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The Makeup Manual Beginner’s Edition Jessica Nip

This manual was created for the purpose of a student’s Personal Project. All of the content is gathered from research and credited in the bibliography section of this manual. All professional fashion and beauty photographs are by Jamie Nelson. For educational purposes only and not for sale. Created in Hong Kong December 2012

Beauty truly comes from within, feel good about yourself - because it’s not about how you look on the outside, you have to feel beautiful inside out, so accept the way you are! You can pile lots of make-up on your face and still not feel beautiful, but if you can change your perspective on beauty and embrace the way you look, you’ll be a much happier person. Everyone is beautiful. This manual will be your basic guide to understanding makeup and skincare.


Skin Understanding Your Skin Cleansing, Toning & Moisturizing Face Primer, Foundation Concealer Bronzer Blush Highlighter Powder

Eyes Eyeshadow Eyelashes Eyeliner Eyebrows Lips Colors & Formulations Shelf Life Do-It-Yourself! Directory & Bibliography


“Everyone is beautiful to someone” - Kevyn Aucoin

Understanding Your Skin It is so important to take proper care of your skin before applying any make up. The most basic skincare system should include “cleansing, toning & moisturizing�, but before we get into that, we must first recognize which skin type we have.

Normal Skin

Dry Skin

Sensitive Skin

Oily Skin

Combination Skin

Simple Skincare Tips! * Always wear sunscreen - no matter what skin type you have! * Never sleep in your makeup. * Skin cell turnover occurs the quickest during 12am-2am! * Try to keep your hands off your face, you have no idea how much bacteria could be on them throughout the day.

The word "skincare" is exactly what it looks like - caring for the skin.

Normal Skin usually has a healthy, vibrant complexion (with an even tone, smooth texture). There is a combination of oily and dry areas, rarely breaking out. Normal Skin can transition into oily or dry skin.

Dry Skin It is important to have a good daily skincare routine for this skin type, including a stimulating mask weekly and exfoliation about two times a week.

What’s your skin type?

has a matte texture, and can appear to be flaky, dry. This skin type rarely breaks out and pores are not visible. There may be early signs of aging.

Preventing dehydration is very important for dry skin - drink lots of water and use a rich cleanser and moisturizer. Nourishing cream during the night time and weekly exfoliation will help to minimize flakiness.

Oily Skin

Combination Skin

is usually shiny through T-zone of the face (forehead, nose and chin area) and more prone to breakouts. This skin type has enlarged pores but allows skin to develop less wrinkles when aging.

can be a combination of dry and oily skin, where it is shiny through T-zone of the face. This skin type has dry areas on cheeks, hairline, and visible pores at the oily areas.

Sensitive Skin Gentle cleansing is required when taking care of this skin type, with occasional steaming/deep cleansing masks and an oil-free moisturizer should be used to prevent any drying.

can be a dry or oily skin type, usually sensitive to skincare products and cosmetics. This skin type also tends to develop redness easily, and should not be exposed to sunlight.

A mild, fragrance-free cleansing system should be used for this skin type. Use alcohol-free toners, and products created targeted towards sensitive skin for best results.

Combination skin types require a regular cleansing system, including a gentle cleanser and toner, and medium-rich moisturizer targeted towards the dry areas.

“Cleansing, Toning, & Moisturizing� Skin should generally be cleansed twice a day, day and night. Here are the basic steps to a skincare system:

1. Remove any traces of make up Use a make up remover to remove face make up, and an eye make up remover for the eye area. Cleansing is needed to remove any makeup and dirt on your skin, and prevent blockage of pores.

2. Cleansers A) Gel Cleansers - foams and lathers up early - for oily, combination, acne-prone skin B) Cream Cleansers - water-based formula - effective way to removing make up - for normal to dry skin C) Cleansing Oil - for very dry skin D) Exfoliating Cleansers - quickens cell turnover by removing dead skin - recommended once or twice a week - improves texture of skin surface E) Soap & Water - leaves refreshing feeling on skin - use soap specifically for face - may be harsh on surface sometimes - for oily skin

3. Toners Toning is needed to remove any remaining dead skincells, and to minimize your pores after cleansing. A) Alcohol-Free Freshener - gentle formula - good for sensitive, normal, dry skin B) Skin Tonics - little alcohol - normal, combination, oily skin C) Astringents - most alcohol - oily skin D) Cold Water - natural toner - closes pores - improving skin texture

4. Moisturizers Moisturizing is needed to restore your skin with it’s natural moisture. However, this cannot be done using products alone.. be sure to drink plenty of water! A) Dry Skin - oil based - formula that absorbs 100% into skin B) Normal Skin - water-based - originally has a good moisture balance C) Oily/Combination Skin - oil free, water-based - one that gives a matte finish - don't want excess shine that can appear to enhance pores D) Sensitive Skin - fragrance-free - specially formulated


“Beauty – in projection and perceiving – is 99.9% attitude.” – Grey Livingston

Primer Primers are used to allow your foundation to last longer throughout the day. There are many types of primers in the market, with effects such as: - pore, fine-line eliminating - oil control - redness correction - evening out skin tone - luminizing - hydrating Primers also allow foundation application to be smoother, along with the different effects listed above. It is a base, used to prep your skin before applying foundation. Some primers also contain sun protection factor (SPF) which is another benefit to the skin!

Q: Foundation or Concealer First? A:

You can decide to use concealer or foundation first. Some people prefer concealing problematic areas first before applying foundation. Others prefer to use foundation first, and then going back to conceal the areas where the foundation does not provide enough coverage to. I prefer applying foundation before concealer, but it is all based on your personal preference.

Foundation Foundation is used to even out your skin tone, and comes in light, medium and full coverage. It is so important to select a color that best suits your natural skin tone. It is blended all over the face and down the neck. There are many types of foundation available to choose from, the basic types would be Liquid - coverage: ranges from light to full - easy to use and blend - can be very hydrating - generally targeted towards drier skin types Stick - coverage: ranges from medium to full - easy to travel with - works as a concealer and foundation - works well with photography - good for all skin types in general, except oily skin types sometimes

Tinted Moisturizer - coverage: light - an alternative when you don't want to wear foundation - very sheer, with natural coverage - tinted face balms: more moisturizing for dry skin - oil-free tinted moisturizers: more appropriate for oily skin Mineral Powder - coverage: ranges from light to full - very build able coverage foundation - lightweight and provides a natural looking finish - great for oily skin types BB Cream (Beauty Balm Cream/Blemish Balm Cream) There is a new trend of replacing foundation with BB cream, where BB cream is known to be a primer, foundation, concealer, moisturizer and sunblock all in one.

Application Tips! * Synthetic Brushes: work well with liquid make up * Natural Fiber Brushes: work better with powder make up

Concealer Concealer is applied to disguise problematic areas of the skin - such as blemishes, spots or redness. Concealer can also be used to cover dark circles, but some people prefer using correctors instead, which are used to neutralize the area instead of adding color on top of it. Concealer Tips! - Using a yellow-toned concealer can cancel off the discoloration under eyes - To brighten under eyes: It is best to use a concealer 1-2 shades lighter than the shade of your foundation - To conceal blemishes: Make sure the concealer is the same shade as your foundation, as you don't want to draw more attention to that area! - Always remember to set your concealer with powder afterwards Color Correctors Green: cancels out redness Yellow: counteracts dark circles, purple tones Lilac: brightens a dull complexion

Powder Powder can make the biggest difference to the longevity of your make up. Not only keeping the foundation and concealer in place, but specifically controlling shine for oilier skin types. Powder comes in different shades as well: Translucent Powder: comes in a white tint Pigmented/Shaded Powder: comes in a variety of shades, remember to pick one that matches your foundation! Touch-ups are usually done using pressed powder, as it provides a natural looking finish and usually comes in travel-friendly compacts. Pressed powders also provide a sheer coverage. For a heavier coverage, loose powder can be used instead of pressed powder. Don't pile too much powder onto the skin, as you don't want it to appear cakey. * For oily skin, blot away any excess shine with blotting sheets before applying powder.

Bronzer Not only to give your complexion a healthy glow and even out your skin tone, bronzers are also great for giving you a sun kissed look. Bronzer is a safer way to appear tanned without having to expose your skin to the sun. Similar to foundations, bronzers come in all kinds of formulations. Bronzing Tips! - Works best on natural skin - Can be used as eyeshadow - Choose a bronzer a few shades darker than your foundation, or a resemblance of your tanned skin - Always remember to blend at your jawline (don't leave out the neck!) - Always apply on top of foundation, and under blush *For oily skin types, apply some powder as a base prior to applying bronzer, this will prevent the bronzer to streak.

Blush Blush gives you the warm pretty look you get when blushing or when you're flushed from exercise. It adds a lift to your face and often makes you appear more youthful. Blush is applied on top of bronzer and below highlighter. Powder Blush: the simplest formula to use, works well for all skin types Cream Blush: easy to blend with fingers, great for dry skin

Highlighter Highlighter is used to give your skin a dewy, glowy and healthy look, almost like you had just moisturized your skin. It is created with shiny pigments which reflects light and usually comes in a form of liquid or powder. Highlighter is applied after bronzer and blush, at the cheekbones, temples, brow bone, and Cupid's bow.

Highlighting Tips! - Applying to cheeks/temples: blend upwards from the highest point of your cheekbone to your temple - Applying to brow bone: blend underneath the eyebrow, from the brow bone to the inner crease - By applying highlight to the Cupid's bow, your lips will appear fuller and more three-dimensional

Where to apply b

bronzer, blush and highlighter?

Make-up is not used to change the way you look, but to enhance your face and the features you already possess.The first step to being beautiful is to feel beautiful. Love Yourself.


“Beauty isn’t about looking perfect, it’s about celebrating your individuality” - Bobbi Brown

Eyeshadow Using eyeshadow is one of the most effective tools in enhancing your facial features. Not only can it enlarge yours eyes or make them appear smaller, it can enhance the color of your eyes as well. If you've been through a rough day, it'll brighten up your eyes easily using a pop of color. Eyeshadows are generally classified into 2 types: shimmery and matte. There are different formulations of eyeshadows as well, such as: Liquid - great for normal/dry skin as it will provide more moisture Cream - good for using as an eyeshadow base (people tend to use this as a primer, it allows the colors to appear more pigmented) Powder - most popular form of eyeshadow, good for all skin types

Eyeshadow Tips! - Remember to blend properly! - Blue eyeshadow compliments blue eyes, and purple eyeshadow compliments brown eyes! * If you have oily skin, it is best to apply more eyeshadow primer beforehand, or try a cream color base/concealer to prevent from streaking. Also touch up throughout the day!

Eyelashes 1. Curling By using an eyelash curler, it will open up your eyes and enhance your lashes. Allow your lashes to be placed between the curler, then put pressure on the lashes for 15-20 seconds and let go. Some people like using a heated lash wand instead, as the warm application can allow the curl to last longer throughout the day. Curling Tip! Don't place the eyelash curler too close to your lid as you don't want to catch the skin in the curler!

2. Mascara Mascara is used "to darken, thicken, lengthen, define lashes". It comes in a liquid form which then dries after application, becoming stiff and holds the lashes in the desired position. Mascara is available in different forms: waterproof, smudge proof, non-waterproof. Usually if you're going for a more dramatic look, apply more coats so that your lashes will appear thicker.

3. False Lashes When going for a more glam, fun look, definitely apply some falsies! The amount of drama you want to create all depends on you - by using a couple of singles, or natural-looking lashes, you can create a subtle look. Whereas if you choose fuller, thicker lashes, a dramatic look can be created. Falsies come in all kinds of thickness, color, length, as well as style and accessories (some of them come with jews/feathers!).

Eyeliner Eyeliner can function in many different ways, most women use it to bring attention to the eyes, enhance eye color, also to change the appearance of the eyes - whether it's shape or size. Eyeliner comes in a variety of forms as well, such as: pencil, liquid, powder, gel and cream. As well as different colors, most commonly in black. What specific shade compliments my eyes? Brown Eyes: Navy Green Eyes: Violet Blue Eyes: Brown/Taupe Eyeliner Tips! - Dark colors can create a smokey eye effect, bright colors draw focus and brighten the eyes - Light-handedly creating a dotted line, or "dotting" the lash line can allow lashes to appear thicker - Used on top of falsies to camouflage them - When creating a cat eye, extend the line from the lower lash line outwards

Eyebrows Tweezers, the only equipment you will need to shape those eyebrows at home. Our eyebrows frame our face - bringing out our facial features, bringing attention to the eyes. You can shape your own eyebrows or let someone else do it for you, by waxing, threading, or tweezing. Eyebrow pencils are created for you to further shape your eyebrow - whether you want to darken a specific area, or make some parts fuller looking. Eyebrow Tip! - Remember to always comb through with brow wand after filling in your brows to make them more natural looking!

Lips “No amount of makeup can mask an ugly heart” - Kevyn Aucoin

Lipstick Lipstick is the "final touch" to your make up. People feel that matte finish lipsticks are often more suitable for everyday wear, whereas satin finish lipsticks are for evening occasions. However, it is all based on personal preference. Like any other make up, lip products come in a variation as well, such as lipstick, lipgloss and lip liner. These lip products provide a range of finishes - matte, cream, satin, gloss (sheen), sheer.

Lipstick Tips! - When first choosing a basic lip color, pick one that matches your natural lip shade What color to pick? Dark skin tones: Plums, deep reds, wines Lighter skin tones: Light brown beiges with pink/orange undertones Olive skin tones: Brownish reds, light browns, raisin shades - Lighter shades are usually for daytime, whereas darker shades are for night time - Apply lip liner before or after lipstick for definition, it is used to create a perfectly shaped lip - You can also apply lip liner all over the lip as a lip stain, for long-lasting results - Lipliner should be one shade darker than lipstick - Use a tissue to blot excess color and to even out texture - Use a lip brush to blend and mix products to your desired color if necessary - If you have heavy eye make up going on, go easy on the lips! - Always remember to moisturize your lips beforehand! You don't want to be caught with chapped lips. Use a lip conditioner or lip balm.

Shelf Life

When first starting out with make-up, don't invest too much in products with the shortest shelf life and are the most disposable, such as mascara and lip gloss. Most drugstore mascaras function just as well or better than a high end mascara. Invest in face products, such as foundation and concealer, which are found in your daily routine. Try to familiarize yourself with the key products that will help you achieve basic make-up looks first, like foundation, concealer, blush, bronzer etc. Then, allow yourself to explore and extend your collection to other products you can play with - like your thick false lashes and neon eye shadow palette.


water-based: 12 months oil-based: 18 months


Lip liner 3 years


12 months

1-2 years (may vary, dispose when formulation seems odd) - will last longer if kept in fridge




Cream/Gel Cleansers

24 months

pencil: 48 months

Eyeshadow 3 years

4 months

12 months

Do It Yourself!

Some fabulous links to help you get started! Loose Powder, Eyeshadow & Lip Gloss




How to Fix Broken/Cracked Eyeshadow

Directory Bobbi Brown Cosmetics 1/F, Harvey Nichols, The Landmark, 15 Queen's Road, Central. Tel: 2801-6643 Benefit Cosmetics Lane Crawford, Times Square, Causeway Bay. Tel: 3102-3690 Clinique Faces Lab Concept, Queensway Plaza, 93 Queensway, Hong Kong Tel: 3101 0375

Sigma Cosmetics 121 5th Ave NW Suite 100New Brighton, MN 55112 MAC Cosmetics Lane Crawford, Level 3, IFC mall, 8 Finance Street, Central, H.K. Tel:2118-7649

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The Make Up Manual Beginner’s Edition Jessica Nip Personal Project 2012-2013

The Make Up Manual  

For educational purposes only. This manual was created for a MYP Personal Project 2012-2013.