure is a weighted average and takes account of the number of architects in each participating country Earnings data converted from local currencies to Euros, exchange rate as at 01.09.08

CHART 4-3 Earnings by field of employment (unadjusted)

average earnings, €'s

50000 40000 30000 20000 10000

Page 60

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

ic he rp ub l ot

lo c go al a ve uth rn o m rity en / t

at e he rp riv ot

nc e el a fre

pr s iv al at ar e ie pr d ac tic e

/d tn er pa r

so

le

pr

in

ci

ire ct

or

pa l

0


Mirza & Nacey Research

The highest earning group of architects is Partners / Directors. Their average earnings, at €44,847, is 17 per cent higher than that of the second highest earners, Sole Principals. Salaried Architects in private practice earn an average of €34,047, some 24 per cent below that of Partners & Directors. The average earnings of architects in Local Central Government, at €25,124, is 26 per cent lower than that of Salaried Architects in private practice.

This relative pattern of earnings Is not repeated in every country. Although sample sizes mean data should be considered with caution, there are several countries – Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Luxembourg, Malta and Slovenia – where the average earnings of Sole Principals is greater than that of Partners & Directors. And in Denmark the average earnings of architects in Local Authorities and Central Government are the same as Partners & Directors in private practice.

CHART 4-4 Comparisons of average earnings of all Principals and all Public Architects (unadjusted) all principals

Ireland Netherlands

all private

public n/a

Denmark

all public

United Kingdom

public n/a

Luxembourg

public n/a

Austria

public n/a

Sweden Finland Malta Germany Belgium France Greece Slovenia Estonia

public n/a

Turkey Romania 0

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

70000

80000

average earnings, €'s

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

Page 61

all public


Mirza & Nacey Research

Earnings by Age Average earnings clearly rise in line with an architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s age. In fact the relationship between earnings and age is so strong that earnings rise in all but one age group, to reach a peak value at age 60-64. Average earnings are lowest for architects aged below 30, and 65 or over. The differential in the average earnings comparing the age group 30 to 34 with age group 60 to 64 is 36 per cent. TABLE 4-3 Average earnings analysed by age (unadjusted) lower quartile

MEDIAN

upper quartile

<30

3,250

12,655

23,436

30-34

19,800

35,000

48,000

35-39

22,000

40,000

55,000

40-44

24,000

40,000

60,000

45-49

23,436

42,000

64,205

50-54

22,000

46,007

70,000

55-59

22,875

42,650

63,091

60-64

25,000

47,500

86,713

65+

14,512

28,480

39,343

CHART 4-5 Average earnings by age (unadjusted)

average earnings, â&#x201A;Ź's

50000 40000 30000 20000 10000

er 65

an d

ov

-6 4 60

9 55 -5

50 -5 4

49 45 -

44 40 -

9 35 -3

34 30 -

un de r3 0

0

Page 62

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

Earnings by Gender CHART 4-6 Average earnings of male and female Architects (unadjusted)

There is also a substantial, though smaller, differential among part-time architects. Here, the difference between men and women is 14 per cent. The average earnings figures here take account of the number of hours worked, so part-time working has been converted to full-time equivalent (FTE) before reaching the average figure.

40000 35000 average earnings, €'s

The survey results show a dramatic difference in the earnings between men and women. Male full-time architects record average earnings – across all employment types and across all countries – of €39,600. For female architects, the full-time average is €23,436. This is a differential between men and women of 41 per cent.

30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000

al e m fe

m

al e

0

TABLE 4-4 Average earnings analysed by gender and full-time or part-time working (unadjusted) €’s Full time Part time FTE Part time NOT FTE

lower quartile

MEDIAN

upper quartile

male

22,800

39,600

60,000

female

10,546

23,436

40,000

male

17,271

31,250

55,179

female

15,000

26,786

42,262

male

10,000

20,072

35,038

female

7,073

16,000

27,000

full-time equivalent (FTE) based on converting part-time earnings to an average working week of 37.5 hours

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

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Mirza & Nacey Research

Retirement

60-64

65-69

70-74

75-79

80-84

85 or over

never

0

9

35

32

8

4

2

11

8

24

39

9

3

3

1

11

0

2

25

48

14

2

1

0

8

0

0

12

12

36

8

0

4

24

0

0

3

44

41

3

1

0

1

4

0

0

7

24

40

13

5

0

1

10

Germany

0

0

2

19

54

13

3

1

1

7

Greece

0

2

8

25

35

8

3

1

3

15

Ireland

1

3

8

25

33

12

2

1

1

13

Luxembourg

0

3

7

29

29

8

3

0

1

20

Malta

4

3

8

46

26

5

3

0

0

3

Netherlands

1

1

7

20

35

14

4

1

2

16

Romania

2

4

9

21

21

12

3

2

3

24

Slovenia

0

0

2

22

32

16

2

0

0

26

Sweden

0

0

1

19

63

8

2

2

1

4

Turkey

11

17

19

16

11

4

1

1

1

19

United Kingdom

2

3

5

27

32

16

2

0

2

12

EUROPE - 17

3

4

7

20

39

11

3

1

1

12

75 -7 9

80 -8 4

TABLE 4-5 At what age Architects expect to retire, analysed by country per cent

under 50

50-54

55-59

Austria

0

0

Belgium

1

1

Denmark

1

Estonia

4

Finland France

CHART 4-7 Age at which Architects expect to retire

40

per cent respondents

35 30 25 20 15 10 5

Page 64

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

r ev e N

er ov 85

or

-7 4 70

69 65 -

60 -6 4

59 55 -

54 50 -

un de r5 0

0


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 4-6 Whether Architects will continue to work as an Architect until they retire per cent

definitely yes

probably yes

not sure

probably no

definitely no

Austria

48

46

5

0

1

Belgium

25

45

23

4

3

Denmark

36

48

10

5

1

Estonia

43

57

0

0

0

Finland

32

55

8

4

1

France

22

55

17

4

2

Germany

32

43

17

6

2

Greece

51

37

9

2

1

Ireland

40

46

9

4

1

Luxembourg

26

61

7

1

4

Malta

28

48

11

10

2

Netherlands

55

35

7

1

2

Romania

55

35

7

2

1

Slovenia

32

60

6

1

1

Sweden

39

48

8

3

2

Turkey

49

35

12

3

1

United Kingdom

33

50

8

6

3

EUROPE - 17

39

42

13

4

2

CHART 4-8 Likelihood of continuing to work as an Architect until retirement definitely no probably no not sure definitely yes

The highest proportion of architects expect to retire between the ages of 65 and 69. Thirty nine per cent say they expect to retire at this age. Half as many, 20 per cent, plan to retire earlier at age 60-64. Fourteen per cent expect to retire younger than 60, while 16 per cent expect to remain working until they are at least 70. However, 12 per cent – one in eight architects - say they will ‘never’ retire. Most architects will ‘definitely’ or ‘probably’ remain working as an architect until they retire. Thirteen per cent are not sure, while 6 per cent will ‘probably’ or ‘definitely’ change career before retiring.

probably yes

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

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Mirza & Nacey Research

Hours Worked TABLE 4-7 Average number of hours worked per week, analysed by country and field of employment per cent

sole principal

partner / director

private practice salaried

freelance

other private

local / central government

other public

Austria

54.0

51.3

48.8

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Belgium

53.5

58.3

49.8

45.1

48.8

43.0

45.0

Denmark

44.3

47.0

39.5

40.0

40.1

40.1

40.7

Estonia

56.0

45.3

43.8

n/a

40.0

n/a

n/a

Finland

44.9

43.3

37.9

38.8

39.1

39.0

40.5

France

49.0

51.4

48.3

48.5

46.6

37.0

47.4

Germany

51.5

51.8

46.1

46.9

47.1

43.0

44.6

Greece

54.2

50.3

44.0

48.2

44.8

44.9

44.6

Ireland

44.6

50.3

41.9

40.0

48.8

40.6

39.4

Luxembourg

50.0

49.6

47.6

46.6

47.1

43.7

45.0

Malta

57.1

54.1

45.8

48.8

50.0

46.9

48.8

Netherlands

48.0

47.3

46.2

42.0

47.3

50.0

51.7

Romania

51.5

50.5

45.6

50.8

46.2

45.8

48.3

Slovenia

47.6

48.9

45.7

45.1

41.4

44.0

50.0

Sweden

43.7

41.8

41.7

38.0

42.5

42.1

42.9

Turkey

49.3

48.9

49.7

46.6

50.6

40.9

41.4

United Kingdom

47.5

45.3

42.3

n/a

42.3

37.0

37.5

EUROPE - 17

51.0

50.1

46.0

47.0

46.6

42.2

43.3

The highest number of hours worked is recorded by Sole Principals (51 hours per week) closely followed by Partners & Directors (50 hours per week). Their salaried colleagues in private practice work an average of 46 hours per week. Architects working in the public sector have a shorter working week than in the private sector, although average hours are still 42 (Local Authorities and Central Government) or 43 hours (other public). The longest working hours per week for Partners & Directors are recorded in Belgium (58 hours) and Malta (54 hours); longest working hours for private practice salaried architects are in Belgium, Austria, France and Turkey (each over 48 hours). Architects in all employment areas report they work longer hours than their contract demands. Freelance architects report the highest mismatch, working 7 hours longer per week than they are contracted to; ‘Other Private’ architects work 6 hours longer than contracted. Salaried

Page 66

TABLE 4-8 Difference between average hours contracted to work and average hours worked, by field of employment number of hours

difference between contracted and worked hours per week

private practice salaried

+4.6

freelance

+7.1

other private

+6.0

local / central government

+2.7

other public

+4.2

EUROPE - 17

+4.9

Architects in private practice work 5 hours longer. Public sector architects work 3 hours (Local Authority / Central Government ) and 4 hours (‘other’ public) longer than contracted to.

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

Career Satisfaction Architects were invited to rate their satisfaction with four professional areas: career; pay; business environment and quality of life. Respondents selected their satisfaction level on a scale of 0 (totally dissatisfied) to 10 (totally satisfied). The greatest satisfaction is recorded for the choice of architecture as a career; the average score here is 7.7 out of 10. Next highest is satisfaction with the business environment – colleagues, fellow professionals, public planning bodies and so on. Quality of life scores 5.9 on the scale, while least satisfaction of any criteria measured – with a score of 4.7 – is the amount architects are paid.

In answers to all questions, the highest satisfaction levels are recorded by public sector architects, and the lowest by Principals / Directors in private practice. Geographically, architects in the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands consistently record the highest satisfaction levels. For example, quality of life is rated between 7.7 and 7.9 in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands; well above the average 5.9 across Europe. Architects in no single country consistently report lowest satisfaction ratings, but those in Germany and Turkey have the lowest quality of life rating (5.5). Least satisfaction with pay is reported in Germany, Austria and Belgium.

CHART 4-9 Professional satisfaction, ranked, highest first satisfaction with ...

choice of career as an architect

business environment

quality of life

amount of pay

0 <<<

1 less satisfied

2

3

4 5 6 respondents' average rating

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

7

8

9

more satisfied

10 >>>

Page 67


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 4-9 Satisfaction with choice of career as an Architect, analysed by country and field of employment score, 0 to 10

field of employment

ALL

principal / director

other private

public

Austria

8.2

7.1

n/a

8.2

Belgium

7.4

7.1

7.0

7.2

Denmark

8.5

8.4

8.2

8.4

Estonia

8.3

8.3

n/a

8.3

Finland

8.2

7.5

8.3

8.0

France

7.3

7.4

6.6

7.4

Germany

7.6

7.2

7.4

7.4

Greece

8.3

7.8

7.8

7.9

Ireland

7.7

8.0

8.2

7.9

Luxembourg

7.3

7.6

8.0

7.5

Malta

8.4

7.7

7.0

7.7

Netherlands

8.3

8.1

8.4

8.3

Romania

8.8

8.2

8.0

8.4

Slovenia

8.0

8.0

6.5

7.9

Sweden

8.7

7.8

8.2

8.1

Turkey

8.1

7.6

7.8

7.8

United Kingdom

7.7

7.0

7.5

7.2

EUROPE - 17

7.8

7.6

7.7

7.7

CHART 4-10 Satisfaction with choice of architecture as a career

satisfaction with choice of career - score out of 10 below 7.0 7.0 to 7.4 7.5 to 7.9 8.0 and over no response

Page 68

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 14-10 Satisfaction with the amount you are paid analysed by country and field of employment score, 0 to 10

field of employment

ALL

principal / director

other private

public

Austria

4.2

3.9

n/a

4.2

Belgium

4.2

4.1

5.6

4.3

Denmark

6.4

7.2

6.3

6.8

Estonia

6.0

6.0

n/a

6.0

Finland

5.9

5.5

6.5

6.0

France

3.9

4.7

5.3

4.5

Germany

3.7

4.3

5.3

4.1

Greece

5.5

5.1

4.3

5.1

Ireland

5.3

6.2

5.8

5.8

Luxembourg

4.6

5.8

9.2

5.5

Malta

5.6

5.2

4.2

5.1

Netherlands

6.4

5.9

6.2

6.3

Romania

6.6

5.7

5.2

6.0

Slovenia

5.8

5.9

4.0

5.7

Sweden

6.4

5.9

6.2

6.1

Turkey

5.0

4.6

4.3

4.7

United Kingdom

4.8

5.1

5.3

5.0

EUROPE - 17

4.4

4.9

5.2

4.7

CHART 4-11 Satisfaction with amount paid satisfaction with pay - score out of 10 below 4.0 4.0 to 4.9 5.0 to 5.9 6.0 and over no response

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

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Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 4-11 Satisfaction with your quality of life analysed by country and field of employment

score, 0 to 10

field of employment

ALL

principal / director

other private

public

Austria

6.0

5.3

n/a

6.0

Belgium

5.9

5.7

6.6

5.8

Denmark

8.0

7.8

8.0

7.9

Estonia

6.7

6.6

n/a

6.6

Finland

7.1

7.3

8.0

7.5

France

5.8

6.1

6.7

6.1

Germany

5.3

5.5

6.2

5.5

Greece

6.5

5.9

5.8

6.0

Ireland

6.5

6.8

6.8

6.7

Luxembourg

6.1

6.4

8.8

6.4

Malta

6.4

6.3

5.7

6.2

Netherlands

7.7

7.5

8.0

7.7

Romania

6.9

6.4

6.2

6.6

Slovenia

6.2

7.0

5.8

6.6

Sweden

8.2

7.6

7.8

7.8

Turkey

5.9

5.3

5.5

5.5

United Kingdom

6.2

5.9

7.0

6.1

EUROPE - 17

5.8

5.9

6.4

5.9

CHART 4-12 Satisfaction with quality of life

satisfaction with quality of life - score out of 10 below 5.0 5.0 to 5.9 6.0 to 6.9 7.0 and over no response

Page 70

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Mirza & Nacey Research

TABLE 4-12 Satisfaction with the business environment in which you work - including your colleagues, your fellow professionals, public planning bodies etc. - analysed by country and field of employment score, 0 to 10

field of employment

ALL

principal / director

other private

public

Austria

6.1

6.1

n/a

6.1

Belgium

6.5

6.5

6.7

6.5

Denmark

7.6

7.3

7.5

7.4

Estonia

6.9

6.0

n/a

6.7

Finland

6.7

7.0

7.4

7.0

France

6.4

6.2

6.3

6.3

Germany

5.6

6.6

6.6

6.1

Greece

6.6

6.5

5.7

6.4

Ireland

6.0

6.3

7.0

6.3

Luxembourg

6.0

6.7

8.0

6.5

Malta

6.0

6.7

5.8

6.3

Netherlands

7.6

6.9

7.5

7.5

Romania

6.8

6.7

6.6

6.7

Slovenia

6.2

6.9

4.8

6.5

Sweden

7.7

7.0

7.1

7.1

Turkey

6.0

5.8

5.5

5.8

United Kingdom

6.7

6.1

5.4

6.2

EUROPE - 17

6.0

6.4

6.4

6.2

CHART 4-13 Satisfaction with the business environment

satisfaction with business environment - score out of 10 below 6.0 6.0 to 6.4 6.5 to 6.9 7.0 and over no response

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

Page 71


Mirza & Nacey Research

Section 2: Country Factsheets

Page 72

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Mirza & Nacey Research

Section 2 Contents

Austria Belgium Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Romania Slovenia Sweden Turkey United Kingdom

page: 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

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Page 73


Mirza & Nacey Research

Austria

Social & Economic Population

8,331,930

GDP, € millions

272,766

GDP per head

32,800

Construction output, € millions

37,544

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

14

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

30

Change in construction output 20002007, %

31

Architectural Profession Number of architects

3,800

No. architects per 1000 population

0.5

Number male architects

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

3,230

Number female architects

570

Number architects aged under 40

912

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

296,789m

Average revenue per:

3,800 architects

2 person practice

198,915

6 to 10 person practice

457,591

Private Practice Number of practices

1,773

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1 architectural staff

985

2-5 architectural staff

679

6-30 architectural staff

109

more than 30 architectural staff

Field of Employment

Architects’ Field of Employment Private Practice Salaried

Economically active

Others

2,613

of whom Sole Principals

Partner/Director

Sole Principal

Page 74

0

1,721

Partners / Directors

779

Private Practice Salaried

97

Private in-house

0

Freelance

0

Other Private

16

Local authority/Government

0

Other Public

0

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest):

150

8.2

construction output

Pay:

4.2

GDP

Quality of life:

6.0

Business environment:

6.1

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

33

by fellow professionals

61

by others in construction industry

33

by clients

66

by public authorities

48

Cross-border Working

index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

Austria

Architects’ Satisfaction

120

90

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

88

Another country

13

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

88

Earnings average earnings €’s Sole Principals

50,000

Partners / Directors

40,000

Private Practice Salaried

n/a

Freelance

n/a

Other Private

n/a

Local authority/Government

n/a

Other Public ALL

Public Non-Housing

Private Housing

Public Housing Private Other

Commercial

n/a 48,000

Working Hours

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

54.0

Partner / director

51.3

Private practice salaried

48.8

Freelance

n/a

Local / central govt

n/a

Number contacted

526

Number of participants

160

Response rate

30%

Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

+/- 8% September

Page 75


Belgium

Mirza & Nacey Research

Social & Economic Population

10,666,866

GDP, € millions

330,800

GDP per head

31,100

Construction output, € millions

52,987

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

16

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

31

Change in construction output 20002007, %

48

Architectural Profession Number of architects

11,500

No. architects per 1000 population

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

1.1

Number male architects

8,740

Number female architects

2,760

Number architects aged under 40

6,210

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

327,108m

Average revenue per:

11,500 architects

2 person practice

88,979

6 to 10 person practice

171,167

Private Practice Number of practices

3,894

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1 architectural staff

2,403

2-5 architectural staff

1,288

6-30 architectural staff

187

more than 30 architectural staff

16

Field of Employment

Architects’ Field of Employment

Economically active

Others

Sole Principal

Sole Principals

2,404

Partners / Directors

1,364

Private Practice Salaried Private in-house

Partner/Director Public Sector Private Practice Salaried

825 0

Freelance

2,476

Other Private

3,158

Local authority/Government

754

Other Public

323

Freelance

Page 76

11,304

of whom -

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 7.2

Pay:

4.3

Quality of life:

5.8

Business environment:

6.5

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

26

by fellow professionals

46

by others in construction industry

32

by clients

51

by public authorities

29

Cross-border Working

construction output GDP

180 index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

200

160

140

120

100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

96

Another country

4

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

94

Public Non-Housing Public Housing Private Other

Earnings

Private Housing

average earnings €’s Sole Principals

30,600

Partners / Directors

24,000

Private Practice Salaried

24,000

Freelance

30,000

Other Private

31,000

Local authority/Government

28,500

Other Public ALL

Commercial

n/a 30,000

Working Hours

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

53.5

Partner / director

58.3

Private practice salaried

49.8

Freelance

45.1

Local / central govt

43.0

Number contacted

2101

Number of participants

318

Response rate Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

15% +/- 5% October

Page 77

Belgium

Architects’ Satisfaction


Mirza & Nacey Research

Denmark

Social & Economic Population

5,475,791

GDP, € millions

227,665

GDP per head

41,700

Construction output, € millions

28,552

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

13

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

31

Change in construction output 20002006 (latest year available), %

39

Architectural Profession Number of architects

7,000

No. architects per 1000 population

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

1.3

Number male architects

3,570

Number female architects

3,430

Number architects aged under 40

2,800

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

356,228m

Average revenue per:

7,000 architects

2 person practice

291,700

6 to 10 person practice

566,330

Private Practice Number of practices

727

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Architects’ Field of Employment

1 architectural staff

393

2-5 architectural staff

167

6-30 architectural staff

121

more than 30 architectural staff

46

Field of Employment Economically active

Others

Sole Principal Partner/Director

Sole Principals Partners / Directors Private Practice Salaried

Private Practice Salaried

417 1,893 227

Freelance

114

Local authority/Government Other Public

Freelance

Page 78

644

Private in-house Other Private

Public Sector

5,946

of whom -

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

644 1,401 606


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 8.4

Pay:

6.8

Quality of life:

7.9

Business environment:

7.4

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

66

by fellow professionals

87

by others in construction industry

48

by clients

77

by public authorities

67

Cross-border Working

construction output GDP

180 index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

200

160

140

120

100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

97

Another country

3

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

80

Public Non-Housing

Private Housing

Public Housing

Earnings average earnings €’s Sole Principals

67,150

Partners / Directors

53,720

Private Practice Salaried

53,720

Freelance

Private Other

Commercial

n/a

Other Private

46,736

Local authority/Government

53,720

Other Public

30,218

ALL

53,720

Working Hours

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

44.3

Partner / director

47.0

Private practice salaried

39.5

Freelance

40.0

Local / central govt

40.1

Number contacted

850

Number of participants

159

Response rate

19%

Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

+/- 8% October

Page 79

Denmark

Architects’ Satisfaction


Mirza & Nacey Research

Estonia

Social & Economic Population

1,340,935

GDP, € millions

15,547

GDP per head

11,600

Construction output, € millions

2,569

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

17

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

155

Change in construction output 20002006 (latest year available), %

174

Architectural Profession

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

Number of architects

700

No. architects per 1000 population

0.5

Number male architects

588

Number female architects

112

Number architects aged under 40

252

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

27,524m

Average revenue per: 2 person practice

700 architects

6 to 10 person practice

n/a 322,500

Private Practice Number of practices

190

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Architects’ Field of Employment

45

50

1 architectural staff

81

2-5 architectural staff

66

6-30 architectural staff

42

more than 30 architectural staff

1

Field of Employment Economically active

Freelance

Others

Sole Principal

Private Practice Salaried

Partner/Director

Page 80

672

of whom Sole Principals

108

Partners / Directors

376

Private Practice Salaried

134

Private in-house

0

Freelance

27

Other Private

27

Local authority/Government

0

Other Public

0

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 8.3

Pay:

6.0

Quality of life:

6.6

Business environment:

6.7

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

12

by fellow professionals

68

by others in construction industry

40

by clients

60

by public authorities

24

Cross-border Working

construction output GDP

300 index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

350

Estonia

Architects’ Satisfaction

250

200

150

100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country Another country Per cent practices where head office is in home country

100 0 100

average earnings €’s Sole Principals

41,280

Partners / Directors

25,800

Private Practice Salaried

n/a

Freelance

n/a

Other Private

n/a

Local authority/Government

n/a

ALL

Private Housing

Public Housing

Earnings

Other Public

Public Non-Housing

Private Other

Commercial

n/a 25,800

Working Hours

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

56.0

Partner / director

45.3

Private practice salaried

43.8

Freelance

n/a

Local / central govt

n/a

Number contacted Number of participants Response rate Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

70 25 36% +/- 19% June

Page 81


Mirza & Nacey Research

Finland

Social & Economic Population

5,300,484

GDP, € millions

178,759

GDP per head

33,800

Construction output, € millions

26,077

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

15

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

35

Change in construction output 20002007, %

53

Architectural Profession Number of architects

3,600

No. architects per 1000 population

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

0.7

Number male architects

1,800

Number female architects

1,800

Number architects aged under 40

1,152

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

42,580m

Average revenue per:

3,600 architects

2 person practice

70,000

6 to 10 person practice

350,000

Private Practice Number of practices

355

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1 architectural staff

140

2-5 architectural staff

100

6-30 architectural staff

106

more than 30 architectural staff

Architects’ Field of Employment

Field of Employment Economically active

Others

Sole Principal

Partner/Director Public Sector

Freelance

Page 82

Private Practice Salaried

9

2,710

of whom Sole Principals

324

Partners / Directors

337

Private Practice Salaried

836

Private in-house

40

Freelance

54

Other Private

216

Local authority/Government

674

Other Public

229

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 8.0

Pay:

6.0

Quality of life:

7.5

Business environment:

7.0

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

43

by fellow professionals

67

by others in construction industry

41

by clients

70

by public authorities

47

Cross-border Working

construction output

220

GDP

200 index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

240

Finland

Architects’ Satisfaction

180 160 140 120 100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

100

Another country

0

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

78

Public Non-Housing

Public Housing

Earnings average earnings €’s Sole Principals

35,000

Partners / Directors

49,250

Private Practice Salaried

36,000

Freelance

Private Housing

Private Other

Commercial

n/a

Other Private

36,500

Local authority/Government

45,000

Other Public

42,500

ALL

39,600

Working Hours

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

44.9

Partner / director

43.3

Private practice salaried

37.9

Freelance

38.8

Local / central govt

39.0

Number contacted

344

Number of participants

203

Response rate

59%

Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

+/- 7% September

Page 83


Mirza & Nacey Research

France

Social & Economic Population

63,753,140

GDP, € millions

1,867,345

GDP per head

29,400

Construction output, € millions

228,674

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

12

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

30

Change in construction output 20002006 (latest year available), %

45

Architectural Profession Number of architects

29,400

No. architects per 1000 population

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

0.5

Number male architects

12,936

Number female architects

16,464

Number architects aged under 40

13,818

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

1,103,778m

Average revenue per:

29,400 architects

2 person practice

138,158

6 to 10 person practice

698,573

Private Practice Number of practices

8,157

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1 architectural staff

4,900

2-5 architectural staff

2,833

6-30 architectural staff

417

more than 30 architectural staff

7

Field of Employment

Architects’ Field of Employment

Economically active

27,335

of whom -

Others

Sole Principal

Sole Principals

6,221

Partners / Directors

1,320

Private Practice Salaried

4,901

Partner/Director Private in-house Public Sector

Freelance

Page 84

Private Practice Salaried

189

Freelance

6,786

Other Private

6,598

Local authority/Government

377

Other Public

943

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 7.4

Pay:

4.5

Quality of life:

6.1

Business environment:

6.3

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

20

by fellow professionals

53

by others in construction industry

24

by clients

62

by public authorities

28

Cross-border Working

construction output GDP

180 index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

200

France

Architects’ Satisfaction

160

140

120

100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

92

Another country

8

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

97

Public Non-Housing

Private Housing

Earnings average earnings €’s Sole Principals

29,000

Partners / Directors

42,000

Private Practice Salaried

46,800

Freelance

35,000

Other Private

37,200

Local authority/Government Other Public ALL

Public Housing Private Other

Commercial

n/a n/a 36,000

Working Hours

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

49.0

Partner / director

51.4

Private practice salaried

48.3

Freelance

48.5

Local / central govt

37.0

Number contacted

1500

Number of participants

142

Response rate

9%

Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

+/- 8% September

Page 85


Mirza & Nacey Research

Germany

Social & Economic Population

82,221,808

GDP, € millions

2,423,800

GDP per head

29,500

Construction output, € millions

212,890

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

9

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

18

Change in construction output 20002007, %

-5.5

Architectural Profession Number of architects

95,000

No. architects per 1000 population

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

1.2

Number male architects

67,450

Number female architects

27,550

Number architects aged under 40

29,450

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

3,988,103m

Average revenue per:

95,000 architects

2 person practice

88,458

6 to 10 person practice

406,027

Private Practice Number of practices

32,311

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1 architectural staff

18,970

2-5 architectural staff

10,753

6-30 architectural staff

2,460

more than 30 architectural staff

Architects’ Field of Employment

Field of Employment Economically active

Others Public Sector

Page 86

78,690

of whom -

Sole Principal

Freelance

Private Practice Salaried

128

Partner/Director

Sole Principals

30,267

Partners / Directors

11,987

Private Practice Salaried

16,726

Private in-house

3,837

Freelance

2,006

Other Private

5,692

Local authority/Government

5,341

Other Public

2,834

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 7.4

Pay:

4.1

Quality of life:

5.5

Business environment:

6.1

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

38

by fellow professionals

57

by others in construction industry

29

by clients

57

by public authorities

39

Cross-border Working

construction output

130

GDP

120 index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

140

110 100 90 80 70

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

92

Another country

8

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

85

Public Non-Housing Private Housing Public Housing

Earnings average earnings €’s Sole Principals

40,000

Partners / Directors

46,300

Private Practice Salaried

36,000

Freelance

35,000

Other Private

48,000

Local authority/Government

45,000

Other Public

50,500

ALL

40,000

Working Hours

Private Other Commercial

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

51.5

Partner / director

51.8

Private practice salaried

46.1

Freelance

46.9

Local / central govt

43.0

Number contacted

12000

Number of participants

3460

Response rate Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

29% +/- 2% September

Page 87

Germany

Architects’ Satisfaction


Mirza & Nacey Research

Greece

Social & Economic Population

11,214,992

GDP, € millions

228,949

GDP per head

20,500

Construction output, € millions

32,969

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

14

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

66

Change in construction output 20002007, %

55.4

Architectural Profession Number of architects

15,000

No. architects per 1000 population

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

1.3

Number male architects

7,200

Number female architects

7,800

Number architects aged under 40

7,950

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

294,149m

Average revenue per:

15,000 architects

2 person practice

33,612

6 to 10 person practice

284,625

Private Practice Number of practices

3,821

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1 architectural staff

1,563

2-5 architectural staff

1,831

6-30 architectural staff

344

more than 30 architectural staff

83

Field of Employment

Architects’ Field of Employment

Economically active

Others

Sole Principal

Public Sector

Partner/Director

Sole Principals

1,757

Partners / Directors

1,854

Private Practice Salaried

2,407

Private in-house Freelance Other Private

Freelance

Page 88

Private Practice Salaried

12,591

of whom -

98 2,863 911

Local authority/Government

1,009

Other Public

1,692

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 7.9

Pay:

5.1

Quality of life:

6.0

Business environment:

6.4

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

39

by fellow professionals

53

by others in construction industry

36

by clients

50

by public authorities

18

Cross-border Working

GDP

200 180 160 140 120 100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

construction output

220

index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

240

Greece

Architects’ Satisfaction

Public Non-Housing

94

Another country

6

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

18

Public Housing Private Other

Earnings

Private Housing

average earnings €’s Sole Principals

30,000

Partners / Directors

30,000

Private Practice Salaried

18,000

Freelance

20,000

Other Private

22,500

Local authority/Government

21,500

Other Public

30,083

ALL

24,000

Working Hours

Commercial

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

54.2

Partner / director

50.3

Private practice salaried

44.0

Freelance

48.2

Local / central govt

44.9

Number contacted

1700

Number of participants

394

Response rate Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

23% +/- 5% June

Page 89


Mirza & Nacey Research

Ireland

Social & Economic Population

4,419,859

GDP, € millions

185,632

GDP per head

42,700

Construction output, € millions

31,556

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

17

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

77

Change in construction output 20002005 (latest year available), %

79

Architectural Profession Number of architects

3,500

No. architects per 1000 population

0.8

Number male architects

2,695

Number female architects

805

Number architects aged under 40

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

1,960

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

408,855m

Average revenue per:

3,500 architects

2 person practice

146,294

6 to 10 person practice

498,453

Private Practice Number of practices

694

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

196

2-5 architectural staff

332

6-30 architectural staff

148

more than 30 architectural staff

18

Field of Employment

Architects’ Field of Employment

Economically active

Others Public Sector

1 architectural staff

Sole Principal

Sole Principals Partners / Directors

Freelance

Private Practice Salaried

Partner/Director Private Practice Salaried

Page 90

3,408

of whom 537 794 1,354

Private in-house

47

Freelance

70

Other Private

163

Local authority/Government

280

Other Public

163

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest):

300

Choice of architecture as career:

7.9

construction output

Pay:

5.8

GDP

Quality of life:

6.7

Business environment:

6.3

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

30

by fellow professionals

66

by others in construction industry

41

by clients

59

by public authorities

36

Cross-border Working

250 index, 1997=100

Ireland

Architects’ Satisfaction

200

150

100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

82

Another country

18

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

9

Public Non-Housing Private Housing

Public Housing

Earnings average earnings €’s Sole Principals

75,000

Partners / Directors

80,000

Private Practice Salaried

60,000

Freelance

Private Other Commercial

n/a

Other Private

72,500

Local authority/Government

70,000

Other Public

60,000

ALL

65,000

Working Hours

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

44.6

Partner / director

50.3

Private practice salaried

41.9

Freelance

40.0

Local / central govt

40.6

Number contacted

410

Number of participants

147

Response rate Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

36% +/- 8% June

Page 91


Luxembourg

Mirza & Nacey Research

Social & Economic Population

483,799

GDP, € millions

35,982

GDP per head

75,400

Construction output, € millions

4,585

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

13

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

64

Change in construction output 20002007, %

63

Architectural Profession

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

Number of architects

600

No. architects per 1000 population

1.2

Number male architects

414

Number female architects

186

Number architects aged under 40

234

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

31,828m

Average revenue per: 2 person practice

600 architects

6 to 10 person practice

n/a 605,778

Private Practice Number of practices

194

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Architects’ Field of Employment

1 architectural staff

127

2-5 architectural staff

52

6-30 architectural staff

15

more than 30 architectural staff

0

Field of Employment Economically active

Others Sole Principal Public Sector

Freelance

Partner/Director Private Practice Salaried

Page 92

50

528

of whom Sole Principals

164

Partners / Directors

71

Private Practice Salaried

78

Private in-house

7

Freelance

86

Other Private

86

Local authority/Government

29

Other Public

7

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 7.5

Pay:

5.5

Quality of life:

6.4

Business environment:

6.5

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

43

by fellow professionals

72

by others in construction industry

53

by clients

70

by public authorities

40

Cross-border Working

construction output

220

GDP

200 index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

240

180 160 140 120 100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

89

Another country

11

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

56

Public Non-Housing Public Housing Private Other

Earnings

Private Housing

average earnings €’s Sole Principals

57,000

Partners / Directors

45,000

Private Practice Salaried

90,000

Freelance Other Private Local authority/Government Other Public ALL

Commercial

n/a 50,000 n/a n/a 50,000

Working Hours

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

50.0

Partner / director

49.6

Private practice salaried

47.6

Freelance

46.6

Local / central govt

43.7

Number contacted

543

Number of participants

75

Response rate

14%

Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level

+/- 11%

Survey period starting

October

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

Page 93

Luxembourg

Architects’ Satisfaction


Mirza & Nacey Research

Malta

Social & Economic Population

410,584

GDP, € millions

5,377

GDP per head

13,100

Construction output, € millions

415

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

8

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

27

Change in construction output 20002007, %

22

Architectural Profession

Malta is not to scale

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

Number of architects

500

No. architects per 1000 population

1.2

Number male architects

405

Number female architects

95

Number architects aged under 40

265

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

13,320m

Average revenue per:

500 architects

2 person practice

83,375

6 to 10 person practice

236,250

Private Practice Number of practices

83

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1 architectural staff

33

2-5 architectural staff

33

6-30 architectural staff

15

more than 30 architectural staff

3

Field of Employment

Architects’ Field of Employment

Economically active

Others

Sole Principal

Sole Principals

Public Sector

Partner/Director

Freelance Private Practice Salaried

Page 94

464

of whom 44

Partners / Directors

68

Private Practice Salaried

161

Private in-house

5

Freelance

54

Other Private

24

Local authority/Government

83

Other Public

25

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 7.7

Pay:

5.1

Quality of life:

6.2

Business environment:

6.3

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

35

by fellow professionals

55

by others in construction industry

55

by clients

52

by public authorities

33

Cross-border Working

construction output GDP

180 index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

200

Malta

Architects’ Satisfaction

160

140

120

100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

86

Another country

14

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

7

Public Non-Housing Public Housing

Private Housing

Private Other

Earnings average earnings €’s Sole Principals

51,000

Partners / Directors

42,000

Private Practice Salaried

20,000

Freelance

25,000

Other Private

n/a

Local authority/Government

n/a

Other Public ALL

Commercial

n/a 25,250

Working Hours

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

57.1

Partner / director

54.1

Private practice salaried

45.8

Freelance

48.8

Local / central govt

46.9

Number contacted Number of participants Response rate Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

400 95 24% +/- 9% June

Page 95


Netherlands

Mirza & Nacey Research

Social & Economic Population

16,404,282

GDP, € millions

559,537

GDP per head

34,200

Construction output, € millions

78,648

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

14

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

34

Change in construction output 20002007, %

31

Architectural Profession Number of architects

9,100

No. architects per 1000 population

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

0.6

Number male architects

7,826

Number female architects

1,274

Number architects aged under 40

2,912

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

901,558m

Average revenue per:

9,100 architects

2 person practice

103,714

6 to 10 person practice

325,909

Private Practice Number of practices

3,304

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Private Practice Salaried

1 architectural staff

863

6-30 architectural staff

469

more than 30 architectural staff

76

Economically active

8,564

of whom -

Sole Principal

Sole Principals

2,658

Partners / Directors

3,839

Private Practice Salaried

1,255

Private in-house

221

Freelance

221

Other Private

0

Local authority/Government

148

Other Public

222

Partner/Director

Page 96

1,896

2-5 architectural staff

Field of Employment

Architects’ Field of Employment Others Public Sector Freelance

50

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 8.3

Pay:

6.3

Quality of life:

7.7

Business environment:

7.5

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

47

by fellow professionals

62

by others in construction industry

38

by clients

66

by public authorities

42

Cross-border Working

140

120

100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Home country

93

Another country

7

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

60

Public Non-Housing

Private Housing

Public Housing

Earnings average earnings €’s Sole Principals

45,144

Partners / Directors

103,500

Private Practice Salaried

42,000

Freelance

n/a

Other Private

n/a

Local authority/Government

n/a

ALL

GDP

160

Per cent working or resident in:

Other Public

construction output

180 index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

200

Private Other

Commercial

n/a 54,000

Working Hours

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

48.0

Partner / director

47.3

Private practice salaried

46.2

Freelance

42.0

Local / central govt

50.0

Number contacted

1167

Number of participants

118

Response rate

10%

Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

+/- 9% September

Page 97

Netherlands

Architects’ Satisfaction


Mirza & Nacey Research

Romania

Social & Economic Population GDP, € millions

21,528,627 121,431

GDP per head

5,600

Construction output, € millions

15,882

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

13

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

201

Change in construction output 20002006 (latest year available), %

254

Architectural Profession Number of architects

5,500

No. architects per 1000 population

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

0.3

Number male architects

2,860

Number female architects

2,640

Number architects aged under 40

2,640

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

112,659m

Average revenue per:

5,500 architects

2 person practice

39,680

6 to 10 person practice

129,915

Private Practice Number of practices

1,275

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1 architectural staff

478

2-5 architectural staff

557

6-30 architectural staff

225

more than 30 architectural staff

15

Field of Employment

Architects’ Field of Employment

Economically active

Others

Sole Principal

Public Sector Freelance Partner/ Director

Private Practice Salaried

Page 98

4,548

of whom Sole Principals

629

Partners / Directors

1,031

Private Practice Salaried

1,698

Private in-house

61

Freelance

432

Other Private

379

Local authority/Government

129

Other Public

189

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 8.4

Pay:

6.0

Quality of life:

6.6

Business environment:

6.7

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

40

by fellow professionals

64

by others in construction industry

47

by clients

54

by public authorities

23

Cross-border Working

construction output GDP

400 index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

500

300

200

100

0

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

Public Non-Housing

94

Another country

6

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

24

Public Housing

Private Housing

Private Other

Earnings average earnings €’s Sole Principals

16,788

Partners / Directors

26,889

Private Practice Salaried

11,472

Freelance

14,943

Other Private

10,912

Local authority/Government

11,192

Other Public

11,836

ALL

13,990

Working Hours

Commercial

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

51.5

Partner / director

50.5

Private practice salaried

45.6

Freelance

50.8

Local / central govt

45.8

Number contacted

3070

Number of participants

607

Response rate

20%

Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

+/- 4% June

Page 99

Romania

Architects’ Satisfaction


Mirza & Nacey Research

Slovenia

Social & Economic Population

2,025,866

GDP, € millions

33,542

GDP per head

16,600

Construction output, € millions

10,718

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

32

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

59

Change in construction output 20002007, %

187

Architectural Profession Number of architects

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

1,350

No. architects per 1000 population

0.7

Number male architects

729

Number female architects

621

Number architects aged under 40

702

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

40,501m

Average revenue per:

1,350 architects

2 person practice

51,220

6 to 10 person practice

342,832

Private Practice Number of practices

289

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1 architectural staff

137

2-5 architectural staff

100

6-30 architectural staff

49

more than 30 architectural staff

3

Field of Employment

Architects’ Field of Employment

Economically active

Others

Sole Principal

Public Sector

Partner/ Director

Freelance

Sole Principals

231

Partners / Directors

163

Private Practice Salaried

408

Private in-house

27

Freelance

231

Other Private

95

Local authority/Government

68

Other Public

41

Private Practice Salaried

Page 100

1,264

of whom -

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 7.9

Pay:

5.7

Quality of life:

6.6

Business environment:

6.5

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

21

by fellow professionals

45

by others in construction industry

11

by clients

37

by public authorities

18

Cross-border Working

GDP

250

200

150

100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

construction output

300 index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

350

Public Non-Housing

100

Another country

0

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

67

Earnings

Private Housing

Public Housing average earnings €’s

Sole Principals

33,000

Partners / Directors

26,000

Private Practice Salaried

16,500

Freelance

12,000

Other Private

15,600

Local authority/Government

17,000

Other Public ALL

Private Other

Commercial

n/a 24,500

Working Hours

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

47.6

Partner / director

48.9

Private practice salaried

45.7

Freelance

45.1

Local / central govt

44.0

Number contacted

688

Number of participants

96

Response rate Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

14% +/- 10% July

Page 101

Slovenia

Architects’ Satisfaction


Mirza & Nacey Research

Sweden

Social & Economic Population

9,182,927

GDP, € millions

332,303

GDP per head

36,300

Construction output, € millions

22,097

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

7

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

25

Change in construction output 20002004 (latest year available), %

16

Architectural Profession Number of architects

5,400

No. architects per 1000 population

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

0.6

Number male architects

2,646

Number female architects

2,754

Number architects aged under 40

2,214

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

145,073m

Average revenue per:

5,400 architects

2 person practice

257,250

6 to 10 person practice

304,719

Private Practice Number of practices

631

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1 architectural staff

360

2-5 architectural staff

148

6-30 architectural staff

102

more than 30 architectural staff

21

Field of Employment

Architects’ Field of Employment

Economically active

Others

Sole Principal Partner/Director

Sole Principals Partners / Directors Private Practice Salaried

Public Sector

Freelance

Page 102

356 458 1,627

Private in-house

51

Freelance

254

Other Private

Private Practice Salaried

4,550

of whom -

Local authority/Government Other Public

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

267 1,118 419


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 8.1

Pay:

6.1

Quality of life:

7.8

Business environment:

7.1

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

56

by fellow professionals

76

by others in construction industry

24

by clients

65

by public authorities

44

Cross-border Working

construction output GDP

150

index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

160

140 130 120 110 100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

Public Non-Housing

94

Another country

6

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

18

Private Housing

Public Housing

Earnings average earnings €’s Sole Principals

38,376

Partners / Directors

44,772

Private Practice Salaried

34,347

Freelance

31,980

Other Private

5,010

Local authority/Government

34,538

Other Public

43,706

ALL

35,178

Working Hours

Private Other

Commercial

Response average number hours worked per week

Number contacted

1188

Number of participants

363

Response rate

31%

Sole Principal

43.7

Partner / director

41.8

Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level

Private practice salaried

41.7

Survey period starting

Freelance

38.0

Local / central govt

42.1

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08

+/- 5% June

Page 103

Sweden

Architects’ Satisfaction


Mirza & Nacey Research

Turkey

Social & Economic Population GDP, € millions

70,586,256 478,674

GDP per head

6,500

Construction output, € millions

70,156

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

15

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

65

Change in construction output 20002007, %

n/a

Architectural Profession Number of architects

32,300

No. architects per 1000 population

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

0.5

Number male architects

17,119

Number female architects

15,181

Number architects aged under 40

19,703

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

726,778m

Average revenue per:

32,300 architects

2 person practice

38,556

6 to 10 person practice

154,042

Private Practice Number of practices

6,497

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1 architectural staff

2,136

2-5 architectural staff

2,959

6-30 architectural staff

1,221

more than 30 architectural staff

Architects’ Field of Employment

Field of Employment Economically active

Others

Sole Principal

Public Sector Partner/Director

Sole Principals

2,224

Partners / Directors

4,251

Private Practice Salaried

7,431

Freelance Other Private

Private Practice Salaried

Page 104

21,492

of whom -

Private in-house

Freelance

181

211 2,716 859

Local authority/Government

1,464

Other Public

2,336

The Architectural Profession in Europe - Final, 18/12/08


Mirza & Nacey Research

GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest):

300

Choice of architecture as career:

7.8

construction output n/a

Pay:

4.7

GDP

Quality of life:

5.5

Business environment:

5.8

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

31

by fellow professionals

26

by others in construction industry

24

by clients

15

by public authorities

14

Cross-border Working

250 index, 1997=100

200

150

100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

Turkey

Architects’ Satisfaction

Public Non-Housing Public Housing

94

Another country

6

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

87

Private Other

Private Housing

Earnings average earnings €’s Sole Principals

26,366

Partners / Directors

26,366

Private Practice Salaried

13,988

Freelance

17,577

Other Private

11,952

Local authority/Government

14,062

Other Public

10,546

ALL

14,648

Working Hours

Commercial

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

49.3

Partner / director

48.9

Private practice salaried

49.7

Freelance

46.6

Local / central govt

40.9

Number contacted

15981

Number of participants

1594

Response rate

10%

Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

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+/- 2% September

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Social & Economic Population

61,185,981

GDP, € millions

2,023,589

GDP per head

33,300

Construction output, € millions

245,458

Construction output as a per cent of GDP

12

Change in GDP 2000 - 2007, %

29

Change in construction output 20002005 (latest year available), %

22

Architectural Profession Number of architects

31,600

No. architects per 1000 population

0.5

Number male architects

Number of Architects Italy Germany Spain Turkey United Kingdom France Portugal Greece Poland Belgium Netherlands Denmark Romania Sweden Switzerland Hungary Austria Finland Norway Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Czech Republic FYROM Lithuania Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Malta* Cyprus

24,964

Number female architects

6,636

Number architects aged under 40

16,116

Architectural Market 123,000 95,000

€’s Total market size (estimate)

2,800,042m

Average revenue per:

31,600 architects

2 person practice

130,164

6 to 10 person practice

893,258

Private Practice Number of practices

5,655

est. number practices with 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1 architectural staff

2,571

2-5 architectural staff

1,596

6-30 architectural staff

1,302

more than 30 architectural staff

Architects’ Field of Employment

Field of Employment Economically active

Others Public Sector

Sole Principal Partner/Director

2,241

Partners / Directors

4,931

Private Practice Salaried

15,913

Private in-house

1,121

Freelance

224

Other Private

2,017

Local authority/Government

1,569

Other Public

Private Practice Salaried

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28,688

of whom Sole Principals

Freelance

186

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GDP & Construction Output average rating, 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest): 7.2

Pay:

5.0

Quality of life:

6.1

Business environment:

6.2

Architects’ Reputation how architects believe they are regarded:

per cent ‘quite’ or ‘very highly’:

by the general public

41

by fellow professionals

61

by others in construction industry

24

by clients

53

by public authorities

27

Cross-border Working

construction output GDP

180 index, 1997=100

Choice of architecture as career:

200

160

140

120

100

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Workloads

Per cent working or resident in: Home country

Public Non-Housing

94

Another country

6

Per cent practices where head office is in home country

88

Public Housing

Private Housing

Private Other

Earnings average earnings €’s Sole Principals

50,992

Partners / Directors

58,373

Private Practice Salaried

46,966

Freelance Other Private Local authority/Government Other Public ALL

Commercial

n/a 67,095 n/a n/a 49,650

Working Hours

Response average number hours worked per week

Sole Principal

47.5

Partner / director

45.3

Private practice salaried

42.3

Freelance

n/a

Local / central govt

37.0

Number contacted

1450

Number of participants

127

Response rate Accuracy of results at 95% confidence level Survey period starting

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9% +/- 9% October

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United Kingdom

Architects’ Satisfaction


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Appendix I - Statistical & Methodological Notes 1. Method for weighting the ‘All’ figure The ‘Europe-17’ figure in several profiling tables in chapter 1 is weighted to reflect the total architectural population in all countries surveyed. For each country individually, we take the percentage breakdown from the on-line survey (e.g. per cent male and per cent female) and apply those proportions to the total number of architects in each country. This gives us the number of male architects and female architects in each country. These individual country male and female figures are then summed to provide the weighted total number (‘All’) of male architects and total number of female architects. Finally, the total number of males and females is expressed as a percentage of the total number of Architects. 2. Cautionary note: employment status It is possible there has been an under-reporting of retired architects. The survey suggests 2 per cent of the profession is ‘retired’. Experience in undertaking a regular survey of architects in the UK suggests retired architects are less likely to participate in on-line surveys. Whilst the survey was conducted amongst all Members of participating institutes, including retired people, it is likely that retired people may not have felt the survey was relevant to them and declined to participate. It is also conceivable that the demographics of email addressees held are such that fewer retired architects may have provided their email address to their institute in the first place, so any sampling based on email address alone may not have picked up sufficient numbers of retired architects in the sample. For this reason we have increased the not economically active figure when used elsewhere in this report.

the numbers of ‘inactive architects’. We have compared the proportion of retired, unemployed and ‘not working for other reasons’ figures derived from the on-line survey and compared these with the ‘inactive architects’ figure provided by Member Organisations as part of Phase I of this research. The table below shows how these figures compare. per cent

Phase I

Phase II

Austria

31.3

0.0

Belgium

1.7

2.4

Finland

25.4

4.2

France

5.9

1.5

Germany

17.2

5.7

Ireland

2.6

1.4

Netherlands

6.1

0.9

Slovenia

6.3

4.3

UK

9.2

2.1

Where Phase I data exists, we have used that and re-worked the figures. For countries where there is no Phase I data, we have up-lifted the country by the average percentage from Phase I. The table below shows the calculations undertaken to arrive at this average.

%

%

number

number

number archts

Phase I

Phase II

Phase I

Phase II

Austria

3,805

31.3

0

1,191

0

Belgium

9,914

1.7

2.4

169

238

Finland

3,633

25.4

4.2

923

153

France

29,417

5.9

1.5

1736

441

Germany

95,036

17.2

5.7

16,346

5,417

Ireland

6,900

2.6

1.4

179

97

Netherlands

9,121

6.1

0.9

556

82

Slovenia UK

3. Description of method used to revise the calculation ‘not economically active’ figures We were fortunate that the Phase I data includes an estimate, by Member Organisations, of

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Architects who are not active

all countries

1,350

6.3

4.3

85

58

31,595

9.2

2.1

2,907

663

190,771

11.7

2.5

24,092

7,149

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4. Description of the Model created to estimate the number of architectural practices. (i) identify the number of economically active architects in each country – see appendix 2 (ii) estimate the number of economically active architects who are in private practice: source - survey results (iii) estimate the number of architects working in each private practice size group and country: source - survey results (iv) calculate the typical number of architects per practice by size group for each country: source - survey results (v) estimate the number of practices that each number of architects represents in each size group and country: source - survey results e.g. if we have 300 architects working in the 3-5 size group for a given country and, from survey data, we know that, on average, 3 architects work in those practices we can estimate that there are 100 practices in this size group ie 300 architects working in practices comprising 3 architects gives us 100 practices. (vi) adding the number of practices in each size group gives the total number of practices per country 5. Description of method used to calculate size of architectural market (i) use the estimates of the number of practices in each size group (see note 4 above) (ii) multiply the number of practices by the average turnover for practices in that size group - repeat separately for each size group and each country (iii) each country’s market size is calculated by adding together the values for each size group 6. Minimum cell sizes The minimum number of responses used in each ‘cell’ (a segment of a statistical table) is generally 10. For the smaller countries a minimum cell size of 5 is applied, and in exceptional cases this is extended to 4 where the variance is low.

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Appendix II - On-line Survey Questionnaires

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THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION IN EUROPE  
THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION IN EUROPE  

FINAL 18 December 2008 - A Sector Study Commissioned by the Architects’ Council of Europe

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