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UNIT 3

STUDENT WORKBOOK

UNIT THREE : TOWARD A BETTER WORLD Student Workbook A curriculum for Israel Engagement Written by Belrose Maram In collaboration with Gila Ansell Brauner Elisheva Kupferman, Chief Editor Esti-Moskovitz-Kalman, Director of Education

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Lesson 1:

Israeli Society 1. Faces Of Israel We have seen that to engage with Israeli Society, we need to first explore it in a meaningful manner. Last lesson, we learned about Israel's unique Geography. In this lesson, we are going to learn about the development of Israeli Society, its achievements and challenges. Look at the eight pictures on the next page and write what you can guess about Israeli society by looking at them:

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Photo credits: www.goisrael.com

What can you infer about Israeli society from the 8 photos above?

__________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Information Box: Israel is home to a widely diverse population comprised of many ethnic, religious, cultural, and social backgrounds. A new society with ancient roots, it is still coalescing and evolving today. Of it’s approximately 7,645,5001, about 75% are Jews, 20% are Arabs (mostly Muslim) and the remaining 5% or less comprise Druze, and others groups. 1

Israel’s Central Bureau of Statistics, 2010. http://cbs.gov.il/reader/newhodaot/hodaa_template.html?hodaa=201011207

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The attainment of political independence and the mass immigration which followed doubled Israel's Jewish population from 650,000 to about 1.3 million in the first four years of statehood alone (1948-52)! This drastic demographic shift changed the structure and fabric of Israeli society. The Jewish population in Israel of that time was composed of several main ethnic groups: a large Sephardic community (Jews who trace their ancestry back to the Jewish population of medieval Spain), as well as Ashkenazi settlers (Jews from Western and Central Europe), including both veteran Ashkenazi Jews, as well as the newly immigrated Holocaust survivors. Additionally, there were and a large minority of recent Jewish immigrants from the Islamic countries of North Africa and the Middle East. Since then, Israeli society has only become more and more diverse, with the mass immigrations from Ethiopia and the Former Soviet Union in the 1980s and 90s. What kinds of challenges do you think Israeli Society has to confront with such a diverse population?

2. Peer Work: Israeli Characters •

You are going to play a Card Game.

In this game you have to classify and divide the deck of cards that you received into four different categories.

Each student should select one character card and explain why you have chosen that person.

Which character card did you select?

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ What was your character’s contribution to Israeli Society?

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Lesson 2: Social Development Peer Work: Israeli Society In this section, the class will be divided into groups. Each group is going to be assigned to a different social issue that affects Israeli society. The Issues being given out include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Immigration Education Healthcare Science and technology Environmental Protection

Instructions for each group: • •

Read the information about your assigned social issue in this workbook and answer the questions that follow. Complete the assignment after the reading, and present it to the rest of the class.

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IMMIGRATION Since Abraham, Jews throughout history have left the lands of their birth to move to the Land of Israel. They have generally not gone in great numbers, but there have always been Jews making aliyah, “going up” to Israel.

© The Jewish Agency for Israel https://picasaweb.google.com/jaforisrael/EthiopianAliyah2010#5428372042913847410

In 1950, the Israeli government declared a special law: Hok Hashvut - ‫חוק‬ ‫השבות‬- The Law of Return. The law states that every Jew in the world has the right to move to Israel and gain Israeli citizenship.

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Jewish Immigration to the State of Israel o Between the years 1948–1951, Israel absorbed some 700,000 immigrants, with its population doubling in size as a consequence. o In the mid-1950s, some 170,000 immigrants arrived in Israel, mainly from North Africa and Romania. o In the early 1960s, about 180,000 immigrants arrived from North Africa. o In the 1990s some 900,000 immigrants arrived from the Former Soviet Union, as well as about 60,000 immigrants from Ethiopia, all of whom received Israeli citizenship and were absorbed into Israeli society. Some Jews moved to Israel to fulfill religious and ideological dreams (Zionism). Others came to rebuild lives which had been destroyed by war or oppression. In this way, Israel is both a national and religious destination for Jews, as well as a refuge and home for those with nowhere else to go.

Immigration Process: When Olim (Immigrants) first arrive in Israel, some choose to live in a Merkaz Klita, an Absorption Center while they study Hebrew in an intensive course called an ulpan. Absorption Centers are located all over the country, in both cities and Kibutzim. Other immigrants, however, choose not to live in a Mekaz Klita, and move directly into a community in Israel. These immigrants are given some money from the government which they can use to pay for rent, food, etc. This financial assistance makes their absorption process easier during the first few months.

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Immigrants in Society: Despite all this assistance that immigrants receive, there was a long time when they were treated as a “problem to society�. Many immigrants were made to feel that they had to completely adapt to Israeli culture, and leave their former identities behind. Today, the olim are considered a "value to society" and they are not asked to abandon their former identities upon arrival to Israel. There is a recognition among Israelis that each immigrant brings a unique quality to Israeli culture and society which only enhance the broader Israeli society. This new attitude is called "MULTICULTURALISM".

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© Idan Reichel Project, http://www.idanraichelproject.com/

©MASA

Example of Multiculturalism: One of the ways that Israel has been able to address the problem of integrating many cultures is thought art, specifically music. Idan Raichel (pictured above) is one of the most popular singers in Israel, and he is an outstanding example of integrating different cultures through his music. He has released multiple albums influenced by Ethiopian culture, with immigrants as his band members. This project was initiated in the hopes of sustaining and encouraging Ethiopian Jewish art in Israel. In doing so, he has made Ethiopian music “cool” and a source of pride to the Ethiopian immigrants.

Write five facts that you have learned about Immigration in Israel: 1. ________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________________ 4. ________________________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________________ 9

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In your opinion, why is “The Law of Return"- ‫ חוק השבות‬important?

What is Multiculturalism, and how does it helps the integration of new immigrants? __________________________________________

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Read the following article and complete the assignment that follows. Council okays plan to ban Ethiopian olim from parts of town By Ayanawo Farada Sanbetu Published January 29th, 2007, http://www.Haaretz.co.il The Petah Tikva city council decided yesterday to try to keep Ethiopian immigrants from purchasing homes in poor neighborhoods by refusing to approve their mortgage requests - but to encourage them with increased benefits to buy homes in better-off areas. Thus the council hopes it will prevent the creation of slums and of areas of high immigrant concentration. While Ethiopian immigrants welcomed the new benefits, they said that the move to prevent them from buying homes in certain neighborhoods violates their rights. In a letter to Immigrant Absorption Minister Ze'ev Boim, Petah Tikva Mayor Yitzhak Ohayon wrote: "The urban-renewal neighborhoods…are collapsing and deteriorating again [due to the arrival of Ethiopian immigrants]. If the absorption basket for purchasing an apartment would be increased by $30,000-$50,000, it would be possible to distribute the immigrant community in well-established neighborhoods and not just in the urban-renewal neighborhoods…We are asking you...to stop this destructive process, the results of which will be paid by the urban-renewal neighborhoods for generations," said Ohayan, who told Haaretz yesterday: "I am concerned about the Ethiopian's future, not their race." Falashmura [Ethiopians converting to Judaism] children are obligated to attend religious public schools as part of their mandatory conversion process, and as a result, there is a large proportion of immigrant children in these schools. According to Ohayon, 80 percent of students there are Ethiopian immigrants, and the fact that there are 40 students in a class hinders their progress. "On Wednesday I will meet the chief rabbi to ask him to issue a ruling based on halakha (Jewish law), allowing Falashmura children to study in regular public schools," Ohayon added. Such a ruling would allow the Ethiopian students to be scattered throughout the local public school system. "As for the Judaism classes, they will receive one long educational day and a personal tutor," he said. …On January 21, officials in the Petah Tivka education department asked Ohayon to stop absorbing Ethiopian immigrants, due to the children's "Hebrew deficiencies" and educational and cultural gaps, saying that this harms both the city and the immigrants themselves. Ethiopian community activist Barko Samuel said in response that "this racist and condescending approach only serves to destroy the education system."

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1. What was the Immigration challenge described in this article?

2. Explain how the challenge was addressed (by both sides).

3. Think about other ways this challenge could be resolved. Write your ideas below and present them to the class.

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EDUCATION Education is an important part of life and culture in Israel. Israel has a developed and comprehensive education system, reformed over the years to adhere to Western trends in education. About 10% of Israel’s GDP is spent annually on education, which is almost exclusively paid for by the Government.

www.goisrael.com Education in Israel typically starts with preschool for ages 2-5. At age 5, children attend kindergarten, which is compulsory. Formal education starts at age six in elementary/primary school (grades 1-6) and continues with middle school (grades 7-9) and lastly high school (grades 10-12).

Education in Israel is compulsory (mandatory) from kindergarten until age 16 (under the Compulsory Education Law- ‫)חוק חינוך חובה‬, but is provided and paid for by the government until age 18 (the end of high school).

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Types of Schools: Due to Israel's diverse population, schools are divided into four groups: public schools, religious-public schools, Arab and Druze public schools, and private schools. Public schools are attended by the majority of students, while religious-public schools are geared towards Orthodox Jews, providing a greater emphasis on Jewish studies, tradition and observance. Arab and Druze public schools teach in Arabic and focus on Arab and Druze history, religion, and culture, while the private schools are operated by independent organizations, each with their own focus. •

Write five facts that you have learned about Israel Education: 1. ______________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________

What do you think about “The Compulsory Education Law” - ‫חוק חינוך‬ ?‫חובה‬

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ •

In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of the law? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Advantages: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Disadvantages: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

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Write the similarities and the differences between the Israeli and American Education system.

Similarities:

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Differences:

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

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Read the following article and complete the assignment that follows. Ten years of effort have failed to reduce violence in Israel's schools By Or Kashti

Published May 21st, 2008, http://www.Haaretz.co.il The Education Ministry has failed to deal with the problem of violence in the schools, the State Comptroller's Report said. Over the years, numerous professional committees have been appointed to study this problem, but most of their recommendations were never implemented. "Over the past decade, the education system worked to reduce incidents of violence and improve the educational climate in schools. That goal was not achieved," the report stated. Between 1996 and 2006, the frequency of violence - physical, social and sexual - at educational facilities remained virtually unchanged. "During those years, about a third of students were victims of harassment or bullying on school property," the report said. Several committees were established over that decade to review the problem, but their recommendations were ignored. Moreover, "the ministry does not have a body devoted exclusively to dealing with bullying and violence." ‌The ministry has no data on enforcement of regulations concerning school violence, and has not set up an efficient enforcement system‌Ministry regulations do not give teachers tools for enforcing discipline, making it hard for them to break up schoolyard fights and identify victims of violence and sexual assault. The comptroller found that teachers also refrain from defending pupils against bullying by classmates because they are afraid of lawsuits by pupils and parents. Furthermore, teacher training programs do not prepare the future teachers to deal with school violence. The Education Ministry said it is working to implement some of the report's recommendations. Reducing school violence is a mainstay of its activity, it added, and to this end, it runs a program at 800 schools designed to create "a safe climate."

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Class Assignment: 1. What was the educational challenge described in this article?

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. Explain how the challenge was addressed (previously and now).

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. Think about other ways this challenge could be resolved. Write your ideas below and present them to the class.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

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HEALTHCARE SYSTEM Israel’s population is served by an extensive healthcare framework comprised of hospitals, outpatient clinics, emergency responders, and centers for preventive medicine and rehabilitation. Hospitals have stateof-the-art facilities, and medical care includes highly advanced procedures and techniques, including in-vitro fertilization, MRI scans, advanced brain surgery, bone marrow and organ transplants, and more. Israel also has sophisticated mother-and-child care centers for women during pregnancy and children from birth to early childhood. These centers offer prenatal examinations, early detection of mental and physical handicaps, immunizations, regular pediatric check-ups, and health education.

Š MASA

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History: The foundation of the healthcare system, including a network of medical services for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, was put in place during the pre-State period by the Jewish community and the British authorities, both of which oversaw the infrastructure of the country prior to 1948. Thus, when the State of Israel was established, a well-developed medical infrastructure was already functioning. Immunization was already standard procedure, and frameworks for improving environmental conditions were operative. However, in the early years of statehood, the health services had to reassess and re-design some of its programs in order to serve the needs of the rapidly growing Israeli population, including hundreds of thousands of refugees from postwar Europe, and the Arab countries. This challenge was met through an intensive national effort which included special services as well as a far-reaching plan of health education and preventive medicine.

Health Insurance: The National Insurance Law provides for a standardized basket of medical services (including hospitalization) for all citizens of Israel. Medical services are supplied by the country's four comprehensive health insurance schemes, which are legally required to accept all applicants regardless of age or state of health. The main sources of funding are a monthly health insurance tax of up to 4.8 percent of income, collected by the National Insurance Institute, and employer participation in the cost of insurance for their employees. The insurance schemes are reimbursed according to a weighted average number of insured persons, calculated by age, distance of home from a health facility, and other criteria determined by the Ministry of Health.

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Write five facts that you have learned about Israel’s healthcare system: 1. ________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________________ 4. ________________________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________________

In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of the a national Health Insurance program like Israel’s?

Advantages:

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Disadvantages:

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ In the last few years, President Obama has proposed a Healthcare Reform in America, which might make America’s system more similar to Israel’s. Why do you think he proposed this Reform?

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Read the following article written by the manager of the Clalit Health Services (one of the 4 major national health insurance schemes) and complete the assignment that follows.

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Depriving the old of drugs By Zeev Vurembrand, Published on February 8th, 2006, http://www.Haaretz.co.il The Poverty Report for 2005, published a few days back, directed attention to the disabled, the old and other welfare beneficiaries who are unable to pay for the drugs they need‌ After the report was published, the leaders of doctors' organizations, the National Insurance Institute, and various social institutions cried that this intolerable situation be changed, right away. But their demand is too late, and misses the target. Their protests should have spoken earlier, before the committee that spent two years amending the distribution of the health budget. Three years ago the Clalit Health Service petitioned the High Court of Justice demanding change to the distribution of the health budget, allocating more for the disabled, the old and the otherwise income-impaired. Clalit's petition was based on countless economic opinions delivered over the years to the Health Ministry, all of which underscored the injustice in budget distribution. Beyond these economic opinions, the Health Ministry was shown medical studies proving a direct connection between a person's economic situation and health. For instance, it has been proven that the socio-economically disadvantaged are four and more times more liable to incur diabetes than the rich. After the intervention of the High Court, an inter-ministerial committee was founded including officials from the Health and Finance ministries, but it had no objective experts on board...The committee had been expected to recommend broad changes to the distribution of the health budget. But it ignored the situation of the poor, settling for cosmetic changes and perpetuating the social injustice. The committee claimed it did not have enough data to better distribute the resources in favor of the poor and the disabled‌ ‌The Health Ministry should preclude the next Poverty Report from being more of the chilling same. It should immediately empanel a committee of external, independent experts that would amend the way the health budget is parceled out, which is how it's done in most European countries. Committees headed by academics allocate the health budgets and institute positive discrimination in favor of the old and the weak, who are treated with respect in the European health system. When representatives of the European nations at the European Health Forum heard of the system in Israel, in which the old, the disabled and the weak are discriminated against by the way the health budget is distributed, they announced they would act to have Israel barred from the European Health Forum.

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Class Assignment: • • •

Identify what was the Health System Challenge in this article. Explain how the challenge was treated. Think about other ways this challenge could be resolved and presented to your class.

Class Assignment: 1. What was the healthcare challenge described in this article?

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. Explain how the challenge was addressed (previously and now).

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. Think about other ways this challenge could be resolved. Write your ideas below and present them to the class.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

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SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY History The history of scientific research in Israel is an integral part of the story of the return of the Jewish people to its homeland. Theodor Herzl (18601904) envisioned a State that would not only serve as the physical home of the Jewish people, but also as a major spiritual, cultural, and scientific center. In the early years of Zionism, the desire to transform the Land, then a barren and disease-ridden region, into a modern state, was a key factor in subsequent scientific inquiry and technological development. The scientific developments that came as a result of the agricultural work done in the Land of Israel are world-renowned. The Israel high-tech industry was born with the State of Israel. In 1948, the newly-created Israel Defense Forces established a branch called the Science Corps. During the same period, Israel developed what were to become the best institutions of education and scientific research in the Middle East, including the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, and the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. In the early ‘60s, Israel joined the nuclear era with the establishment of two nuclear research plants. The first Israeli computer (called Golem ("dummy") was developed and assembled in the early ‘50s at the Weizmann Institute.

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The High-Tech Industry One factor in the exceptional growth rate in the high-tech industry in recent years is Israel’s high percentage of engineers, the worlds highest, with 135 engineers per 10,000 persons, as compared to 85 per 10,000 persons in the United States. This is in part influenced by the many thousands of skilled engineers and technicians who have immigrated from the Former Soviet Union since 1989. Technologically, the Israeli high-tech industry is well positioned among the top five world leaders in the field. The following conditions in the local market have supported the industry: In a country where PCs are widely used, the atmosphere and the positive attitude towards computers is conducive to the development of high-tech skills in the younger generation. • Israel’s leaders are proud of the country’s high-tech "label" and promote it. The result is that the country is particularly interested in cooperation with foreign investors in the high-tech fields, more than with investors in other fields. • Unique to Israel, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has an office of “Chief Scientist” which distributes grants totaling nearly $400 million to various Research & Development projects. •

www.goisrael.com

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Domestic Technological Advancement Israel has firmly established itself as the most computerized country in the Middle East; it even surpasses some Western European nations. In 1997, more than 250,000 personal computers were sold in Israel, compared to 102,000 sold in Egypt (with a population of some 60 million) and just under 300,000 in Turkey (with a population of some 65 million). Israel also leads the Middle East with the highest penetration rate of PCs in private homes. There is a personal computer in nearly one out of two households, a ratio similar to that of the United States, Canada and several European and Far Eastern countries. In recent years, the Israeli education system has purchased tens of thousands of computers for use by students, from kindergarten through university age. Compared to other so-called high-tech 'tigers', such as Korea, Malaysia and Taiwan, Israel is unique in that it is a "true" high-tech country, with a highly developed domestic market for computing and telecommunications.

•

Write five facts that you have learned about the development of technology in Israel: 1. ________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________________ 4. ________________________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________________

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Why do you think it was important to develop technology specifically in Israel? What are the benefits of doing so?

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ •

Of all the information you read above, what did you find most impressive? Explain your answer.

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________

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Read the following article and complete the assignment that follows. Caught in the Net? By Yuval Dror, http://www.Haaretz.co.il …News agency Reuters, for instance, reported last week that a senior Finnish military officer admitted that the Finnish army routinely exempts from the draft young people who are designated as "Internet addicts." "For people who play Internet games all night and have no friends or hobbies, being inducted is quite a shock. They are weak...and unable mentally to interact outside the Internet...we send them home for two to three years, and then we examine if they have matured and are able to serve in the army." …Considering that Finland's average population density is 15 residents per square kilometer (compared to Israel's 279) and that the country has one of the highest suicide rates in the world due to loneliness and the long winter, it is understandable that Finnish youth is, how shall I put it delicately, a little depressed. That will certainly not interfere with us mocking the Finns who treat Internet addiction as something for which the army exempts young people from service. Even the soldier at the IDF Spokesman's Office who was asked to find out whether the Israeli army exempts inductees who are addicted to the Internet couldn't stop laughing for five minutes. Any attempt to examine whether "Internet addiction" is a real phenomenon or not is fruitless. Far too much silly research that doesn't prove anything comes to the dramatic conclusion that the world is addicted to the Internet. Back in 1999, research already determined that 6 percent of surfers were addicted. The fact the research consisted of a 10-question form didn't bother anyone. Israeli research found that the more interactive the applications used by the surfer became (such as chatting), the more their chances of becoming addicted increased. Amazing. …The strangest part of the story is that there is no agreement on how to diagnose "Internet addiction." An endless number of definitions are applied in an effort to clarify exactly when we should feel our fondness for surfing, e-mail and online games is becoming dangerous, detrimental to our social or family life and increases the chances we'll be found abandoned at the keyboard… It is possible to get addicted to anything - food, shopping, television. But none of those things have the advantage of the Internet, the ultimate demon that took over our lives and turned children into zombies that prefer to drool at their screens rather than play soccer. It is likely that a few people are addicted to the Internet, but that's a far cry from occasioning the huge headlines on the subject. Even the Finns understand that.

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Class Assignment:

1. What was the technology challenge described in this article?

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 2. Explain how the challenge was addressed (previously and now).

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 3. Think about other ways this challenge could be resolved. Write your ideas below and present them to the class

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________

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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: Water Preservation Preservation of the country's scant water sources is one of Israel’s greatest challenges. Israel entered the 21st century with one of its largest water deficits in history. The depletion of the country's main water sources is exacerbated by the deteriorating quality of water due to demographic, industrial and agricultural pressures and to overexploitation of the country's water reservoirs beyond the natural replenishment rate.

www.goisrael.com

Double-edged sword: Both water resource development and consumption have grown rapidly since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. Today, all feasible resources are exploited, including springs, groundwater reservoirs, aquifers and the Jordan River system. At the same time, as a result of accelerated population, and industrial and agricultural growth, the coastal aquifer has been increasingly threatened by contamination from chemical and microbial pollutants, salination, nitrates, heavy metals, fuels and toxic organic compounds.

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Israel’s Progress: The combination of severe water shortage, contamination of water resources, densely populated urban areas and highly intensive irrigated agriculture, has made it essential to increase development of treated wastewater. As a result, Israel has emerged as a world leader in recycling wastewater, with over 65% of the wastewater treated and reused for agricultural purposes in accordance with stringent permits issued by the Ministry of Health. National policy calls for the gradual replacement of freshwater allocations to agriculture by reclaimed effluents. It is estimated that effluents will constitute 40% of the water supplied to agriculture in 2005 and 50% in 2020.

Work that Lays ahead: In recent years, efforts have focused on restoring the country's ailing rivers, which have either dried up or become sewage conduits as a result of industrial discharge, municipal sewage, over-pumping, or just general abuse. After several consecutive years of drought and growing water scarcity, the government has begun to implement a comprehensive water management plan, based on such components as wastewater treatment and recovery, water conservation, seawater and brackish water desalination and remediation of contaminated wells. Plans for desalinating hundreds of millions of cubic meters of seawater are currently being implemented.

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Israel National Water Supply System - National Water Carrier The shortage of water in the southern, semi-arid region of Israel required the construction of an extensive water-delivery system that supplies water to this region from resources in the north. Thus, most of the country's fresh water resources were inter-connected into the National Water Carrier, which was commissioned in 1964. The National Water Carrier supplies a blend of surface and groundwater. Water not required by consumers is recharged into the aquifer through spreading basins and dual-purpose wells. Recharging of aquifers helps to prevent evaporation losses and, in the coastal area, intrusion of seawater. The National Water Carrier supplies a total of 1,000 major consumers, including 18 municipalities and 80 local authorities.

Write five facts about water preservation in Israel: 1. __________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________ 3. __________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________________ 5. __________________________________________________

What is the importance of the National Water Carrier for the Israeli environment?

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ •

Of all the information you read above, what did you find most impressive? Explain your answer.

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________

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Read the following article and complete the assignment that follows. Keeping Israel green Nehemia Shtrasler (2009), http://www.haaretz.com There hasn't been anything like it in Israel since the wicked Antiochus. Next Friday, after Independence Day, a new decree will descend on the people of Israel: We will be forbidden to water gardens. That's what the newspaper headlines say, though it's not entirely accurate. The gardens will not be dried out...Watering garden plants will be allowed, including trees and potted plants. That is, the catastrophe has been downgrading to a mere disaster. ‌In recent months the Water Authority has been on a campaign to save water called "Israel is drying up." It appears the campaign will succeed. People care. They are conserving more water. In addition, the Water Authority has raised the price of water, and the "special rate" for watering a garden has gone up tens of percentage points. The result: conservation of 75 million cubic liters. Maybe it would be better to take other steps besides a sweeping prohibition on watering home lawns; for example, a special fee on especially high water use at home‌ Does everyone know that flushing the toilet accounts for about one-third of all domestic water use? We can flush with a lighter touch to let out only a tiny amount of water. Before finding this proposal shocking, let's remember that when there was a water problem in Britain, the then Prime Minister, Tony Blair, said that in his home they didn't flush after every small use. If he can do it, why shouldn't we? A long time ago it was customary to wash yourself in an economical manner. You would step into the shower and soon turn off the water, lather up, and turn on the water again and rinse off. Nowadays, just try instituting this at home and your family will rebel and say impossible. But it's possible. These changes would save more than drying out the lawns, and they can be instilled via an effective campaign. We have, after all, done away with the once-common practice of washing the car using a garden hose. A water shortage is developing in the entire world. The problem is worse in Israel, especially because the population is growing and living standards are rising. The natural water supply is dwindling after a series of drought years, a short rainy season and the salinization and pollution of the groundwater. Though it's possible to desalinate seawater, building the installations requires time. Therefore the solution for the crisis is conserving at home and equalizing the price of water for agriculture with the price for households, which will spur additional savings in agriculture. If we do this we won't need to dry out our lawns any longer. The Antiochian decrees will be rescinded.

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1. What was the environmental challenge described in this article?

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 2. Explain how the challenge was addressed (previously and now).

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 3. Think about other ways this challenge could be resolved. Write your ideas below and present them to the class

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________

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Homework Assignment: You have learned about the development of the Israeli society in all its different aspects, as well as the problems that it has been confronted with along the way. 1. Select one of these challenges and research whether or not this problem exists in the United States. How did America address this challenge? Summarize the information you find, including a description of the problem in America as well as the way it was tackled. 2. In addition, provide your own suggestions for how this challenge may be addressed. (Please note: as a resident of America, these problems effect you too! Your suggestions may contribute in a significant way!) 3. Think about the ways that the young Jews in the United States and Israel can work together and share ideas towards solving this challenge. 4. In your opinion, what are the first steps needed to make this problemsolving partnership between America and Israel possible?

Note: This assignment is part of the Israel Contest.

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Unit 3 - SW