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Technical Information Photographic Summary of the

Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

Distributed By: Syntek Global Inc. 12382 South Gateway Park Place Suite B800 Draper, UT 84020 801-386-5007


PHOTOGRAPHIC SUMMARY OF THE

CARBON MASS BALANCE Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure TEST PROCEDURE

Compiled by:

Syntek 1245 E. Brickyard Rd. Suite 410 Salt Lake City, UT 84106 USA Tel: 801-386-5007 Fax: 801-386-5004

Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

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What is the Carbon Balance Test Procedure? PREFACE Fuel consumption measurements by reliable and accredited methods have been under constant review for many years. The weight of engineering evidence and scientific theory favors the Carbon Balance method by which carbon measured in the engine exhaust gas is related to the carbon content of the fuel consumed. This method has certainly proven to be the most suitable for field-testing where minimizing equipment down-time is a factor. The inquiries of accuracy and reliability to which we refer include discussions from international commonwealth and government agencies responsible for the test procedure discussed herein. This procedure enumerates the data required for fuel consumption measurements by the “carbon balance” or “exhaust gas analysis” method. The studies conducted show that the carbon balance has been found to be a more precise fuel consumption test method than the alternative volumetric-gravimetric methods. The Carbon Balance test is a fundamental part of the Australian Standards AS2077-1982. Further, the Carbon Balance test procedure has proven to be an intricate part of the United States EPA, FTP and HFET Fuel Economy Tests. Also, Ford Motor Company characterized the Carbon Balance test procedure as being “at least as accurate as any other method of volumetric-gravimetric testing.” (SAE Paper No. 750002 Bruce Simpson, Ford Motor Company) Finally, the Carbon Balance procedure is incorporated in the Federal Register Voluntary Fuel Economy Labeling Program, Volume 39. The following photographic report captures a few of the applicable steps necessary to conduct a reliable and accurate Carbon Balance procedure. As you will see, every effort is made to ensure that each test is consistent, repeatable, and precise. More importantly, it will be even clearer as to why the Carbon Balance test has such a high degree of acceptance and reliability.

Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

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PERFORMING THE CARBON BALANCE Performing the Carbon Balance Test Procedure TEST PROCEDURE

The equipment contained in this photograph is central to the reliability and accuracy of the in Carbon Balanceis test procedure. They fromofleft right,Balance an test The equipment contained this photograph central to the reliability andare, accuracy the to Carbon exhaust thermocouple and holder, non-dispersive infrared gas procedure. They are,temperature from left to right, an exhaust temperature thermocouple and holder, non-dispersive infrared gas probe, Bacharach smoke tester, and an exhaust pressure monitor. This probe, Bacharach smoke tester, and an exhaust pressure monitor. This equipment, and its use, will be further discussed equipment, and its use, will be further discussed in this document. in this document.

Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

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To begin the process,

To begin the process, The Carbon Balance procedure, is test equipment that is mechanically sound free from defect. screening isfree utilized to verify the Theand Carbon Balance procedure, is testCareful equipmentequipment that is mechanically sound and from defect. Careful equipment mechanical stability each stability piece ofofeach test equipment. Preliminary data is screening is utilized to verify theof mechanical piece of test equipment. Preliminary data is scrutinized scrutinized to disqualify equipmentsuspect. that may be equipment mechanically to disqualify all equipment that may all be mechanically Once the selectedsuspect. for the studyOnce is complete, equipment forto the study per is unit, complete, the Carbon Balance test takes thethe Carbon Balance testselected takes only 10 20 minutes, to perform. only 10 to 20 minutes, per unit, to perform.

One of the candidates selected for your Carbon Balance study might be similar to

Onethis of the candidates utilized selected for Carbon aBalance might be similarthe to this generatorisutilized operate generator toyour operate rock study crusher. Once decision madeto to a rock crusher. Once the decision is made to test a certain piece of equipment, pertinent engine criteria needs test a certain piece of equipment, pertinent engine criteria needs to be evaluated to be evaluated the CarbonBalance Balance procedure continues. as theasCarbon procedure continues.

Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

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When the selection process is complete, engine RPM is increased and locked in

When the selection process is complete, engine RPM is increased and locked in position. This allows the engine fluids, position. This allows the engine fluids, block temperature, and exhaust stream block temperature, exhaust stream to stabilize. Data cannot collected when therefluctuation is irregular fluctuation in gasses toand stabilize. Datagasses cannot be collected whenbethere is irregular engine RPM and exhaust constituent levels. Therefore, all engine operating conditions must be stable and consistent. in engine RPM and exhaust constituent levels. Therefore, all engine operating

conditions must be stable and consistent.

A throttle lock is utilized as one means to secure engine RPM. This provides a steady state condition in which consistent data can be collected. Should the A throttle lock is utilized as one means to secure engine RPM. This provides a steady state condition in which engine RPM fluctuate erratically and uncontrollably, the test unit would be consistent data can be from collected. Should the engine RPM fluctuate erratically and uncontrollably, the test unit would be disqualified further consideration. disqualified from further consideration.

Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

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The engine and fluid temperatures monitored throughout the Carbon Balance evaluation. As important, TheRPM engine RPM and fluid are temperatures are monitored throughout the Carbon exhaustBalance manifold temperatures to ensure thatmanifold engine combustion is consistent in all cylinders. It is evaluation. are Asmonitored important, exhaust temperatures are monitored imperative that the engine achieve normal operating before anycylinders. testing begins. to ensure that engine combustion is conditions consistent in all It is imperative

that the engine achieve normal operating conditions before any testing begins.

Once engine fluid levels have reached normal operating conditions the Carbon Balance mayreached begin.normal The operating above photograph thestudy engine Once engine fluid study levels have conditions theshows Carbonthat Balance mayRPM begin. isThe above locked in that place, theRPM engine hasin not photograph shows the but engine is locked place,yet but reached the enginethe hasproper not yet operating reached the proper temperature (approximately 190 degrees F.).be noted It should noted inthat any either operating temperature (approximately 190 degrees F.). It should that anybe deviation temperature, deviation in temperature, either fluid or exhaust, would cause this unit to be fluid or exhaust, would cause this unit to be eliminated from the evaluation due to mechanical error. eliminated from the evaluation due to mechanical error.

Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

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Once all of theall mechanical criteria is met,criteria data acquisition commence; it is necessary to monitor itthe Once of the mechanical is met,can data acquisition can commence; istemperature and pressure of the to exhaust stream. Balance data be collected the engine exhaust temperature necessary monitor theCarbon temperature andcannot pressure of the until exhaust stream. has peaked. Exhaust temperature is monitored carefully for this reason. Carbon Balance data cannot be collected until the engine exhaust temperature

has peaked. Exhaust temperature is monitored carefully for this reason.

Once the exhaust temperature has stabilized, the test unit has reached its peak operating temperature. Exhaustthe temperature critical to the completion of a Exhaust Once the exhaust temperature has stabilized, test unit has is reached its peak operating temperature. successful evaluation, since temperature changes identify changes in load and temperature is critical to the completion of a successful evaluation, since temperature changes identify changes in load RPM. As has already been mentioned, RPM and load must stay constant during and RPM. As has already been mentioned, RPM and load must stay constant during the Carbon Balance study. the Carbon Balance study.

Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

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When all temperatures are stabilized, and desired operating parameters are

When all temperatures operating parameters are into achieved; it is timetip toofinsert the achieved; it is are timestabilized, to insertand thedesired emissions sampling probe the exhaust emissions sampling into the exhaust tip of each piece of equipment utilized in the has studyagroup. each pieceprobe of equipment utilized in the study group. The probe non- The probe has a non dispersive head, which allows for random exhaust sampling throughout the cross section of dispersive head, which allows for random exhaust sampling throughoutthe theexhaust. cross

section of the exhaust.

While the emission-sampling probe is in place, and data is being collected, exhaust temperature and throughout the entiretyand ofpressure the are While the emission-sampling probe is inpressure place, and are data monitored is being collected, exhaust temperature Carbon Balance procedure. This photograph shows the typical location of monitored throughout the entirety of the Carbon Balance procedure. This photograph shows the typical the location of sampling probe and exhaust temperature probe. the sampling probe and exhaust temperature probe.

Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

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While data is being collected, exhaust pressure is monitored, once again, as a

While data is being collected, exhaust pressure is monitored, once again, as a tool to control load and RPM fluctuatool to control load and RPM fluctuations. Exhaust pressure is proportional to tions. Exhaust pressure is proportional to load. Therefore, as one increases, or decreases, so in turn does the other. The load. Therefore, as one increases, or decreases, so in turn does the other. The Carbon Balance test is unique in that all parameters that have a dramatic affect on fuel consumption in a volumetric test Carbon Balance test is unique in that all parameters that have a dramatic affect are controlled monitored throughout the entire test evaluation. This ensures the monitored accuracy of the data being collected. on fueland consumption in a volumetric are controlled and throughout Exhaustthe pressure is nothing more than an accumulation of combustion events that are distributed through the exhaust entire evaluation. This ensures the accuracy of the data being collected. matrix. Exhaust pressure is nothing more than an accumulation of combustion events

that are distributed through the exhaust matrix.

The above photograph shows one method in which exhaust pressure can be monitored during theone Carbon procedure. case, during exhaust The above photograph shows methodBalance in which test exhaust pressure canInbethis monitored the Carbon pressure is ascertained through the use of a Magnahelic gauge. This type Balance test procedure. In this case, exhaust pressure is ascertained through the use of a Magnahelic gauge. of This type of stringent regime further documents the inherent accuracy of the Carbon Balance stringent regime further documents the inherent accuracy of the Carbon Balance test. test.

Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

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At the conclusion of the Carbon Balance test, a smoke test is performed as a

At the means conclusion the Carbonthe Balance test, exhaust a smoke test is performed as a means to determine the engine extoofdetermine engine particulate level. This valuable haust particulate level. This valuable procedure helps to determine the solid particulate in the exhaust stream. procedure helps to determine the solid particulate content in thecontent exhaust stream. Smoke Smoke is the most obvious and compelling sign of pollution. Any attempt to reduce smoke places is the most obvious and compelling sign of pollution. Any attempt toall industry in a favorable positionsmoke with environmental and in theageneral public.position with environmental policy reduce places all policy industry favorable

and the general public.

The above photograph demonstrates a typical method in which smoke volume is monitored during the Carbon Balance test. Thissmoke method is the Bacharach Smoke The above photograph demonstrates a typical method in which volume is monitored during the Carbon Spot test. It is extremely accurate, portable, and repeatable. It is a valuable tool It is a Balance test. This method is the Bacharach Smoke Spot test. It is extremely accurate, portable, and repeatable. in smoke spot testing when comparing baseline exhaust to Catalyst treated valuable tool in smoke spot testing when comparing baseline exhaust to Catalyst treated exhaust. exhaust.

Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

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Finally, the data being recorded is collected through a non-dispersive, infrared analyzer. Equipment such as this is EPA approved and CFR 40 rated. This Finally, the data being collectedofthrough a non-dispersive, infrared analyzer. Equipment analyzer hasrecorded a highisdegree accuracy, and repeatability. It is central to such the as this is EPA approved and CFRBalance 40 rated. procedure This analyzer in hasthat a high degree of accuracy, andcarbon repeatability. It is central to the Carbon Carbon it identifies baseline and oxygen levels, Balancerelative procedure in that it identifies baseline carbon and oxygen levels, relative to their change with Catalyst treated to their change with Catalyst treated fuel, in the exhaust stream. The fuel, in the exhaust stream. Theis data accumulated is exact, as long as the criteria leading the accumulation of data data accumulated exact, as long as the criteria leading up to up thetoaccumulation is exact.ofFor this reason, the Carbon Balance test is superior to any other test method utilized. eliminates a multitude data is exact. For this reason, the Carbon Balance test is superiorIt to any other of variables can adversely affect outcome and reliability ofofany fuel consumption testthat method utilized. It the eliminates a multitude variables that canevaluation. adversely affect the outcome and reliability of any fuel consumption evaluation.

The above photograph identifies one type of analyzer used to perform the Carbon Balance test.oneThe calibrated knownBalance reference gases The above photograph identifies typeanalyzer of analyzerisused to performwith the Carbon test. The analyzer is before baseline andgases treated testthesegments begin. Thetestdata collected from calibrated with the known reference before baseline and treated segments begin. The data this analyzer is then computed and compared to the carbon contained within the collected from this analyzer is then computed and compared to the carbon contained within the raw diesel fuel. diesel fuel. A fuelfactor consumption performance is then calculated fromfactor is A fuel raw consumption performance is then calculated from thefactor data. The baseline performance the data. The baseline performance factor is compared with the Catalyst treated compared with the Catalyst treated performance factor. The difference between the two performance factors performance factor. The difference between the two performance factors identifies the change in fuel consumption during the Carbon Balance test procedure. identifies the change in fuel consumption during the Carbon Balance test procedure.

Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

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Last, but equally important, the data collected from the Carbon Balance test

Last, but equally important, the data collected from the Carbon Balance test procedure can be utilized in procedure can be utilized in determining the carbon footprint of your company. determining the carbon footprint of your company. Reductions in carbon and other relative harmful exhaust Reductions in carbon and other relative harmful exhaust constituents can be constituents can be calculated to determine the yearly contaminates emitted into thethe atmosphere, as a result calculated to determine the yearly tonstons of of contaminates emitted into of your fleet. A reductionas in a your carbon with A thereduction use of the Catalyst, and will be beneficial with present atmosphere, result of footprint, your fleet. in yourcan carbon footprint, with and future government carbon credit policies. the use of the Catalyst, can and will be beneficial with present and future

government carbon credit policies.

Photographic Summary of the Carbon Mass Balance Test Procedure

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CMB Photographic Summary